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Volume 20/ Number 6 | October/November 2008








EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD AIRPORT MEMBERS WILLIAM G. BARKHAUER, Morristown, New Jersey TIMOTHY L. CAMPBELL, Baltimore, Maryland CHARLES ISDELL, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JIM JOHNSON, Odessa, Florida JAMES L. MORASCH, Pasco, Washington TIMOTHY K. O’DONNELL, Fort Wayne, Indiana ROBERT OLISLAGERS, Englewood, Colorado LISA PYLES, Addison, Texas TORRANCE RICHARDSON, Fort Wayne, Indiana ELAINE ROBERTS, Columbus, Ohio


CORPORATE MEMBERS BILL HOGAN, Reynolds, Smith + Hills STACY HOLLOWELL, Siemens One, Inc. BRIAN LACEY, Delaware North Companies STEVE PELHAM, Reveal Imaging Technologies RANDY POPE, Burns & McDonnell LAURA SAMUELS, Hudson Group



CHAIR Jim P. Elwood, Aspen, Colorado FIRST VICE CHAIR John K. Duval, Beverly, Massachusetts




Kelly L. Johnson, Bentonville, Arkansas




Editor’s Corner


Elaine Roberts, Columbus, Ohio

NextGen | 16




AAAE’s Energy/Air Service Recommendations | 22 Augusta Regional: The Masters Challenge | 26 Air Service Survival Techniques | 34 Branson Airport: The Idea | 38

News Briefs






Corporate outlook


GA Airport Issues


Airport Spotlight: Raleigh-Durham 42

DANETTE M. BEWLEY, Reno, Nevada JEFF L. BILYEU, Angleton, Texas THOMAS H. BINFORD, Billings, Montana LEW S. BLEIWEIS, Fletcher, North Carolina GARY A. CYR, SR., Springfield, Missouri BENJAMIN R. DECOSTA, Atlanta, Georgia ROD A. DINGER, Redding, California LINDA G. FRANKL, Columbus, Ohio MICHAEL A. GOBB, Lexington, Kentucky GARY L. JOHNSON, Stillwater, Oklahoma



FoodBeverageRetail: Nashville


MARK D. KRANENBURG, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Retail Briefs


JEFFREY A. MULDER, Tulsa, Oklahoma

Airport Billboard


Advertiser’s Index


Plane Sight


ALEX M. KASHANI, Washington, D.C. SCOTT C. MALTA, Atwater, California ROBERT P. OLISLAGERS, Englewood, Colorado THOMAS M. RAFTER, Hammonton, New Jersey WAYNE E. SHANK, Norfolk, Virginia DAVID R. ULANE, Aspen, Colorado CHAPTER PRESIDENTS TOMMY W. BIBB, Nashville, Tennessee


JEFFREY W. KELLY, Houston, Texas PHILLIP E. JOHNSON, Grand Rapids, Michigan ROBERT OLISLAGERS, Englewood, Colorado

Sound Insulation and Noise Control | 45 Advanced Planning Mitigates Risk | 47

SPECIAL SECTION Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Celebrates 10 Years

December/January 2009 Architecture and Engineering: Landside Trends Airport Finance February/March 2009 Architecture and Engineering: Airside Developments Passenger/Cargo Outlook

BARRY A. RONDINELLA, Sacramento, California MARSHALL B. STEVENS, Middletown, Pennsylvania POLICY REVIEW COMMITTEE BONNIE A. ALLIN, Tucson, Arizona WILLIAM G. BARKHAUER, Morristown, New Jersey THELLA F. BOWENS, San Diego, California MARK P. BREWER, Manchester, New Hampshire TIMOTHY L. CAMPBELL, Baltimore, Maryland LARRY D. COX, Memphis, Tennessee ALFONSO DENSON, Birmingham, Alabama KEVIN A. DILLON, Warwick, Rhode Island THOMAS E. GREER, Monterey, California SEAN C. HUNTER, New Orleans, Louisiana

Cover Design: Joacir Soto

CHARLES J. ISDELL, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JAMES A. KOSLOSKY, Grand Rapids, Michigan LYNN F. KUSY, Mesa, Arizona JAMES L. MORASCH, Pasco, Washington ERIN M. O’DONNELL, Chicago, Illinois BRADLEY D. PENROD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MAUREEN S. RILEY, Salt Lake City, Utah RICKY D. SMITH, Cleveland, Ohio SUSAN M. STEVENS, Charleston, South Carolina









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601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 824-0500, Ext. 133 Fax: (703) 820-1395 Internet Address: Send editorial materials/press releases to: REPRINT INFORMATION

THE REPRINT DEPARTMENT (717) 481-8500 Airport Magazine is published bimonthly by the AAAE Service Corporation Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Association of Airport Executives, and the Airport Research and Development Foundation. Subscription price for AAAE members is included in the annual dues. U.S. subscription rate to non-members is $45 for one year. International rate for non-members is $75. Single copy price is $10. Copyright 2008 by AAAE. All rights reserved. Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AAAE or any of its members or officers. POSTMASTER Send address changes to: Airport Magazine 601 Madison Street, Suite 400 Alexandria, VA 22314


s I began writing this column in mid-September, I had just returned from Reno and AAAE’s highly successful National Airports Conference, which was hosted by the Reno-Tahoe Airport Authority. The NAC is one of AAAE’s signature meetings and this year was no exception, despite the downturn in the global economy and discouraging news within the aviation community. While some airports reported pending service cutbacks, the determination to prevail was evident. Now, just a month later, airports face greater challenges due to the worsening state of the global economy. For its part, Airport Magazine continues to provide articles that support our readers’ informational needs during these turbulent times. In this issue, we feature new developments in NextGen, which promises to transform the National Airspace System through new technologies; the first of a four-part series on the construction of a greenfield airport in Branson, Mo.; and an insider’s look at the impact of the Masters Tournament on Augusta (Ga.) Regional Airport, among other articles. We also highlight the release of the AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force Report, which focuses on three areas: a national energy policy, a national air service policy, and emergency measures to help airlines, airports and local communities that have been hit hard by unstable fuel prices and air service losses. AAAE’s Airport Legislative Alliance staff already has contacted all members of the House and Senate to press for adoption of the recommendations, particularly those recommendations related to U.S. energy policy. A number of airports are celebrating significant anniversaries this year. Among them are New York’s Kennedy International and Baton Rouge (La.) Metropolitan at 60 years, Southwest Florida International at 25 years, and Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport (NWARA) at 10 years. For a review of NWARA’s first 10 years and a look toward the future, see the special section in this issue. We congratulate all of these airports on their achievements, and we invite other airports to notify Airport Magazine if they will observe a significant anniversary in 2008 or 2009. We hope you have been enjoying the availability of our e-mail announcements regarding the new issues of the magazine. This enables our readers to click on a link and be connected to the magazine before it appears on their desks as a printed copy. As always, we appreciate the support of our advertisers.

Advertisers in this issue are: AAAE 81st Annual Conference, AAAE International Meetings, ANTN Digicast, Barnard Dunkelberg, Burns & McDonnell, CDM, C. Kell-Smith & Associates, Delta Airport Consultants, Division Systems, FLIR Systems, Gensler, Grenzebach Corporation, IET, Jacobs Consultancy, Kimley-Horn and Associates, Kutchins and Groh, Off the Wall, Oshkosh Truck Corporation, Republic Parking System, RS&H, Southeast Chapter AAAE, URS Corporation, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Wings Financial, and Woodward & Associates.

Barbara Cook Editor | october/november 2008



AAAE Debuts eCISTM Learning Technology


photo by jim martin

eCISTM (Electronic Computer Instructional System and Training Management), the Web-based, open architecture learning management system (LMS) developed by AAAE, has been selected by three customers to serve their needs for a flexible, scalable in-house training system. The Greater Orlando Aviation Authority (GOAA), the Lee County (Fla.) Port Authority (LCPA), and the Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association (TLPA) have ordered eCISTM packages to address their training and regulatory compliance needs. GOAA’s LMS is being customized to train employees at Orlando International and Orlando Executive airports. GOAA’s eCISTM will be built to manage four airport-specific training programs: movement area driver training; Security Information Display Area (SIDA) training; security sterile area training; and vehicle operator driver training. AAAE’s ANTN video production team is producing these courses as part of GOAA’s LMS order. Delivery of the GOAA LMS and the four courses is slated for early 2009. LCPA also selected eCISTM for its LMS training needs. The system, ordered in May, will train and test employees and contractors at Southwest Florida International Airport. Initial programs will cover SIDA procedures, non-movement area driver training and baggage handling procedures. GOAA’s and LCPA’s eCISTMs will be networked to separate local application service providers, allowing airport employee training records to be maintained on-site in a single repository for each airport. This will help the customers to manage their training programs and comply with regulatory

AAAE‘s new Electronic Computer Instructional System and Training Management (eCISTM) meets the need for a flexible training system.

requirements, such as FAA Part 139.303, that mandate training recordkeeping. AAAE’s third eCISTM customer is TLPA, which represents airport shuttle, executive sedan, limousine, non-emergency medical transportation, paratransit and taxicab fleets. TLPA will use eCISTM to deliver nine training courses to its members. eCISTM is built on an open architecture that allows local modifications to the training modules. Instructors can choose from a large selection of activities, instructional components — including video filmed onsite — to build their own custom training courses. The system is easily expandable and able to accommodate additional training courses as needed by the airport or organization. Automated testing, a standard eCISTM feature, ensures employees are mastering the required learning modules. | october/november 2008

FAA To Commission Three New Runways FAA will open three runways on Nov. 20, with ceremonies scheduled at Washington Dulles International, Chicago O’Hare International and Seattle-Tacoma International. Dulles: The new fourth runway, 1L-19R, has a north-south orientation and is 9,400 feet long and 150 feet wide. On June 5, 2008, it was officially designated Runway 1L-19R and its predecessor became 1C-19C.   O’Hare: The new north Runway 9L-27R will be the airport’s first new runway since 1971. Runway 9L-27R is 7,500 feet long. Seattle-Tacoma: Sea-Tac’s new third runway, 16R/34L, is 8,500 feet long and is designed to help decrease delays during lowvisibility conditions, which occur approximately 44 percent of the year.

PANY&NJ, DOT Dispute Slot Auction DOT said it will move forward with its plan to auction a limited number of slots at New York’s Kennedy International, LaGuardia and Newark airports. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey immediately responded that it would seek an injunction from the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Washington, D.C., Circuit to block the decision. “The port authority believes that airlines entering auctions for the takeoff and landing slots they already own will lead only to higher costs that will be passed through to passengers in the form of increased ticket prices,” the port authority said. “In addition to higher ticket prices, the auction policy will mean fewer flights to small communities at a time when these communities already are struggling in this economy.” The Air Transport Association sued FAA, seeking a stay of the auction pending a ruling on the legality of the auction. In addition, Rep. James Oberstar (D-Minn.) and Sen. Patty Murray (D-Wash.) sent a joint letter to DOT Inspector General Calvin Scovel, urging him to investigate FAA’s action. Oberstar chairs the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, while Murray chairs the Senate transportation appropriations subcommittee. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) earlier issued an opinion that determined FAA does not have the authority to auction slots. GAO stated, “We conclude that FAA currently lacks authority to auction arrival and departure slots and also thus lacks authority to retain and use auction proceeds.” Under the final slot auction rules issued by DOT, airlines operating at Kennedy International, Newark and

LaGuardia would receive ownership for 10 years of the majority of slots they currently operate. However, the new rules call for a gradual auctioning over the next five years of up to 10 percent of the slots these airlines currently operate. DOT Secretary Mary Peters said that the rules also would lower the hourly operating cap at LaGuardia from 75 slots per hour to 71 slots per hour by “retiring” an additional 5 percent of the slots currently being used. This action is expected to reduce delays at the airport by an estimated 40 percent, she stated. Under the rule for LaGuardia, existing airlines would keep 988 of the slots they currently operate. The remaining 113 slots would be made available over the next five years by auction to airlines interested in starting new service or expanding current operations at the airport. In addition, existing airlines would keep 1,035 of the slots they currently operate at Kennedy International and 1,154 of the 1,245 slots they currently operate at Newark. The remaining 89 slots at Kennedy International and 91 slots at Newark would be made available over a five-year period for airlines wishing to expand their current operations or start new services at either of the airports, DOT said.

Taxiway Improvements Set For JFK Airport Along with announcing that DOT would proceed with its plan to auction slots at the three New York airports, the department said that it will commit almost $90 million over the next eight years to expand capacity at Kennedy International. The department said it will sign a Letter of Intent that commits the federal government to invest $89 million between 2009 and 2016 to fund a series of taxiway

improvements at Kennedy International. The taxiway improvements include constructing two new taxiways, extending or improving six others and creating new high-speed exit taxiways.

President Signs Bills Extending AIP Authority President Bush has signed two bills that will allow FAA to distribute AIP funds to airports over the next several months. One bill extends aviation excise taxes and programs through the end of March 2009. The second temporarily funds DOT and other federal agencies through March 6, 2009. The second measure, a continuing resolution (CR), is expected to provide FAA with approximately $1.5 billion in AIP funds. FAA officials informed AAAE that the stopgap measure, coupled with the FAA extension, will allow the agency to distribute AIP funds to airports early next year. In terms of entitlement funding, airports should be eligible to receive slightly less than 50 percent of their entitlements since the CR funds FAA from Oct. 1, 2008, through March 6, 2009 — or less than half of the fiscal year. FAA also plans to distribute some discretionary funding to meet its Letter of Intent obligations. At Airport Magazine presstime, it was unclear exactly how FAA will prorate the AIP apportionments. The remaining AIP funds for fiscal year 2009 should be made available after Congress appropriates a full year’s worth of funding for FAA and passes a multi-year FAA reauthorization bill or another FAA extension. | october/november 2008


news briefs


photo provided by detroit metro airport

TSA named Lee Kair as the agency’s assistant administrator for security operations. In this role, Kair will be responsible for providing executive management of daily field operations for a workforce of approximately 48,000 employees at more than 450 airports nationwide. Kair most recently served as federal security director for Orlando International. He replaces Mo McGowan, who will continue to work for TSA in security program development….TSA announced the appointment of Mike Duffy as the deputy general manager for the agency’s Transportation Sector Network Management Commercial Airports Office. Duffy joined TSA in May 2003 and currently serves in the Office of Security Operations as the executive liaison to FAA….TSA announced the selection of Mike Scott as federal security director (FSD) for LaGuardia airport. As FSD, he will oversee all TSA operations at LaGuardia and operations at Long Island MacArthur and Westchester County airports, and Manhattan Heliports, all in New York…. TSA named John Della Jacono as the FSD for Kansas City International. Della Jacono joined TSA in January 2005 as deputy FSD for Seattle-Tacoma International and assumed duties as the acting FSD in 2007. He was detailed to Kansas City in April 2008 as acting FSD.… The Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena (Calif.) Airport Authority announced the appointment of Dan Feger as executive director of Bob Hope Airport, effective immediately. The authority also announced the appointment of John Hatanaka to the post of senior deputy executive director, also effective immediately. Both executives had been serving as the senior managers of the airport on an interim basis since January when former executive director Dios Marrero left the airport due to illness. Mr. Marrero died in February. Feger, 55, has served as deputy executive director since 2001. Hatanaka, 51, has been with the airport for five years and was promoted to deputy executive director in 2007. A

Passengers on opening day at Detroit Metro’s New North Terminal.

Detroit Metro’s New North Terminal Opens Nearly 11,000 people visited the new North Terminal at Detroit Metro Airport Sept. 5-6 to preview the new 26-gate facility that officially opened its doors to travelers on Sept. 17. “The airport authority is delighted that so many community members took advantage of the opportunity to experience the North Terminal for themselves,” said Wayne County Airport Authority CEO Lester Robinson. “The incredible attendance at our preview events reinforces that the community is truly interested in their airport, and it was a privilege for us to share this new facility with the customers and the community that we serve.” Upon completion of the new terminal, the existing Smith and Berry terminals will be decommissioned. Together with the | october/november 2008

McNamara Terminal, which opened in 2002, Detroit Metro will offer two new terminals, nearly 150 gates, six jet runways and two Federal Inspection Services facilities for international arrivals. The new North Terminal will be Detroit’s home to Air Canada, American, AirTran, Frontier, Lufthansa, Royal Jordanian Airlines, Southwest, Spirit, United, US Airways, USA 3000 and charter airlines. Northwest and its SkyTeam partners AeroMéxico, Air France, Continental, Delta and KLM will remain in the McNamara Terminal.

Chicago Awards Lease For Midway Airport The Midway Investment and Development Corp., comprised of Citi Infrastructure Investors, Vancouver Airport Services and John Hancock Life Insurance Co., announced that it has won a $2.5 billion, 99-year


lease to operate and develop the first privatized major airport in the U.S., Chicago Midway. The airport offers service to more than 55 destinations and consistently ranks among the top 30 airports in the U.S. for passenger volume. “This is an excellent opportunity for the company, our employees and our network of airports,” said George Casey, president and CEO of Vancouver Airport Services. “In addition, we can continue to partner with British Columbian and Canadian firms exporting know-how, knowledge and best practices. The experience we have in transitioning airports from government control to private sector management will benefit the operation at Chicago Midway Airport.”

Toronto Pearson Reduces Landing Fees, Charges The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) said that it will reduce landing fees and terminal charges at Toronto Pearson International, effective Jan. 1, 2009. The fee reduction is in addition to the 25 percent decrease in all-cargo landing fees that was announced earlier this year. The total fee reduction will offer projected savings of $28 million to the airlines in 2009, GTAA said. Despite a projected decrease in passenger volume for 2009, GTAA said it is able to offer fee reductions by generating additional non-aeronautical revenue through concessions and advertising, and by decreasing expenses where possible.

Organization, testified before the House aviation subcommittee in late September, saying that his agency is making progress in its efforts to improve runway safety. Krakowski said that there have been 23 serious runway incursions so far this year — one less than during the same period in 2007. “While 2007 was the safest year yet for aviation in our nation’s history, when we last testified in February 2008, we had experienced one of the worst quarters for serious runway incursion — 10 between October 2007 and December 2007, and two more in January 2008,” Krakowski said. “Based on our response to this unacceptable situation…we are on track to equal or slightly improve on the safest year on record.” James Crites, executive vice president-operations at Dallas-Fort Worth International, described how airports are using new technology to improve runway safety and perimeter taxiways to reduce runway crossings. Dr. Gerald Dillingham, director of physical infrastructure issues at the Government Accountability Office,

credited FAA for making runway safety a higher priority. However, he said the risk of a runway collision is still high. Rep. James Oberstar (D-Minn.), chairman of the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, expressed concern about the increasing number of vehicles on the air operations area (AOA). Oberstar called on FAA to consider requiring more driver training, more coordination with air traffic controllers and limiting the number of vehicles on the AOA.

TSA Launches Rulemaking For Large GA Aircraft TSA said it has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to reduce the susceptibility of large GA aircraft misuse. The Large Aircraft Security Program (LASP) regulation would require all U.S. operators of aircraft exceeding 12,500 pounds maximum takeoff weight to implement security programs that would be subject to compliance audits by TSA. The

House Panel Reviews Status Of Runway Safety Hank Krakowski, chief operating officer of FAA’s Air Traffic | october/november 2008



proposed regulation also would require operators to verify that passengers are not on the No Fly and/ or Selectee portions of the federal government’s consolidated terrorist watch list. “General aviation operators are excellent security partners, and this will give them a strong common framework for security that will reduce risk while supporting the open nature of the general aviation industry,” said TSA Assistant Secretary Kip Hawley. The proposed rule will be open to public comment for 60 days. Persons wishing to comment on the proposed rule may access the Federal e-Rulemaking Portal at and follow the instructions for submitting comments.

Raytheon Wins Contract For Controller Training FAA awarded a $437 million contract to Raytheon to support the agency in


training air traffic controllers. The 10-year award replaces separate contracts to support initial training at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City and to support ongoing training in air traffic facilities nationwide, the agency said. The contract consolidation will give Raytheon the ability to support the entire life cycle of controller training. This will permit FAA to provide more integrated training activities throughout a controller’s career, the agency said. FAA said it also has the flexibility to update the training to adapt to ongoing changes in technology, aviation procedures and operations that will affect the way controllers handle air traffic in the future. Under the terms of the contract, Raytheon will be responsible for helping FAA train controllers throughout their career. This includes conducting resident academy qualification and specialized training, supporting classroom and simulation training in the field, developing and maintaining training materials, and providing administrative support for training at the | october/november 2008

academy and in the field. FAA said it will continue to be responsible for managing the overall training program, recruiting and hiring candidates, conducting performance verification, on-the-job training and credentialing.

Delta, NW Shareholders Approve Merger Plans The stockholders of Delta and Northwest overwhelmingly have approved the pending merger between the two companies. Delta stockholders approved the issuance of 1.25 shares of Delta common stock for each outstanding share of Northwest stock to be distributed upon closing of the merger, expected later this year, the two companies reported. The proposal was approved by approximately 99 percent of the votes cast by Delta stockholders. More than 98 percent of the votes cast by Northwest stockholders were in favor of the merger. Delta stockholders also approved an amendment to Delta’s employee

compensation program that will allow the company to distribute equity to U.S.-based employees of the combined company shortly after the merger closes. This amendment was approved by approximately 92 percent of the shares of Delta common stock voting on the proposal.

DOT Awards 16 Air Service Grants DOT has selected 16 communities in 12 states to receive $6.8 million in grants to implement air service initiatives under the Small Community Air Service Development Program. Receiving grants are: Bullhead City, Ariz., $500,000; Merced, Calif.,

$100,000; Redding, Calif., $500,000; Dover, Del., $135,000; Bloomington, Ill., $225,000; Springfield, Ill., $750,000; Aroostook County, Maine, $350,000; Muskegon, Mich., $650,000; Missoula, Mont., $485,000; State of Montana (W. Yellowstone), $105,000; State College, Pa., $474,000; Sioux Falls, S.D., $600,000; Midland, Texas, $500,000; Moses Lake, Wash., $475,000; and Huntington, W.Va., $500,000. AAAE expressed concern that of the $10 million that Congress appropriated for this program, only $6.8 million is slated to go to small communities that need assistance. According to DOT’s order, the other $3.2 million will be used to cover “current and future administrative support costs.”

AAAE President Charles Barclay sent a letter to DOT Secretary Mary Peters that said using 32 percent of the small community funds for administrative purposes seems “unreasonably high.” He urged Peters to reconsider DOT’s decision to allocate such a large portion of funds for administrative purposes and to consider distributing some or all of the $3.2 million to other communities instead.

Los Angeles To Add Hythane Fueling Eden Hydrogen Inc., a U.S. subsidiary of Eden Energy Ltd., announced that it was awarded funding to add Hythane fueling capability to the


existing hydrogen station at Los Angeles International. The addition of Hythane is part of a project to fuel a fleet of GMC pickup trucks used as utility vehicles at the airport, the company said. The total cost of the project is $288,000, which is being funded primarily by a grant from the Mobile Source Air Pollution Reduction Review Committee, a Southern California agency that awards alternative fuel funding to clean transportation projects. Eden Energy described Hythane as a near-zero emissions blend of hydrogen and natural gas that significantly reduces harmful emissions.

Stewart Offers Incentives To Boost Air Service

photo provided by

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY&NJ) has unveiled an air service incentive program to boost service at Stewart International by waiving fees and rentals for aircraft to land, park and utilize terminal facilities for the next six months. “The incentive program is necessary at Stewart Airport given the current business climate in the aviation industry, and particularly at Stewart, where several airlines have announced service cuts in 2008,” the port authority said. The PANY&NJ has earmarked $500


million in its 10-year capital plan for improvements and enhancements at Stewart, which already has delivered more than 400 new parking spaces, improved road access and hundreds of new seats in the terminal. Stewart is projected to handle about 725,000 passengers this year, down from about 915,000 passengers who used the airport in 2007, but a sharp increase over the 310,000 people who utilized Stewart in 2006, the port authority said.

New Tower Planned For Palm Beach FAA has awarded an $18.1 million contract to construct a new air traffic control tower at Florida’s Palm Beach International. The new, 231-foot-tall, standalone tower will be relocated from the south side of the airport to an area west of the airport terminal to provide controllers optimum visibility of the entire airfield, the agency said. Current and future airport development has driven the need for a taller, larger tower to replace the existing 90-foot tower built in the early 1970s, according to FAA’s announcement. The new facility will include a 550-square-foot tower cab, 200 square feet larger than the current facility and providing space for air traffic control operations and training. It will be constructed to withstand high-level hurricane force winds. The new 9,000-square-foot base building will house administrative and training facilities and will offer improved security and air traffic training and simulation capabilities, FAA said. The new facility will be constructed by PCL Construction of Orlando. Groundbreaking could begin in late 2008 with commissioning in late 2011, FAA said. | october/november 2008

ITT Corp. Reaches Milestone For ADS-B ITT Corp. announced that it successfully has deployed the Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) essential services system for southern Florida, achieving Initial Operational Capability (IOC). ADS-B is a key component of FAA’s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), which is intended to increase safety and efficiency. The essential services IOC milestone recognizes the availability of broadcast services of air traffic, as well as weather and aeronautical data information from 11 ADS-B ground stations in southern Florida, ITT said. In August 2007, ITT was awarded a $207 million initial contract by FAA to lead a team to develop and deploy the first phase of ADS-B ground infrastructure. (For more information on NextGen, see article on page 16.)

Okaloosa Regional Renamed NW Florida Okaloosa (Fla.) Regional Airport has been renamed Northwest Florida Regional Airport, but will retain its VPS identifier. “A self-descriptive geographic reference that better encompasses the airport’s mission and location has been sought, and we believe that Northwest Florida better identifies the airport’s geographic location to out-of-state travelers,” explained airport Director Greg Donovan, A.A.E. The new name took effect immediately, but the airport will change the name on stationary, signage and in other places as the materials are expended. The airport will continue to be owned and operated by Okaloosa County. A

CDM worked with Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) to develop sustainable planning, design, and construction guidelines to help green LAWA’s four-airport system. Supporting the mayor’s citywide environmental initiative, CDM and LAWA also created and implemented a sustainability performance improvement management system that empowers stakeholders to continually evaluate and enhance LAWA’s environmental stewardship, economic growth, and social responsibility.

by Sean Broderick


nybody still wondering how much FAA’s ambitious ADS-B deployment will truly benefit airports should consider this: the rollout’s nowunderway segment one included definitive plans for ground stations at only two airports: Louisville International and Philadelphia International. Yet, with just one part of the 26-part segment complete, there are already ground stations at five airports — all of them in Florida. In late August, FAA and ITT, the ADS-B program infrastructure lead, declared the first part, or service volume, in ADS-B segment one ready for prime time. The service volume covers the Miami enroute area, a block of high-altitude airspace over southern Florida. ITT found that it could blanket the Miami enroute radar coverage with 11 ADS-B ground stations. Some careful surveying determined that five of these could be located on airports and still allow ITT to cover the high-altitude airspace without adding additional stations. As a result, one step into the national ADS-B deployment, Boca Raton, Dade-Collier, Lakeland Linder, Marathon and Sebastian airports are now a de facto part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Sebastian’s ground station was the first commissioned at an airport. 16

Airport Magazine | October/november 2008

ADS-B In a Nutshell

The first Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) ground stations are up and running. As the deployment continues, could your airport be in line for one?

ADS-B In Your Backyard?

ADS-B is the foundation for FAA’s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). It uses ground stations, on-aircraft avionics and satellite data to paint an accurate picture of what is happening in the sky. ADS-B relies on aircraft continuously broadcasting their positions, speed and other key information, which is fed to other properly equipped aircraft and to ground stations. This data also is collected by air traffic control facilities, which use it to separate aircraft. The aircraft position data is derived from satellites, which are much more accurate than today’s ground-based radar. ADS-B’s primary air traffic benefits include:

Real-time traffic and aeronautical information in the cockpit

Air-to-air surveillance capability

Reduced cost of the infrastructure needed to operate the National Airspace System

Reduced separation and greater predictability in departure and arrival times Support for common separation standards, both horizontal and vertical, for all classes of airspace Improved ability of airlines to manage traffic and aircraft fleets Improved ability of air traffic controllers to plan arrivals and departures far in advance

Surveillance to remote or inhospitable areas that do not currently have coverage with radar Airport Magazine | October/november 2008


Enroute Service Volumes

Alaska Highway - Copper River - Isabel Pass Alaska Peninsula Albuquerque Anchorage - Fairbanks Atlanta Boston Chicago Cleveland Cook Inlet - Kodiak Denver Ft Worth Galena - Mid Yukon River - Koyukuk River Guam Gulf of Mexico Low Altitude Gulf of Mexico High Altitude Honolulu Houston Indianapolis Jacksonville Juneau

Kansas City Kotzebue - Northwest Alaska Lake Clark - Bristol Bay Los Angeles McGrath - Upper Kuskokwim Memphis Miami Minneapolis New York Nome - Seward Peninsula North Slope Oakland Prince William Sound - Gulf of Alaska Salt Lake City San Juan Seattle Southeast Alaska Upper Yukon River Washington Yukon - Kuskokwim Delta Source: ITT

“People say, ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch,’” said ITT Surveillance and Broadcast Services Implementation Director Mike Gable, “but sometimes there is.” ITT’s task is simple yet daunting: it must bring ADS-B coverage to 311 service volumes, or chunks of airspace — each of them existing air traffic control facilities — by installing about 800 ground stations. The service volumes break down into 40 enroute volumes (listed above), 236 terminal volumes and 35 surface volumes (see chart on page 21). Strictly speaking, the 35 surface volumes — which include Louisville and Philadelphia — are the only airports guaranteed to get full ADS-B capabilities down to the airfield. But as the Miami enroute deployment showed, ITT is working to bring most ADS-B benefits to as many airport surfaces as possible, regardless of size. “The philosophy we came up with last summer, which led us to start visiting airports, is: if we can get our system engineers focused in the right direction, we can find ways to provide total services to airports that otherwise would not receive them,” Gable explained. “The secret is not adding systems. We’d love to go onto every airport, but if we go on an airport and end up with a hole somewhere and we have to add another radio station, that’s a million-dollar expenditure that we can’t justify.”

Segment Two By 2013 Segment one’s to-do list is 22 enroute volumes, two terminal volumes and the Louisville and Philadelphia surface volumes. Gable estimates that about 300 radio stations will be required for these. Plans call for all 26 volumes to be rolled out by late 2010. By then, FAA is expected to formally order the segment two volumes, including the other 33 airports designated for surface coverage. Segment two is expected to be complete by 2013.


Airport Magazine | October/November 2008

NextGen Just how many airports will have so-called “total service”— meaning a ground station on the airfield or near enough to open up the floodgate of data-gathering that makes ADS-B so valuable — is impossible to determine. Placing five of the first 11 ground stations on airports was “tremendous,” Gable noted, but he is quick to caution that such a percentage isn’t sustainable as the rollout continues. For example, the early word on the Gulf of Mexico enroute infrastructure shows that nine land sites will be needed (in addition to more sites on oil platforms out in the Gulf) to cover the airspace. Preliminary analysis shows that only two of these nine can go on airports. On the flip side, the Fort Myers terminal service volume can most likely be covered with just two stations — each one at an airport located on either side of the airspace footprint. Airports not on the surface volume list that are hoping to land a ground station shouldn’t worry about being overlooked. ITT’s engineers will explore every possible angle as they plan enroute and terminal volume coverage, Gable said. Four of the five Florida airports that received stations were selected because of the value that the ground station would bring to the airport, as opposed to the airport being the ideal location for the station, he noted. Little-used Dade-Collier, built in the 1970s for

supersonic transports to serve the Miami area but now officially “closed to [the] public except by arrangement with the Miami-Dade Aviation Department,” is an ideal locale for a station to cover western approaches to Miami International.

ADS-B Ground Stations From a technical standpoint, the surface volume installations and the enroute or terminal installations on airports bring different capabilities. Surface volumes will be set up so that ADS-B signals cover the entire air operations area, which enables the aircraft position data to be used by controllers in the tower. “If an aircraft moves and is under ground control, we want to see it,” Gable said. For most airports, two ground stations will suffice. For larger facilities, such as Dallas/Fort Worth, more stations will be needed. The ADS-B ground stations are similar to cellular phone towers. It’s no surprise, then, that ITT has struck a deal with AT&T to put ADS-B equipment on existing cell towers in places where it makes sense. Unfortunately, airports aren’t exactly ideal places for cell towers, so ITT’s effort to put its equipment on

Airport Magazine | October/November 2008



airports requires a bit of extra infrastructure — a small patch of land and a short tower, located well outside local flight paths. FAA and ITT share the cost of these additional towers, but the added benefits will more than offset the extra expense, Gable noted.

Key Information Transmitted Airports that pick up ground stations as part of enroute or terminal service volume build-outs will have one station per facility, Gable said. While this won’t permit use of aircraft position data for on-ground air traffic control purposes, these airports and their users will reap all of the other benefits of ADS-B — which are tremendous, according to industry officials. For example, a ground station’s Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) function transmits key information like weather and NOTAMS. At airports with on-field or nearby ground stations, ADS-B-equipped pilots will be able to pick up this information, giving them increased situational awareness before they begin a trip. The ADS-B data feed itself — aircraft position, identification, speed and more — also will prove 20

Airport Magazine | October/November 2008

valuable to airports. Though primarily an air traffic control tool, the ADS-B data stream is expected to be tapped for many other applications. Airports could use the arrival and departure data to help track usage fees, such as landing fees or transient aircraft charges. Tying a data feed into a video monitor could create a de facto Flight Information Display System (FIDS) for an FBO lobby. Of course, all of the on-airport ground stations in the world are useless, if the aircraft flying around them aren’t equipped with the right avionics. “The only way ATC gets the maximum benefit out of the ADS-B program is through equipage of aircraft,” Gable noted. Assuming that aircraft equipage is not an issue — which it can’t be, if ADS-B is to deliver on its promise — airports fortunate enough to have a ground station will have an abundance of information at their fingertips. “We couldn’t sit and make a list of all the things ADS-B can do for [airports],” Gable said. “When you put that station on the airport, you now have all of the data. What that data can be used for now and in the future is up to the imagination of the people who have the data.” A Sean Broderick is AAAE’s vice president-external communications and editor-atlarge of Airport Magazine.

ADS-B Surface Service Volumes Baltimore-Washington Boston Logan Bradley Charlotte Douglas Chicago Midway Chicago O’Hare Dallas/Fort Worth Denver Detroit Metro Wayne County Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood General Mitchell George Bush Intercontinental Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Honolulu - Hickam AFB John F. Kennedy John Wayne-Orange County Lambert-St. Louis Las Vegas McCarran Los Angeles Louisville Memphis Miami Minneapolis-St. Paul New York LaGuardia Newark Orlando Philadelphia Phoenix Sky Harbor Reagan National Salt Lake City San Diego Seattle-Tacoma T.F. Green State Washington Dulles William P. Hobby

ADS-B Terminal Area Service Volumes Abilene Akron-Canton Albany Albuquerque Allentown Alpena Amarillo Anchorage Andrews AFB Asheville Aspen Atlanta Atlantic City Atwater-Castle Augusta Austin Bakersfield Baltimore Bangor Barksdale AFB Baton Rouge Beaumont Billings Binghamton Birmingham Intl Bismark Boise Boston Bradley-Windsor Locks Bristol Buffalo Burbank Burlington Casper Cedar Rapids Champaign Charleston AFB/Intl Charleston Charlotte-Douglas Charlottesville Chattanooga Cheyenne Chicago Midway Chicago Clarksburg Cleveland-Hopkins

Colorado Springs Columbia Metropolitan Columbia Columbus (Ga.) Columbus (Ohio) Corpus Christi CovingtonCincinnati Dallas-Fort Worth Dayton Daytona Beach Denver Des Moines Detroit Dulles Duluth Dyess AFB El Paso Elmira-Corning Erie (Ridge) Eugene Evansville Fairbanks Fairchild AFB Falmouth-Otis AFB Fargo-Hector Intl Fayetteville FayettevilleSpringdale Flint (Bishop) Florence Fort Huachuca/ Sierra Vista Fort LauderdaleHollywood Fort Smith Fort Wayne Fresno Fort Myers Gainesville Garden City Grand Forks Grand Junction Grand Rapids Great Falls Green Bay Greensboro Greer/GreenvilleSpartanburg

Gulfport-Biloxi Gwinn (KI Sawyer) Harlingen Harrisburg (Middletown) Hilo Honolulu Houston-Hobby HoustonIntercontinental Huntington Huntsville Indianapolis Islip/Long Island Jackson Jacksonville John F. Kennedy Kahului Kalamazoo Kansas City Knoxville La Guardia Lafayette Lake Charles Langley AFB Lansing Las Vegas Lawton (Fort Sill AAF) Lexington Lihue (Kauai) Lincoln Little Rock Longview Los Angeles Louisville Lubbock Lynchburg Macon Madison Manchester Mansfield Marysville-Beale AFB MCAS Miramar Medford Memphis Merced Miami Midland Milwaukee Minneapolis-St.Paul

Minot Missoula Mobile Moline Monroe Monterey/Fort Ord Marina Montgomery Moses Lake (Grant County) Mount Clemens Muskegon Myrtle Beach Nantucket Mem NAS Whiting Field (Milton) Nashville New Orleans Newark Newburgh (Stewart) Norfolk North Platte Oakland Oceanside-Camp Pendleton Offutt AFB Oklahoma City Omaha Ontario Orlando Palm Springs Pasco Patrick AFB Patuxent River NA (Trapnell Field) Pensacola NAS Pensacola Peoria Philadelphia Phoenix Pittsburgh Pope AFB Portland (Maine) Portland (Ore.) Providence Provo Pueblo Raleigh-Durham Reading (Spaatz) Reagan National Reno Richmond Roanoke

Rochester (Minn.) Rochester (N.Y.) Rockford Rome (Griffiss) Roswell SacramentoMcClellan Saginaw (Freeland) Salt Lake City San Angelo (Mathis) San Antonio San Diego San Francisco San Jose San Juan Sanford Santa Ana Santa Barbara Santa Maria SarasotaBradenton Savannah Scranton-WilkesBarre (Suscon) Seattle-Tacoma Shreveport Sioux City Sioux Falls-Joe Foss South Bend Spokane Springfield Springfield St. Louis/Lambert St.Thomas Stockton Syracuse Tallahassee Tampa Terre Haute Tinker AFB Toledo Tucson/DavisMonthan AFB Tulsa Waco Waterloo West Palm Beach Wichita Williams Gateway Wilmington Wilmington Yakima/McAllister Youngstown Yuma Source: ITT

Airport Magazine | October/November 2008


energy task force

AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force Issues Report, Recommendations


he AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force, nearly 100 airport executives representing airports of all sizes from around the country, has released a set of recommendations critical to maintaining necessary levels of air service in the U.S. in the wake of rising fuel costs and air service cutbacks. The recommendations, made public Sept. 3 in the AAAE Energy/Air Service Task Force Report, focus on three areas: a national energy policy, a national air service policy, and emergency measures to help airlines, airports and local communities that have been hit hard by skyrocketing fuel prices and air service losses. The task force listed 18 recommendations related to a U.S. energy policy. Those recommendations address production/supply, conservation and innovation within the aviation sector, plus broader national policy initiatives. The task force’s 30-plus recommendations on a national air service policy seek to ensure universal access to air service, give airports greater financial flexibility and expedite existing initiatives — such as FAA’s Next Generation Air Transportation System — that will modernize the nation’s air transportation system and help the airlines save fuel. The airport executives also made 14 “emergency action” recommendations aimed at providing relief to airlines, airports and communities in an immediate crisis situation caused by high energy prices. “The task force’s work and resulting recommendations show the enormity of the challenge that the aviation industry faces as it grapples with rising fuel costs and the resulting impact on air service

(left) AAAE Chair Jim Elwood, A.A.E., fields questions from reporters at a news briefing held to release the Energy/Air Service Task Force report. (below) Elwood and Torrance Richardson, A.A.E., discuss the report with press conference attendees.

22 | october/november 2008

(left) Elwood and AAAE President Charles Barclay listen as Torrance Richardson, A.A.E., executive director of the Fort Wayne-Allen County (Ind.) Airport Authority, describes the impact on airports of higher fuel costs.

and general aviation operations,” Aspen/Pitkin County Aviation Director and AAAE Chair Jim Elwood, A.A.E., told a Sept. 3 press conference in Washington, D.C. “Our recommendations reflect the views of a cross-section of airports that serve as the foundation of our national air transportation system, and we hope our report will serve as a guide for lawmakers and regulators as they contemplate key policy decisions to address emerging energy and air service issues.” AAAE, on behalf of the task force, delivered the recommendations to Congress and urged lawmakers to keep the aviation industry’s unique challenges and value to the economy in mind as they push forward on a national energy policy. AAAE also is working with lawmakers, regulators and other aviation groups on solutions aimed at ensuring that necessary levels of air service are maintained at communities around the country. The task force, organized by AAAE at the urging of its members, held its inaugural meeting on July 9 in Washington, D.C. Members approved the final list of recommendations in August. Access the report online at the following link: A | october/november 2008



Somebody’s Watching Me

by Jeff Price



always feel like somebody’s watching me,” went the refrain from one-hit wonder Rockwell’s song in 1984. Twenty-four years later, there really is someone watching us — it’s TSA. It has been a couple of years since TSA rolled out its Screening of Passengers by Observation Techniques (SPOT), but is the program actually working and how does the deployment of TSA’s Behavior Detection Officers (BDOs) affect passenger flows and airport police? SPOT utilizes behavior observation and analysis techniques to identify potentially high-risk passengers. Carl Maccario, director of the SPOT program, said that behavioral analysis programs are successful. “We’re up to about 18,000 referrals at more than 100 airports,” said Maccario. “Out of the [18,000], we’re referring about 10 percent to law enforcement officers, and 10 percent of those are resulting in arrests or ongoing investigations.” The most highly publicized case of a BDO identifying suspicious behavior leading to an arrest was at Orlando International Airport earlier this year when a man identified by BDO personnel was found with bomb-making materials. Maccario said that many people identified through the BDO process have outstanding felony warrants, are drug smugglers or money couriers, or, in some cases, are terrorists or individuals raising money for terrorist organizations. When a BDO considers that an individual needs additional scrutiny, he or she can contact an airport law enforcement officer. Maccario explained that police at the airports where BDOs work have been briefed on what to expect if they are contacted on a behavioral referral. Police departments for decades have used behavioral analysis, as have customs and immigration agencies. Probably the most wellknown behavior pattern recognition programs have come from Israel and involve the process of questioning passengers extensively prior to allowing them to fly. “Profiling helps you focus on a small number of people who should be searched at a completely different level,” said Rafi Ron, a former Ben Gurion security director who is now the CEO of New Age Security Solutions. Ron is credited with bringing behavioral analysis techniques to several airports in the U.S. before TSA developed the SPOT program. | october/november 2008

Miami International has managed to reduce airport crime by 20 percent as a result of behavioral analysis techniques, Ron said. “It is an indication that the program works for both criminal and terrorist activities. By making the airport a much more security-oriented environment, we create a much stronger deterring element.” TSA’s SPOT program was developed by Maccario and Massachusetts state trooper Peter DiDomencia, who was brought in to work with Boston Logan International officials after 9/11. DiDomencia said that several modifications had to be made to the baseline Israeli program for U.S. usage in order not to detain passengers illegally. “With the number of passengers, you can’t talk to everybody, and the Fourth Amendment prevents us from interfering with a person’s movement. You need reasonable suspicion,” said DiDomencia. Behavior analysis is based on the reaction of passengers and how this compares to a baseline of other passengers in any given situation. It is the passenger’s reaction to the questioning processes that BDOs observe. Maccario quoted former El Al security director Issac Yeffet as saying, “It’s almost immaterial what your answers are to my questions; it’s how you react to the engagement.” Which brings up another question: can’t terrorists and criminals train themselves to fool the SPOT personnel? Ron provides some insights here. “Even the most well-trained operatives, when they are subjected to a targeted interview, have trouble holding their cover,” he said. SPOT training is not focused on racial profiling, said Maccario. “We feel like the program is an antidote to racial profiling,” he explained. “We’re keying in on behavioral cues. If you’re silly enough to focus on race, the real threat is going to walk right by you. It all comes down to anomaly detection. There’s a certain minimum expected norm. If someone steps out [of it], does it mean they are a terrorist? Maybe not, but you need to engage that. It’s really not rocket science, but if you’re not tuned into it, you’re not going to see it.” A Editor’s Note: AAAE is working with Massachusetts State Troopers to develop behavioral recognition training for frontline employees. For more information, contact Jim Martin at Jeff Price is a professor at Metropolitan State College of Denver and the owner of Leading Edge Strategies, an aviation management training company. His textbook, Practical Aviation Security, published by Butterworth-Heinemann, comes out in December 2008.

marketscan Aviation Solutions

4th Quarter Available Seat Miles (ASMs) by Region Total ASMs 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008

Total ASMs Midwestern U.S. Airports 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008

Total ASMs Northeastern U.S. Airports 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008

Total ASMs Southwestern U.S. Airports 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008

Total ASMs Southeastern U.S. Airports 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008

Total ASMs Northwestern U.S. Airports 4th Quarter 2006, 2007, 2008 | october/november 2008




26 | october/november 2008


he planning required to accommodate the bulge in commercial and general aviation traffic that will descend on Augusta (Ga.) Regional Airport at Bush Field for the 2009 Masters Golf Tournament already is well underway, as airport officials develop a game plan as detailed as the strategies employed by the world-class golfers. During the celebrated event, held the first full week of April every year, thousands of celebrities and other VIPs fly into Augusta, raising the airport’s normal 500 GA/ commercial operations a week to more than 2,500. In addition to GA traffic and charters, the airport’s scheduled carriers US Airways Express and Atlantic Southeast Airlines add extra sections during the Masters. It’s a special event on a major scale for the airport.

“I call the Masters the world’s largest unscheduled air carrier operation,” commented Mike Gunn, chief of the airport’s FAA control tower. For Tim Weegar, A.A.E., Augusta Regional’s assistant director, preparation for Masters week is a game plan necessitating continual refinement plus close coordination with Bill Thompson, the airport’s aviation services supervisor, and Tommy Story, supervisor of the maintenance department, among others. It means recruiting personnel from other airport departments and bringing in employees from fixed based operators (FBOs) at other airports to supplement Augusta’s own FBO staff. The airport has one FBO, Aviation Services, which is owned and operated by the county. Estimating just how many aircraft will arrive during Masters

week is based on past experience, communication with FAA and the state of the economy, Weegar said. Thompson explained that by November of each year he has determined the number of added personnel and the extra equipment that will be required. Supplemental equipment needed for the week will include fuel trucks, radios, wheel chocks, vans and golf carts. Regular meetings then are instituted with airport tenants and transportation personnel from the Masters to discuss coordination of tasks. By mid-December, Thompson is contracting for hotel space for the extra ground personnel and FAA controllers who will arrive for the tournament. Hospitality suites are planned for the pilots and catering arrangements are made. The airport doesn’t raise its fuel prices during the tournament but does charge a special event ramp fee for those aircraft that don’t purchase fuel. The airport has 40 acres of ramp space and closes Taxiway A, the primary north/south taxiway parallel

AIrcrAFT ArE PArkED MucH cLoSEr ToGETHEr THAN uSuAL DurING THE MASTErS GoLF TourNAMENT To MAkE rooM For THE LArGE NuMBEr oF TrANSIENT cuSToMErS. | october/november 2008




to Runway 17/35, to use for parking as well. Aircraft that normally are parked on the ramp are stored in a hangar for the week. During Masters week, airport employees assume duties that may be totally apart from their regular work. Teams of personnel on the ramp are designated for specific tasks such as parking, towing, fueling and passenger/baggage pick-up. The specialization of labor allows the airport to service more aircraft

Tommy Story (left) and Bill Thompson in front of Augusta Regional’s FBO, Aviation Services.

The gardens at Augusta’s new terminal.

28 | october/november 2008

efficiently. Training is provided for all temporary workers and practice sessions are conducted for the teams. Weegar takes on the added responsibility of working in the tower to direct ramp parking operations during Masters week. “I’m like the conductor of a very large orchestra,” he explained. “In the tower, I have a bird’s eye view of everything that’s going on both in the air and on the ground.” From the tower, he’s able to monitor the ramp to ensure safety in terms of vehicle operations. Further, he tracks inbound traffic and outbound aircraft. “Tim’s my honorary controller,” Gunn said. “I even gave him a certificate to that effect.” Weegar described Augusta’s parking operation — which calls for intricate parking patterns to handle the steady arrival of aircraft — as “Tim’s chess game.” Or, as he phrased it, the exercise is like “putting 10 pounds in a five-pound sack.” From his tower perch, Weegar alerts the parking team regarding the size of inbound aircraft and directs the crew to an open space on the ramp. “This past Masters, it was even more important since we experienced a full ramp several times for the first time ever,” he said. When more aircraft are inbound than the ramp can accommodate, Weegar said he requests FAA to slow down inbound aircraft to allow time for some flights to leave Augusta. Airport Marketing Director Diane Johnson in 2007 volunteered to take over Weegar’s tower duties occasionally to allow him time for breaks. “Last year I let her take over for one hour and this year for two hours,” he said.


“I can remember several times that we would be about packed, and Tim would call with two Gulfstreams and others coming in,” Story recalled. “Then it gets funny because you don’t have anywhere to put them.” To respond, Story’s towing teams reposition aircraft until enough parking space is made available for the incoming flights. At this point, hundreds of aircraft are parked within six inches of each other. Complicating the parking effort is the fact that GA aircraft tend to be larger now, with a wing span that may be 80 feet to 100 feet. It’s a stressful week, filled with long hours at work and few rest breaks. The airport provides workers with one meal a day served at the firehouse, or packaged to go. Some workers can’t tolerate the stress. “This year, three or four people quit on Saturday and didn’t come back,” Thompson related. “They are tired.” Some personnel even quit during training the week before the tournament begins.

Augusta Regional completely replaced its 62,000-square-foot terminal with a 94,500-square-foot terminal in the existing building’s footprint. The work also included more than 8,000 square feet of curbfront canopy, brick screen walls and enclosures, landscaping — including a putting green and a waterfall/stream ending in a pond — and interior and exterior signage and graphics. The project included temporary facilities required for phased construction, demolition of the current terminal, partial replacement of the terminal apron and the construction of approximately 4,800 square yards of hard-stand pavement. Airport operations continued with minimum interference to general and commercial air traffic and services during the three years of construction. This included three Masters Golf Tournaments during which the contractor was not allowed to work. Airport officials credited the success of the project to many years of planning and the close cooperation between the airport and The LPA Group Incorporated and Parsons Brinckerhoff Construction Services of Atlanta. A | october/november 2008



Story noted, “What we do here takes a special breed of people who want to work the Masters.” Thompson has this advice for airports that are considering hosting special events: “Plan for problems and then you know how to respond when problems arise. Make planning an airportwide project.” FAA undertakes its own planning process for the Masters. According to Gunn, preparation begins about a week after the previous Masters ends. In addition to arranging to bring in six additional controllers for the week, Gunn deals with technical issues that must be resolved before the next year’s tournament. “During the Masters, we change procedures and airspace significantly,” he noted. FAA also concludes letters of agreement with other agency facilities to incorporate ATC system changes for the week. FAA pays the salaries of the additional controllers who augment Augusta’s staffing for the week. The airport pays for the controllers’ per diem, hotel and travel charges. Mark Thompson, supervisory traffic management coordinator at the Atlanta Center, noted that the entire Masters week is spent evaluating the hourly traffic volume that is destined for Augusta. “We have reached out 200 miles to slow aircraft to buy some time” to ease ramp parking congestion, he said. “We have had some pilots saying, ‘We have a VIP on board and he really needs to get there.’ But there’s only so much concrete.”

RNAV Procedures

Numbers of Total Operations

Augusta Regional instituted Area Navigation (RNAV) procedures in 2008. “It’s been a real winner for us,” said Gunn, who came up with the idea. “My boss supported it and saw the value of it.” He added, “It takes a lot of disciplines coming together to make this happen. We fast-tracked the process and it took 14 months.” Daniel Field, Augusta’s GA facility, also is an integral part of the Masters aircraft parking plan. The airfield has two asphalt runways — the longest at 4,001 feet — with parallel taxiways. During Masters week, the airport FBO adds 12 employees to assist with customer service and aircraft parking. Although Daniel Field is not a controlled airfield 51 weeks of the year, during the tournament it has a temporary FAA tower, staffed with FAA controllers.


“I’m proud of all my employees,” Weegar said. “They certainly know the true definition of teamwork when it comes to a tough and demanding week during Masters.” A Barbara Cook is editor of Airport Magazine.

6000 5000




4000 2844 2342















2000 1000 0 1991











Augusta Masters Operations | october/november 2008








Ramp parking space is at a premium during Masters week.

“Plan for problems and then you know how to respond when problems arise. Make planning an airport-wide project.�

augusta regional runways: RWY 17/35 8/26

Length 8,000 feet 6,001 Feet

Width 150 feet 75 feet

Navaids: RWy 17 35 8 26

Approaches ILS/Localizer, RNAV (GPS), VOR/DME ILS/Localizer, RNAV (GPS) RNAV (GPS) RNAV (GPS)

Available ramp space: 40 acres for GA and commercial aircraft

Air Service: ASA and US Airways Express offer scheduled service

Daniel Field The airport has two asphalt runways with parallel taxiways. Both runways are equipped with lights. Runway 5/23 Runway 11/29

4,001 feet long 3,732 feet long

100 feet wide 100 feet wide

The airport has a rotating beacon, lighted wind indicators and Automated Surface Observing System.

Mike Gunn (left) and Tim Weegar, A.A.E., share a rare quiet moment in the control tower. | october/november 2008



by Stacy Hollowell

Dealing with Change | Coping and Looking for Answers


There is an old French proverb that translates: the more things change, the more they stay the same. Change — it is currently plentiful! The headlines are dizzying in their coverage of the price of oil, the state of affairs on Wall Street and the political platforms of opposing candidates. What stays the same? One answer is that our nation’s airports remain a necessary and vital component in the support of a local and global economy, serving their customers in a fiscally and environmentally responsible manner. The headlines cannot be ignored, and change is indeed inevitable. The issues facing the aviation industry will not be resolved overnight. But maybe, just maybe, change is good. Change often provides the opportunity to take a step back and look for more creative ways to solve short- and long-term issues and perhaps even the opportunity to look outside the aviation industry for answers. Physically, an airport is a complex entity, often housing a broad range of structures, from hotels to art galleries, retail and office space to power substations and inter-modal transportation hubs — much like a resort complex, theme park or high-tech campus. An airport also is concerned with retaining revenue-generating tenants, as well as passengers who may have alternate transportation options, much as a healthcare organization strives to retain physicians and attract patients. All these industries, including airports, have many things in common: they face infrastructure support issues, the need to leverage technology and integrate to legacy systems, fund capital improvements, contain cost and carefully manage operations resources and reduce the carbon footprint. There is a growing trend in other industries to revisit the structure of their organizations and the methodology they adopt with their vendor partners. For example, in a renovation or new construction project, typically the owner awards a job to an architecture firm, if needed, and then hires a general contractor who is responsible for selecting subcontractors to fulfill the various requirements of the project. This cost-driven structure has the potential to create technology gaps and incompatibility across systems, and may even result in cost overruns and schedule delays. Worse yet, the owner may not receive a project that reflects his or her original vision. | october/november 2008

A different approach being adopted for many mid- and large-size projects is for the owner, in addition to hiring an architecture firm and a general contractor, to enlist a technology partner early in the design process. The role of a technology partner is to work side by side in collaboration with design and engineering firms and the general contractor and subcontractors on design, submittal processes and equipment delivery. The results are tangible, from the hospitality industry to healthcare, state and local governments, even within the aviation industry. Some benefits that a technology partner can offer: • Provides engineering expertise and drives cost savings during the design process • Provides a single point of contact with various teams to support the project • Provides key project management • Manages and sets subcontractor price markups on equipment purchases • Along with the owner, oversees and controls change orders to prevent huge contractor price mark-ups • Sets up equipment purchases through distribution channels for various reasons, such as past performance, diversity participation, stocking requirements, local warehousing, standardization of design and equipment and reduced personal training costs The ultimate role of a technology partner is to serve as an enabler — one who shares the vision and supports an airport in meeting its objectives. The concept of a technology partner is scalable. It can be applied to regional and international airports alike. The concept can be adopted to address cost reduction issues, operational efficiency improvements, physical and technical system integration, reducing carbon footprint and any number of other initiatives. Change is inevitable and frequently is painful. But it also offers the opportunity to look beyond industry borders and adopt strategies that will ensure economic viability in these uncertain times. A Stacy Hollowell is a senior marketing manager for Siemens, which provides operations, technology, sales and marketing support for complex projects in the aviation, energy and healthcare sectors. She is also a member of Airport Magazine’s Editorial Advisory Board.

energy crisis survivor:

any airport u.s.a.


by Jeff Price

erhaps the next edition of the TV show “Survivor” should be at an airport in the United States. With volatile fuel prices, airport operators have seen airlines pull out, budgets slashed and revenue margins tumble. The aviation industry has hit an oil slick and, despite recent drops in fuel costs, much of the damage already is done. A recent Wall Street Journal article quoted the International Air Transport Association as predicting that the world’s airlines could lose up to $6.1 billion in 2008 due to rising fuel costs. According to a survey conducted for this article, which generated 68 responses, airline losses are translating into losses in airport revenue. Non-hub commercial service and general aviation airports comprise the majority of airports in the U.S. More than 70 percent of the airports that responded to the survey represent those facilities. Ten percent of the respondents were from small hub airports and the remaining respondents represented medium and large hub airports. Of the responding airports, more than 52 percent reported a decrease in the number of enplanements at their facilities this year. Twenty-six percent reported no change. Twenty percent reported an increase in enplanements during 2008, but several airports said they expect these enplanements to decline by this fall. One airport that has experienced an increase in enplanements is Arizona’s Yuma International. Yuma is a small hub airport that has experienced a 5 percent increase in enplanements this year. Airport Director Craig Williams said that fuel costs have had little to no impact on the airport so far. The airport has three commercial airlines using regional jets (RJs) to provide service to Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Las Vegas, but Williams said that new turboprops, such as the Bombadier Q400, are what’s needed to survive in the future. “Regional jets are out because they are too expensive to operate,” Williams said. “The current level-off in the fuel price escalation will be short-lived. Airlines across the nation are dropping routes because the RJ can’t operate

34 | october/november 2008

economically” he said. An airport that is benefitting from turboprops is Colorado Springs Airport, a small hub about two hours south of Denver. The Rocky Mountain News recently reported that, while Colorado Springs is bracing for a 15.8 percent loss in available seats due to airline route cuts, Frontier Airlines has added five daily roundtrip flights between Denver and Colorado Springs using the Q400. According to the survey, operations at airports are also down considerably, with nearly 80 percent of the airports reporting a decrease in operations. The average decrease was between 10 percent and 20 percent, with some airports reporting a downturn in operations of 35 percent to 50 percent. The future doesn’t look very bright either, according to the respondents. More than 75 percent of respondents said they believe that fuel prices are going to continue to rise (30 percent) or level off (45 percent). Even with the presidential election on the horizon, 56 percent said that the election would not have an impact on fuel prices. Many airports reported that airlines have ended service to their airport, cut back flights, or, in some cases,

air service survivaL were not able to follow through on promises to provide service. In addition to the drop in enplanements and operations, many airports reported other significant effects, including: •Lower occupancy rates for hangars; •A slowdown in airport development and capital improvement projects, with many projects being placed on hold altogether; •Unbudgeted increases in vehicle, maintenance, utility and construction costs; and •Higher tenant turnover. Short-term cost-cutting measures being implemented by airports include not approving large purchases, ceasing all non-essential purchasing and capital improvement projects, restricting employee travel, freezing hiring and wages and laying off employees. At one airport, an employee committee was formed to develop cost-cutting measures. The committee recommendations included moving to fourday/10-hour workdays for administration staff, cutting back on nighttime security personnel, and changing schedules for local police to provide the necessary security coverage. Long-term recovery strategies reported by the airports focused on the purchase of more fuelefficient vehicles, including golf carts and vehicles that use natural gas. A majority of suggestions for

long-term survivability involved creating “green” buildings, using sustainable building designs and materials. Other long-term plans suggested by the airports called for delaying large maintenance projects, reducing operating budgets, more effectively marketing the airport and its air service destinations and focusing on the business sector of general aviation, which many respondents said continues to grow. Despite the prediction for GA growth, however, the National Business Aviation Association recently reported that the purchase of Jet-A fuel for business use has fallen by 10 percent to 20 percent and AvGas by 30 percent to 40 percent. Several airports listed revenue diversification as a survival strategy. The Baltimore Business Journal recently reported that Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is adding the Registered Traveler program and also is focusing on increasing shopping, car rental and parking as other nonaeronautical revenue sources. As for the current energy crisis, some respondents cited airline mismanagement instead of higher fuel costs as the reason for airline cutbacks. They pointed to Southwest Airlines as an example of a carrier that is succeeding overall, despite a down economy. Airport directors listed several ideas for resolving this crisis, including exploring more of the world for oil, developing alternative energy, implementing NextGen, “fixing” the Essential Air Service program, and modernizing the air traffic control system to reduce inefficiencies due to routing and congestion. Other ideas included limiting unfunded mandates and reducing the cost of aviation fuel. They noted that airplanes, unlike automobiles, do not have alternative fuel sources. A Jeff Price is a professor at Metropolitan State College of Denver and the owner of Leading Edge Strategies, an aviation management training company. His textbook, Practical Aviation Security, published by Butterworth-Heinemann, comes out in December 2008. | october/november 2008



TSA’s GA Vulnerability Assessment Program Delayed


SA reported that its General Aviation Vulnerability Assessment Program, originally expected to begin Oct. 1, will be delayed and won’t begin before at least late October. The 9/11 Commission legislation signed into law last year required TSA to develop a standardized threat and vulnerability assessment program for general aviation airports within one year. TSA stated it will test the electronic survey that will be used by airports to conduct vulnerability assessments with approximately 100 airports before officially launching the assessment program. The survey will include a mitigation tool allowing GA airports to identify other security measures that are not covered in the survey. The 9/11 legislation also directed TSA to look into the feasibility of a grant program. TSA will use the information gathered by the vulnerability assessment survey to determine the feasibility of a GA security grant program. Tim O’Donnell, A.A.E., a GA airport member of Airport Magazine’s Editorial Advisory Board and the chair of AAAE’s GA Airports Committee, noted that at Fort Wayne’s Smith Field Airport, “We followed TSA’s recommendations outlined in their program several years ago. Since then, we have added an automatic gate with key code and additional procedures associated with that equipment. We participate in the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association’s (AOPA) Airport Watch Program and have created our own airport watch program. We have been completely fenced in and are in the process of planning fencing upgrades in our Capital Improvement Program.” O’Donnell added that, “Every GA airport has different vulnerabilities and risks. It would be too


cumbersome for TSA to regulate the widely diverse activities at each airport under one rule. By regulating towards the busier GA airports, the more rural airports would be overburdened and not meet regulation. By regulating to the lowest common denominator, the security at busier GA airports would decrease. TSA is taking a positive approach by accepting the diversity of GA airports and evaluating existing best management practices. Hopefully, this assessment will result in the flexibility that each GA airport needs to effectively mitigate reasonable security threats.”  Bill Barkhauer, A.A.E., a member of the editorial advisory board and a former AAAE GA Airports Committee chair, offered, “GA airport operators recognize the need for their facilities to respond professionally and effectively to ever-increasing and evolving security challenges. As TSA moves forward | october/november 2008

in this area, it is vitally important that they recognize that GA airports come in many shapes and sizes, and that one size does not fit all in developing security requirements and protocols. It is also critical that TSA, the Congress and the Executive Branch recognize that most GA airports have very limited revenues and financial resources compared to commercial service airports. Any new security requirements and regulations promulgated by the federal government must include an adequate and guaranteed source of funding to implement such measures. The GA community must not be put in the untenable position of having to implement a vast assortment of new unfunded federal mandates in the security area.” Robert Olislagers, A.A.E., a GA airport member of the editorial advisory board and also a former AAAE GA Airports Committee chair, stated, “GA airports require

public access, and vulnerability is, therefore, a fact of life. That said, all airports can implement a variety of mitigations, ranging from common sense to the very expensive. Understanding how best to address these, given limited resources, is the real challenge, but a good assessment is the logical starting point.� In other TSA action affecting GA facilities, the agency in late August published the recommended Security Action Items (SAIs) for General Aviation (GA) Aircraft Operators and Fixed Based Operators (FBOs). The SAIs, which for the most part were pulled from the May 2004 TSA Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports, will serve as recommended guidelines to the GA community, specifically FBOs and aircraft operators. According to TSA, adoption of these measures is voluntary. TSA explained that the agency recognizes that a wide diversity of operations exist within GA and some of the suggested security action items may not be suitable for all operators, especially those with smaller-scale operations. Consequently, there are recommendations and guidelines contained in these documents that might be considered highly beneficial for one type of operator while being virtually impossible to implement for another. The purpose of these documents is to provide a list of options, ideas and suggestions for the aircraft operator or FBO to choose from when considering implementation of security enhancements.

entering the aircraft ramp under any circumstance. All passenger transport vehicles, such as limousines and rental cars, should be properly identified and approved by the FBO before permitted onto the ramp. Require authorized airport vehicles accessing the ramp to be driven by properly trained and credentialed individuals wearing a valid airport security badge that authorizes presence within that area of the airport.

B. Lighting and Cameras FBO operators should consider installing outdoor security lighting and cameras to help improve the security of aircraft parking and hangar areas; fuel storage areas and fuel trucks; airport access points; and other appropriate areas.

C. FBO Security Coordinator Each FBO should designate a primary FBO security coordinator and an

alternate FBO security coordinator. Each FBO security coordinator should complete annual security awareness training. The should have its personnel clear and escort personal vehicles containing passengers and baggage identified by the respective flight crewmembers to and from the aircraft ramp.

E. Reporting Suspicious Activity The FBO operator should immediately report to the Transportation Security Operations Center (TSOC) any threat information, as well as any suspicious incidents and activities that could affect the security of U.S. civil aviation by calling the GA Secure hotline at 1-866-GA-SECURE (1-866-427-3287). To view the complete SAIs for GA aircraft operators, visit http://www. To view the SAIs for FBOs, visit http://www. A

The recommended SAIs for FBOs include: A. Ramp Security Measures Secure or monitor access doors and gates from each FBO to the aircraft ramp. Prohibit taxicabs from | october/november 2008


branson airport

Branson AirportT

all photos courtesy of branson airport

he city of Branson, Mo., in the heart of the Ozark Mountains, is on track to gain a commercial service airport. Currently, the Branson area is home to M. Graham Clark Airport, the area’s only general aviation facility. Clark airport has a 3,739-foot-long runway — long enough for small commuter aircraft to operate, but not long enough for larger commercial aircraft. Due to the location of Highway 65 on the east end and Table Rock Lake on the west end, extension of this runway is not feasible. Over the years, several different carriers had scheduled commuter service into the airport, but none of the services could be sustained. Several previous attempts to establish an airport in the Tri-Lakes region were unsuccessful. However, in the late 1990s, Glenn Patch, the owner of several thousand acres of land in Taney County, just minutes from the heart of Branson, began to develop a plan for addressing this need. The Patch property had the physical space for the airport. The southern portion of this property was a series of ridges that spanned from Highway JJ to the south to the railroad tracks to the north. It was this ridge line that provided the best opportunity to create a plateau to accommodate a runway, taxiway, apron and

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Branson To Open Greenfield Airport The new Branson (Mo.) Airport is scheduled to open May 11, 2009. In a series of four articles, Renita Mollman, principal‑in‑charge of Burns & McDonnell’s Aviation Civil Engineering Group, outlines the development process for this new facility. Burns & McDonnell is the engineer/architect firm of record on the project, responsible for all design and construction administration, which includes the airfield, terminal, fuel farm, utility systems, hangars, air traffic control tower and FBO facility.

The selected site. By Renita Mollman


An aerial view of the airfield.

terminal area suitable for an airport. This location is also one of the highest points in the county, which lent itself well to air traffic patterns and noise concerns. Preliminary soil exploration also revealed that rock ledges, which are very prevalent in the Ozarks, region, were approximately 40 feet to 60 feet below the surface. Thus, the ridge appeared to be an ideal location for an airport. With a location chosen, Aviation Facilities Company (AFCO), an airport developer based in Virginia, joined the team to begin researching the idea of financing, designing and constructing this one-of-a-kind airport. This team opted not to pursue any type of federal funding for the airport, but instead would finance the airport privately. This model of private financing has been used in other countries, but Branson Airport would be the first in the U.S. to use this method. The decision to privately fund the airport was two-fold. First, the airport could operate as a private business and be a for-profit venture. Second, the airport would be able to attract and retain airlines in a leisure market by limiting competition during the first few years of service. This is only possible without being tied to the many grant assurances that come with federal funding. The development team then began to identify and fill in the other key roles necessary for the creation of the airport. First, an airport director was hired to begin the early programming and planning for a new airport. Second, the growing team interviewed and selected a master plan firm, Coffman Associates, and an airport engineering firm, Burns & McDonnell Engineering Co., both headquartered in Kansas City, Mo., to help them identify their needs. By early 2001, the core team was assembled, and the initial phases of the | october/november 2008


branson airport Branson Airport development were underway. The first task for the master planners was to determine the orientation and length of the runway. Due to the rocky and mountainous terrain in the Ozarks, and on this site in particular, the location and elevation of the runway were of paramount importance. In order to transform the series of ridges and valleys at the airport site into a man-made plateau wide enough for the runway, taxiway, service road and FAA-required safety areas, a tremendous amount of earthwork would be required. Preliminary grading plans were developed with the ultimate goal being a balanced earthwork site. This would require between 8 million and 9 million cubic yards of earth and rock to be moved. Even a slight change, either horizontally or vertically, in the runway alignment proved to create large swings in the amount of earth to be moved.

Runway Length The Coffman Associates and Burns & McDonnell team decided on a runway orientation of 14-32 and an initial length of 7,140 feet with the possibility of an extension to 9,000 feet in the future. This length would accommodate the majority of aircraft expected to serve the airport with a stage length commensurate to major hubs and cities for the projected Branson visitor. It also blends well within the aesthetic ridges of the site. With the runway established, the other facets of the airport could begin to be developed. First, access to the new airport was evaluated for both ground transportation as well as utilities. The property chosen for the airport did not have sufficient roadway access or any existing utilities on the site to serve the airport. The engineering team started to analyze different roadway alternatives, as well as utility services. An extension of the road from the north that served the Branson Creek development was the option chosen. Second, a conceptual terminal program and layout were developed. The team determined the appearance of the terminal, how it would function, and the services or amenities that would be important. With this information in hand, a terminal layout and terminal area plan were developed. Finally, a plan for an airport that closely modeled all FAA regulations was developed. Although the airport would not pursue any federal grant money, the team chose to follow the FAA process for developing an airport based on the fact this would be the first airport of its kind in the U.S. to be built solely using private funds. In addition, the overall objective of the airport was to attract commercial service and, therefore, it would need to obtain a Part 139 operating certificate. As part of this process, an environmental analysis following the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act process was conducted, and the airport layout was designed to comply with all FAA standards. Upon completion of the master plan, the idea of a commercial service airport was well on its way to reality. Since no federal funds were tied to the project, FAA approval of the master plan and environmental analysis were not required. However, these were provided to FAA for reference. A The second article in this series will deal with the airport’s financing and design.

40 | october/november 2008


s a privately financed and operated commercial service facility, the new Branson Airport, set to open May 11, 2009, will employ several novel marketing and revenue generation ideas. Branson Director Jeff Bourk, A.A.E., the former deputy director at Maine’s Portland International Jetport, listed four of the innovations that the new airport is pursuing:

›Allowing naming rights for the terminal’s interior and exterior and the air traffic control tower similar to those granted by sports arenas. Bourk said he is talking with “several major national companies” about the possibility of branding the terminal. The brands would be conferred by a long-term contract and multiple naming partners are a possibility. Bourk predicted that the income from this arrangement “would be significant.” The official name of the airport and its code would not change, however.

›Providing airlines with Initial Development Rights (IDRs). Bourk explained that IDRs would give an airline exclusivity to fly from a given market for a specified amount of time without competition.

›Opening a GateOne Club for travelers. GateOne is envisioned as an affinity program for passengers that rewards repeat travelers with benefits, similar to an airline frequent flyer program. Bourk said the rewards could include discounts on products and services in the Branson area. Further, the club will operate a concierge service in the airport terminal to sell tickets to shows and arrange fishing trips.

›Permitting exclusive vendors for key visitor services such as rental cars. “The airport will have input into ticket and rental prices to meet the needs of the costconscious customers we are targeting,” Bourk explained. One concessionaire will be named for food and beverage services and one for rental car. “By doing that, we can limit competition, and they don’t have to spend marketing dollars. So we can mark up the percentage that we receive,” he said. “We surveyed 12,000 people around the country, and we see a large volume of people who want to fly here,” Bourk said. “That’s part of our pitch to the airlines. They are very excited about this market because they see the potential.” The airport is pursuing initial service to Dallas, Atlanta, Chicago, Denver and Minneapolis, among other destinations. The terminal is designed to accommodate 1 million deplaning passengers annually at buildout. Visit for more information.







The xNA terminal with the proposed concourse addition (at left).

AIRPORT NEEd IdENTIfIEd The idea of locating a new regional airport near Highfill, Ark., in western Benton County first surfaced in the 1950s, when it was proposed by former Arkansas Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.). But it didn’t gain traction until 1990 when Congress focused attention on the transportation needs of Northwest Arkansas.

The xNA terminal.

The area’s only commercial service airport at that time, Fayetteville’s Drake Field, had reached its limits and could attract only turboprop commercial service. Drake Field is surrounded by mountains and has aircraft weight restrictions in warm weather.

ThE CONCEPT dEvELOPS The final push toward a new, all-weather commercial airport began with a telephone call in early 1990 from Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., to then-Rep. John Paul Hammerschmidt (R-Ark.). Walton and Hammerschmidt discussed the steps that would need to be taken to evaluate the possible construction of a new airport. Hammerschmidt was able to schedule a field hearing of the House Public Works and Transportation Committee in September 1990 in Springdale, Ark., to hear views on the airport proposal. Following the hearing, the Northwest Arkansas Council, a private, non-profit organization was formed, and Alice L. Walton was elected as its first chairperson. Under her leadership and direction, the council launched the effort that led to the creation of the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority. The cities of Bentonville, Fayetteville, Rogers, Siloam Springs and Springdale, along with Benton and Washington Counties, created the airport authority as a separate public entity to investigate the feasibility of building a new regional airport. In 1992, the voters of all seven governmental entities voted overwhelmingly in favor of continuing their representation in the airport project. Over the next several years a series of studies concluded that a new airport was economically feasible and environmentally compatible.


Kelly Johnson, A.A.E., with airport authority Chair Stan Green. Photo courtesy of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.


Exterior rendering of the proposed concourse extension.


Rendering of the proposed concourse addition.

The decision to proceed with a new airport wasn’t without controversy. At one point, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) investigated FAA’s decision to award the airport $29.5 million in longterm funding. The investigation ended in 1997 with a finding that cleared the way for construction to proceed while noting that “shortcomings” existed in the way FAA awarded grants for the airport. The original plan for the airport called for two 12,000-foot runways that could handle freighters in addition to passenger aircraft. This ambitious idea was pared down during the planning phase with the authority determining that a single 8,800-foot runway and an airport half the cost would be a better fit for the region.

CONSTRUCTION...AT LAST In 1994, a federal grant was awarded by FAA to purchase the land. Ground was broken and construction began in August 1995. Earlier, the authority had implemented procedures to prevent groundwater contamination and to protect endangered species in the area. The airport authority held a “cloudbreaking” ceremony at the site in August 1995, setting off a process that involved 200 companies participating in the development of Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport (xNA).

OPENINg dAy Opening day on Nov. 1, 1998, marked the beginning of the future for xNA, which has enjoyed rapid growth and positive endorsement by potential passengers. With Air Force One in the background and a crowd of about 8,000 people looking on, President Bill Clinton officially dedicated the new Northwest

Arkansas Regional Airport on Nov. 6, 1998. Mr. Clinton said, “To me, this symbolizes America at its best. People working on a common goal, across party lines, putting people first, thinking about the future.” American Eagle inaugurated direct service from xNA to Chicago O’Hare on the airline’s new regional jets. In January 1999, TransWorld Express began providing service from xNA to St. Louis. In March 1999, Atlantic Southeast Airlines, the Delta Connection partner, began providing service to Atlanta and Dallas-Fort Worth, and Northwest Airlines began providing service to Memphis. With the move from Drake Field of then-US Air in September of 1999, all commercial service for Northwest Arkansas had moved to xNA. Initially, the authority had projected enplanements of about 200,000 for 1999. But the quicker-thanexpected relocation of service to the new airport and the success of regional jet service resulted in enplanements of almost 330,000 in 1999. Within the first year of operations, it became necessary to expand the long-term parking lot and the aircraft parking apron. Also in 1999, the airport authority board of directors honored Ms. Walton for her contribution to the success of the airport project and for her support of transportation improvements throughout the region by naming the terminal the Alice L. Walton Terminal Building. In 2000, American Eagle announced the startup of direct service from xNA to New York’s LaGuardia Airport, and US Airways started direct service from xNA to Charlotte, N.C. American Airlines began service to Chicago with 87-passenger Fokker 100 aircraft in March of 2001. With the merger of American and TWA, American Connection took over the service from xNA to St. Louis. xna



Reflecting on the Past and Looking

Ahead:An interview with airport Director Kelly L. Johnson, A.A.E.

For the first 18 months after she accepted the position as airport director, Johnson worked as the only airport employee. XNA had hired Ozark International Consulting (OIC), owned by Uvalde and Carol Lindsey, and Johnson shared office space with the company staff. Scott VanLaningham also was employed by OIC and is now executive director of the airport authority. One of Johnson’s first duties was to develop the operational budget needed to sell bonds to build XNA. The airport authority already owned the property and had hired consultants who decided on the master plan. Johnson recalled that she worked with renderings of the proposed buildings to calculate expected expenses, such as how much electricity the airport would need to operate and what it would cost to purchase.

Kelly L. Johnson, A.A.E., formerly assistant manager at Drake Field in Fayetteville, Ark., is the first and only manager at Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport. For her, the past 10 years have been a combination of challenges to be surmounted and successes to be savored. But the job didn’t come with guarantees, and Johnson explained that she didn’t know whether the carriers would relocate from Drake Field to the new airport and whether XNA would succeed. “Drake Field had six nonstop markets,” she said. “My goal at XNA was to have 12 destinations in 10 years. We have 14 now, despite losing some service this year.” She set a personal goal of 500,000 passengers annually within 10 years. In 2007, XNA recorded just under 600,000 passengers. When XNA first opened, “I didn’t have a life, nor did our consulting team,” Johnson said. “We all worked 10 to 12 hours a day or more.” The decision for Johnson to take the airport manager’s position was made by her family as a group. “They understood the limits it would mean for me at home,” she explained. Johnson’s daughter Morgan was 16 at the time and son Brent was 13. Her husband Rick is administrator of the Washington County Health Department. “We worked out the home situation,” Johnson said.


Being an Accredited Airport Executive (A.A.E.) was a determining factor in being hired as XNA director, Johnson said. The A.A.E. designation, awarded by the American Association of Airport Executives, indicates that an individual’s knowledge of the airport industry and management ability has been measured, tested and verified. “I earned my A.A.E. six years prior,” Johnson said. “I don’t believe I would have gotten a job interview at XNA without that. Having the A.A.E. was important because it taught me the concepts of how to build and staff an airport.” 4


Even something as straightforward as selecting the airport’s three-letter identifier brought with it months of paperwork. FAA sent Johnson a list of available designators, and Johnson and the airport authority determined that XNA would be the best fit for the new airport. The “NA” would symbolize Northwest Arkansas, while the X could be used in promotional material, such as “the Xroads of America, or eXtra nice airport.” Johnson budgeted to hire 14 full-time employees. She contracted for five law enforcement officer (LEO) positions who were Benton County sheriff’s deputies and hired Wackenhut to staff the seven-person ARFF department. The airport now has its own LEO staff and fire department. The authority funded construction of the control tower and paid for its operation for the first six months. The tower then became part of FAA’s Contract Tower Program. “We did some unconventional things” during the start-up phase, Johnson explained. This included entering into a five-year agreement with the airlines that retained their old Drake Field rates and charges with a small adjustment. This agreement provided for a 45-cent landing fee per 1,000 pounds for five years. “Our money came from rental car and parking fees for the first five years,” Johnson said. “We also had an LOI from FAA for five

XNA years that helped pay our debt.” The airport now has six rental car companies — Avis, Hertz, Budget, Enterprise, Thrifty and National — which earn a combined annual income of $17 million. The airport receives 10 percent of that total. Air Host initially agreed to contract to operate the concessions in a special arrangement that Johnson acknowledged involved a risk for the airport. “We would only take a percent of what they made, no minimum annual guarantee, no square footage rent. But when passengers reached a certain level, then their 10-year lease with standard revenue provisions would begin,” she explained. The agreement was written to specify that 250,000 passengers would trigger the leasing provision. “We waited until the last minute to hire people because then we had no tenants to generate the income we needed to pay them,” Johnson said. This meant that when the airport opened, Johnson and her husband, along with airport Assistant Director Mark Mellinger, A.A.E., mowed the airfield. “It was an absolute labor of love,” she recalled. As far as marketing the new airport was concerned, “We had so much local press that we didn’t have to do much marketing,” she added. Johnson said her dream as she walked through the completed terminal prior to opening day was that it would be “full of passengers and retail.” She added that, “Our first year was a whirlwind as carriers transitioned from the old airport.” The development of xNA “really opened the region for business,” Johnson said.

The xNA fire station.


three gates with loading bridges. A ticket counter and security checkpoint expansion were completed in 2007. The airport’s baggage screening needs are covered by the combination of an inline baggage screening system and explosives trace detection (ETD) capability. The airport also added a second baggage carousel and a public meeting room.

Kelly Johnson, A.A.E., speaks with Mark Mellinger, A.A.E., assistant airport director.

Within the next five to 10 years, Johnson said plans call for opening the west side of the airport to industrial development. In addition, the design has been completed for an upper level concourse. xNA also hopes to win service from a low-cost carrier, Johnson added. In 2005, xNA opened an enclosed walkway for passenger ramp loading that is capable of accommodating nine aircraft. The terminal proper has

The airport has received tremendous support from FAA, which has been steadfast in its commitment to Northwest Arkansas, Johnson said. “We also have had excellent support from the state,” she said. “We’ve been partners since day one. They have funded matching grants. We’ve really been blessed.” Johnson stated, “The vision and dedication of our board of directors created the success of this facility. They never had a doubt about the need for this facility’s construction, and they bring that same commitment to the airport’s operation and continued growth. I can’t begin to tell you all the good things our team here at xNA does through their work effort each and every day. It is both a privilege and pleasure to work with these people. Their care, dedication and attitude toward safety, security and customer service are the best I have ever seen.”

Serving Airports Across America Since 1970



Congratulations Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport on your 10th anniversary! (


Air Host is proud to be part of this outstanding airport as its food services and retail concessionaire.

xna 6






Airport Property: 2,184 Acres Runway Length and Width: 8,800’ x 150’ FAR Part 77 Category: PIR Runway Lighting: HIRL Taxiway Lighting: MITL Pavement Strength: 350,000 lbs. per Dual Tandem Wheel; 149,500 lbs. per Dual Wheel; 75,000 lbs. per Single Wheel; Runways, Taxiways, and Ramps are concrete and of the same strength Taxiway Width: 75’ Approach Surface Slope: 50:1 Electronic Aids: ILS, GPS Visual Aids: MALSR, PAPI Terminal size: 126,179 square feet


Air Host: 2,391 square feet Gift Shop: 1,046 square feet Bar: 651 square feet Massage Chairs: 146 square feet Rental Car: 3,848 square feet Limo and Shuttle: 200 square feet


The authority is working with the state of Arkansas on a new, direct access road from the bypass to the airport. In cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, the authority is nearing completion of a study of the environmental impacts of the proposed new airport access road and Springdale Northern Bypass. The airport’s schedule anticipates final environmental approval on the road project in early 2009. The airport also is exploring funding alternatives, including a toll road option. The most recent estimates put the cost of the eight-mile road at about $90 million.


The airport has received 30 federal grants totaling $113,969,691.

Congratulations Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport!

A proud partner for 10 Years SPECIAL SECTION



(left to right) American Eagle President Peter Bowler; Stan Green, chairman of the board of the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority; and Arkansas Gov. Mike Beebe (D).

I was appointed to the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority Board of Directors in mid-1993 as one of the representatives of the city of Fayetteville.

level concourse. We have only one runway, and it will require some significant maintenance and repair work in the next five to seven years. We need to have an alternate landing surface to handle aircraft operations while the maintenance and repair work is completed. Finally, the airport is moving forward with the design of a second-level concourse. We recently completed the third major expansion of the terminal building, which provided additional ticket counter space and an expanded security check-point operation. However, we have no additional gates to accommodate another airline. Architectural planning for the concourse is just about complete. Over the last 10 years, Northwest Arkansas has experienced

tremendous growth and development. Three of the country’s largest businesses — Wal-Mart, Tyson Foods and J.B. Hunt Transport — are based in Northwest Arkansas. Growth in the region has slowed in the last two years, but we are continuing to see good growth in both jobs and population. The airport needs to be positioned to attract additional airlines, including a low-cost carrier, at some point in the future. We’ll need a concourse with sufficient gate space to accommodate the additional capacity. At the same time, the authority board is very mindful of the difficult times in which our air carriers operate. Our timeline for construction in this environment is uncertain, but we will be evaluating our future growth projections and the availability of funding as we make the decision.

I was elected the fifth chairman of the authority board in 1995 and have served as chairman without interruption since that time. It’s been a privilege and a lot of fun to see up close the success of the airport, from acceptance of the initial environmental work to initiation of jet service in our market. During the campaign surrounding an early referendum on the airport, opponents of the project routinely challenged our projections for enplanement growth. We thought our projections were perhaps optimistic, but achievable. The community overwhelming voted in support of the airport and enabled us to stay on track. As it turned out, after two or three years of operations, the airport actually was running about two years ahead of our “optimistic” projections. Over the next five years, we plan to see significant progress on three major projects — the taxiway/ alternate landing surface, a new airport access road and a second-




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Raleigh-Durham I nte r nati o nal :

elevating the experience


ith the opening of Raleigh-Durham International Airport’s $570 million Terminal 2, the airport’s first new passenger facility in more than 20 years, airport officials hope to elevate the passenger experience with the latest in airport design and technology. Phase One of the terminal features 19 gates, seven security checkpoint lanes and 26 shops and restaurants in 550,000 square feet. In Phase Two, slated to open in 2011, an additional 370,000 square feet will house 13 gates, seven security checkpoint lanes and 17 shops and restaurants.

User-Friendly Design Terminal 2 features a column-free design intended to guide passengers from curb to gate. The architecture also reflects the Research Triangle region, officials said, combining large wood trusses with a steel and glass curtain wall to reflect the region’s history of craftsmanship and its reputation as a leader in technology and education. “From the beginning, RDU’s commitment has been to build a terminal that is tailored to our travelers’ needs, as well as one that reflects the uniqueness of our region,” said RDU Airport Director John Brantley. The large airline check-in area houses 40 electronic kiosks, including an unusual island-style counter design aimed at easing congestion in the check-in area. The terminal integrates the latest airport operations technology to provide a smooth experience for passengers at every phase of their trip. An automated, 42 | october/november 2008

inline baggage screening system incorporates explosives detection system (EDS) machines into the airport’s baggage conveyor system. The system can process up to 1,600 pieces of luggage per hour.

State-Of-The-Art Technology Shared-use technology infrastructure is in place to serve airlines, airport tenants and airport partners. In addition to allowing multiple carriers to process passengers efficiently, the system provides the Raleigh-Durham Airport Authority, which operates the airport, flexibility in use of gates and airline check-in counters. Further, the system supports check-in kiosks that will allow passengers to check in with any of the airlines operating from Terminal 2 from one location. In addition, Terminal 2 will feature a resource management center responsible for controlling the movement of aircraft on the terminal ramp. Since the airport is a common-use facility, the airport authority also is responsible for managing the terminal gates, baggage claim carousels and ticket counter positions. Located in the terminal’s ramp control tower, personnel in the center will ensure the airport’s effective and efficient use of its resources. Of specific interest to passengers, 20 percent of the terminal’s seating is equipped with electricity to charge laptop computers and mobile devices. In addition to electrical outlets, the seats offer USB ports and tableson which to place passengers belongings. Further, concessions in the new terminal will include a mix of local favorites and nationally known brands.

Quick Facts: Brantley explained, “The addition of regionally based restaurants and shops brings the flavor of the Triangle into the terminal.” Triangle eateries Carolina Ale House and 42nd Street Oyster Bar, along with Brookwood Farms, a restaurant serving North Carolina-style barbecue, are included in a package of seven restaurants Host International will manage. Locally owned and operated 2nd Edition Booksellers, RDU’s used bookstore that already operates in Terminal A, will have a store in the new terminal, as will national bookseller Borders. North Carolinabased J.Q. Enterprises will operate a Bruegger’s Bagels, A&W All American Food and KFC. Other coffee shops and restaurants planned for the new terminal include Starbucks Coffee, Jose Cuervo Tequileria, Gordon Biersch, Brookwood Farms and California Pizza Kitchen ASAP. The Paradies Shops will oversee a collection of news and retail stores. The concepts include Chapel Hillbased A Southern Season, as well as Drugs & More, Brooks Brothers, PGA Tour Shop, University News & Sports and Taxco Sterling, a seller of sterling silver jewelry. A

• Raleigh-Durham International Airport encompasses 5,000 acres in Wake County, N.C. • The airport has three runways: Runway 5L-23R: 10,000 feet by 150 feet; Runway 5R-23L: 7,500 feet by 150 feet; Runway 14-32: 3,550 feet by 100 feet. • 10 major airlines and 17 regional carriers offer service from RDU to 36 domestic and international destinations. • The airport handles 406 daily arrivals and departures. • 10 million passengers passed through the airport in 2007. Of those passengers, 95 percent are origin and destination passengers; 48 percent are business travelers; 52 percent are leisure travelers. • Six cargo carriers and numerous freight forwarders handled 119,055.6 tons of cargo in 2007. • Terminal area parking includes 11,700 public spaces. A | october/november 2008


sound insuLation




By Mark D. Cameron


esidential sound insulation programs are common in airports across the country. Although these programs share many similarities, each program is customized to best serve the local community and region. Climate has a direct impact on how airport sound insulation programs are managed. In extremely hot climates, acoustical treatments are likely to include central air conditioning, while cooler climates may require modifications to existing forced-air furnaces in order to allow outdoor air to be introduced to the home via “make-up” air. All airport residential sound insulation programs should be administered with careful consideration of the local weather. Year-round construction could be offered in temperate climates such as Tucson, Phoenix and San Diego, but not in regions with cold, wet winters like Boston, Buffalo and Chicago. Carla Kell-Smith, president of C. Kell-Smith and Associates, Inc., a consulting firm with more than 22 years of experience working with residential sound insulation programs, offers Reno-Tahoe International

Airport as a case in point. “Because northern Nevada weather constraints exist, the Reno program must manage a seven-month window for construction whether retrofitting 100 homes or 250 homes,” she stated. Although Reno is considered a high desert, its elevation of 4,415 feet above sea level and its proximity to the Sierra Nevada mountain range brings an average annual snowfall of two feet, some of which has been known to fall as late as June and as early as September. Although two feet of annual snowfall is far less than what many winter-weather airports experience, it doesn’t take much snow or temperatures consistently below freezing to make scheduling construction projects tricky. In order to accommodate inclement winter weather, the noise staff at Reno has limited the yearly construction period to a modest seven months or less. The design component of the program has been structured efficiently so that in preparation for late spring construction work, home owners are contacted during the preceding summer, while summer construction home owners are contacted the preceding autumn. This means that design architects can be found trudging through 100-degree heat and then again six months later | october/november 2008


through blowing snowdrifts to collect measurements and create “as-built” drawings for the two different construction packages. Even a minor construction consideration such as painting could have a large effect on the cost and timeliness of the sound insulation program. For airports in the snow belt, consistently cold temperatures impact the painting component of the program. Once windows have been installed in a home, painting and patching of interior and exterior finishes must begin. Solvent-based paint should be applied when the surface temperature is above 45 degrees, while latexbased paint should be applied when the surface temperature is above 50 degrees. Lower temperatures can cause solvent-based paint to thicken more quickly, meaning it will be applied in heavier coats and will dry more slowly. More paint applied in thick coats can add cost to the project. In addition, heavier paint can wrinkle and sag on vertical surfaces. Lower temperatures also can cause latex to coalesce, which can lead to a lackluster finish and poor adhesion


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to the substrate beneath. The amount of daylight is also important. In addition to temperature considerations, painting in autumn months means shorter days and less sunlight. More sunlight enables paint to dry more rapidly. Solvent-based paints require oxidation, which requires sunlight, to dry. Weather also can create challenges when it comes to funding for sound insulation projects. A few years ago, FAA began implementing a method of grant award for construction projects that was termed “based on bid.” This method of grant award can create difficult timing issues for airports in winter climates. FAA has offered sound insulation grants as late as June. In the case of Reno’s program, which halts construction no later than the week before Thanksgiving, a June “based on bid” award allows for a three-month construction period, assuming a start date of September immediately following the material ordering process. In some situations, grant funds have been split into construction groups separated by winter, with

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approximately half the construction funds being spent before winter and the remaining construction funds to be used after the thaw, approximately five months later. Those five months without construction become the perfect time to focus on the design efforts for homes to receive construction in late spring. “Reno-Tahoe International Airport is a model of how airports with challenging weather constraints are managing sound insulation programs in concert with FAA grant funding requirements,” stated Kell-Smith. Airports nationwide participate in residential sound insulation programs in an effort to be good neighbors to their communities. These programs demonstrate an airport’s dedication to improving the quality of life for individuals in the community, particularly for those who live near the airport and are affected by a high level of aircraft noise, but it takes creative solutions and dedication from airport noise staff for residential sound insulation programs to succeed. A Mark D. Cameron is the noise abatement coordinator for Reno-Tahoe International Airport.

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advanced pLanninG

Hartsfield-Jackson’s Strategy To Mitigate Project Risk | advanced planning is a key to executing Georgia’s largest public works project effectively and efficiently

By Jim Drinkard


n implementing its 10-year, $6 billion capital improvement program, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International had the potential to reinforce its position as one of the world’s most efficient hubs. To assure staff and stakeholders that its Hartsfield-Jackson Development Program (H-JDP) would accommodate forecast demand while providing enhanced customer service, airport management made a decision in 2000 to extend the planning phase on key projects. To mitigate risks in the design phase of the project, the airport used an advanced planning approach, which bridges the gap between the airport master plan and the beginning of the design phase. “When airports are making billion-dollar decisions in a highly volatile industry, they need to know they are making the right decisions and that those decisions have built-in flexibility,” said Dan Molloy, assistant general manager of planning and development at Hartsfield-Jackson. “Advanced planning affords owners of complex projects a deeper understanding and control of a program early. Detailing a project, understanding its impact and solving problems before they occur can save tremendous amounts of time and money.”

Emerging Industry Trend While advanced planning has yet to be adopted as a standard industry practice, some experts predict the need for it will increase as projects become more complex. The reason: traditional master plans aren’t likely to include the level of detail necessary to implement the growing number of multifaceted projects. The need for more detail is especially important as more of these projects are part of a renovation or redevelopment as opposed to a new “greenfield” site. Airports from Los Angeles to Raleigh-Durham have engaged in advanced planning in the past decade. While they may label the planning process by different names, overall the approach and outcomes are the same. Advanced planning is a proactive, detail-oriented approach clearly defining each project and its costs within a master plan. Having cost estimates that are supported by more detailed planning can assist airports in securing appropriate funding before projects begin. Furthermore, advanced planning ensures the project is integrated and coordinated with all aspects of the airport’s development program and operations, limiting the unexpected problems | october/november 2008


advanced planning

that can surface in the design or construction phase. Hartsfield-Jackson’s capital improvement program includes major projects, such as the fifth runway, a consolidated 90-acre rental car facility, a new international terminal, a new south passenger complex and

the renovation and expansion of the existing Central Passenger Terminal Complex. “We knew we needed to add more capacity, and we knew there were multiple ways to do it. What we didn’t know was which option was best — or how we were going to

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continue to conduct business in the midst of such a massive project,” Molloy said. “Advanced planning helped us sort through those issues and identify the best option.” Airport management’s decision to engage in advanced planning on this massive effort has paid dividends: • Adding detail to a high-level master plan ensured critical issues and interfaces were exposed and their ramifications identified and understood prior to final design and construction when they could severely impact cost and schedule. • It assured stakeholders of the capital program’s viability. • It underscored — instead of undermined — the airport’s position as one of the most efficient in the world.

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Not all planning is advanced planning. Advanced planning includes more detailed, what-if scenarios and cost-benefit analyses than traditional master planning. Here are the eight must-complete steps in H-JDP’s process:

1. Identify each project’s purpose and need. 2. Prioritize each project according to demand and revenue potential. 3. Identify and involve the stakeholders. In a runway project, for example, stakeholders would include the airlines, FAA, air traffic control, airport maintenance and — if the runway involves acquiring land — surrounding municipalities, as well as the federal, state and local environmental agencies.

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4. Conduct an activity forecast. For a terminal expansion, the activity forecast would predict the number of passengers, vehicles, bags, etc.,

expected at that facility for the planning year horizon. This exercise may refine what is in the airport’s master plan.

5. Develop facility requirements. The consultant takes the activity forecast and translates it into the actual facilities to be built. For a terminal expansion, those items might include ticket counters, baggage claims, concession areas, parking spaces, length of curb, etc.

6. Develop alternatives. The consultant begins drawing and developing conceptual alternatives. This phase normally is conducted during a workshop or series of workshops attended by airport staff and stakeholders. The group may start with as many as 20 to 30 concepts and narrow them down to

ATLANTA’S ADVANCED PLANNING TIMELINE Runway 10-28 – $1.2 billion Advanced planning began in late 2000 and finished in April 2003. The runway opened in May 2006. Consolidated rental car facility – more than $500 million Advanced planning began in early 2001 and concluded in late 2003. The facility will open in 2009. International terminal – $1.5 billion Initial advanced planning began in early 2001 and finished in fall 2003. Updated advanced planning was completed in 2007. The terminal is scheduled to open in late 2011.

a manageable number of no more than five.

7. Conduct an evaluation. Workshop participants agree on a set of criteria used to judge the alternatives: How far do the passengers have to walk? How much does it cost? What

will be the resulting cost per enplaned passenger? What are the environmental concerns? From that evaluation, the preferred alternative is selected.

8. Define the project. With the preferred concept in hand, the advanced planning team puts

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advanced planning

more “meat on its bones” by refining the conceptual drawings, solidifying the phasing and conducting a construction cost estimate before handing it off to a designer.

Five Insights 1. Assess the risk. Deciding whether to engage in advanced planning is an exercise in assessing risk and its potential impact costs, schedules, operations and ability to meet passengers’ needs. As a project’s risks increase, so does the need for advanced planning.

2. Tie benefits to cost and schedule. Hartsfield-Jackson reserved 1 percent of the H-JDP’s construction budget for advanced planning. As with any expense, planning staff needed to justify the cost to senior management and key stakeholders. The result was a compelling argument that spending these small dollars up front would save the airport time and money later.

3. Supplement in-house expertise.

Hartsfield-Jackson partnered with the Hartsfield Planning Collaborative, a joint venture of four firms formed to serve as an extension of airport staff on the H-JDP. These firms, with major national and international resources, helped to better manage the workload and gave the airport access to expertise it didn’t have internally.

4. Educate. Educating staff and setting expectations of roles is essential to advanced planning.

5. Expect higher costs. Early notice provides options. Advanced planning will provide more detailed cost estimates for each project and those costs can be higher than what’s outlined in the master plan. “Having to inform stakeholders of significantly higher budgets is not pleasant, but it’s always better to know before you’ve started spending real dollars,” Molloy said. “It gives you time to explore other options. Once you’re in final design or construction, your choices will be limited at best.” Advanced planning is not needed on all projects, especially clear-cut projects, such as taxiway extensions. It will not eliminate all project challenges. That’s impossible. What is possible is a smooth-running program that stays on track and on budget when challenges surface. Overall, advanced planning helps mitigate risks and resolves policy decisions needed to move a project forward. Essentially, it helps to deliver a well-integrated project that achieves the airport’s development program goals. A Jim Drinkard, P.E., HNTB vice president, is project director on the Hartsfield-Jackson Development Program. Contact him at (404) 530-5611 or

50 | october/november 2008

Educating staff and setting expectations of roles is essential to advanced planning. | october/november 2008



Solar Panels Completed At Two Airports Denver International has installed a two megawatt solar energy system that spans 7.5 acres near the airport entrance and is expected to generate more than 3 million kilowatt hours of electricity a year. Denver’s ground-mounted solar panels use a tracking system to move with the sun for maximum efficiency. The airport expects to reduce carbon emissions at the airport by more than 5 million pounds annually. The solar panel project was financed by MMA Renewable Ventures. The company will be the owner and operator of the panels and will sell power to Denver International through a 25-year, $10.9 million contract. “DIA has a long-standing commitment to sustainable operations and environmental protection. This project makes a visible environment statement to the million of passengers that travel through the airport,” said Kim Day,


The two-megawatt solar system spanning 9.5 acres at Fresno (Calif.) Yosemite International is the largest airport solar project in the country, generating 40 percent of the airport’s power supply.

Denver’s aviation manager. The airport worked with MMA to create a public-private partnership that used tax credits and incentives to finance the project. To build the solar panels, the airport worked with WorldWater & Solar Technologies, the company that installed the recently completed solar energy system at Fresno Yosemite (Calif.) International. The Fresno solar system is the largest airport solar panel project in the country, which spans seven | october/november 2008

football fields and has the ability to generate 40 percent of the airport’s power supply. The project is expected to save the airport close to $13 million over the next two decades. The panels will provide power for day-to-day operations, including lighting, air conditioning and air traffic control tower communication. The two megawatt ground-mounted system is located near the airport’s runway on 9.5 acres of land that was unusable for any other application. “Using renewable solar energy will decrease overhead costs and improve the financial performance of our operations,” said Russ Widmar, A.A.E., Fresno aviation director.

FAA Protects Electrical Power Infrastructure FAA is adding a system to protect the power supply at Terminal Radar Approach Control facilities (TRACONs) and Air Route Traffic Control Centers that will ensure continuous power for equipment. The system, Paladin Live, created by EDSA Micro Corp., predicts potential power problems in their early stages, giving the facilities


The ‘smart gates’ at Manchester International compare a passenger’s face with biometric data contained in new electronic passports.

enough warning to make repairs and prevent a power outage. Using real-time information, Paladin Live continuously probes the power systems infrastructure looking for anomalies and, if any are found, it can diagnose them, as well as recommend a solution. FAA signed an $8 million, fiveyear deal with EDSA to provide the system to major air traffic control facilities nationwide.

Manchester Launches Facial Recognition Trial England’s Manchester International in early August began testing facial recognition to fast-track passengers through immigration lines. Dubbed “smart gates,” the sensorequipped lines read the new European Union-issued electronic passports that contain chips with biometric information. When a passenger moves through

immigration, the system reads the information on the chip in his or her passport and uses sensor technology and facial recognition algorithms to confirm that the passenger and the passport match. Makers of the technology, Fujitsu Services, and the airport hope that the new gates will increase passenger throughput while maintaining a high level of security. The electronic passports with which the machines compare passengers’ faces came into use in the U.K. in 2006 after the U.S. put pressure on 27 countries that had visa-free travel to install biometric chips in their passports.

Ben-Gurion Airport Adds Security Software Israel’s Ben-Gurion Airport has increased security with the addition of a system capable of assessing

critical situations and testing various attack scenarios. Created by Rontel Applications, the SimGuard 3000 system at Ben-Gurion is used for planning and simulation. The system already has been used by the airport to test several attack scenarios in which potential attackers attempt to launch portable surface-to-air missiles against landing and departing planes. Using the information from SimGuard, the airport took the necessary steps to reduce the threat for departure and landing routes. The airport now is expanding its use of the system with increased coverage in the main terminal, the east operational area, the 11,300 short- and long-term parking spaces and Terminal 1. The system can be connected to cameras, gates, fire prevention systems and intruder detection systems and then inform personnel of security breaches. A | october/november 2008




internationaL airport


ashville International Airport is making progress in its quest for passengers to “taste, feel and see what Music City has to offer” under an ongoing multiyear renovation plan that includes a variety of new food and beverage and retail vendors. Eight new venues have opened, featuring more local cuisine and retailers, as well as additional nationally recognized chains.

retaiL briefs

“This latest wave of new vendors at Nashville International Airport continues our effort to provide the Nashville airport experience to every customer every day said Raul Regalado, president and CEO of the Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority. We work hard to make this a great airport for our passengers, partners and employees,” “These new offerings reflect customers’ desires for national brands, local flavor and specialty retailers.” Nashville International currently is undergoing an interior terminal renovation, the first since the facility opened in 1987. Airport officials in 2004 developed a master concessions

plan, which is driving changes in the food and retail landscape at the airport. HMSHost and Delaware North have contracts for food and beverage concessions, while The Hudson Group has the retail contract. Airport Corporate Communications Manager Emily Richard explained that the plan is designed to provide travelers with the experience of visiting Music City even if they never leave the airport. To accomplish this, the airport is home to a number of venues that offer live music from a variety of genres, and restaurants and shops featuring local cuisine and gifts. Among these are an airport location of the city’s famous honky tonk, Tootsies Orchid Lounge, a CMT store and a Nashville store. The renovation program also includes the reconfiguration and consolidation of two existing security checkpoints with a total of eight lanes to a planned single location with 12 lanes; concourse skylights; flight information panels; new carpeting in the concourse and terminal; renovation of the restrooms; and

Airport concessionaire HMSHost has been awarded two new 12-year food, beverage and retail concessions contracts at Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport, as part of the airport’s $1.3 billion Terminal Area Improvement Program. HMSHost and its local partners will bring 24 new restaurant brands and the retail shops. National and international brands will join well-known local icons making their debut throughout the new terminal, including: C.J. Olson Cherries, Author’s Bookstore featuring Hicklebee’s Book Emporium, Chiaramonte’s Deli, Mojo Burger, Santa Cruz Wine Bar, 54 | october/november 2008

Nashvile International is home to a number of Music City favorites, including A Nashville zoo store, Tootsie’s Orchid Lounge and restaurants featuring the area’s popular ‘meat and three’ specials (known to the rest of us as a main dish and three sides).

Schurra’s Fine Confections, Techshowcase, the San Jose Shark Cage, Sonoma Chicken Coop, Gordon Biersch Brewery, Starbucks, Sunset News, Sushi Boat, Harbor Express and Una Mas Mexican Grill.…HMSHost also has been awarded a 10-year extension to its current lease for concessions at Florida’s Palm Beach International Airport, which was due to expire in 2014. County commissioners recently approved an amendment that continues the HMSHost lease through the year 2024. The contract is a joint venture with Tarra Enterprises and includes the construction of a new restaurant

maintenance upgrades to elevators, escalators and HVAC units. The latest round of food and beverage options to be added are La Hacienda Mexican Restaurant, Neely’s Bar-B-Que and Tennessee Tavern, while new retailers are Boswell’s Music City Harley-Davidson, CNN Newsstand, Godiva Chocolatier, Hudson News and Nashville Star. The airport in the near future will open a Starbucks in the pre-security public area. A

in the expanded Terminal C, as well as the growth and renovation of existing brands throughout the other airport terminals….BAA Boston has opened new concessions in Boston Logan’s Terminal B/ American Airlines, the result of a two-year, $33 million development project. The renovations have added

nearly 20 new units to the terminal’s retail offering and incorporate a mix of international, national and local brands….Book, music and movie retailer Borders was slated to open a new store in Terminal B/C at Philadelphia International in early October. The 1,044-square-foot store will offer more than 7,000 book titles, including audiobooks, and a select assortment of gift and stationery items…. Hudson Group and Flexplay Entertainment have reached a retail distribution agreement under which Hudson will be the exclusive retailer of Flexplay No-Return DVD Rental in airports and transportation terminals throughout the U.S. and Canada. The agreement took effect in September. A | october/november 2008


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07 Domestic Fares 07 International Fares 08 Domestic Fares 08 International Fares

40 35 Dollars in Billions

The Chattanooga (Tenn.) Metropolitan Airport Authority has approved a $488,500 construction contract to relocate the airport security control room. Board members unanimously voted to award the contract to Construction Consultants, a Chattanooga-based firm. The renovated area will contain about 45,000 square feet of space for a police interrogation room, a conference area and offices. There also will be about 15,000 square feet of maintenance space. The project is scheduled to be completed in March and is tied to a plan to upgrade the terminal. Siemens has been awarded a $7.19 million design-build contract from Greenhut Construction Co. for a new inline baggage screening system at Pensacola (Fla.) Regional Airport. The design-build project will apply the design guidelines established by TSA for all new baggage screening systems. The company will provide 1,437 feet of baggage handling conveyor, 11 highspeed diverters and a screening matrix consisting of four explosives detection systems and four vertical sort units. Lufthansa German Airlines has awarded a contract to TMG Construction Corp. to build its Senator and Business lounges at Washington Dulles International Airport. The two-story luxury club will be located at Gates B-49 and B-51 at Dulles. The Senator Lounge for first class passengers will be located upstairs, although these passengers will have access to the amenities in the business lounge on the first level as well.

Grey- Domestic Inter-Roller Engineering Limited, a Black-International Singapore-based specialist in building

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2007 % Change


Bradley (Conn.) International




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June July

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airport logistic systems, has won a $10 million contract to design and install a baggage handling system for Calgary International Airport. The project covers the design, supply and installation of mechanical, electrical and control systems that will integrate with the current bag screening system. It includes the security tracking, baggage sorting, automatic baggage tag scanning, manual encoding and high-level control systems. A



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Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.

Special Section 6

Kutchins and Groh, L.L.C.

Special Section 8

The LPA Group

Oshkosh Truck Corporation

Republic Parking System



Southeast Chapter AAAE

Special Section 8



3 Special Section 7


Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc.


Wings Financial


Woodward & Associates

Special Section 8 | october/november 2008


photo by Don Nottage


58 | october/november 2008

Made in USA

5680 East Shelby Drive, Memphis, Tennessee 38141-5816 901/366-4220 2008 Division Systems Š Copyright Protected All Rights Reserved

Airport Magazine October/November 2008