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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/Chemistry-A-Molecular-Approach-Canadian-2nd-Edition-Tro-Solutions-Manual

Problems by Topic

The Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Proportions, and Multiple Proportions 2.27

Given: 1.50 g hydrogen; 11.9 g oxygen Find: grams water vapour Conceptual Plan: total mass reactants = total mass products Solution: Mass of reactants = 1.50 g hydrogen + 11.9 g oxygen = 13.4 grams Mass of products = mass of reactants = 13.4 grams water vapour. Check: According to the law of conservation of mass, matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction, so, since water vapour is the only product, the masses of hydrogen and oxygen must combine to form the mass of water vapour.

2.28

Given: 21 kg gasoline; 84 kg oxygen Find: mass of carbon dioxide and water Conceptual Plan: total mass reactants = total mass products Solution: Mass of reactants = 21 kg gasoline + 84 kg oxygen = 105 kg mass Mass of products = mass of reactants = 105 kg of mass of carbon dioxide and water. Check: According to the law of conservation of mass, matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction, so, since carbon dioxide and water are the only products, the masses of gasoline and oxygen must combine to form the mass of carbon dioxide and water.

2.29

Given: sample 1: 38.9 g carbon, 448 g chlorine; sample 2: 14.8 g carbon, 134 g chlorine Find: are results consistent with definite proportions? Conceptual Plan: determine mass ratio of sample 1 and 2 and compare mass of chlorine mass of carbon

134 g chlorine = 11.5 Sample 2: = 9.05 38.9 g carbon 14.8 g carbon Results are not consistent with the law of definite proportions because the ratio of chlorine to carbon is not the same. Check: According to the law of definite proportions, the mass ratio of one element to another is the same for all samples of the compound. Solution: Sample 1:

2.30

448 g chlorine

Given: sample 1: 6.98 grams sodium, 10.7 grams chlorine; sample 2: 11.2 g sodium, 17.3 grams chlorine Find: are results consistent with definite proportions? Conceptual Plan: determine mass ratio of sample 1 and 2 and compare mass of chlorine mass of sodium

Solution: Sample 1:

10.7 g chlorine 6.98 g sodium

= 1.53

Sample 2:

17.3 g chlorine 11.2 g sodium

= 1.54

Results are consistent with the law of definite proportions. Check: According to the law of definite proportions, the mass ratio of one element to another is the same for all samples of the compound. 2.31

Given: mass ratio sodium to fluorine = 1.21:1; sample = 28.8 g sodium Find: g fluorine Conceptual Plan: g sodium : g fluorine mass of fluorine mass of sodium

Solution: 28.8 g sodium x

1 g fluorine

= 23.8 g fluorine 1.21 g sodium Check: The units of the answer (g fluorine) are correct. The magnitude of the answer is reasonable since it is less than the grams of sodium.