ALCOHOL FACT SHEET
Whiskey Distillation BRAND/GENERIC NAMES BEER, WINE, BRANDY, TEQUILA, VODKA, WHISKEY. STREET NAMES BOOZE, BREW, COLD ONE, JUICE, SAUCE, WAHOO JUICE The term alcohol has been synonymous with spirituous liquids for the past 300 years. While the history of alcohol consumption, along with codes (laws) limiting its consumption, go back to 1700 BC. THERE ARE BASICALLY FOUR TYPES OF ALCOHOL: METHYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, PROPYL ALCOHOL AND BUTYL ALCOHOL. *** ETHYL ALCOHOL IS THE TYPE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. *** THE OTHER THREE TYPES OF ALCOHOL: METHYL, PROPYL AND BUTYL ALCOHOL, IF CONSUMED CAN RESULT IN BLINDNESS AND
DEATH - EVEN IN RELATIVELY SMALL DOSES. Alcohol and its consumption can cause a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses significantly impair judgment and coordination. In small amounts, it can induce feelings of relaxation and tranquility, suppress anxiety, and in some inspire
feelings of confidence. However as the user increaseâ€&#x;s the dose normally beyond 6 ounces. The pleasant euphoric feelings begin to give way to feelings of depression. Intoxication occurs because the liver is unable to metabolize more than one ounce of alcohol every hour. Therefore, when a person consumes more alcohol than the body can metabolize, intoxication occurs. Intoxication can generally last anywhere from 1 to 12 hours. Repeated use of alcohol can lead to an increased tolerance to the drug that in turn leads to greater and greater amounts required to achieve its desired effects. Once the body develops dependence to alcohol, a sudden cessation (stopping) of its intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal can be life threatening and include severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Alcohol can be lethal if the amount of alcohol reaches a concentration above 460 milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. When the amount of alcohol in the blood is too high, death from respiratory depression can occur. Additionally, the long-term consumption of large quantities of alcohol can lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and liver. Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome that can include irreversible physical and mental changes to the baby.
CANNABIS FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC HASH OIL, HASHISH, MARIJUANA, DRANABINOL, MARINOL, THAI STICK
STREET NAMES Aunt Mary, Acapulco gold, Bhang, Canadian black, Columbia red, Ganja, Grass, Hay, Hemp, Smoke, Loco weed, Maggie, Mary Jane, Mexican brown, Pot, Reefer, Roach, Tea, Thai stick, Viper weed, Weed
Blow, Dope, Draw, Gear, Hash, Marijuana, Skunk, Bud, Dope, Indo, Hydro DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. A dry, shredded green/brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the plant Cannabis sativa, it usually is smoked as a cigarette (joint, nail), or in a pipe (bong). It also is smoked in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug. It might also be mixed in food or brewed as a tea. As a more concentrated, resinous form it is called hashish and, as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana smoke has a pungent and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor.(1) The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol). The membranes of certain nerve cells in the brain contain protein receptors that bind to THC. Once securely in place, THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the high that users experience when they smoke marijuana.(2)
POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF CANNABIS: SHORT-TERM EFFECTS When marijuana is smoked, its effects begin immediately after the drug enters the brain and last from 1 to 3 hours. If marijuana is consumed in food or drink, the short-term effects begin more slowly, usually in 1/2 to 1 hour, and last longer, for as long as 4 hours.
Smoking marijuana deposits several times more THC into the blood than does eating or drinking the drug.(4) Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana smoke, an individual‟s heart begins beating more rapidly, the bronchial passages relax and become enlarged, and blood vessels in the eyes expand, making the eyes look red. The heart rate, normally 70 to 80 beats per minute, may increase by 20 to 50 beats per minute or, in some cases, even double. This effect can be greater if other drugs are taken with marijuana.(5) As THC enters the brain, it causes a user to feel euphoric— or “high”— by acting in the brain‟s reward system, areas of the brain that respond to stimuli such as food and drink as well as most drugs of abuse. THC activates the reward system in the same way that nearly all drugs of abuse do, by stimulating brain cells to release the chemical dopamine.(6) A marijuana user may experience pleasant sensations, colors and sounds may seem more intense, and time appears to pass very slowly. The user‟s mouth feels dry, and he or she may suddenly become very hungry and thirsty. His or her hands may tremble and grow cold. The euphoria passes after awhile, and then the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuana use produces anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic.(7) LONG-TERM EFFECTS Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers do, such as daily cough and phlegm production, more frequent acute chest illnesses, a heightened risk of lung infections, and a greater tendency toward obstructed airways. Cancer of the respiratory tract and lungs may also be promoted by marijuana smoke. Marijuana has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract because marijuana smoke contains 50 percent to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than doe‟s tobacco smoke.(8) Marijuana's damage to short-term memory seems to occur because THC alters the way in which information is processed by the
hippocampus, a brain area responsible for memory formation. In one study, researchers compared marijuana smoking and nonsmoking 12th-graders' scores on standardized tests of verbal and mathematical skills. Although all of the students had scored equally well in 4th grade, those who were heavy marijuana smokers, i.e., those who used marijuana seven or more times per week, scored significantly lower in 12th grade than nonsmokers. Another study of 129 college students found that among heavy users of marijuana critical skills related to attention, memory, and learning were significantly impaired, even after they had not used the drug for at least 24 hours.(9)
Cannabis appears to interfere with a personâ€&#x;s ability or willingness to pay attention. People under the influence of marijuana do not divide their attention very well. When driving, they may attend certain parts of the driving task but ignore other parts. For example, the driver may continue to steer but ignore stop signs, traffic lights or pedestrians. So much for those who spout that no one has ever died from using marijuana. Cannabis will generally diminish inhibitions, impair perception of time and distance, create disorientation, and can cause body tremors. Users of marijuana generally feel the effects within 8 to 9 seconds after inhaling.
The effects will reach their peak within 10 to 30 minutes, and usually last 3 to 6 hours. The user will typically feel â€œnormalâ€œwithin 3 to 6 hours after smoking marijuana. How long does it last? Evidence of marijuana can be disclosed in some blood and urine tests long after the effects have dissipated. This is because certain chemical tests do not seek to find THC, delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol the active ingredient in cannabis that causes intoxication, but instead looks for metabolites of THC, or chemical by products. Some tests indicate the presence of THC metabolites for up to 45 days after smoking marijuana!! Two important metabolites of THC affect the duration and perception of the effects of cannabis. One of these
metabolites is hydroxy THC: this causes the user to feel euphoric, so that he or she is aware of the effects. Hydroxy THC is usually eliminated from the blood plasma within about 6 hours. The other important metabolite is carboxy THC. This also causes impairment, but no feeling of euphoria, so the user might not be aware that he or she is still impaired. Carboxy THC may still be found in the blood plasma for several days following marijuana use. Therefore the user may actually be impaired for a good deal of time after the perception of impairment has ended. Effects: Excessive use of cannabis can create paranoia and possible psychosis. These same effects may develop from long term use of the drug, which has also been observed to produce sharp personality changes, especially in adolescent users. Other long term effects include: lung damage, chronic bronchitis, lowering of testosterone, acute anxiety attacks, chronic reduction of attention span, and possible birth defects, still births and infant deaths.
Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD. Email: DARE@cnetech.com
Indoor Marijuana Grow
Indoor Marijuana Grow
Indoor Marijuana Grow
Indoor Marijuana Grow Equipment
Indoor Marijuana Grow
SOURCES 1-2. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Marijuana, April 2006 3. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), Marijuana Street Terms 4-7. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report Series—Marijuana Abuse, July 2005 8-9. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report Series—Marijuana Abuse, October 2001.
DEPRESSANTS FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES SECOBARBITAL, PHETOBARBITAL, AMOBARBITAL, AMOSECOBARBITAL, PHENOBARITAL, CHLORAL HYDRATE, GLUTETHIMIDE, METHYPRYLON, METHAQUALONE, DIPHENHYDRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE, CHLODIAZEPOXIDE, DIAZEPAM, DIPHENHYLHYDANTOIN SODIUM, FLURAZEPAM, ALPRAZOLAM, PHENELZINE SULFATE, AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DESIPRAMINE, DOXEPIN HYDROCHLORIDE, LITHIUM CARBONATE, LITHIUM CITRATE, DROPERIDOL, CHLORPROMAZINE, ALCOHOL STREET NAMES REDS, RED DEVILS, RD‟S, FENDER BENDERS, YELLOWS, YELLOW JACKETS, BLUES, BLUE HEAVENS, RAINBOWS, CHRISTMAS TREES, PINK LADIES, MICKEY FINN, KNOCKOUT DROPS, LUDES, BARBS, DOWNERS, BUSTERS, BUTISOL, COURAGE PILL, FLORINAL, G.B.‟S, GOOF BALLS, GREEN DRAGONS, KING KONG PILLS, LOTUSATE, PEANUTS
Possible effects of central nervous system depressants Depressants slow down the operation of the brain. They first affect those areas of the brain that control a person‟s conscious, voluntary actions. As dosage increases, depressants begin to affect the parts of the brain controlling the body‟s automatic, unconscious processes such as heartbeat and respiration. Alcohol is the most familiar and most widely abused depressant. With some exceptions, all depressants affect people in much the same way as doe‟s alcohol. Most depressant users ingest these drugs orally. However, a few abusers will inject their drugs intravenously. The injection paraphernalia used by barbiturate abusers are similar to those used by heroin addicts, although a wider gauge hypodermic needle is used, because the barbiturate solution is thicker than the Heroin solution. The injection sites on the skin of a barbiturate abuser exhibit large swellings, and may develop ulceration‟s resembling cigarette burns.
AFFECTS The affects of depressants are once again compared to those of alcohol. Reduced social inhibitions, impaired ability to divide attention, slow reflexes, impaired judgment and concentration, impaired vision and coordination slurred, mumbled or incoherent speech. A wide variety of emotional effects, such as euphoria, depression, suicidal tendencies, laughing or crying for no apparent reason. Depressants vary in the amount of time it takes for the user to feel the effects and also the amount of time the effects are felt. Some depressants act very quickly and begin to affect their users within seconds. Others act more slowly, sometimes taking a half hour or more to begin to exert an influence. The quick acting ones also tend to be short in duration, in some cases they wear off in a matter of minutes. The slow acting ones on the other hand tend to produce longer lasting effects.
OVERDOSES An overdose of depressants produces effects that are the same as alcohol overdoses. The person becomes extremely drowsy and passes out. Their heartbeat slows and respiration will become shallow. Their skin may feel cold and clammy and death may result from respiratory failure.
Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD. Email: DARE@cnetech.com
Street Names: GHB, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, Xyremâ„˘
GHB Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB): There are three kinds of GHB abusers: those who take the drug to get high, those who use it in bodybuilding, and those who commit sexual assault after drugging
their victims. GHB is also frequently used in combination with Ecstasy to counter over-stimulation. It is frequently taken with alcohol and is often found at bars, parties, nightclubs, raves and gyms.
Credit: Walz Tetrick Advertising GHB is often called the "date-rape" drug. Because of its effect on memory, GHB causes users to forget many details surrounding a sexual assault. GHB is quickly eliminated from a user's system, and it is sometimes hard to confirm its presence during rape investigations. Samantha Reid was just 15 years old when she went to the movies with some high school friends. GHB or GBL was slipped into her soft drink that night. She was taken to the hospital with no vital signs and died after 18 hours on life support. Two boys from her high school are now serving 5 1/2 to 15 years in prison for the manslaughter death of Samantha.
HALLUCINOGEN FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE, PEYOTE, PSILOCYBIN, MDMA, BUFOTENINE
STREET NAMES ACID, ADAMS, BUTTONS THE BEAST, BLOTTER, BLUE CHAIRS, BLUE CHEERS, BLUE MIST, BROWN DOT, CALIFORNIA TRIPLE DIP, CUBE, DOT, FLAT BLUES, GELATIN, GREEN WEDGE, HAWK, LSD, LUCY IN THE SKY WITH DIAMONDS, M AND M‟S, MESCAL, MICRO DOT, MIGHTY QUINN, MIND DETERGENT, OWSLEY ACID, OWSLEY BLUE DOT, PEARLY GATES, PINK WEDGE, PINK OWSLEY, PURPLE OWSLEY, SANDOZ‟S, STRAWBERRIES, SUGAR CUBE, SUNSHINE, UNCLE, VACATION, WEDDING BELLS, WINDOW PANES. POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF HALLUCINOGENS Hallucinogens are drugs that cause hallucinations. A hallucination is a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind. It may involve hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting or feeling something that really is not there. Or it may involve distorted
sensory perceptions, so that things look, sound, smell, taste, or feel differently from the way they are. Hallucinogenic drugs usually produce so called pseudohallucinations. This means that the user typically knows that what he or she is seeing, hearing, smelling, etc. Is not real, but is a product of the drug. One common type of hallucination produced by these drugs is called synesthesia, a transposing of sensory modes or sensory crossover. For example, seeing a particular sight may cause the user to perceive a sound. Hearing a sound may cause him or her to perceive an odor. Sometimes the Hallucinations can be very frightening to the user. The user may be panic stricken by what he or she is seeing or hearing, and may become uncontrollably excited, or even try to flee from terror. Hallucinogens users call these kinds of experiences “BAD TRIPS“. Users have been known to be driven into permanent insanity by these experiences. A “BAD TRIP” sometimes may be reexperienced as a “FLASH BACK”. Hallucinogen flash backs apparently do not occur because of a residual quantity of drug in a user‟s body. Rather flashbacks apparently are vivid recollections of a portion of a previous hallucinogenic experience. Essentially, flashbacks are very intense and very frightening day dreams. There are three types of flash backs; emotional, somatic, and perceptual. EMOTIONAL FLASHBACK This flashback is the most dangerous. It brings back strong feelings of panic, fear and loneliness, and creates an intense and very real recollection of the original “bad trip”. SOMATIC FLASHBACK This flashback consists of altered body sensations, i.e. tremors, weakness, nausea, dizziness, etc. That was part of the original “trip”.
PERCEPTUAL FLASHBACK In this flashback the user re-experiences some of the sensory distortions of the original “trip." In general, Hallucination‟s intensify whatever mood the user is in when the drug is taken. If the user is depressed, the drug will deepen the depression. If the user is feeling pleasant the drug will usually heighten that feeling. If the user expects that the drug will help him or she achieves new insights or an expanded consciousness, the drug will seem to have that effect. However, the use of hallucinogens often uncovers mental or emotional flaws of which the user was unaware. Such flaws can result in the panic and terror of a “BAD TRIP”; even though the user was expecting a pleasurable experience. The most common effect of a Hallucinogen is HALLUCINATIONS. The user‟s reality is severely distorted, often to the point of synesthesia. This makes it virtually impossible for the person to function in the real world. It is unlikely that Hallucinogen‟s are directly life threatening. However, overdoses have often indirectly resulted in death. One LSD user was killed when he attempted to stop a train bare handed. The extreme panic and agitation of a “BAD TRIP” have been known to lead to suicide, or to accidental deaths as users have tried to flee from their hallucinations. The most common danger of a hallucinogen overdose is an intense “BAD TRIP” which can result in severe and sometimes permanent psychosis. There is some evidence that prolonged use of LSD may produce organic brain damage, leading to impaired memory, reduced attention span, mental confusion, and impaired ability to deal with abstract thoughts. Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD. Email: DARE@cnetech.com
STREET TERMS Acid, blotter acid, window pane, dots, mellow yellow, trips, tabs
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Chemist Albert Hofmann, working at the Sandoz Corporation pharmaceutical laboratory in Switzerland, first synthesized LSD in 1938. He was conducting research on possible medical applications of various lysergic acid compounds derived from ergot, a fungus that develops on rye grass. Searching for compounds with therapeutic value, Hofmann created more than two dozen ergot-derived synthetic molecules.(1) LSD is sold on the street in tablets, capsules, and occasionally in liquid form. It is an odorless and colorless substance with a slightly bitter taste that is usually ingested orally. It is often added to absorbent paper, such as blotter paper, and divided into small decorated squares, with each square representing one dose.(2)
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS The short-term effects of LSD are unpredictable. They depend on the amount of the drug taken; the user's personality, mood, and expectations; and the surroundings in which the drug is used. Usually, the user feels the first effects of the drug within 30 to 90 minutes of ingestion. These experiences last for extended periods of time and typically begin to clear after about 12 hours. The physical effects include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors. Sensations may seem to "cross over" for the user, giving the feeling of hearing colors and seeing sounds. If taken in a large enough dose, the drug produces delusions and visual hallucinations.(5) back to top LONG-TERM EFFECTS LSD users often have flashbacks, during which certain aspects of their LSD experience recur even though they have stopped taking the drug. In addition, LSD users may develop long-lasting psychoses, such as schizophrenia or severe depression. LSD is not considered an addictive drug - that is, it does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine do. However, LSD users may develop tolerance to the drug, meaning that they must consume progressively larger doses of the drug in order to continue to experience the hallucinogenic effects that they seek.(6) LSD ... howâ€&#x;s it taken? LSD is taken orally by placing the paper square directly into the mouth or into a drink. LSD ... what are the downs? Strengths vary and it is impossible to know how strong a dose is being taken. A trip begins after about 45 minutes and can last between eight and 12 hours. Once it has started it is impossible to stop. LSD is unpredictable and what it does largely depends on the userâ€&#x;s state of
mind. It can be very frightening and panic and paranoia can follow. Some users experience flashbacks. The long term effects of LSD arenâ€&#x;t known and although physical addiction is unlikely, users might become psychologically dependent on the drug. LSD ... what are the ups? LSD is a hallucinogenic drug which distorts the senses. Sight and sound may be intensified, colours may be sharpened and some users experience visions. PHOTOS
1. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, March 2001 2. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: LSD, February 2005 3. National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), LSD Fast Facts, May 2003 4. DEA Office of Diversion Control, d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 5. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, March 2001 6. NDIC, LSD Fast Facts, May 2003
Magic Mushrooms Magic mushrooms were originally harvested for their medicinal properties and references to them date back to ancient tribes and civilizations. Magic Mushrooms ... also known as: Shrooms, Mushies etc Magic Mushrooms ... what do they look like? Because of the numerous varieties of mushrooms with hallucinogenic properties, it is often extremely difficult to distinguish them from their poisonous and sometimes deadly cousins and identification can be very complex.
Magic Mushrooms ... how are they taken? Can be eaten raw, cooked or brewed into a tea, some may be preserved by drying and then taken at a later date. Magic Mushrooms ... what are the downs? As with LSD tolerance rapidly develops to magic mushrooms and users may find that increasingly higher doses are needed to achieve a similar effect, nausea, stomach pains and vomiting are common. Bad trips can also occur which may develop into brief psychotic episodes. There have also been reports of flashbacks. By far the greatest danger is the fact that poisonous mushrooms can be mistakenly taken. Magic Mushrooms ... what are the ups? The effects are similar to a mild LSD experience but may also include
the feeling of euphoria and an increased heart rate, blood pressure and pupil size may result. The sensations also take effect in a much shorter time - usually after 30 minutes - but also last for a shorter time - between four and nine hours. If high doses are taken the user may experience visual distortion and vivid hallucinations.
STREET TERMS MDMA, Ecstasy, XTC, E, X, Beans, Adams, Hug Drug, Disco Biscuit, Go, E, Disco Biscuits, Doves.
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences.(1) Adolescents and young adults use it to promote euphoria, feelings of closeness, empathy, sexuality and to reduce inhibitions. It is considered a "party drug" and obtained at "rave" or "techno" parties. However, its abuse has expanded, to include other settings outside of the rave scenes, such as a college campus.(2) Although MDMA is known universally among users as ecstasy, researchers have determined that many ecstasy tablets contain not only MDMA but also a number of other drugs or drug combinations that can be harmful as well. Adulterants found in MDMA tablets purchased on the street include methamphetamine, caffeine, the over-the-counter
cough suppressant dextromethorphan, the diet drug ephedrine, and cocaine. Also, as with many other drugs of abuse, MDMA is rarely used alone. It is not uncommon for users to mix MDMA with other substances, such as alcohol and marijuana.(3) Ecstasy ... what does it look like? Produced in tablet or capsule form. Illicitly produced, they come in a variety of colours, shapes and sizes. Most have a small motif embossed on one side. It often contains other substances. Very rarely it is found in powder form.
Ecstasy ... how is it taken? Ecstasy is usually taken orally. Ecstasy ... what are the effects? It can make people feel energetic for a number of hours. The initial rush is often followed by feelings of calmness and closeness to others. High doses may lead to panic and anxiety. Regular use can lead to psychological dependence, sleep problems, lethargy and depression. There is a danger of overheating and dehydration. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS In high doses, MDMA can interfere with the bodyâ€&#x;s ability to regulate temperature. On rare but unpredictable occasions, this can lead to a sharp increase in body temperature (hyperthermia), resulting in liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system failure, and death.(5)
Because MDMA can interfere with its own metabolism (breakdown within the body), potentially harmful levels can be reached by repeated drug use within short intervals.(6) Users of MDMA face many of the same risks as users of other stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines. These include increases in heart rate and blood pressure, a special risk for people with circulatory problems or heart disease, and other symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating.(7) Almost 60 percent of people who use MDMA report withdrawal symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, depressed feelings, and trouble concentrating.(8) LONG-TERM EFFECTS Research in animals links MDMA exposure to long-term damage to neurons that are involved in mood, thinking, and judgment. A study in nonhuman primates showed that exposure to MDMA for only 4 days caused damage to serotonin nerve terminals that was evident 6 to 7 years later. While similar neurotoxicity has not been definitively shown in humans, the wealth of animal research indicating MDMAâ€&#x;s damaging properties suggests that MDMA is not a safe drug for human consumption.(9) Ecstasy (MDMA)
SOURCES 1. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: MDMA, May 2006 2. Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/mdma/mdma.htm 3. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse, March 2006 4. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005
5-7. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: MDMA, May 2006 8. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse, March 2006 9. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: MDMA, May 2006
OPIATES FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES RAW OPIUM, OPIUM, CODEINE, MORPHINE, HEROIN, HYDROMORPHONE (DILAUDID), OXYCODONE (PERCODAN), OXYMORPHONE (NUMORPHAN), HYDROCODONE (VICODIN), MEPERIDINE (DEMEROL), FENTANYL, METHADONE (DOLPHINE), DARVON, TALWIN. STREET NAMES SMACK, HORSE, JUNK, HARD STUFF, SHIT, MEXICAN BROWN, CHINA WHITE, CHIVA, GOMA, GUMBALL, SCHOOL BOY, DOWNTOWN, DOLLS, DOLLIES, MISS EMMA, MORF, POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF OPIATES General effects of narcotic analgesics include: sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish “rubber like” movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and possible vomiting. However, as a user continues to abuse narcotic analgesics he or she will build a tolerance to the drug, therefore causing the effects to diminish. Heroin, a very strong narcotic depressant, completely destroys the abusers ability to reason. In its synthetic form known as a “designer drug” it has been proven to be even more deadly and addictive. If the abuser wishes to maintain the same effect, he or she will have to take steadily larger does as the tolerance develops.
Heroin users generally experience certain psychological effects immediately after injection. These include a feeling of euphoria: relief from withdrawal symptoms and, relief from pain. Physical effects, if they are not evident at all, typically will become evident after 15 - 30 minutes. Physical effects may not be evident if the user is tolerant and has taken a normal dose. With new users, the physical effects include nodding off, poor motor coordination, depressed reflexes, and slow breathing. If a user is addicted to opiates he or she will suffer withdrawal symptoms if they don‟t receive another dose, or before the drug is completely out of their system. Withdrawal: Effects can be chills, aches of the muscles and joints, nausea, and insomnia. These symptoms normally start 4 to 6 hours after the last dosage of the drug. The withdrawal signs and symptoms intensify from 14 to 24 hours following the injection, and may be accompanied by gooseflesh, slight tremors, loss of appetite and dilation of the pupils. Approximately 24 to 36 hours since the last “fix” the addict experiences insomnia, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, depression and hot and cold flashes. Withdrawal signs and symptoms generally reach their peak after 2 to 3 days. At this point, the addict usually experiences muscular and abdominal cramps, elevated temperature and severe tremors and twitching. This twitching especially of the legs is referred to in the expression “kick‟in the habit”. The addict is very nauseated at this time, may gag and vomit repeatedly, and may lose 10 to 15 pounds within 24 hours. Overdose: The signs of an overdose of narcotic analgesics are depressed respiration, slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, possible coma and death. Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug
Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD.
Street Names: Brown, Gear, H, Heaven, Horse, Junk, Skag, Smack, thunder, hell dust, big H, nose drops DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive drug. It is both the most abused and the most rapidly acting of the opiates. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. It is typically sold as a white or brownish powder or as the black sticky substance known on the streets as “black tar heroin.” Although purer heroin is becoming more common, most street heroin is “cut” with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk, or quinine. Street heroin can also be cut with strychnine, fentanyl or other poisons. Because heroin abusers do not know the actual strength of the drug or its true contents, they are at risk of overdose or death. Heroin also poses special problems because of the transmission of HIV and other diseases that can occur from sharing needles or other injection equipment.(1) First synthesized from morphine in 1874, heroin was not extensively used in medicine until the early 1900s. Commercial production of the new pain remedy was first started in 1898. It initially received widespread acceptance from the medical profession, and physicians remained unaware of its addiction potential for years. Heroin can be injected, smoked, or sniffed/snorted. Injection is the most efficient way to administer low-purity heroin. The availability of high-purity heroin, however and the fear of infection by sharing needles has made snorting and smoking the drug more common.
Heroin ... what does it look like? Heroin is made from the dried milk of the opium poppy. Illicit heroin can vary from off-white to mid-brown in colour. Generally it contains other substances such as glucose, paracetamol or brick dust.
Heroin ... how is it taken? It can be injected or smoked on its own - known as â€žchasing the dragonâ€&#x; or less commonly smoked with tobacco.
. Heroin ... what are the downs? When you come down you can feel tired and sweaty and your breathing becomes heavy and uneven. The effects can last for several hours and can block out physical and emotional pain. If you get a particularly pure or impure dose of Heroin, it can kill you. Using it with other drugs, such as alcohol, can also be fatal.
Heroin ... what are the ups? You feel a wave of pleasure sweep over you and intense relaxation. Any worries or pain you might be feeling fade away. Heroin ... what's the damage? You can easily become mentally and physically dependent on Heroin. Once dependant larger doses of Heroin are required to achieve a high. Users may then reach a point when they have to take the drug just to feel normal and avoid withdrawal symptoms. It is very easy to take an overdose. Those who smoke heroin to begin with usually turn to injecting it to make it go further. Beating a dependency is often a very long and painful process. Doctors most commonly prescribe methadone as an alternative to heroin with the dosage strictly controlled. Users who inject often run the risk of catching diseases, such as HIV and hepatitis, particularly if needles are shared.
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Intravenous users typically experience the rush within 7 to 8 seconds after injection, while intramuscular injection produces a slower onset of this euphoric feeling, taking 5 to 8 minutes. When heroin is sniffed or smoked, the peak effects of the drug are usually felt within 10 to 15 minutes. In addition to the initial feeling of euphoria, the short-term effects of heroin include a warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth, and heavy extremities.(6) Heroin laced with fentanyl and other poisons have been known to cause death within hours. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulites, and liver disease. Pulmonary complications, including various types of pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as well as from heroin's depressing effects on respiration. In addition to the effects of the drug itself, street heroin may have additives that do not really dissolve and
result in clogging the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. This can cause infection or even death of small patches of cells in vital organs.(7) One of the most significant effects of heroin use is addiction. With regular heroin use, tolerance to the drug develops. Once this happens, the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same intensity or effect that they are seeking. As higher doses of the drug are used over time, physical dependence and addiction to the drug develop.(8) Withdrawal, which in regular abusers may occur as early as a few hours after the last administration, produces drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea and vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps (“cold turkey”), kicking movements (“kicking the habit”), and other symptoms. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and subside after about a week. Sudden withdrawal by heavily dependent users who are in poor health is occasionally fatal, although heroin withdrawal is considered less dangerous than alcohol or barbiturate withdrawal. (9) TRAFFICKING TRENDS Four foreign source areas produce the heroin available in the United States: South America (Colombia), Mexico, Southeast Asia (principally Burma), and Southwest Asia (principally Afghanistan). However, South America and Mexico supply most of the illicit heroin marketed in the United States. South American heroin is a high-purity powder primarily distributed to metropolitan areas on the East Coast. Heroin powder may vary in color from white to dark brown because of impurities left from the manufacturing process or the presence of additives. Mexican heroin, known as "black tar," is primarily available in the western United States. The color and consistency of black tar heroin result from the crude processing methods used to illicitly manufacture heroin in Mexico. Black tar heroin may be sticky like roofing tar or hard like coal, and its color may vary from dark brown to black.(10) Pure heroin is rarely sold on the street. A "bag" (slang for a small unit of heroin sold on the street) currently contains about 30 to 50
milligrams of powder, only a portion of which is heroin. The remainder could be sugar, starch, acetaminophen, procaine, benzocaine, or quinine, or any of numerous cutting agents for heroin. Traditionally, the purity of heroin in a bag ranged from 1 to 10 percent. More recently, heroin purity has ranged from about 10 to 70 percent. Black tar heroin is often sold in chunks weighing about an ounce. Its purity is generally less than South American heroin and it is most frequently smoked, or dissolved, diluted, and injected.(11)
SOURCES 1. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Heroin Abuse and Addiction Research Report, May 2005 2. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005 3. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Heroin Abuse and Addiction Research Report, May 2005 4. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005 5. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), Heroin Street Terms 6. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Heroin Abuse and Addiction Research Report, May 2005 7. Partnership for a Drug-Free America, Heroin Addiction, Effects Of Heroin, Heroin Facts
8-9. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Heroin, May 2006 10-11. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005,
STREET NAMES Kicker, OC, Oxy, OX, Blue, Oxycotton, Hillybilly Heroin
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW OxyContin® is a prescription painkiller used for moderate to high pain relief associated with injuries, bursitis, dislocations, fractures, neuralgia, arthritis, lower back pain, and pain associated with cancer.(1) OxyContin® contains oxycodone, the medication's active ingredient, in a timed-release tablet. Oxycodone products have been illicitly abused for the past 30 years.(2) Oxycodone is a Schedule II narcotic analgesic and is widely used in clinical medicine. It is marketed either alone as controlled release (OxyContin®) and immediate release formulations (OxyIR®, OxyFast®), or in combination with other non-narcotic analgesics such as aspirin (Percodan®) or acetaminophen (Percocet®). The introduction in 1996 of OxyContin®, commonly known on the street as OC, OX, Oxy, Oxycotton, Hillbilly heroin, and kicker, led to a marked escalation of its abuse as reported by drug abuse treatment centers, law enforcement personnel, and health care professionals. Although the diversion and abuse of OxyContin® appeared initially in the eastern US, it has now spread to the western US including Alaska and Hawaii. Oxycodone-related adverse health effects increased markedly in recent years.
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Pharmacological effects include analgesia, sedation, euphoria, feelings of relaxation, respiratory depression, constipation, papillary constriction, and cough suppression. A 10 mg dose of orallyadministered oxycodone is equivalent to a 10 mg dose of subcutaneously administered morphine as an analgesic in a normal population. Oxycodone‟s behavioral effects can last up to 5 hours. The drug is most often administered orally. The controlled-release product, OxyContin®, has a longer duration of action (8-12 hours).(5) The most serious risk associated with opioids, including OxyContin®, is respiratory depression. Common opioid side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, dizziness, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, sweating, and weakness. Taking a large single dose of an opioid could cause severe respiratory depression that can lead to death.(6) LONG-TERM EFFECTS As with most opiates, oxycodone abuse may lead to dependence and tolerance. Acute overdose of oxycodone can produce severe respiratory depression, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.(7) Chronic use of opioids can result in tolerance for the drugs, which means that users must take higher doses to achieve the same initial effects. Long-term use also can lead to physical dependence and addiction -- the body adapts to the presence of the drug, and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced or stopped. Properly managed medical use of pain relievers is safe and rarely causes clinical addiction, defined as compulsive, often uncontrollable use of drugs. Taken exactly as prescribed, opioids can be used to manage pain effectively.(8)
TRAFFICKING TRENDS Pharmaceuticals such as OxyContin速 can be diverted in many ways. The most popular form is known as "doctor shopping," where individuals, who may or may not have legitimate illnesses requiring a doctor's prescription for controlled substances, visit many doctors to acquire large amounts of controlled substances. Other diversion methods include pharmacy diversion and improper prescribing practices by physicians.(9) PHOTOS OxyContin
1.National Drug Intelligence Center, Information Bulletin: OxyContin速 Diversion and Abuse, January 2001 2. Drug Enforcement Administration, Congressional Testimony, Statement by Terrance W. Woodworth, Deputy Director, Officer of Diversion Control, Before the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, August 28, 2001. 3. DEA Office of Diversion Control, Oxycodone
4-5. Ibid. 6. Partnership for a Drug-Free America 7. DEA Office of Diversion Control, Oxycodone 8. Partnership for a Drug-Free America 9. National Drug Intelligence Center, Information Bulletin: OxyContin速 Diversion and Abuse, January 2001
STREET NAMES Vikes, Hydro, Norco
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Hydrocodone is an antitussive (cough suppressant) and analgesic agent for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain. Studies indicate that Hydrocodone is as effective, or more effective, than codeine for cough suppression and nearly equipotent to morphine for pain relief. Hydrocodone is the most frequently prescribed opiate in the United States with nearly 130 million prescriptions for Hydrocodone-containing products dispensed in 2006. There are several hundred brand name and generic Hydrocodone products marketed. All are combination products and the most frequently prescribed combination is Hydrocodone and acetaminophen (Vicodin速, Lortab速, Lorcet速). Hydrocodone diversion and abuse has been escalating in recent years. In 2006, Hydrocodone was the most frequently encountered opioid pharmaceutical in drug evidence submitted to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) with 25,136 exhibits; the System to Retrieve Investigational Drug Evidence (STRIDE) analyzed 654 exhibits in 2006. In the 2005 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) combination products were
associated with more emergency room visits than any other pharmaceutical opioid with an estimated 51,225 US emergency room visits. Poison control data, medical examinersâ€&#x; reports, and treatment center data all indicate that the abuse of Hydrocodone is associated with significant public health risks, including a substantial number of deaths. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Hydrocodone in an analgesic and antitussive agent structurally similar to codeine but with effects more similar to morphine. Hydrocodone is abused for its opioid effects. Widespread diversion via bogus call-in prescriptions, altered prescriptions, theft and illicit purchases from Internet sources are made easier by the present controls placed on Hydrocodone products. Hydrocodone pills are the most frequently encountered dosage form in illicit traffic. Hydrocodone is generally abused orally, often in combination with alcohol. LONG-TERM EFFECTS As with most opiates, abuse of Hydrocodone is associated with tolerance, dependence, and addiction. The co-formulation with acetaminophen carries an additional risk of liver toxicity when high, acute doses are consumed. Data suggests that some individuals who abuse very high doses of acetaminophencontaining Hydrocodone products may be spared this liver toxicity if they have been chronically taking these products and have escalated their dose slowly over a long period of time. TRAFFICKING TRENDS Hydrocodone has been encountered in tablets, capsules and liquid form in the illicit market. However, tablets containing acetaminophen are the most frequently encountered products. Hydrocodone is not clandestinely produced and diverted pharmaceuticals are the primary source of the drug for abuse purposes. In 2006 alone, the DEA has documented the diversion
of millions of dosage units of Hydrocodone from illicit Internet sources. Doctor shopping, altered or fraudulent prescriptions, bogus call-in prescriptions, diversion by unscrupulous physicians and pharmacists, and drug theft are also major sources of the diverted drug. Hydrocodone
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES VOLATILE SOLVENTS, AEROSOLS, ANESTHETIC GASES (6)
Aroma of men
Poor man's pot
Bullet bolt Satan's secret Buzz bomb Shoot the breeze Discorama Snappers Hardware
Hiagra in a Texas shoe bottle shine Highball
Medusa DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Inhalants are a diverse group of substances that include volatile solvents, gases, and nitrites that are sniffed, snorted, huffed, or bagged to produce intoxicating effects similar to alcohol. These substances are found in common household products like glues, lighter fluid, cleaning fluids, and paint products. Inhalant abuse is the deliberate inhaling or sniffing of these substances to get high, and it is estimated that about 1,000 substances are misused in this manner. The easy accessibility, low cost, legal status, and ease of transport and concealment make inhalants one of the first substances abused by children.(1) There are four general categories of inhalants: ď‚ˇ
Volatile solvents are liquids that vaporize at room temperatures. They are found in a multitude of inexpensive, easily available
products used for common household and industrial purposes. These include paint thinners and removers, dry-cleaning fluids, degreasers, gasoline, glues, correction fluids, and felt-tip marker fluids.(2) Aerosols are sprays that contain propellants and solvents. They include spray paints, deodorant and hair sprays, vegetable oil sprays for cooking, and fabric protector sprays.(3) Gases include medical anesthetics as well as gases used in household or commercial products. Medical anesthetic gases include ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxide, commonly called “laughing gas.” Nitrous oxide is the most abused of these gases and can be found in whipped cream dispensers and products that boost octane levels in racing cars. Household or commercial products containing gases include butane lighters, propane tanks, whipped cream dispensers, and refrigerants.(4) Nitrites often are considered a special class of inhalants. Unlike most other inhalants, which act directly on the central nervous system (CNS), nitrites act primarily to dilate blood vessels and relax the muscles. While other inhalants are used to alter mood, nitrites are used primarily as sexual enhancers. Nitrites include cyclohexyl nitrite, isoamyl (amyl) nitrite, and isobutyl (butyl) nitrite, and are commonly known as “poppers” or “snappers.” Amyl nitrite is used in certain diagnostic procedures and was prescribed in the past to treat some patients for heart pain. Nitrites are now prohibited by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, but can still be found, sold in small bottles, often labeled as “video head cleaner,” “room odorizer,” “ leather cleaner,” or “liquid aroma.”(5)
EFFECTS The effects of inhalants vary from one substance to another. Depending on which substance is used, is to which of the below listed effects the user might experience: bizarre thoughts, floating sensation, light headedness, possible hallucinations, dizziness and numbness, euphoria and grandiosity,
drowsiness and weakness, fear, guilt, loneliness, altered shapes and colors, distorted perception of space, nausea and excessive salivation, sensation of spinning, moving or floating, distorted perceptions of time and distance, inebriation similar to alcohol intoxication. In general, persons under the influence of inhalants will appear confused and disoriented. Their speech will usually be slurred. There is an important distinction between anesthetic gases and the other two subcategories of inhalants. *** The volatile solvents and aerosols usually cause elevated blood pressure. *** The anesthetic gases usually cause blood pressure to become lower than normal. Apparently this is due to the fact that the anesthetic gases restrict the pumping action of the heart, so that the heart cannot constrict as forcibly as it usually does. the result is that blood pressure drops. The pulse rate however, usually is increased by all three subcategories of inhalants. The effects of inhalants are felt virtually immediately. However, the duration of effects depends on the substance used. Commonly abused inhalants usually produce effects that last just a few seconds for some, and up to several hours for others. Some inhalants will depress the central nervous system to the point where respiration ceases. Others can cause heart failure. Some inhalant overdoses induce severe nausea and vomiting, and the unconscious user may drown in their own vomit.
Thus there is a significant risk of death due to inhalant overdose!!!
Long term abusers can suffer from permanent damage to the central nervous system, liver damage, bone and bone marrow damage, and greatly reduced mental and physical abilities.
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Most inhalants act directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to produce psychoactive, or mind-altering, effects. They have short-term effects similar to anesthetics, which slow the body's functions.(7) Inhaled chemicals are rapidly absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream and quickly distributed to the brain and other organs. Within seconds of inhalation, the user experiences intoxication along with other effects similar to those produced by alcohol. Alcohol-like effects may include slurred speech, an inability to coordinate movements, euphoria, and dizziness. In addition, users may experience lightheadedness, hallucinations, and delusions.(8) Prolonged sniffing of the highly concentrated chemicals in solvents or aerosol sprays can induce irregular and rapid heart rhythms and lead to heart failure and death within minutes of a session of prolonged sniffing. This syndrome, known as "sudden sniffing death," can result from a single session of inhalant use. Chronic exposure to inhalants can produce significant, sometimes irreversible, damage to the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys.(9) LONG-TERM EFFECTS The chronic use of inhalants has been associated with a number of serious health problems. Sniffing glue and paint thinner causeâ€&#x;s kidney abnormalities, while sniffing the solvents toluene and trichloroethylene cause liver damage. Memory impairment, attention deficits, and diminished non-verbal intelligence have been related to the abuse of inhalants. Deaths resulting from heart failure, asphyxiation, or aspiration have occurred.(10)
A strong need to continue using inhalants has been reported among many individuals, particularly those who abuse inhalants for prolonged periods over many days. Compulsive use and a mild withdrawal syndrome can occur with long-term inhalant abuse. Additional symptoms exhibited by long-term inhalant abusers include weight loss, muscle weakness, disorientation, and inattentiveness, lack of coordination, irritability, and depression.(11) Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD. Email: DARE@cnetech.com 1. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005 2-5. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Inhalant Abuse Research Report, 2005 6. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), Inhalants Street Terms 7. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Community Drug Alert Bulletin: Inhalants, January 2005 8-9. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Inhalant Abuse Research Report, 2005 10. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse, 2005 11. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Inhalant Abuse Research Report, 2005
Poppers Poppers are the term given to a group of chemicals known as Alkyl Nitrates which include Amyl, Butyl and Isobutyl Nitrates. They are sold in clubs, sex shops, bars, market stalls and some record or clothes shops as room odorizerâ€&#x;s under various brand names. Mostly people within the dance and club scene and in the gay community take poppers for their euphoric effects. When taken body
muscles relax and a warm sensation is felt across the body. Blood vessels enlarge, lowering blood pressure and increasing the heart rate, sending large amounts of oxygenated blood rushing through the heart and brain. Poppers ... what do they look like? Most often poppers appear in small brown glass bottles as clear or yellow volatile and inflammable liquids. They are described as having a sweet smell when fresh but the odour of dirty socks when stale.
Poppers ... how are they taken? Poppers are inhaled either directly from the bottle or from a cloth or anything absorbent. Poppers ... what are the downs? The user may feel light headed and dizzy. Some people experience mild nausea and a pounding headache afterwards. Accidents are more likely because co-ordination is affected. Poppers are dangerous for people with blood pressure, heart or glaucoma conditions. Swallowing the substance can prove fatal. Poppers ... what are the ups? A fast-acting drug but with a short lived affects which usually last between 30 seconds and two to three minutes. Emotions are intensified followed by a feeling of well being.
PCP (ANGEL DUST) FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES PHENCYCLIDINE, PHENCYCLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE, PHENYL CYCLOHEXYL PIPERIDINE, SERNYLAN STREET NAMES ANGEL DUST, DUST, SUPER WEED, KILLER WEED, PCP, ELEPHANT, EMBALMING FLUID, HOG, ROCKET FUEL
PCP is a single drug that forms a distinct category of its own because the effects it produces are unlike those of any category. In some respects, PCP acts like a hallucinogen; and, it is frequently classed as a hallucinogen in medical textâ€&#x;s and scientific research reports. In other respects, it acts like a stimulant, and still in other respects it is similar to a depressant. The formal chemical name for this drug is phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine, from which the initials PCP are derived. Phencyclidine is simply a contracted form of the actual chemical name. PCP was first developed as an anesthetic for humans in 1959. Its use was discontinued a few years later due to its extreme side effects
which included delirium and confusion. In the early 1960‟s PCP was brought back to medical use as a veterinary anesthetic under the trade name Sernylan. Effects Among PCP‟s least desirable side effects are delirium, visual disturbances and hallucinations and occasionally violence. Some evidence of long term memory disorders and psychological disturbances resembling schizophrenia has also been linked to PCP. Many PCP users ingest their drug by smoking. PCP can be applied in either liquid or powder form to a variety of vegetable or leafy substances, such as mint leaves, parsley, oregano, tobacco, marijuana or hashish. When it is applied to marijuana the street name is “killer weed” or “super weed”. The substances then can be smoked in a pipe or cigarette. Because PCP smoke is very hot it can irritate the mouth and tongue, many users prefer to use mint leaves and similar material to cool the smoke. For the same reason PCP users who adulterate commercial cigarettes prefer to use mentholated brands. PCP produces impairments and other observable effects on the human mind and body. That are a combination of effects produced by depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens: blank stare, disorientation, loss of memory, muscle rigidity, non-communicative sensory distortions, slow and slurred speech, agitation, excitement, auditory hallucinations, increased pain threshold, loss of a sense of personal identity, a feeling of extreme heat, profuse perspiration, passivity ( but many users may abruptly turn violent if confronted with a threatening situation. As with many other drugs, regular users of PCP may have developed a tolerance to the drug that masks some observable signs of PCP‟s effects. When smoked or injected, PCP‟s effects generally last 4-6 hours, but they can last longer. PCP can also enter the body by absorption through the skin.
One possible result of PCP overdose is bizarre, violent and self destructive behavior. PCP can also produce extreme physical as well as psychological distress. Pcp can cause a deep coma, lasting up to 12 hours; seizures and convulsions, respiratory depression and possible cardiac problems.
Note: All information on this sheet came from a web page produced by a Police officer in California that is a qualified instructor with the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE) in the United States developed by the LAPD. Email: DARE@cnetech.com
CNS STIMULANTS FACT SHEET
BRAND/GENERIC NAMES COCAINE, AMPHETAMINE, METHAMPHETAMINE, METHYLPHENIDATE, PHENMETRIZINE STREET NAMES BAMS, BLACK BEAUTIES, BLACK BIRDS, CROSS TOPS, CROSS ROADS, CROSSES, EYE OPENER, JOLLY BEANS, LID POPPERS, POPPERS, SPEED, THRUSTERS, UPPERS, UPPIES, WHITES, BERNIES, BIG, BLOKE, BILLIE HOKE, BIG C, BLOW, BURESE, C, CHARLEY, CHOLLY, COCA PUFFS, COKE, COLA, CORINE, FLAKE, GIRL, GOLD DUST, HAPPY DUST, HEAVEN DUST, HER, ICE, JAM CECIL, MOSQUITOES, NOSE CANDY, PERUVIAN MARCHING POWDER, POWDERED DIAMOND, SCHOOL BOY, SNOW, SNOW CAINE, SNOW FLAKE, STAR DUST, WHITE MOSQUITOES, WIRE, BOBITAS, BUSINESSMAN‟S TRIP, CRANK, CRYSTAL, METH, METHEDRINE, SPLASH, DEXIES, PEP PILLS, BENNIES
POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF CNS STIMULANTS Cocaine and Amphetamines produce euphoria, a feeling that there are no problems. A feeling of super strength and absolute self confidence may also be present with cocaine, but not amphetamines, there is also an anesthetic effect, i.e. a dulling of pain. Stimulant users tend to become hyperactive e.g. nervous, extremely talkative and unable to stand still. Stimulants also tend to release the user‟s inhibition, and to impair the user‟s ability to perceive time and distance. Persons under the influence of stimulants become easily confused and lose the ability to concentrate or to think clearly for any length of time. The effects of stimulants vary from 5 minutes to several hours, depending on the type used.
OVER DOSE An over dose can replace the euphoric effect with feelings of panic. The user can become very confused and suddenly aggressive. They can suffer convulsions and possibly faint or pass into a coma. The heartbeat will increase, possibly dramatically and heart arrythmia (irregular beating) may develop. This may lead to cardiac arrest. Death can also occur from sudden respiratory failure. Another danger is that subjects or friends may try to counteract a stimulant overdose with barbiturates, possibly leading to an overdose of CNS Depressants.
Street Name: Speed, Whizz, Billy. Amphetamines ... what does it look like? Produced in tablet or capsule form, but mainly a course, off-white
powder. It may contain other substances. It is usually wrapped into squares of glossy paper or self-sealed plastic bags. Amphetamines ... how is it taken? Amphetamines can be taken orally, snorted or sometimes injected. Amphetamines ... what are the effects? It can make people feel more alert and confident, some may feel very anxious and restless as the effects wear off. Taking amphetamines can also disrupt sleep and diet. Heavy use can cause mental health problems from depression to paranoia.
STREET NAMES Speed, Meth, Ice, Crystal, Chalk, Crank, Tweak, Uppers, Black Beauties, Glass, Bikers Coffee, Methlies Quick, Poor Man's Cocaine, Chicken Feed, Shabu, Crystal Meth, Stove Top, Trash, Go-Fast, Yaba, and Yellow Bam DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Today, methamphetamine is second only to alcohol and marijuana as the drug used most frequently in many Western and Midwestern states. Seizures of dangerous laboratory materials have increased dramaticallyâ€”in some states, fivefold. In response, many special task forces and local and Federal initiatives have been developed to target methamphetamine production and use. Legislation and negotiation with earlier source areas for precursor substances have also reduced the availability of the raw materials needed to make the drug.(1) Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug with potent central nervous system stimulant properties. In the 1960s, methamphetamine pharmaceutical products were widely available and extensively diverted and abused. The 1971 placement of methamphetamine into
Schedule II of the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) and the removal of methamphetamine injectable formulations from the United States market, combined with a better appreciation for its high abuse potential, led to a drastic reduction in the abuse of this drug. However, a resurgence of methamphetamine abuse occurred in the 1980s and it is currently considered a major drug of abuse. The widespread availability of methamphetamine today is largely fueled by illicit production in large and small clandestine laboratories throughout the United States and illegal production and importation from Mexico. In some areas of the country (especially on the West Coast), methamphetamine abuse has outpaced both heroin and cocaine.(2) The drug has limited medical uses for the treatment of narcolepsy, attention deficit disorders, and obesity.(3)
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS As a powerful stimulant, methamphetamine, even in small doses, can increase wakefulness and physical activity and decrease appetite. A brief, intense sensation, or rush, is reported by those who smoke or inject methamphetamine. Oral ingestion or snorting produces a longlasting high instead of a rush, which reportedly can continue for as long as half a day. Both the rush and the high are believed to result from the release of very high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine into areas of the brain that regulate feelings of pleasure.(4) Methamphetamine has toxic effects. In animals, a single high dose of the drug has been shown to damage nerve terminals in the dopaminecontaining regions of the brain. The large release of dopamine produced by methamphetamine is thought to contribute to the drugâ€&#x;s toxic effects on nerve terminals in the brain. High doses can elevate body temperature to dangerous, sometimes lethal, levels, as well as cause convulsions.(5)
LONG-TERM EFFECTS Long-term methamphetamine abuse results in many damaging effects, including addiction. Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease, characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug use which is accompanied by functional and molecular changes in the brain. In addition to being addicted to methamphetamine, chronic methamphetamine abusers exhibit symptoms that can include violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, and insomnia. They also can display a number of psychotic features, including paranoia, auditory hallucinations, mood disturbances, and delusions (for example, the sensation of insects creeping on the skin, which is called “formication”). The paranoia can result in homicidal as well as suicidal thoughts.(6) With chronic use, tolerance for methamphetamine can develop. In an effort to intensify the desired effects, users may take higher doses of the drug, take it more frequently, or change their method of drug intake. In some cases, abusers forego food and sleep while indulging in a form of binging known as a “run,” injecting as much as a gram of the drug every 2 to 3 hours over several days until the user runs out of the drug or is too disorganized to continue. Chronic abuse can lead to psychotic behavior, characterized by intense paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, and out-of-control rages that can be coupled with extremely violent behavior.(7) Although there are no physical manifestations of a withdrawal syndrome when methamphetamine use is stopped, there are several symptoms that occur when a chronic user stops taking the drug. These include depression, anxiety, fatigue, paranoia, aggression, and an intense craving for the drug.(8) In scientific studies examining the consequences of long-term methamphetamine exposure in animals, concern has arisen over its toxic effects on the brain. Researchers have reported that as much as 50 percent of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain can be damaged after prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of methamphetamine. Researchers also have found that serotonin-
containing nerve cells may be damaged even more extensively. Whether this toxicity is related to the psychosis seen in some longterm methamphetamine abusers is still an open question.(9) TRAFFICKING TRENDS Transportation of methamphetamine from Mexico appears to be increasing, as evidenced by increasing seizures along the U.S.-Mexico border. The amount of methamphetamine seized at or between U.S.Mexico border ports of entry (POEs) increased more than 75 percent overall from 2002 (1,129.8 kg), to 2003 (1,733.1 kg), and 2004 (1,984.6 kg).(10) Methamphetamine laboratories also contaminate surrounding property. It is estimated that 1 pound of methamphetamine produced in a clandestine lab yields 5 to 6 pounds of hazardous waste. The resultant environmental damage to property, water supplies, farmland, and vegetation where labs have operated costs local jurisdictions thousands of dollars in clean up and makes some areas unusable for extended periods of time. Damage to some areas is extensive. For example, U.S. Forest Service officers have encountered tree â€œkillsâ€? in areas surrounding small toxic labs (STLs), and ranchers in Arizona have reported suspicious cattle deaths in areas downstream from labs.(14)
Methamphetamine Ice Methamphetamine Pipe
Ice Methamphetamine Bag
Powder Methamphetamine in Foil
SOURCES 1. Hunt, D., S. Kuck, and L. Truitt, Methamphetamine Use: Lessons Learned, final report to the National Institute of Justice, February 2006 (NCJ 209730), available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/209730.pdf. 2. Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/meth.htm 3. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction, www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/methamph/methamph.html 4-9. Ibid. 10. National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2006. 11-13. Ibid. 14. Hunt, D., S. Kuck, and L. Truitt, Methamphetamine Use: Lessons Learned, final report to the National Institute of Justice, February 2006 (NCJ 209730), available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/209730.pdf.
STREET NAMES Blow, nose candy, snowball, tornado, wicky stick, Perico (Spanish) Charlie, Coke, Toot, Chaz, and Snow
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine is not a new drug. In fact, it is one of the oldest known drugs. The pure chemical, cocaine hydrochloride, has been an abused substance for more than 100 years, and coca leaves, the source of cocaine, have been ingested for thousands of years.(1) Cocaine DERIVED from the leaf of the Coca Plant Cocaine was originally used as an effective local anesthetic, widely used in eye, ear, nose and throat surgery before safer synthetic substitutes were discovered. Commercial uses soon followed, such as cold cures and chewing gum, it was also found in the popular fizzy drink „Coca-Cola‟ until 1903. More recently use of cocaine has been associated with the rich and the famous and was closely linked with the lifestyles of yuppies in the 1980‟s. Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush, which grows primarily in Peru and Bolivia, in the mid-19th century. In the early 1900s, it became the main stimulant drug used in most of the tonics/elixirs that were developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses.(2) Cocaine abuse has a long history and is rooted into the drug culture in the U.S. It is an intense euphoric drug with strong addictive potential. With the increase in purity, the advent of the free-base form of the
cocaine ("crack"), and its easy availability on the street, cocaine continues to burden both the law enforcement and health care systems in America.(3) The powdered, hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is cocaine that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and its vapors smoked. The term “crack” refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated.(4) Cocaine ... what does it look like? A white crystalline powder. The Coca plant is grown most commonly in the mountains of South America, Columbia, Peru and Brazil.
Cocaine ... how‟s it taken? Snorted or sniffed into the nostrils. Occasionally injected.
Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. Injecting is the use of a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream; any needle use increases a userâ€&#x;s risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs, where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection Cocaine ... what are the downs? High doses may make people feel depressed, anxious or paranoid. Lack of energy may follow. The high lasts for a short time. Rapid psychological dependence may occur. Heavy regular use may result in aggressive behaviour and violent mood swings. Repeated snorting can damage nostrils and may lead to breathing problems or even heart failure. High spending on cocaine is often associated with debt and violence. Cocaine ... what are the ups? Cocaine is a strong stimulant with short-lived effects of up to 30 minutes. Users often feel more alert, physically strong and confident. Pain, tiredness and hunger may also be eased.
Crack Street Names: Rock, freebase, wash, stone Crack is a derivative of cocaine, and first became popular in the 1980s, when its use was linked to gangs in America. Stories were rife about youngsters becoming addicted to the drug after just one use
Crack ... what does it look like? Crack is processed from cocaine to allow the drug to be more easily smoked. Its purity and appearance varies according to the method of production but it is often mixed with other substances. It can appear in various forms from yellow, pinkish or waxy white rocks similar to chips of broken porcelain to white granules similar to dried milk.
Crack ... how‟s it taken? Users generally prefer to smoke crack by means of a water pipe. Homemade pipes are most likely to be found at street level and these are made from soft drinks cans, plastic and glass bottles, glass tubing and aluminum foil. The drug is heated gently in the „pipe‟ until it vaporizes, and the fumes are then inhaled. It can also be burnt on tin foil and inhaled. Crack ... what are the downs? Rapid psychological dependence can occur. Because the effects are short-lived, the need to achieve them grows with the dependence. Its frequent use is often associated with debt and violence and users have been known to spend more than £1,000 in one weekend to feed their habit. Those who are regular users may experience tiredness, depression, aggressive behavior and a false degree of confidence. Regular smoking can lead to breathing problems and loss of voice. Crack ... what are the ups? Users get a strong initial rush although the effects are short-lived and only last for about 10 minutes. Users often feel more alert, physically strong, talkative and confident.
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Cocaine‟s effects appear almost immediately after a single dose, and disappear within a few minutes or hours. Taken in small amounts (up to 100 mg), cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric, energetic, talkative, and mentally alert, especially to the sensations of sight, sound, and touch. It can also temporarily decrease the need for food and sleep. Some users find that the drug helps them perform simple physical and intellectual tasks more quickly, while others experience the opposite effect.(6) The duration of cocaine‟s immediate euphoric effects depends upon the route of administration. The faster the absorption, the more intense the high. Also, the faster the absorption, the shorter the duration of action. The high from snorting is relatively slow in onset,
and may last 15 to 30 minutes, while that from smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes.(7) The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels; dilated pupils; and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Large amounts (several hundred milligrams or more) intensify the user‟s high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior. These users may experience tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia, or, with repeated doses, a toxic reaction closely resembling amphetamine poisoning. Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.(8) LONG-TERM EFFECTS Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. Thus, an individual may have difficulty predicting or controlling the extent to which he or she will continue to want or use the drug. Cocaine‟s stimulant and addictive effects are thought to be primarily a result of its ability to inhibit the reabsorption of dopamine by nerve cells. Dopamine is released as part of the brain‟s reward system, and is either directly or indirectly involved in the addictive properties of every major drug of abuse.(9) An appreciable tolerance to cocaine‟s high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience. Some users will frequently increase their doses to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users can also become more sensitive (sensitization) to cocaine‟s anesthetic and convulsant effects, without increasing the dose taken. This increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparently low doses of cocaine.(10) Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia. This may result in a full-blown
paranoid psychosis, in which the individual loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations.(11) SOURCES 1-2. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report - Cocaine Abuse and Addiction, www.nida.nih.gov/researchreports/cocaine/cocaine.html. 3. Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/cocaine/cocaine.htm. 4. National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Crack and Cocaine, 5. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), Cocaine Street Terms 6-11. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report - Cocaine Abuse and Addiction, www.nida.nih.gov/researchreports/cocaine/cocaine.html.
STREET NAMES Arnolds, gym candy, pumpers, roids, stackers, weight trainers, gear, and juice.
DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone. Both males and females have testosterone produced in their bodies: males in the testes, and females in the ovaries and other tissues. The full name for this class of drugs is androgenic (promoting masculine characteristics) anabolic (tissue building) steroids (the class of drugs). Some of the common street (slang) names for anabolic steroids include arnolds, gym candy, pumpers, roids, stackers, weight trainers, and juice.(1) In the male, the hormone produced in the largest quantity is testosterone, which has two main effects - androgenic and anabolic. Androgenic effects include sexual characteristics such as an increase in facial hair and deepening of the voice. Anabolic effects include the build-up of muscle. Medically steroids have limited use but can be used in the treatment of anaemia, thrombosis and can assist in the recovery of weakened muscles after prolonged bed rest. Anabolic steroids can be taken orally, injected intramuscularly, or rubbed on the skin when in the form of gels or creams.(3) These drugs are often used in patterns called cycling, which involves taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again. Users also frequently combine several different types of steroids in a process known as stacking.(4) By doing
this, users believe that the different steroids will interact to produce an effect on muscle size that is greater than the effects of using each drug individually.(5) Another mode of steroid use is called "pyramiding." With this method users slowly escalate steroid use (increasing the number of drugs used at one time and/or the dose and frequency of one or more steroids), reach a peak amount at mid-cycle and gradually taper the dose toward the end of the cycle. The escalation of steroid use can vary with different types of training. Body builders and weight lifters tend to escalate their dose to a much higher level than do long distance runners or swimmers.(6) Anabolic steroids ... what do they look like? Anabolic steroids are found either in tablet form or as liquid often in ampoules. Common trade names include Durabolin (Nadrolene), Stanozolol and Dianabol.
Anabolic steroids ... how are they taken? They can be taken orally or injected. When misused by athletes or body builders, these drugs are taken in multiple combinations over cycles of 6-8 weeks, in doses, which far exceed therapeutic recommendations. Anabolic steroids ... what are the downs? Regular use can lead to psychological dependence. There have been some cases of temporary psychiatric problems such as confusion; sleep disorders, depression and paranoia. Other health problems can result, such as damage to the liver and high blood pressure. Heavy use
in men can lead to an initial increase in sex drive, which can then become depressed, until use is stopped. Some users become very aggressive. In women regular use can promote the development of male characteristics such as excessive hair growth and deepening of the voice, which appear to be irreversible. If anabolic steroids are injected and needles shared, then there is risk of infection with HIV/Aids and Hepatitis. Anabolic steroids ... what are the ups? Some athletes to build up muscle mass and enhance strength and stamina use Anabolic Steroids. High doses are believed to improve an individualsâ€&#x; performance. People who want increase body mass quickly can also take them. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Anabolic steroid abuse has been associated with a wide range of adverse side effects ranging from some that are physically unattractive, such as acne and breast development in men, to others that are life threatening. Most of the effects are reversible if the abuser stops taking the drug, but some can be permanent. In addition to the physical effects, anabolic steroids can also cause increased irritability and aggression.(7) LONG-TERM EFFECTS Most data on the long-term effects of anabolic steroids on humans come from case reports rather than formal epidemiological studies. From the case reports, the incidence of life-threatening effects appears to be low, but serious adverse effects may be underrecognized or under-reported. Data from animal studies seem to support this possibility. One study found that exposing male mice for one-fifth of their lifespan to steroid doses comparable to those taken by human athletes caused a high percentage of premature deaths.(8) Steroid abuse has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attacks and strokes, even in athletes younger than 30. Steroids contribute to the development of CVD, partly by
changing the levels of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. Steroids, particularly the oral types, increase the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). High LDL and low HDL levels increase the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition in which fatty substances are deposited inside arteries and disrupt blood flow. If blood is prevented from reaching the heart, the result can be a heart attack. If blood is prevented from reaching the brain, the result can be a stroke.(9) Steroids also increase the risk that blood clots will form in blood vessels, potentially disrupting blood flow and damaging the heart muscle so that it does not pump blood effectively.(10)
Depo-Testosterone 200mg per ml
Testosterone Cypionate 200mg/ml
Testosterone Cypionate 100mg/ml
SOURCES 1. Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, Anabolic Steroids: Hidden Dangers, March 2004 2-3. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Anabolic Steroid Abuse, April 2000 4. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Steroids (AnabolicAndrogenic), 1999 5. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Anabolic Steroid Abuse, April 2000 6. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drugs of Abuse 2005 7-10. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Anabolic Steroid Abuse, April 2000
Ketamine Street Name: K, special K, super K, vitamin k, green jet, super acid, cat Valium1 Ketamine: Ketamine is a fast acting anesthetic and can be used on both humans and animals. As a drug of abuse it can be taken orally, snorted, or injected, and can be sprinkled on marijuana or tobacco and smoked. If used intravenously, effects can be felt immediately and if snorted or taken orally, effects are evident in 10-15 minutes. Ketamine can act as a depressant or psychedelic and low doses can produce vertigo, slurred speech, slow reaction time and euphoria. In higher doses, Ketamine produces amnesia and coma. What does Ketamine look like? ď‚ˇ
Ketamine comes in a clear liquid and a white or off-white powder form.
How is Ketamine used?
Ketamine is a tranquilizer most commonly used on animals. The liquid form can be injected, consumed in drinks, or added to smokable materials. The powder form can be used for injection when dissolved.2 In certain areas, Ketamine is being injected intramuscularly.3
Who uses Ketamine?
Ketamine, along with the other "club drugs," has become popular among teens and young adults at dance clubs and "raves."
Ketamine...how is it taken? Ketamine is often supplied as tablets which are taken orally, or as powder which is snorted up the nose or sometimes smoked. In its liquid pharmaceutical state it can be injected Ketamine...what are the effects?
Ketamine can cause perceptual changes similar to LSD. Users may report hallucinations or „out of body‟ experiences, the nature of which are unpredictable Users can „trip‟ for up to an hour, and may feel the after effects for several hours. In some cases, users may experience numbness of the limbs, strange muscle movements, or be physically unable to move.
Ketamine...what are the risks?
Ketamine numbs the body, so users risk serious injury without feeling pain High doses, especially mixed with other depressant drugs like alcohol, can dangerously suppress breathing and heart function, and can lead to loss of consciousness. It can cause panic attacks, depression and in large doses can exaggerate pre-existing mental health problems such as schizophrenia. Users can become psychologically but not physically dependent on Ketamine, The long-term effects its use are largely unknown, but flashbacks, memory, attention and vision impairment may result from frequent and prolonged use. Mixing Ketamine with other drugs or alcohol is very dangerous.
Higher doses produce an effect referred to as "K-Hole," an "out of body," or "near-death" experience.6 Use of the drug can cause delirium, amnesia, depression, and long-term memory and cognitive difficulties. Due to its dissociative effect, it is reportedly used as a date-rape drug.7
How does Ketamine get into the United States?
Marketed as a dissociative general anesthetic for human and veterinary use, the only known source of Ketamine is via diversion of pharmaceutical products. Recent press reports indicate that a significant number of veterinary clinics are being robbed specifically for their Ketamine stock. DEA reporting indicates that a major source of Ketamine in the United States is product diverted from pharmacies in Mexico.4
How much does Ketamine cost?
Prices average $20 to $25 per dosage unit.5
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade. 2 Drug Enforcement Administration, Club Drugs: An Update, September 2001. 3 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Community Drug Alert Bulletin: Club Drugs, December 1999. 4 Drug Enforcement Administration, Club Drugs: An Update, September 2001. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 1
CHART OF DRUGS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES DRUG TYPE
HOW ITS USED
POT , REEFER, GRASS, WEED, DOPE, GANJA, MARY JANE
LIKE DRIED PARSLEY, WITH STEMS AND/OR SEEDS; ROLLED INTO CIGARETTES SOFT GELATIN CAPSULES
SMOKED OR EATEN
BROWN OR BLACK CAKES OR BALLS CONCENTRATED SYRUPY LIQUID VARYING IN COLOR FROM CLEAR TO BLACK AEROSOL PAINT CANS
SMOKED OR EATEN
AEROSOL SPRAYS OR CLEANING FLUIDS LAUGHING GAS OR WHIPPETS
AMYL NITRITE BUTYL NITRITE
POPPERS OR SNAPPERS RUSH, BOLT, BULLET, LOCKER ROOM, AND CLIMAX SOLVENTS
COKE, SNOW, NOSE CANDY, FLAKE, BLOW, BIG C, LADY, WHITE, SNOW BIRDS CRACK, ROCK, FREEBASE SPEED, UPPERS, UPS, BLACK BEAUTIES, PEP PILLS, COPILOTS, BUMBLEBEES, HEARTS, BENZEDRINE, DEXEDRINE, FOOTBALLS, BIPHETAMINE CRANK, CRYSTAL METH, CRYSTAL METHADRINE, SPEED RITALIN, CYLERT, PRELUDIN, DIDREX, PRE-STATE, VORANIL, SANDREX, PLEGINE QUAALUDES, LUDES, SOPORS 1
SMOKED - MIXED WITH TOBACCO
SMALL 8 GRAM METAL CYLINDER SOLD WITH A BALLON OR PIPE PROPELLANT FOR WHIPPED CREAM IN AEROSOL SPRAY CAN
CLEAR YELLOWISH LIQUID IN AMPULES IN SMALL BOTTLES
CANS OF AEROSOL PROPELLANTS, GASOLINE, GLUE, PAINT THINNER
WHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER
WHITE TO TAN PELLETS OR CRYSTALLINE ROCKS THAT LOOK LIKE SOAP CAPSULES, PILLS TABLETS
TAKEN ORALLY, INJECTED, INHALED
WHITE POWDER, PILLS, ROCK THAT RESEMBLES A BLOCK OF PARAFFIN PILLS OR CAPSULES
TAKEN ORALLY, INJECTED, INHALED
TAKEN ORALLY, INJECTED
HOW IT‟S USED
DOWNERS, BARBS, BLUE DEVILS, RED DEVILS, YELLOW JACKET, YELLOWS, NEMBUTAL, TUINALS, SECONAL, AMYTAL VALIUM, LIBRIUM, MILTOWN, SERAX, EQUANIL, TRANXENE
RED, YELLOW, BLUE, OR RED AND BLUE CAPSULES
TABLETS OR CAPSULES
PCP, HOG, ANGEL DUST, LOVE BOAT, LOVELY, KILLER WEED LSD, ACID, MICRODOT, WHITE LIGHTNING, BLUE HEAVEN, SUGAR CUBES MESC, BUTTONS, CACTUS MAGIC MUSHROOMS, SHROOMS
LIQUID, WHITE CRYSTALINE POWDER, PILLS, CAPSULES COLORED TABLETS, BLOTTER PAPER, CLEAR LIQUID, THIN SQUARES OF GELATIN HARD BROWN DISCS, TABLETS, CAPSULES FRESH OR DRIED MUSHROOMS
TAKEN ORALLY, INJECTED, SMOKED
SMACK, HORSE, MUD, BROWN SUGAR, JUNK, BLACK TAR, BIG H EMPRINE WITH CODEINE, TYLENOL WITH CODEINE, COGH SYRUP WITH CODEINE PECTORAL SYRUP
WHITE TO DARK BROWN POWDER OR TAR LIKE SUBSTANCE DARK LIQUID VARYING IN THICKNESS, CAPSULES, TABLETS
INJECTED, SMOKED, INHALED
WHITE CRYSTALS, HYPODERMIC TABLETS, INJECTABLE SOLUTIONS
ORALLY, INJECTED, SMOKED
DARK BROWN CHUNKS, POWDER
SMOKED, EATEN, INJECTED
WHITE POWDER, INJECTABLE SOLUTION, TABLETS TABLETS OR CAPSULES
WHITE POWDER, TABLETS OR CRYSTALS
ORALLY, INJECTED, INHALED
ORALLY, INJECTED, SMOKED
LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
MESCALINE AND PEYOTE PSILOCYBIN HEROIN
ANALOG OF FENTANYL ANALOG OF MEPERIDINE ANALOG OF AMPHETAMINES OR METHAMPHETAMINES ANALOG OF PCP
PAREGORIC, DOVER‟S POWDER, PAREPECTOLIN PETHIDINE, DEMOROL, MEPERGAN PERCOCET, PERCODAN, TUSSIONEX, FENTANYL, DARVON, TALWIN, LOMOTIL SYNTHETIC HEROIN, CHINA WHITE MPTP (NEW HEROIN), MPPP, SYNTHETIC HEROIN MDMA(ECSTASY, XTC, ADAM, ESSENCE), MDM, STP, PMA, 2, 5-DMA, TMA, DOM, DOB, EVE PCP, PCE
TAKEN ORALLY, LICKED OFF PAPER, GELATIN, LIQUID PUT IN THE EYES CHEWED, SWALLOWED, SMOKED CHEWED OR SWALLOWED