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The CEO’s Role in Business Model Reinvention by Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble

Artwork: Damián Ortega, Concrete Cube (black), 2003, cast concrete with black pigment Consider a few of the great innovation stories of the past decade: Google, Netflix, and Skype. Now ask yourself, why wasn’t Google created by Microsoft? Netflix by Blockbuster? Skype by AT&T? Why do established corporations struggle to find the next big thing before new competitors do? The problem is pervasive; the examples are countless. The simple explanation is that many companies become too focused on executing today’s business model and forget that business models are perishable. Success today does not guarantee success tomorrow. To assess your company’s vulnerability, try this diagnostic: On separate index cards, write down all the important initiatives under way in your organization. Then create three boxes and label them “Box 1: Manage the Present,” “Box 2: Selectively Forget the Past,” and “Box 3: Create the Future.”


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Next, take a few minutes to imagine your industry in five, 10, or even 20 years—as far out as you can reasonably foresee. Consider all the forces of change your industry faces— technology, customer demographics, regulation, globalization, and so on. With those forces in mind, put your organization’s initiatives in the appropriate boxes: those intended to improve today’s business performance in box 1; those aimed at stopping something— underperforming products and services, obsolete policies and practices, outdated assumptions and mindsets—in box 2; and those that prepare your organization for the long term in box 3. For companies to endure, they must get the forces of preservation (box 1), destruction (box 2), and creation (box 3) in the right balance. Striking that balance is the CEO’s most important task, but most companies overwhelmingly favor box 1. Forces of preservation reign supreme. Forces of destruction and creation are overshadowed, outmatched, and out of luck. To be sure, the work of preservation—the day-to-day execution of the existing business model— is vitally important. CEOs must get box 1 right or their tenures will be short. They must concentrate daily on performance excellence and continuous improvement, as companies such as Wal-Mart and Southwest Airlines have done for years. The best box 1 companies are sleek and efficient, like a well-designed automobile. They coordinate an astonishingly complex array of human actions like so many gears, pistons, and camshafts. But CEOs are not just responsible for box 1. They must also get boxes 2 and 3 right. Sadly, most chief executives ignore destruction and creation until it is too late. They bow to a myriad of short-term pressures: intense demands for quarterly earnings, risk aversion, discomfort with uncertainty, resistance to change, linear extrapolation from past experience, and unwillingness to cannibalize established businesses. As a result, many companies fail to transform themselves. The failure may not be immediately apparent, but sooner or later most industries go through nonlinear shifts that threaten incumbents. For instance, breakthroughs in genetic engineering have revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry. New concerns about environmental quality have posed serious threats in energy-intensive sectors. Globalization has opened up India and China, where unfamiliar rivals are challenging established companies with ultra-low-price products.


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While most companies neatly manage linear change, they are left befuddled by nonlinear change. Transformation efforts look meek at best, like futilely trying to turn a car into an airplane by bolting on two wings. Consider, for example, Sony’s lagging positions in portable music players and electronic book readers, or Nokia’s and Motorola’s struggles to keep up with the rapid evolution of smartphones. The High Jump “Industry” (Located at the end of this article) To win both today and tomorrow, CEOs must operate in all three boxes simultaneously. They must recognize that boxes 2 and 3 are not about what the business will be doing in 20 years; they are about the preparations it must make today. That’s easier said than done, for it’s not only a matter of balancing resources across the three boxes. The CEO must also know exactly what to destroy and what to create. On the surface, box 2 is about pruning lines of business that are underperforming or no longer fit the company’s strategy. Some companies do that consistently. For decades, for example, Corning has been eliminating mature businesses, such as cookware and light bulbs, to focus on high-growth opportunities. And when Japanese firms commoditized the market for dynamic random-access memory—a key component in PCs—Intel cofounder Andy Grove shifted the company into microprocessors. Such divestitures are traumatic but not conceptually mysterious. Pruning simply requires commitment from powerful executives. It’s harder to take a knife to a less-evident box 2 menace: organizational memory. As managers run the core business, they develop biases, assumptions, and entrenched mind-sets. These become further embedded in planning processes, performance evaluation systems, organizational structures, and human resources policies. Organizational memory is particularly powerful in companies that tend to promote from within and to have homogeneous cultures, strong socialization mechanisms, and long track records of success. Such deeply rooted memory may be great for preservation (box 1), but if it is not tamed sufficiently (box 2), it gets in the way of creation (box 3). That’s why all box 3 initiatives must start in box 2. Bottom line: Before you can create, you must forget. To understand how a company can manage all three boxes successfully, let’s look at Infosys Technologies Limited of India.


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Business Model Transformation at Infosys On July 31, 2006, Infosys chairman N.R. Narayana Murthy stood before thousands of employees in Mysore, India, and pressed an orange button. Half a world away, trading commenced on the Nasdaq. His remotely ringing the opening bell, part of Infosys’s 25-year anniversary celebration, symbolized how the global economy was being transformed. The Transformation Process in Hindu Mythology (Located at the end of this article) For people trying to understand the offshoring phenomenon, Infosys was exhibit A. Indeed, it had inspired Thomas Friedman to write The World Is Flat. The company had demonstrated that its core service, custom software development for corporations, did not have to happen at the client site. Most of the work could be done thousands of miles away in talent-rich but low-cost India. Infosys dubbed its approach the “global delivery model.” I nfosys’s rapid rise is legendary in India. In the 1980s the company was just a small group of programmers who had traveled from South Asia to the United States to offer their services. But in the early 1990s India’s rapid deregulation and the rise of the internet opened the door for the global delivery model. Today Infosys is a $5 billion IT services firm with more than 100,000 employees and a market cap of nearly $40 billion. During the late 1990s, with revenues growing rapidly, Infosys could easily have focused on preservation. But Murthy was intent on challenging the biggest companies in the IT services industry, including IBM and Accenture. He and then-CEO Nandan Nilekani had a hypothesis about how the industry would evolve. The company’s most demanding clients were frustrated by having to work simultaneously with multiple services firms, each lacking full accountability. Eventually, Murthy and Nilekani believed, clients would hire just one firm that could deliver end-to-end IT services. The hypothetical company would provide a management consulting team that would redesign operations and write specifications for new IT systems. That same company would then develop, test, install, and maintain the new hardware and software—and might even accept responsibility for executing routine client operations such as transaction processing. This implied a dramatic industry transformation. If multiple rivals moved toward end-to-end services, former partners would become rivals. The industry would have room for only a handful of very large players. Infosys


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intended to be one of them—and to use its mastery of the global delivery model to outperform rivals. To accomplish that, the company needed to create several new services even as it continued executing its existing, fastgrowing business. By pushing into boxes 2 and 3, Infosys grew 25-fold, from $200 million to $5 billion in the past decade. Revenues from services other than its original offering—custom software development—grew from a small base in the 1990s, to 40% by 2003, and to nearly 60% by 2010. Infosys succeeded in avoiding the box 2 hazard of organizational memory. By building a parallel “box 2/3” world with different people and distinct processes, it was able to create the future while sustaining excellence in box 1. In the process, Infosys paid especially close attention to three critical disciplines: strategy making, accountability, and organizational design.

Strategy Making The central tenets of strategy making are well known. It should be an analytical, data-driven process that rigorously identifies customer needs, differentiates the company from rivals, and maximizes profits. But despite its many merits, this process also systematically squeezes out box 3 thinking. Leaders who insist on rigorously analyzed data tend to resist making change on the basis of limited evidence or weak signals. The result: a short-term mind-set; a strict focus on existing customers, not emerging ones; an obsession with today’s rivals, not potential entrants; an emphasis on leveraging existing competencies rather than building new ones; and a tacit assumption that lines of demarcation between markets are fixed. Box 3 strategy making is very different. Endeavors of creation must begin with a destructive (box 2) action— abandoning traditional strategy practices in favor of new ones. Box 3 strategy is not about linear extrapolation from the past; it’s about trying to anticipate nonlinear shifts. That’s a tough—but necessary—concept to grasp if you’re a senior leader who rose to the top of an organization by excelling in box 1. Infosys smartly brought nontraditional voices into the box 3 strategy process. For example, it directly engaged a subset of its clients, in group and one-on-one meetings, to challenge the company’s long-range assumptions and to make provocative suggestions for future growth. As a direct result of this interaction, Infosys chose to redouble its investment in an experimental business unit that offered packaged software for Indian bank branches—and to adapt it for worldwide use.


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Infosys relied even more heavily on input from young employees. It assembled a Voices of Youth panel of high performers who participated annually in eight senior management meetings. In putting together this team, Murthy cited what he calls the “30/30 rule”: 30% of participants in any strategy discussion should be younger than age 30, because they are creative and not wedded to the past. In addition, Infosys created several inventive and colorfully named mechanisms—strategy graffiti walls, knowledge cafés, jam sessions, and speed-geeking— to continually attract thousands of young employees to the process. Jam sessions, for instance, are fast-paced roundtable meetings in which each participant has just one minute to give an impromptu response to questions such as “How can Infosys win in emerging markets?” The company even developed software that automated the process of sifting through huge volumes of responses, to identify common themes and unique ideas. Murthy credits youth involvement for sparking more than 10 R&D projects at Infosys, on topics ranging from health care to sustainability to education.

Accountability To succeed at preservation (box 1), successful companies develop mechanisms that hold individuals accountable for results. Those who deliver on time, on budget, and on spec should earn raises and promotions; those who don’t are probably better suited for other careers. Companies with demanding performance cultures, such as GE, tend to do very well in box 1. But, again, initiatives to create the future must begin by forgetting the past. Strict accountability for results must be left behind to allow for conjectures about potential nonlinear shifts. Those conjectures are best tested by running disciplined experiments. For example, in 1999 IBM launched an effort to multiply computing speeds by a factor of 500. IBM’s conjecture was that the next generation of supercomputers would not run on one superfast chip but on huge networks of ordinary chips. IBM’s machine, dubbed BlueGene, would, as imagined, run massive simulations for scientists who study climate change, particle physics, cellular processes, and more. The big unknown, however, was the relationship between the number of chips and the volume of communications among them. It was possible that the network that tied the chips together would clog up like Los Angeles freeways at rush hour. To pinpoint when that would happen, IBM developed a systematic test plan. It first built a prototype with just two chips, then four, then eight. It ran disciplined experiments with each prototype. If BlueGene were to fail, IBM would learn at the lowest cost possible. By 2007 the company had succeeded in building a 212,992-chip BlueGene, the fastest


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supercomputer in the world. When leaders of box 3 initiatives learn fast (and at minimal cost), they make better decisions. They either find success or exit quickly and cheaply. But disciplined experimentation is not easy. As we describe in our book The Other Side of Innovation, best practices for planning experiments look almost nothing like best practices for ongoing operations. Therefore, it’s critical to use distinct methods to evaluate the results of box 3 initiatives and the performance of their leaders. Consider the negative consequences of subjecting a leader to a traditional, resultsfocused performance assessment while she operates in box 3. Uncertainties are high, and assumptions often prove wrong, yielding disappointing results and leaders who get defensive about them. Open discussion disappears, learning ceases, and bad decision making tends to ensue. Instead, leaders should be held accountable for learning quickly from disciplined experiments that they conduct in box 3. Administered properly, this form of accountability is anything but forgiving. It requires intense reasoning and ruthless analysis of assumptions. Infosys has developed a very strong culture of accountability for results. In fact, it created an acronym for its expectations of business unit leaders’ actions—namely, that they be predictable, sustainable, profitable, and de-risked: PSPD. Still, Infosys maintains different kinds of expectations for new services—standards that allow for greater uncertainty but are no less forgiving. In 2002 Infosys launched a fundamentally new (box 3) business for the company: Infosys Consulting. Instead of producing custom software, the new consulting unit would advise clients on redesigning their operations; rather than calling on heads of IT, it would serve general managers. The core business of software programming was almost a science, whereas Infosys Consulting was more of an art. Murthy and Nilekani knew it was unrealistic to expect its new service to immediately deliver predictable, sustainable, profitable, and de-risked results. So they exempted it from traditional performance review forums and had it report to an internal board of directors. That board looked for clear signs that Infosys Consulting was headed toward success. For example, it expected an upward trend in per-employee revenues as time dedicated to selling services declined and time dedicated to delivering services rose. The board also altered expectations about forecast accuracy for Infosys Consulting: not 99%, as required of established units, but 50%, at least at


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first. As the team learned, its forecasts naturally improved.

Organizational Design To achieve day-to-day excellence (box 1), companies must do more than hire and train outstanding individuals. They must optimize the way individuals collaborate—through job specifications, organizational designs, and work processes. When all individuals are perfectly aligned, companies become works of high art. However, a box 1 work of art is also a highly specialized machine. As such, it’s unrealistic to expect to be able to just “squeeze in” a box 3 project. Special teams are essential. The first step in building them is a box 2 action— dropping standard organizational practices. Box 3 projects require zero-based, custom-built subunits. Forming these subunits is an act of creation even more significant than generating a breakthrough box 3 idea. As we explained in “Stop the Innovation Wars” (HBR July–August 2010), it’s much like building a new company from scratch. Outsiders play a critical role by bringing in new skills and catalyzing change. They are powerful box 2 agents because they naturally challenge assumptions. Infosys Consulting was a box 3 project, so Murthy and Nilekani created a new, distinct subunit. They hired an outsider with 15 years of consulting experience to lead the effort, and they lured several more senior partners from other consulting firms. Then, rather than creating a unit based on Infosys’s existing organizational structure, they studied other firms’ processes and organizational designs and altered them for the global delivery model. Today Infosys Consulting generates more than $100 million in revenues annually. That’s a much more favorable outcome than what happened when one of the Big Three U.S. automakers first entered India in the early 1990s. The tremendous economic divide between India and the United States demanded a box 3 approach to making an automobile. Rather than creating a zero-based subunit in India to spearhead the effort, however, the company engineered the car in Detroit and, to cut costs, decided to put power windows only in the front doors. That decision initially seemed reasonable, but at that time any Indian who could afford a car could also afford a chauffeur. The owner, sitting in the back, had to use handcrank windows. It’s one reason why this U.S. automaker is still largely irrelevant in one of the world’s fastest-growing automotive markets.


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Prioritizing for the Long Term As we have discussed, the secret to winning over the long run lies in knowing what to forget and what to create. Still, every box 3 initiative requires a tough first step: making the commitment to launch. Shifting resources from the present to the future may be the most difficult challenge for CEOs, given the enormous short-term pressures they face routinely. In its early days, Infosys had a Fortune 10 client that accounted for 25% of its revenues and was demanding substantial price concessions. Murthy walked away and accepted a devastating blow to short-term performance. His simple rationale: Infosys would never agree to a price so low that it would have to sacrifice service quality or cut investments in people, training, R&D, and technology. Doing so, he reasoned, would damage the brand and undermine the company’s future. The most intense short-term pressures come not from clients, however, but from Wall Street, which demands reliable earnings growth and richly rewards CEOs who deliver it. This powerful box 1 incentive cripples the forces of destruction and creation because box 3 projects inevitably have a worse-before-better impact on the bottom line. Further, CEOs’ tenures are short relative to the rhythm of transformation efforts. By the time box 3 projects pay off, many will have retired, so they are tempted to focus on the immediate and leave on a high note. Murthy, by contrast, views Infosys as a lifelong endeavor. His approach to investors has been steadfast: Relentlessly promote long-term potential; immediately share shortterm disappointment. Murthy volunteered the bad news of the loss of the major client to investors within 48 hours. Then he returned to finding the right balance among the forces of preservation, destruction, and creation. This balance is the secret to Infosys’s mastery of both the present and the future, and it must be the foundation for any business institution that aspires to endure for generations.

The High Jump “Industry” The history of the Olympic high jump event illustrates the importance of adapting to nonlinear change. It has evolved through four distinct “business models.” Early on, the “scissors” style dominated the sport. It was much


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like hurdling. All high jumpers used the scissors approach, so winning meant being the best at it. The high jumpers were operating in box 1 (preservation). Had they been businesspeople, they would have been competing on cost, market share, and margins. High jumpers remained in box 1 at their peril, however. Even the best athletes could improve upon the established technique only incrementally. The approach had severe limitations because the jumper’s center of gravity had to rise much higher than the bar. More-innovative jumpers broke the high jump down into two fundamentals: raising one’s center of gravity (jumping higher) and raising it no more than necessary to clear the bar (avoiding “wasted lift”). It turned out that although finding ways to jump higher was quite difficult, athletes could find plenty of opportunities to avoid wasted lift. High jumpers created three new styles. First, they invented the “western roll,” in which jumpers launched and landed on the same foot and kept their backs to the bar. Then they discovered the “straddle,” in which they launched and landed on opposite feet and faced the bar. Finally, in the 1968 Olympics, Dick Fosbury created the surprising Fosbury Flop, which required twisting 180 degrees and landing on one’s head. To succeed, Fosbury had to unlearn everything his coaches had taught him about speed, angle of approach, and technique. Each new jumping style transformed the high jump “industry.” The innovators had to somehow forget best practices (box 2) and create next practices (box 3). Many other jumpers, trapped by the forces of preservation (box 1), failed to remain competitive.


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The Transformation Process in Hindu Mythology Hinduism provides a unique window into the three perspectives we focus on in this article: managing the present, selectively forgetting the past, and creating the future. The religion recognizes many gods but only three main deities: Vishnu, the god of preservation (box 1); Shiva, the god of destruction (box 2); and Brahma, the god of creation (box 3). The Hindu mythmakers even paired each of the three gods with symbolically relevant wives. Vishnu was married to Lakshmi, who bestowed wealth—just as box 1 produces current income. Shiva’s partner was Parvathi, who symbolized power, a vital box 2 necessity when selectively destroying the past. Brahma was betrothed to Saraswathi, who symbolized creativity, ideas, and knowledge—critical inputs in formulating box 3 strategies. According to Hindu philosophy, the balanced interactions among the three gods create a continuous preservation–destruction–creation cycle that helps sustain all forms of life in a circle without a beginning or an end. Achieving that continuous cycle is a goal worthy of any farsighted organization. Vijay Govindarajan (vg@dartmouth.edu) is the Earl C. Daum 1924 Professor of International Business and the founding director of the Center for Global Leadership at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth. He was General Electric’s first professor in residence and chief innovation consultant. Chris Trimble (chris.trimble@dartmouth.edu) is on the faculty at Tuck and is an expert on innovation within established organizations. They are the authors of The Other Side of Innovation —Solving the Execution Challenge (Harvard Business Review Press, 2010).


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International Business Operation Berkshire Hathaway INC Berkshire Hathaway INC onf

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1962wGif Warren Buffett u Berkshire Hathaway \ &S,f,mrsm;udk pwif0,f,lcJhjyD; vHkavmufaom &S , f , m yrmP&&S d o nf h t cg uk r Ü P D u d k x d e f ; csKyf c J h o nf / tpyd k i f ; wG i f Buffett onf uk r Ü P D \ t"duvkyfief;jzpfaom csnfxnfvkyfief;udk qufvufvkyfudkifcJhaomfvnf; 1967 rS p í tmrcH v k y f i ef ; ES i f h tjcm;&if ; ES D ; jr§ K yf E S H r I vk y f i ef ; rsm;ud k pwifvkyfudkifcJhonf/ yxrOD;qHk;taejzifh tmrcHvkyfief;vkyfudkifonfh National Indemnity ukrÜPDudk0,f,lcJhonf/ xddkaemuf 1970jynfhESpfrsm;\ aESmif;ydkif;wGif Geico \ &S,f,mrsm;udk 0,f,lcJhonf/ 1985ckESpfwGif Berkshire \ t"duvkyfief;jzpfonfh csnfxnfvkyfief;udk ydwfodrf;cJhonf/ Corporate Affairs 2009ckESpf 'DZifbmv (31)&ufaeUwGif Berkshire \ class A &S,f,monf $ 99,200 &Sdum New York Stock Exchange \ aps;tjrifhqHk;&S,f,m jzpfcJhonf/ 2006 atmufwdkbm (23)wGif yxrqHk;tBudrftjzpf &S,f,maps;EIef;onf wpf&S,f,mvQif $ 100,000 ausmfoGm;cJhonf/ 2007 'DZifbm (13)&ufwGif wpf&S,f,mvQif $ 150,000 jzifhaps;EIef;tjrifhqHk; &&SdcJhonf/ CEO jzpfaom Warren Buffett onf ¤if;\&if;ESD;jrSKyfESHrIqdkif&m tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;ESifh us,fjyefUvSpGmaom vkyfief;rsm;tay: tao;pdwfod&Sdem;vnfEdkifrIrsm;aBumifh trsm;\av;pm;jcif;udkcH& onf/ 2007ckESpfwGif Barron's Magazine u Berkshire tm; The Most Respected Company In The World in 2007 tjzpfa&G;cs,fcJhonf/ Governance Berkshire Hathaway \ Board of Directors rsm;wGif yg0ifolrsm;rSm Warren Buffett, Charlie Munger, Walter Scott, Jr, Thomas S. Murphy, Howard Graham Buffett, Ronald Olson, Donald Keough, Charlotte Guyman,


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David Gottesman, Bill Gates, Stephen Burke and Suasan Decker. Berkshine Hathaway ydkifqdkifaomvkyfief;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf/

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"AFLAC INC" ( Investment Analysis ) SYMBOL - AFL Company History AFLAC INC (rl&if;ukrÜPD)

STOCK EXCHANGE - NYSE

udk 1973ckESpfwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ]]a*smf*sD,mjynfe,f}} ü pwif w nf a xmif z G J U pnf ; cJ h o nf / 4if ; onf General Business Holding Company jzpf j yD ; 4if;\vufatmuf½Sd ukrÜPDrsm;\ Operation rsm;udk tkyfcsKyfpDrHuGyfuJonf/ 4if;t"duvkyfudkifonfh vkyfief;rSm usef;rma&;ESifhtouftmrcHrsm;a&mif;csonfh vkyfief;jzpfonf/ 4if;touftmrcHrsm;udk vufatmufcHukrÜPDjzpfonfh American Family Life Assurance Company of Columbus (Aflac) rSwqifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpkESifh *syefEdkifiHwdkUwGif a&mif;csonf/ AFLAC INC onf urÇmay:wGif]uifqm}a&m*gESifh ywfoufonfhtmrcHrsm;udk a&mif;csonfh tMuD;qHk;ukrÜPDjzpfonf/ 4if;tjyif touftmrcHrsm;? usef;rma&;ESihfywfoufonfhtmrcHrsm;? aq;0g;ypönf;? xdcdkuf'Pf&m&rIESifh evHxvlemrsm;twGuf trsdK;rsdK;aomtmrcHrsm;udkvnf; a&mif;csonf/ ukrÜPDonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk½Sdjynfe,f (50)vHk;ESifh *syefEdkifiHwdkUwGif tmrcHvkyfief;udk vkyfudkifcGifh&½Sdonf/ 2009ckESpfwGif *syefEdkifiHüvkyfudkifaom tmrcHvkyfief;rS &½Sdaom0ifaiGonf ukrÜPD\pkpkaygif;0ifaiG\ 75%? tjrwf\ 78%½Sdonf/ ukrÜPD\ Officers ESifh Directors rsm;onf ukrÜPD\½S,f,m 4.5%udk ydkifqdkifjyD;4if;wdkU\Voting Power onf 20.3% ½Sdonf/ Chairman & CEO President No of Employees

Daniel P. Amos Kriss Cloninger III 8350


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" Checklists for Making Inestment Decision "

uk r Ü P D o nf rd r d v k y f u d k i f a qmif ½ G u f a eaom Industry twG i f ; jyd K if b uf r sm;tay: a&&SnftompD;&rI ( Durable Competitive Advantage ) ½dSygovm; ? 1.

ukrÜPDonf pwifwnfaxmifcJhonfh 1973ckESpfrSpí tmrcHvkyfief;udk tpOfwpkdufvkyfudkif vmcJhonf/ ]]*syefEdkifiH}} 1974ckESpfrSpí ukrÜPDonf *syefEdkifiHwGif touftmrcHrsm;udk pwifa&mif;cscGifh&onfh 'kwd,ajrmufEkdifiHjcm;ukrÜPDjzpfonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí ukrÜPDonf*syefEdkifiH\ Insurance Market wGif market - leading position udk&½SdvmcJhonf/ ukrÜPDonf *syefEdkifiHwGif Individual Policies rsm;udk a&mif;csonfh tMuD;rm;qHk; Insurer jzpfonf/ 2009 ckESpf 'DZifbm 31&ufaeUpGJt& Individual Policies aygif; 20 millions a&mif;cscJh&jyD;jzpfonf/ 4if;tjyif 2009 ckESpf'DZifbm 31&ufaeUpGJt& ukrÜPDonf *syefEdkifiHwGif ]uifqm}a&m*gESifhywfoufonfh tmrcHrsm;udka&mif;csonfh eHygwfwpfukrÜPDjzpfjyD; Cancer Policies aygif; 40 millions a&mif;cscJh&onf/ xdkrQru ukrÜPDonf *syefEdkifiH\ medical insurance market wGifvnf; eHygwfwpfae&mudk &,lxm;EdkifcJhonf/ ]]tar&duefjynfaxmifpk}} ukrÜPDonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGifvnf; tjcm;aom Insurers rsm;ESifhjydKifqdkif&mü tompD;&vsuf½Sdonf/ ukrÜPDonf 4if;\ marketing ESifh distribution system udkvnf; aumif;oxuf aumif;atmif MudK;pm;vsuf½Sdonf/ 2009ckESpfwGif tmrcHa&mif;csonfh sales associates aygif; 28400 udk xyfrHcefUtyfcJhjyD; pkpkaygif;vdkifpif& sales associates aygif; 75300 txda&muf½SdatmifMudK;yrf; aqmif½GufcJhonf/


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" Investment and Investment Results"

ukrÜPD\&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;rS tom;wif&aiGonf 2007ckESpfwGif $ 2.3 billion, 2008 ckESpfwGif $ 2.6 billion, 2009 ckESpfwGif $ 2.8 billion &½SdcJhonf/ odUk jzpf&m txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;t& AFLAC Inc onf 4if;\ main business operation jzpfaom Insurance Industry twGif; a&&SnftompD;&rI ½Sdonf[kqdkEdkifonf/ 2.

uk r Ü P D u vk y f u d k i f a qmif ½ G u f a om vk y f i ef ; \oabmobm0ES i f h 4 if ; u provide vk y f a om product / service onf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHolwpfOD;twGuf ½dk;½Sif;ítvG,fwulem;vnfEdkifygovm; ? vlwpfOD;onf touftmrcH (odkU) usef;rma&;ESifhywfoufonfh aq;0g;ukorIp&dwfaxmufyHhrI tmrcH (odUk ) ]uifqm}a&m*gESiyhf wfoufonfh tmrcH? rawmfwqxdcu kd 'f Pf&m&rIrsm;ESihf ywfoufonfh tmrcH policy rsm;udk 0,f,lvdkygu AFLAC Inc xHrS 0,f,l&½SdEdkifonf/ odkUjzpf&m ukrÜPDrSa&mif;csaom product / tmrcH policy rsm;onf wpf e nf ; qd k a omf uk r Ü P D v k y f u d k i f a qmif ½ G u f o nf h vk y f i ef ; oabmobm0rSm Investor wpfOD;twGuf tvG,fwulem;vnfEdkifpGrf;½Sdayonf/ 3.

ukrÜPD\

Capital Structure

onf

Investor

tm; qGJaqmifEdkifpGrf; ½Sdygovm;?

30&uf 9v 2010 aeUpGJt& ukrÜPDonf umv½Snfacs;aiG ( long tern debt ) $ 3.01billion ½Sdonf/ 2009ckESpfwGif ukrÜPD\ net profit rSm $ 1.833 billion ½SdonfudkawGU&onf/ odkUjzpf&m ukrÜPD\onf 4if;wif½Sdaeaomdebt udk 1.64 ESpftwGif; aMuatmifqyfEdkifonf[k ,lq&onf/ xdkUaMumifhukrÜPD\ capital structure onf Investor wpfOD;twGuf favourable jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifonf/


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4.

ukrÜPD\ Year

Earning

38

onf cdkifrmí wuf&dyfjyaeygovm;? Earning Per Share (US$)

2000

1.20

2001

1.34

2002

1.56

2003

1.89

2004

2.30

2005

2.54

2006

2.85

2007

3.27

2008

2.62

2009

3.91

2010

4.96

2000 ckESpfwGif AFLAC Inc \ EPS onf $ 1.20 ½Sdonf/ 2010ckESpfwGif ukrÜPD\EPS onf $ 4.96 txdwdk;wufvmcJhonf/ 2008ckESpfwGif ukrÜPD\EPS onf tenf;i,favsmhenf;cJhonf/ þonfrmS 2007ckEpS af ESmif;ydik ;f wGif tpjyKcJah omurÇmvH;k qdik &f m pD;yGm;a&;aES;auG;rIaMumifjh zpfEikd o f nf/


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odkUjzpf&m ukrÜPD\ EPS onf vGefcJhaomq,fESpftwGif; annual compounding rate 15.24 % jzifhwdk;wufvmcJhJjyD; vGefcJhaomig;ESpftwGif; 14.32 % jzifhwdk;wufcJhonf/ odkUjzpf&m ukrÜPD\ earning onf vGefcJhaom q,fESpftwGif; strong and upward trend ½Sdonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ 5.

uk r Ü P D o nf &½S d v maom0if a iG u d k rd r d u Rrf ; usif & m e,f y ,f t wG i f ; wG i f o m jyef í cG J a 0? &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI ½Sdygovm; ? ukrÜPDonf q,fESpfwmumvtwGif;&½Sdvmaom 0ifaiGrsm;udk rdrduRrf;usifonfh insurance industry twGif;wGifom jyefí&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHcJhonf/ 0ifaiG&½Sdvmwdkif; tjcm;aom insurance company rsm;udk0,f,ljcif; (odkU) rdrd\ sales ? marketing ESifh distrubution system rsm;udkvuf½Sdxuf d tmrcH policy rsm;ydrk akd &mif;cs&ap&ef &nf½, G í f t&nftcsif;½S?d ydí k aumif;atmif upgrade vkyjf cif;? rdr\ xufjrufaom sales associates rsm;wdk;csJUcefUtyfjcif; ponfhrdrduRrf;usifonfh insurance e,fy,f twGif;wGifom &if;ESSD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm; jyKvkyfcJhonf[k,lqEdkifonf/ 6.

ukrÜPDonf 4if;\

Share

rsm;udkjyefí0,f,lcJhygovm;?

2000ckESpfwGif ukrÜPDrS issued vkyfxm;cJhaom common share pkpkaygif;rSm 529.21 millions ½SdjyD; 2010ckESpfwGif outstanding common share pkpkaygif;rSm 469.66 millions om½Sd&m q,fESpfwmtwGif; ukrÜPDonf common share pkpkaygif; 59.55 millions udk share buyback program t& jyef0,fcJhonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ odkUjzpf&m ukrÜPD\ management team onf &½Sdvmaom0ifaiGudk ukrÜPDydkif½Sifrsm; jzpfaom shareholder rsm;\ tusdK;udkOD;xdyfxm;um shareholder value wufap&ef t"duxm; vkyfaqmifcJhonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/


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uk r รœ P D \ Management Team onf retained earning ud k wufvmatmif xda&mufpGm &if;ESSD;jrยงKyfESHrIjyKcJhygovm; ?

EPS

ES i f h

Year

EPS ( US$ )

2000

1.20

0.17

2001

1.34

0.19

2002

1.56

0.23

2003

1.89

0.30

2004

2.30

0.38

2005

2.54

0.44

2006

2.85

0.55

2007

3.27

0.80

2008

2.62

0.96

2009

3.91

1.12

2010

4.96

1.14

Total

28.44

6.28

40

shareholder value

Dividend Declared Per Share ( US$ )


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ukrÜPD\ q,fESpfwmtwGif; pkpkaygif; EPS rSm $ 28.44 jzpfjyD; 4if;q,fESpfwmtwGif;wGif ukrÜPDonf dividend tjzpf wpf½S,f,mvsif pkpkaygif; $ 6.28 ( 22.08 % ) cGJa0ay;cJhonf/ odkUjzpf&m q,fESpfwmtwGif; ukrÜPD\ retained earning rSm wpf½S,f,mvsif $ 22.16 ( 77.91 % ) jzpfonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ xdkq,fESpfwmtwGif;wGifyif ukrÜPD\ EPS onf 2000jynfhESpfü $ 1.20 ½SdcJh&mrS Ü \ D EPS onf $ 3.76 wd;k wufvmcJo h jzifh 2010ckEpS u f ek q f ;kH csdew f iG f $ 4.96 txdw;kd wufvmcJ&h m ukrP q,fESpfwmtwGif;wGif ukrÜPD\ management team onf retained earning per share $ 22.16 udk toHk;csí 16.96 % return ( EPS $ 3.76 ) &½Sdatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhonf/ 8.

ukrÜPD\

return on shareholder equity

Year

ROE %

2001

12.7

2002

12.9

2003

14.8

2004

15.7

2005

16.3

2006

17.2

2007

18.4

2008

18.9

onf ysrf;rQtxufwGif ½Sdygovm;?


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2009

21.8

2010

23 ( estimate )

42

average return on shareholder equity for 10 years = 17.17 %

vGefcJhaomESpfoHk;q,ftwGif; tar&duefukrÜPDrsm;\ ysrf;rQ return on shareholder equity rSm 12% jzpf&m AFLAC Inc \ vGefcJhaomq,fESpftwGif; ysrf;rQ return on shareholder equity onf 17.17% jzpfojzifh above average [kqdkEdkifonf/ 9.

ukrÜPD\

Return on Total Asset Year

onf wpforwfwnf;jrifhrm;rI ½Sdygovm;? Return on Total Asset %

2001

1.81

2002

1.83

2003

1.93

2004

1.99

2005

2.29

2006

2.39

2007

2.45

2008

1.58


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43

2.18

2010 2.65 ( Estimate ) average return on total asset for 10 years = 2.11 % vGefcJhaomq,fESpftwGif; ukrÜPD\ average return on total asset onf 2.11%

½Sdonf/ 2008ckEpS w f iG f ukrP Ü \ D return on total asset onf 1.58 % ½Scd &hJ m 4if;rSmurÇmvH;k qdik &f m pD;yGm;a&;aES;auG; rIaMumifhjzpfonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ xdkESpfrSvGJí ukrÜPD\ return on total asset onf strong and upward trend jzpfonfudkawGU&onf/ 10.

ukrÜPDonf vuf½Sd

earning

udk&½Sd&ef

capital expenditures

rsm;pGmoHk;&ef vdktyfygovm;?

ukrÜPDonf pwifwnfaxmifcJhonfh 1973ckESpfrSpí insurance vkyfief;udkvkyfudkifvmcJhonf/ ukrÜPD\ earning wdk;wufap&eftwGuf capital intensive jzpfaom puf½HkMuD;rsm;? tvkyf½HkMuD;rsm; rvdktyfbJ ukrÜPD\ insurance policy rsm;udk a&mif;csay;rnfh sales associate rsm;udkomcefUtyf&ef vdktyfayonf/ vkyfief;qufvufvnfywf&ef aiG&if;rsm;pGmrvdkbJ ukrÜPD\0ifaiG&½Sdvmwdkif; tjcm; insurance company udk 0,f,ljcif; (odkU) dividend rsm; ydkrdkcGJa0ay;jcif; (odkU) shareholder value wufap&ef outstanding share rsm;udk jyefvnf0,f,ljcif;wdkU jyKvkyfEdkifojzifh þtajctaersm;onf investor wpfOD;twGuf tvm;tvmaumif;onf[k,lqEdkifonf/ ]]aps;EIef;oHk;oyfcsuf}} 11.(a) "Initial Rate of Return

( Price Analysis )

udk wGufcsufjcif;"

Current Stock Price Per Share US$ 57.90 ( 9.2.2011 ) azmfjyygaeUpGJ½Sd share wpfapmif\ market price t& initial rate of return rSm 8.57 % jzpfonf/


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11. ( b ) US Government

44

ESifhEdIif;,SOfMunfhjcif;

,ckvuf½SdtcsdefwGif long-term US government bond \ interest rate rSm 5% atmufwGif ½Sdaomfvnf; risk udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;onfhtaejzifh historical interest rate 6% jzifhwGufygu ukrÜPD\½S,f,m wpfapmifvQif relative value US$ 82.67 udk&rnf/ qdkvdkonfht"dyÜg,frSm 2010ckESpftwGif; earning $ 4.96 udk&&eftwGuf US government bond wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrnfqdkvQif $ 82.67 ukefusrnfjzpf&m instover wpfOD;taejzifh EdIif;,SOfp&m investment ESpfck½Sdvmrnfjzpfonf/ yxrwpfckrSm wpfESpfwm twGif; earning $ 4.96 &½Sd&eftwGuf $ 82.67 wefzdk;½Sdaom US government bond ( 6 % fixed return ) wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;jzpfonf/ 'kwd,wpfckrSm market price $ 57.90 ½SdjyD; initial rate of return 8.57 % ½Sdum vGefcJhaomig;ESpftwGif; EPS ESpfpOfxyfwdk;EIef; ( annual compounding rate ) 14.32 % ½Sdaom AFLAC Inc \½S,f,mwGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;jzpfonf/ odkUqdkvQif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHolwpfOD;taejzifh txufazmfjyyg investment ESpfckteuf rdrdtwGuftusdK;tjrwfydk½Sdonfh investment udka½G;cs,frnf[k arQmfvifh&onf/ US Treasury bond ESifhEdIif;,SOfvQif ukrÜPD\ stock rSm investor wpfOD;twGuf ydkí favourable jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifonf/ 12.

uk r Ü P D \ wG u f c suf j cif ;

Stock

ud k

Equity / bond

tjzpf , l q um vmrnf h q ,f E S p f t wG u f cef U rS e f ;

2010 ckESpfukefqHk;csdefwGif ukrÜPD\ equity per share onf $ 24.40 ½Sd&m vmrnfhq,fESpf twGif;wGif ukrÜPDonf (1) 4if;\ average annual return on equity udk 17.17 % twdkif;qufvufí maintain vkyfEdkifrnf (2) xdk return on equity \ 77.91 % udkvnf; retain vkyfEdkifrnfqdkvQif ukrÜPD\ return on equity onf aemifq,fESpftwGif; ESpfpOf 13.38 % jzifhwdk;wufaernf[k ,lq


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EdkifjyD; aemifq,fESpfjynfhonfhtcsdef 2020 ckESpfwGif ukrÜPD\ equity per share onf $ 85.66 ½Sdrnf[kcefUrSef;Edkifonf/ tu,fí 2020ckESpfwGifvnf; ukrÜPDonf 4if;\ return on equity udk 17.17 % twdkif; qufvufí maintain vkyfEdkifcJhrnfqdkvQif xkdtcsdefüukrÜPD\ EPS onf $ 14.70 ½Sdoifhayonf/ xdUk tjyif 2020ckEpS w f iG f ukrP Ü \ D ½S,, f mwpfapmifukd 4if;\ysr;f rQ P/E jzpfaom 9 jzifh trade vkyaf ernf qdkvQif 4if;\market price per share onf $ 132.3 ½Sdrnf[k cefUrSef;Edkifonf/ tu,fí Investor wpfOD;onf 2010ckESpf 'DZifbmv 31&ufaeUwGif AFLAC Inc ½S,f,mwpfapmifudk market price jzpfaom $ 56.43 udkay;um0,f,lcJhjyD; 4if;udk2020ckESpfwGif $132.3 jzifhjyefía&mif;cscJhrnfqdkvQif 4if;taejzifhq,fESpftwGif; pretax annual compounding rate of return 8.89% &½Sdrnf[kqdkEdkifonf/ tu,fí aemifq,fESpftwGif;&½Sdrnfh dividend rsm;udkaygif;xnfhygu return rSm 8.89 % xufydkEdkifrnf/ 13. Annual EPS Growth

ud k t oH k ; jyKí vmrnf h q ,f E S p f \

Annual Compounding Return

udkcefUrSef;wGufcsufjcif; h ,fEpS t f wGi;f wGiv f nf; ESppf Of 14.32 % wd;k wufjyD; tu,fíom ukrP Ü \ D EPS onf vmrnfq 4if;\77.91% udk retained earning tjzpfqufvufxdef;odrf;um 22.08 % udk dividend tjzpfcGJa0ay;rnf qdkvQif atmufygtwdkif;&½SdEdkifrnf/ Year

EPS $

Dividend $

2011

5.67

1.25

2012

6.48

1.43

2013

7.41

1.64


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8.47

1.87

2015

9.68

2.14

2016

11.07

2.44

2017

12.66

2.79

2018

14.47

3.19

2019

16.54

3.65

2020

18.91

4.18

46

$ 24.58

þwGufenf;t& 2020ckESpfwGif ukrÜPD EPS onf $ 18.91 ½Sdrnf[kcefUrSef;Edkifonf/ tu,fí xdktcsdefwGif ukrÜPD\ stock udk average annual P/E ratio 9 jzifh trade vkyfaernfqdkvQif market price taejzifh $ 170.19 ½SdEdkifonf/ 4if;udk dividend $ 24.58 jzifhaygif;ygu wpf½S,f,mvQif pretax return $ 194.77 &Edkifonf/ tu,fí Investor wpfOD;onf 2010ckESpf 'DZifbmv 31&ufaeUwGif ukrÜPD\ wpf½S,f,maygufaps;jzpfaom $ 56.43 ay;um0,f,lcJhygu aemifq,fESpf2020ckESpfa&mufonfh tcsdefwGif 4if;\ pretax annual compounding rate of return rSm 13.19% ½Sdrnf[kcefUrSef;Edkifonf/ þcefUrSef;csufrsm;tm;vHk;onf vGefcJhaomq,fESpftwGif;jzpfay:cJhonfh ukrÜPD\performance ay:tajccH o nf / od k U jzpf & muk r Ü P D \ performance onf v nf ; aumif ; ? Insurance industry onfvnf;aumif; Federal Reserve \ monetary policy onfvnf;aumif;? tjcm;aom factors rsm;onf vnf;aumif; vmrnfhq,fESpftwGif;wGif tajymif;tvJrsm;pGm½SdEdkifojzifh Investor wpfOD;taejzifh / tzufzufrSavhvmoHk;oyfum Investment decision udk csrSwfoifhayonf/


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tMuyftwnf;rsm;udak usmv f mT ;Ncif; (tydik ;f 2) a'gufwmaeZifvwf

tvkyfig;qifh JT r&yg/ ta&;BuD;aomtvkyf (5) qifh (Five Critical Tasks) ½Syd gonf/ þig;qifrh mS a½Smifví -

Sense Making Decision Making Meaning Making

-

Terminating Learning

[líjzpfonf/

(2008) urÇmYp;D yGm;a&;tMuyftwnf;wGif ukrP Ü t D csKd Ytaejzifh Sense Making [laom BudKwif tm½Hk&rI ½SdaecJhMuNyD;jzpfonf/ yg;eyfMuaomolrsm;u (2007) ESpfv,favmufrSmwGifyif tm½Hk cHEikd cf MhJ uNyD;jzpfonf/ tMuyftwnf;udk &ifqikd Mf u&aomumvwGif tqH;k tjzwfrsm;onf rsm;pGm ta&;BuD;vmygonf/ tar&duefwiG f wdu k cf wfomG ;aom uufx&Demrkew f ikd ;f wGif Bush tpd;k &\ tqHk;tjzwf (Decision Making) cRwfacsmfcJhojzifh ta&twGufrsm;pGmaomolwdkY rvdktyfbJ'ku© a&mufcJhMuonf/ urÇmYukefoG,fa&;taqmuftOD; twdkufcdkufcHcJh&NyD; ‘'ku©a&mufolrsm;udk u,fwif&mwGif NrdKUawmf0ef\ tqH;k tjzwfrsm; (Decision Making) udk tar&duefjynforl sm;u tawmf oabmuscJhMuonf/ tcuf t cJ u d k ausmf v T m ;ajz½S i f ; &mwG i f t"d y Ü g ,f a umif ; pG m jynf h 0 &rnf r S m (tusdK;NzpfatmifNrifNcif;) vnf;ta&;BuD;yg\/ tqH;k tjzwfwYkd wiG f wefz;kd wpfpw kH pf&m½Spd NrJjzpf\/


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t"dyÜm,f½Sdaom qHk;jzwfcsuf (Meaning Making) jzpfygrS wefzdk;tjynfYt0udk &½Sdrnfjzpfonf/ odYk rv S nf; tMuyftwnf;udk ay;qyfrt I enf;qH;k jzifh ausmfvmT ;Edik rf nfjzpfonf/ tMuyftwnf;udk tqH;k owfonft h qifo h nf Terminating jzpf\/ ppfwUkd \ oabmw&m;wGif wdkufppfaumif;½Sd&ovdk cGmppfaumif;vnf;½Sd&ygonf/ cGmppfaumif;udk tcsdKYursm;pGmtav;rrl BudKwif rjyifqifwwfMuay/ tMuyftwnf;wdkYudk ausmfvTm;&mwGif aoaooyfoyfjzifY tqH;k owfomG ;Edik Mf uovdk NyD;pvG,t f qH;k owfomG ;Muolrsm;u ydí k rsm;jym;onfuakd wGY&onf/ aemufqHk;tqifhonf oifcef;pmxkwf,ljcif; (Learning) jzpf\/ atmifjrifrIwGifjzpfap? qH;k ½I;H rIwiG jf zpfap ]tb,fah Mumif}h qdo k nfuakd umif;pGm oifcef;pm,lwwfMu&onf/ csrf;omaom Edik if rH sm; csr;f omMu&NyD; qif;&JaomEdik if rH sm; qif;&JMu&jcif;rSm þoifcef;pm&,lrI tuGmtjcm;onf taMumif;rsm;pGmxJrS wpfyg;jzpfonf[k avhvmqef;ppforl sm;u qdMk uonf/ jrefrmYvrl pI ;D yGm;a&; e,fy,fwiG v f nf; wpfpw kH pf&mtm;enf;vsuf ½Sad eonfuakd wGY&ygonf/ hf x kd m; tMuyftwnf;ay: pDrcH efYcrJG I (Crisis Management) udk tjcm;wpfenf;jzifY t"dymÜ ,f zGiq onfrmS vnf; pdw0f ifpm;p&m aumif;onf/ The art s. . to define hat the crisis s ecificall is or could e and hat has caused it or could cause it .

tMuyftwnf;ESifhywfoufí tao;pdwfod½SdNyD; rnfrQoufa&mufEidk pf rG ;f ½So d nf? rnfrQoufa&muf cJo h nf? rnfrQoufa&mufvdrfhrnfudk od½Sdjcif;[kem;vnf Edkifygonf/

qefYusifbuf? y#dyu©onfvnf; tMuyftwnf; Conflict

[lonfy#dyu© qefYusifbufoabm jzpfonf/ Edik if aH &;? vlraI &;? pD;yGm;a&;paomu@pHw k iG f a½S m if v T J í r&pG m awG Y &wwf o nf / rd o m;pk w pf p k twG i f ; rS m vnf ; awG Y Ek d i f í tzG J U tpnf ; rsm;twG i f ;


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üvnf;awGY&ovdk EdkifiHrsm;tqifhüvnf; awGY&onf/ vlwdkif;awGYBuHK&rnfh tMuyftwnf;rsdK; jzpfonf/ Conflict wGif tqifh(3)qifY ½Sdonf/

tqifh (1) S ir ishes

tqift h edrq hf ;kH tajctaejzpfonf/ aeYpOf odYkr[kwf rMumcPjzpfEdkifonf/ tjrifrwlaomtcg? cH,lcsuf rwlaomtcg? ,HMk unfcsuf rwlaomtcg? vkyif ef;rwl? 0g'rwlaomtcgrsKd ;wGif jzpfwwfonfh 0da&m'dypkH jH zpfonf/ aeYpOfeD;yg;rQjzpfwwfí Everyday Situation tajctae jzpfonf/ ajz½Sif;enff; qefYusifbuf0ad &m"djzpfonfY ESpzf ufv;kH udk tm;ay;í ½IaxmifYEpS rf sdK;vH;k rS MunfY½I Edik af tmif pDpOfay;oifo h nf/ wpfzufEiS w hf pfzuf em;vnfr&I ½Sad tmif aqmif½u G o f ifo h nf/ ]tu,fíom} ( If ) [laom tawG;rsKd ;udk ESpzf ufv;kH rS&½SEd ikd &f ef jzpfonf/ ]tu,fíom} [lonft h awG;tac:onf tjcm;enf;vrf; (Alternative) udk ½SmazG&eftaxmuftuljyK ygvdrfhrnf/ yg0ifywfouforl sm;udk olwYkd rnfoYkd cpH m;&onfukd xkwaf zmfciG ahf y;&efvo kd nf/

tqifY (2) Confrontations

jyif;xefrI 'kw, d tqifo h Ykd a&mufvmonf/ xdyw f u kd af wGYqjkH cif; tajctaejzpfonf/ wpfzuf zufraS vQmhay;&ef &nf½, G cf sufenf;yg;vmonf/ (Bigger blow-ups, frequent) rMumcPjzpfwwfNyD;


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wdu k yf yJG ?kH 0da&m"dvu©Pm ydí k jyif;xefvmygonf/ þtqifw h iG f n§Ed idI ;f Edik rf I tawmfcufcv J monf/

ajz½Sif;enf; -

0da&m"d0ef;usifukd aumif;aomtajctaewpf&yf a&mufatmifzefw;D &rnf/ qefYusifbufjzpfonfh ]taMumif;t&m} udo k majz½Si;f NyD; vly*k Kd¾ vf\cHpm;csufukd rxnfh&yg/ rajyvnfonfh tcsufrsm;udk pkyrkH xm;oih/f vGeu f aJ om tjyKtrlrsm;udk xde;f odr;f &efjzpfonf/ tzGUJ tpnf;\tusdK;? wm0ef,rl u I t kd ajccHoifo h nf/ ZifbmabGwiG f a&mbwfr*l gbDEiS hf ½Se*f ½GKd if;wdYk wpfBudru f Confrontation BuD;rm;pGm jzpfcMhJ uao;onf/ wwd,tkypf \ k 0ifa&mufnEd§ idI ;f rIjzifY yk*Kd¾ vfa&;tajccHrsm;udk z,f½mS ;umtawmf n§dEIdif; aqmif½GufcJh&onf/ txufyg ajz½Sif;enf;rsm;udk vdkufemusifhoHk;EdkifcJhMuí ,cktcg a&mbwfr*l gbDu or®w&mxl;ESihf ½Se*f ½GKd i;f u 0efBuD;csKyf &mxl;udk rQa0&,lMuNyD; EdkifiHwm0efudktwlwuG xrf;aqmifaeEdkifMuNyDjzpfonf/

tqifY (3) Full Scale War

tjrifq h ;kH aom 0da&m'dvu©Pmtqifh jzpfonf/ jzpfcaJ omfvnf; xdt k qifo h Ykd a&mufcv hJ Qif jyefvnfaphpyf n§Ed idI ;f &ef tawmfcufco J mG ;NyD jzpfonf/ wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D ? wpfzufESifhwpfzuf olEdkif? udk,fEdkifacsrIef;aom tqifhjzpfonf/ Zero Sum Game [laom t<uif;rJh tajctaejzpfonf/ wpfOD;EdkifwpfOD;½IH; &v'fxGufonf/ oD&dvuFmwGif tpdk;&ESifYusm;olykefwdkY þtqifha&mufcJhMuí aemufqHk;tNyD;tjywf acsrIef;Mu&musm;olykefwdkY vHk;0½IH;edrfhysufpD;cJhonfh


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tajctaeodYk a&mufc&hJ onf/ þtqifw h iG f qH;k ½I;H rI? ysufp;D rIwYkd BuD;rm;Muonf/ urÇmUppfrsm; onfvnf; þtqift h xda&mufí jzpfymG ;cJMh u&jcif;jzpfonf/

ajz½Sif;enf; þtqifYwGif ajz½Sif;&ef (Resolve) xuf Mum;0if (Intervence) jzefajzjcif;rsdK;uom vufawGUwGif trSew f u,f tvkyjf zpfaMumif; awGY&onf/ tajctaetao;pdwfudk&,lNyD;aqmif½Gufonf/ “Why” bmaMumif[ h al om tajctaear;jref;jcif; twGuf tcsed rf ½Sad wmY? ,kww då efjcif;? aMumif;usKd ; qDavsmfjcif;wdYk xuf jyóemwpf&yf NyD;qH;k a&; odYk om OD;wnfaqmif½u G &f rnfh tajctaersdK;jzpf onf/ 0da&m'djzpfaom ESpzf uftwGu&f nfreS ;f csuu f kd wdu k w f eG ;f csrw S af y;NyD; oabmwlncD suf udk &,l&rnft h ajctaejzpfonf/ tjcm;aomjzpfNyD;udp?ö jzpfqu J pd &ö yfwYkdukd ab;z,fxm;í &nfreS ;f csuu f o kd m ESpzf ufv;kH uydí k tav;teufxm; aqmif½u G Mf uoifo h nf/

pdwfqE´onfomt"du tMuyftwnf;[lonf vlwikd ;f ? vlwikd ;f rvGrJ aoGBuHKawGY&rnfh jyóemwpf&yf jzpfonf/ jyóemrsm;udkajz½Sif;&mwGif azmfjycJhaomtajccHenf;emwdkY ½SdMuaomfvnf; trSefwu,f ta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrSm ]qE´} [laom ‘Will’ omjzpfonf/ ajyvnf&efqE´rSm ESpfbufwGif trSew f u,f ½Sad e&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfO;D csif;tusdK;pD;yGm;xuf trsm;\tusdK;pD;yGm;udk OD;pm;ay; pOf;pm;ygu ajyvnfEikd zf , G &f m½So d nf/


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pDrcH efYcrJG aI umif;jzifo h m ajz½Si;f Edik o f nf tdrfeD;csif;xdkif;EdkifiHwGif qlemrDwdkufcwfoGm;cJh\/ odef;*Pef;jzifhcsDaom vlwdkYaoqHk; cJMh u&onf/ Mega-damage [laom tvGeBf uD;rm;onfh ysufp;D rIMuD;jzpfymG ;cJ&h onf/ xdBk uD;rm;aom tMuyftwnf;udk ajz½Sif;Mu&mwGif tpdk;&-jynfol-tzGJUtpnf;rsm; yl;aygif;aqmif½GufrIjzifh taumif;qH;k vkyaf qmifomG ;Edik cf MhJ uojzifh xdjk zpfpOfwiG f csD;usL;jcif;cHcMhJ uonf/ - CMC (24-hour Crisis Communicaiton Center) udk csufcsif;zGJUpnf;vdkufonf/ - TAT – Tourism Authority of Thailand u jynfyEdik if H (17) Edik if ?H jynfwiG ;f (22) ae&mwdYkü½H;k cef; rsm;zGií hf jzpfpOftao;pdwu f kd tcsdeEf iS t hf rQxkwjf yefco hJ nf/ - oufqikd &f m0efBuD;rsm;? uRr;f usio f rl sm;? tzGYJtpnf;rsm;rS wm0ef½o dS rl sm; csucf si;f awGUqHí k Action Plan [laom ta&;,laqmif½u G rf t I pDtpOfukd csrSwcf MhJ uonf/ - xdk Action Plan onf a&wd?k a&½Sn?f r[mAsL[mwdYkukd aumif;pGmNcHKirkH ad omtpDtpOf jzpf^rjzpf jyefvnfoHk;oyfMuonf/ -tpd;k &-jynfoYl vrl t I zGUJ tpnf;rsm;-toif;tzGUJ rsm;rS tpnf;ta0;aygif; (2142) Budru f kd tcsdew f t kd wGi;f jyKvkyEf ikd cf MhJ uonf/ (tzGUJ tpnf;toD;oD;rS jyKvkycf ahJ om tpnf;ta0; aygif; ta&twGujf zpfonf) - yxrOD;qH;k aom xdik ;f \c&D;oGm;vkyif ef; jyefvnfemvefxa&;twGuf “Visitor Motivation” [laom {nfo h nfrsm;\ pdw"f mwfvYHI aqmfa&;udk aqmif½u G o f nf/ - TAT – Tourism Authority of Thailand rS t"duZmwfaqmiftjzpf ae&m,lNyD; “Smart Marketing Campaign” rsm;udk aqmif½u G o f nf/ -wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif ysufpD;rIrsm;udk tjrefqHk;jyifqifonf/ tajccHtaqmuftOD;rsm; jyefvnfwnfaqmufonf/ tpdk;&-ukrÜPDBuD;rsm;rS aiGaMu;xnfh0ifíyl;aygif; aqmif½GufMuonf/ -]aps;EIe;f t"du} (Price-driven Marketing Strategy) udk toH;k jyKí ]wefz;kd enf;c&D;pOf} “Low cost tour programme” rsm; ? “Fun Package” rsm;udk tav;xm;aqmif½u G o f nf/


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CMC

uWebsite wpfckudkwnfaxmifí jzpfysufrIrsm;udk tcsdefESifhtrQwpfurÇmvHk;udk odaponf/ - rD'D,mtoHk;csrIudk us,fjyefYpGmaqmif½Gufonf/ CNN, MTV Southeast Asia, MTV India ponfwYkd tjyif tjcm;rD', D mrsm;udk us,fjyefYpmG toH;k jyKcJo h nf/

pDrcH efYcrJG aI umif;ESiYf BudKwifjyifqifrI

BudKwifjyifqifjcif;onfyifvQif pDrHcefYcGJrIaumif;jzpfygonf/ jzpfvmEdkifonfrsm;udk BudKwifarQmfawG;í jzpfvmonfhtcgwGifvnf; pDrHcefYcGJrIaumif;wdkYjzifh tMuyftwnf;udk ausmv f mT ;Mu&ygonf/ pDrcH efYcrJG q I o kd nfrmS rdrw d pfO;D wnf;ay:pDrcH efYcrJG rI o S nf tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;tv,f EdkifiHtqifh pDrHcefYcGJrIrsm;yg0ifygonf/ þtwGuf pDrHcefYcGJrIynm? tawGYtBuHK? rdrd\ynmESifh ud, k &f nfu, kd af oG;wdYk ukd aygif;pyftoH;k jyK&ygonf/ tem*wfonf BuD;rm;aomajymif;vJrrI sm;jzifY urÇmBuD;udv k nfywfaprnf[k avhvmolrsm;? ynm½Sirf sm;u cefYreS ;f xm;ygonf/ qef;opfrw I Ykdukd pufrv S n S x hf w k o f vdk toH;k jyKomG ;Murnf[v k nf; qdkxm;onf/ þa&pD;aMumif;wGif vdkufygEdkif&ef ta&;BuD;onf/ þonfrSmyif oifhtwGuf tMuyftwnf;wpfck jzpfvmygvdrrhf nf/ /


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tydkif;(2)

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Welcome to " Green Learning Society "

94

A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS jzefUa0aom Investing, Business & Management Digital Learning Kit (DLK) udzk wf½o I l pmzwfy&dwo f wfrsm;xJrS pdw0f ifpm;ol rnforl qdt k m; Green Learning Society Member tjzpf0ifa&mufEikd &f ef zdwaf c:tyfygonf/ Member Requirements: (i)

G &f ygrnf/ Member Form tm; jynfph pkH mG jznfph u (Ä jyxm;aomae&mrsm;ü rjzpfraejznf&h ygrnf/ jynfph pkH mG jznfx h m;aom Member Form rsm; udo k m “ rJEdIuf&mwGi”f xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;ygrnf/

(i i ) jznfph u G jf yD;aom Member Form rsm;udk A 1 Learning Technologies Group odUk vlu, kd f wdik jf zpfap? pmwdu k rf jS zpfap? E-mail (a1.digitallearningkit@gmail.com) odUk jzpfap ay;ydUk Edik yf gonf/ (i i i ) ay;ydUk aom Member Form rsm;tm; Member Card No. rsm;ESit hf wl Investing, Business & Management Digital Learning Kit wGif azmfjyjyD;aemuf A 1 Learning Technologies Group ü "gwfyw kH pfyEkH iS t hf wl vlu, kd w f ikd v f ma&muf xkw, f El ikd yf gonf/ Member Benefits

(i)

Green Learning Society Member rsm;xJrS 10 issue jyD;wdkif;rJEIdufí rJaygufoludk “ Green Learning Society Lucky Member qk” udak y;tyfrnf jzpfygonf/

(ii)

A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS tcgtm;avsmfpmG Seminar rsm;wGiv f nf; “tcrJh”

wufa&mufEikd rf nf jzpfygonf/ (iii) A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS tcgtm;avsmfpmG aqmif&u G af om Social Activity

rsm;wGiv f nf; yg0ifEikd rf nf jzpfygonf/


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Green Learning Society Member Form

NRC.No

Date of Birth Photo

Fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name Education

Other Qualification

Current Job

Address

Phone No.

E-mail

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qef;opfvmonfh ynma&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; (ygarmu©a'gufwmatmifxGef;ouf) ynma&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; (educational institutions) udkpOf;pm; oH k ; oyf w J h t cg orm;½d k ; uszG J U pnf ; xm;onf h ausmif ; om;rsm;? aumvdyfrsm;? wuúodkvfrsm;udk pOf;pm;BurSmjzpfygw,f/ ynma&; tzGJUpnf;rsm;\ ueOD;ZpfjrpfrSm bmoma&;taqmufttHkrsm;om jzpfygw,f/ Oa&myrSm ynma&;taqmufttHkrsm;[m c&pf,mef bmombkef;BuD;rsm;rS pwifay:aygufvmwmjzpfygw,f/ tckacwfrSm urÇmausmfwJh Oxford eJU Cambridge wuúodkvfawG[m trSefawmh bkef;BuD;rsm;om jzpfygw,f/ 'DvdkygyJjyifopfrSm&SdwJh Sorborne wuúodkvf[mvnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;tjzpf ueOD;rSm&yfwnfvmcJhwm jzpfygw,f/ jrefrmjynfrmS vnf; a&S;,ciftcgu rifnrD if;om;awGa&m &Gmom;awGyg ynmrsm;udkbkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;rSm qnf;yl;oif,l avhvmcJhBuygw,f/ rsufarSmufacwf wpfurÇmvHk;twdkif;twmeJU ,SOfjydKifae&csdefrSm orm;½dk;usynma&;tzGJUtpnf; rsm;tjyif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;taeeJU udk,fydkifwuúodkvfaumvdyfrsm;udk zGifhvSpfxlaxmifvmwmawGudk pdwf0ifpm;zG,fawGUcJh&ygw,f/ ½k½Sm;EdkifiH armfpudkjrdKUrSm&SdwJh a&tm;vQyfppfukrÜPDwpfckrSm tckvdkudk,fydkif wuúodkvfwpfckzGifhvSpfjyD; vQyfppf"gwftm;udkoHk;pGJolrsm; p&dwfpuoufompGmeJU jzefUa0EdkifzdkUpDrHcefUcGJ olrsm;udk oifBum;ay;vsuf&Sdygw,f/ tckvdkyJ b&mZD;EdkifiH Riode Janeiro rSm&SdwJh a&eHukrÜPD petrobas [m yifv,fork'´&matmufrSm&SdwJha&eHrsm;udk ajray:ta&mufpkyf,lxkwfvkyfrI enf;awGudkukrÜPDydkif wuúodkvfrSm oifBum;vsuf&Sdygw,f/


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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

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w½kwEf ikd if t H m; Edik if aH &;yx0D0if ½Iaxmifrh aS vhvmjcif; (tydik ;f 2) OD;udkudkvdIif vlO;D a&t& w½kwEf ikd if o H nf urÇmay:ü vltrsm;qH;k aexdik af om Edik if jH zpfjyD;oef;aygif; 1300ausmf ½du S m urÇmv h Ol ;D a&\ ig;yHw k pfyckH efUjzpfonf/ vlO;D a&ysHEYHS aexdik rf u I akd vhvmygu rd;k av0oaumif;rGeí f ajrqDBoZmBuG,f0um yifv,fxGufayguf½Sdaom EdkifiHta½SUydkif;jrpf0uRef;ay: urf;ajca'orsm;üom trsm;qH;k aexdik Bf uonf/ vkOl ;D a& 80% cefUrSm Edik if \ H 20% cefUom½Sad om ta½SUbufviG jf yifüaexdik Bf ujyD; awmawmifxx l yfí ajrrsuEf mS oGijf yif cufcBJ urf;wrf;aom Edik if t H wGi;f ydik ;f a'orsm;ürl vlaeBuJyg;Buonf/ w½kwfEdkifiHü [efw½kwfvlrsdK;onf t"duvTrf;rdk;aomvlrsdK;BuD;jzpfjyD; vlOD;a& (90%) cefU&Sdonf/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pk (50)ausmf&Sd&m jrpfzsm;a'orsm;? awmifay:ukef;jrifha'orsm;ESifh taemufbuf oJuEÅm&a'orsm;ü BuJjyefUpGmaexdik Bf uonf/


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yx0D0if tcsuftvufrsm;rS azmfxkwfcsufrsm; w½kwfEkdifiH\ yx0Dtcsuftvufrsm;rS aygif;pnf;jcHK,loHk;oyf&ygu yxrqHk;awGUjrifEkdifonfh tcsufrmS w½kwEf ikd if o H nf t&G,t f pm;ESiv hf Ol ;D a&t& tvGeBf uD;rm;onfEh ikd if jH zpfonft h wGuf tiftm;BuD; Edik if t H jzpf&yfwnfaejcif;yifjzpfonf/ w½kwo f rdik ;f wpfavsmuf ESpaf ygif;axmifEiS chf sí D pOfqufrjywfwnf&dS cJah om Edik if BH uD;jzpfum urÇmUA[dck sufr wdik ;f jynfBuD; (Middle Kingdom) [líyif w½kww f Ukd u,if;wdUk \ wdik ;f jynfukd wifpm;ac:a0:cJBh uonf/ ppftiftm;aumif;vSí w½kwEf ikd if u H kd odr;f ydu k Ef ikd cf ahJ omrGe*f rkd sm;yif xkxnfcikd rf mvSonfh w½kw, f Ofaus;rIxüJ aysm0f ifomG ;cJ&h onf/ 19&mpkoUkd wdik af tmif urÇmt h iftm;MuD;jzpfcjhJ yD; taemufEdkifiHe,fcsJUrsm;\ wdk;wufaomenf;ynmudk r,SOfEdkifonfhtwGuf 20&mpkwGifbHkuRefjzpfcJh&jyD; avmu"H\tedryhf ikd ;f umvrsm;ESihf BuHKcJ&h onf/ odkUaomf w½kwfEdkifiH\BuG,f0aom o,H ZmwESifh vltiftm;t&if;tjrpfwdkUu EdkifiHa&; tcGifhtcgoifhonfESifh tiftm;BuD;xGm;vm&ef cdik cf ikd rf mrm taxmuftulay;vsu&f o dS nf/ ordik ;f aBumif;tqufquf w½kwEf ikd if t H ay: zdp;D aeonfh t"dupdefac:rIonfum; tjcm;r[kwf/ ,if;\ BuD;rm;vSaom vlOD;a&udk 0vifatmifauR;arG; apmifah &SmufEidk af &; jyóemyifjzpfonf/ Edik if {H &d,m \ (15%) cefUompdu k yf sdK;Edik jf yD; ,if;{&d,mrsm; üyifvt l rsm;pku aexdik Bf uav&m vlO;D a&wd;k rsm; vmonfESifhtrQ pdkufysdK;ajrenf;yg; vmonfh jyóemESihf BuHKae&onf/ xdak Bumifh ajrusO;f usO;f wGif txGufEIef;rsm;rsm;&aprnfh pdkufysdK;a&;pepf (Intensive Farming) udOk ;D pm;ay;&onf/


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jrdKU½Gmrsm;üvnf; ajruGuv f yfrukeaf tmif pdu k yf sdK;onfh (Urban Agriculture) pepfudkvnf;usifhoHk; ae&onf/ ,cktcgenf;ynmwdk;wufrIESifh pepfusaompDrHudef;rsm;aBumifh w½kwf\BuD;xGm;vmaom vlOD;a&udkEdkifeif;pGm auR;arG;Edkifvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; twdwfurl w½kwfEdkifiHonf iwfrGwfacgif;yg;rI uyfab;rsm;ESihf rBumcPBuHKawGUcJ&h onf/ txl;ojzifh e,fcsJUvufatmufuscJjh yD; Edik if t H iftm;csdeUJ cJo h nf/ 19&mpkESifh 20&mpkumvrsm;wGif w½kwfEdkifiHonf tm½S\vlrrmonfBuD; (Sick Man of Asia) [kq&kd avmufatmif iwfrw G q f if;&Jco hJ nf/ þodkUqif;&Jjcif; iwfrGwfjcif;rsm;ESifh umvBum&Snf BuHKawG&jcif;uyif? w½kwf vlrsdK;wdkU\ tEÅ&m,farQmfrSef;um acRwm pkaqmif; jyifqifwwfaomtavhtusifh? tvkyfudkBudK;pm;vkyfudkifrI aiGaBu;csrf;om BuG,f0rIudk tav;xm;jrwfEdk;aomwefzdk; xm;rIponfUtrsdK;om;a&; p½dkufvu©Pm rsm;udkay:xGef;apcJhonf[k qdkEdkifonf/ rnf o d k U yif j zpf a p w½k w f E d k i f i H \ vl O D ; a& BuD ; xG m ;wd k ; wuf v maeonf E S i f h t rQ pm;eyf&du©mvdktyfcsuf ydkrdkBuD;xGm;vmrnf jzpf&maemifwiG jf ynfyrS pm;eyf&u d m© wifoiG ;f &rIydkrdkrsm;jym;vmzG,f&Sdonf/


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w½kwfEdkifiH\ r[mAsL[mtrsdK;om;vHkjcHKa&;ESifh ywfoufíavhvmygu EdkifiH\tESpfydkif; (Core of the country ) tcsuftcsma'oonf EdkifiHta½SUjcrf; urf;ajca'ojzpfonf/ ,if;a'oü ajrmufbufjcrf;wGif EdkifiHa&;t&tpdk;&½Hk;pdkuf&m ayusif;jrdKUawmf&SdjyD; awmifbufjcrf;ü pD;yGm;a&; A[dkcsufjzpfonfh &Sef[dkif; jrdKUawmf&Sdonf/ Ed k i f i H \ puf r I v k y f i ef ; rsm;xG e f ; um;&m txl ; pD ; yG m ;a&;ZH k r sm;rS m vnf ; ,if ; urf ; ajcwpf avQmufüomjzpfonf/ xdkUtjyif t"dupdkufysdK;a&;rSmvnf; ta½SUbufurf;ajc jrpf0uRef;ay: a'orsm;jzpfonf/ vlO;D a&trsm;qH;k ESihf vlox l x l yfq;kH ae&mrsm;rSmvnf; ,if;a'oyifjzpfonf/ xdUk aBumifh usefa'oonf w½kwfEdkifiH\ t"dutusqHk;tESpfydkif;a'o[k qdk&jcif;yifjzpfonf/ xdktjyif urÇmESifhqufoG,fonfh yifv,fqdyfurf; ESifh yifv,fxGufaygufrSmvnf; þa'oyifjzpfonf/ vHkjcHKa&;½Ia'gifhrSBunfhygu þodkUaom EdkifiH\tESpfydkif;a'oudk vHkjcHKatmifumuG,fa&;rSm trsdK;om; vHkjcHKa&;\ t"duOD;pm;ay;vkyfief;jzpf\/ odUk aomfxo kd Ukd vHjk cHKatmif umuG,af &;twGuf t"d u tm;enf ; csuf r S m ,if ; a'oonf ½SnfvQm;us,fjyefUaom yifv,furf;ajc ½SdaejyD; &efol\urf;wuf wdkufcdkufrIudk vrf ; zG i f h x m;ay;&onf h E S , f jzpf a ejcif ; yifwnf;/ a&S;,cifurl w½kwfEdkifiHtwGuf t"dutEÅ&m,frmS uke;f wGi;f ydik ;f rS rGe*f w kd yfrsm; jzpfí r[mwHwdkif;BuD;jzifh ,if;tESpfydkif; a'oudkumuG,fcJh&onf/


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odUk aomf rdik af omif;csD½n S v f Qm;aom yifv,furf; ajcudkrl wHwdkif;cwfír&Edkifacs/ odkUjzpf&mw½kwfEdkifiH twGufcdkifrmawmifhwif;aom yifv,fjyifumuG,fa&; ESiu hf rf;ajcapmifh Bunf;? a&? av? wyfzUJG rsm;wnfaqmuf xm;&ef v d k o nf / wpf c sd e f w nf ; rS m yif &ef o l \ ydwq f Ukd rIc&H ygu tjcm;wpfzufryS ifv,foUkd xGuEf ikd &f ef r[mAsL[mt&efxGufaygufwpfck wnfaqmufxm;&ef vd k o nf / ,if ; xG u f a yguf t wG u f toif h a vsmf q H k ; enf;vrf;rSm jrefrmEdkifiHrSjzwfí tE´d,ork'´&modkU xGuf&efyifjzpf\/ ,cktcgurÇmay:ü a&wyftiftm; tBuD;rm;qH;k jzpfjyD; av,mOfwifppfoabFm tkypf Bk uD;rsm;udk ydkifqdkifxm;onf/ tar&duefEdkifiHESifh w½kwfwdkU\ qufqaH &;rSm ud&k ;D ,m;uRef;qG,f wif;rmrIut kd aBumif; jyKum,dk,Gif;rIrsm;&SdvmcJhjyD; tar&duefppfoabFm tk y f p k r sm;u w½k w f u rf ; vG e f w G i f a&muf & S d a eBu&m þud p ö r S m w½k w f w d k U twG u f yd k r d k t av;xm; pOf;pm;zG,f&mjzpfonf/ a&aBumif;ukefoG,frIvrf;aBumif;t& Bunfhyguvnf; w½kwfyifv,ftqifhqifhrS rvuúm a&vufBum;udkjzwfum tdE´d,ork'´&m? ajrxJyifv,f ponfwdkUudkjzwfí w½kwfEdkifiH\t"du aps;uG u f B uD ; jzpf a om Oa&myrS w qif h twÅ v wÅ d w f u d k j zwf u m tar&d u wd k u f t a½S U jcrf ; od k U ukepf nfyUkd aqmifa&;rSm tvGe&f n S v f sm;vSonf/ w½kwEf ikd if \ H rsufEmS pmrSm urÇmuRef;BuD; (World Island) \ta&SUbufoUkd rsufEmS vSnx hf m;jyD; Oa&myrsufEmS pmESihf ausmcsif;uyfjzpfae&m? ukepf nfyUkd aqmif&mü em;&GufudkaemufrSywfí udkif&onfhES,f&Sdonf/ xkdtjyifw½kwfwdkUtwGuf a&eHESifhukefBurf;o,HZmw trsm;tjym; 0,f,lwifoGif;ae&onfh ta&SUtv,fydkif;a'oESifh tmz&duwdkufwdkUrSmvnf; ,if;\ aemufaBumydik ;f wGijf zpfae&m w½kwt f wGuv f jHk cHKí ydrk x kd ;kd azmufaom r[mAsL[mjzwfvrf; vdt k yfaeonf/


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þodUk jzifh ,cktcgtdE, d´ ork'&´ mtwGi;f ü w½kww f Ukd u r[mAsL[mt& yifv,furf;ajcwpfaxmuf em;&yfqyd u f rf;rsm; wnfaqmufvmcJ&h m ? ygupöwefEikd if ?H oD&v d uFmEdik if EH iS f b h *Fvm;a'h½EfS ikd if w H Ukd ü BuD;rm; aom yifv,fqyd u f rf;BuD;rsm;udk wnfaqmufvmcJBh uonf/ ,if;odUk qdyu f rf;rsm; tpDt&DwnfaqmufaerIukd taemufwikd ;f avhvmolrsm;u w½kww f Ukd \ykvo J , G f (String of Pearls) pDru H ed ;f [kuifyeG ;f wyfcBhJ uonf/

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pOf;pm; awG;awm MuHq wDxGif vkyfief;½Sif &Jjrifh(pGefUOD;wDxGif) pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Sifonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; udk vkyfudkifaomvlwpfOD;jzpf&m tcsdefjynfhvdkvdkyif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;udk aqmif½Gufaeolyifjzpfonf/ xdkUjyif rdrd\pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wdk;wufrIESifh wdk;wufrIjzpfpOfrsm; udk tjrJpOf;pm;awG;awmMuHqaeolvnf; jzpfayonf/ pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Sifonf 4if;\b0udkwDxGif zef w D ; jcif ; ? pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; wG i f pd e f a c:aeaom tcuftcJjyóemrsm;udk ajz½Sif;jcif;? tcsdefjynfhvIyf½Sm; ½kef;uefaqmif½Gufaejcif;ESifh ,if;odkUaomaqmif½GufrI rsm;tay: rdrd\vkyfaqmifrIrsm;udk auseyfESpfouf *kP, f jl cif;wdUk jzifh rdr\ d b0udzk efw;D aeolyifjzpfayonf/ pGeUf OD;wDxiG v f yk if ef;½Sio f nf wDxiG zf efw;D rIrsm; udk aqmif½Guf&mü tEkynmqdkif&m zefwD;rIrsm;? odkUr[kwf odyÜHqdkif&mwDxGifzefwD;rIrsm;ESifh tvm;o@ef wlayonf/ taMumif;rSm tEkynm½SifodkUr[kwf odyÜHynm½SifwdkUonf rdrdwdkU\ynmydkif;qdkif&mwkdUudk wDxGifzefwD;Mu&mü rdrdwdkU\udk,fydkif pOf;pm;awG;ac:rIrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfMujcif;jzpf&m pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Sifonfvnf; rdrd\udk,fydkiftawG;tac:rsm;udk vufawGUtaumiftxnf azmfEdkifjcif;yif jzpfayonf/ pGeUf OD;wDxiG v f yk if ef;½Sit f aejzifh xl;jcm;csufwpfcrk mS pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf pOf;pm;awG;ac:í ay:aygufvmaom tMuHtpnfopfudk vufawGUazmfaqmif&mwGif tcuftcJt[efUtwm;rsm;pGmudk MuHK& wwfMuonf/ ,if;tcuftcJrsmudk ausmfvTm;Edkif&efrSm tvkyfudkrqkyfrepf ZGJvHkUvjzifhvkyfudkifjcif;? aiGaMu;ydkif;qdkif&m pGefUpm;rIrsdK;udk&,ljcif;wdkjzifh ajz½Sif;Edkifayonf/ ,if;odkUajz½Sif;&eftwGuf pD;yGm;a&;


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vkyif ef;½Sio f nf rdru d , kd yf ikd pf rG ;f tifEiS hf rdru d , kd rf rd d pnf;urf;wus pDrHcefUcGJwwfzdkUvdkayonf/ atmifjrifaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;½Sifrsm;onf rdrdusifvnf aeaom todkif;t0dkif;wGifodu©m½Sd½Sdjzifh rdrdudk,frdrdauseyf aewwfMuayonf/ taMumif;rSmrdrdonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;½Sif wpfOD;taejzifh vlom;rsm;udk tvkyftudkif½SmazGay;EdkifpGrf;½SdjyD; wpfzufwGifvnf; vlom;rsm;twGuf vdktyfaomukefypönf;rsm; ESifh aqmif½GufrIvkyfief;rsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;Edkifonf [laom todaMumifhyif jzpfayonf/ pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Sif\ vkyfaqmif rIrsm;onf Oya'ynm½Sif? q&m0efrsm;? ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh pm&if;ynm½Sifrsm;\ vlom;rsm;tay: tusdK;jyKrIrsm;xuf romvGefapumrl avsmhenf;rIr½Sdonfudk pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Sifrsm;u od½Sdxm; Mu&efvdktyfayonf/ pG e f U OD ; wD x G i f v k y f i ef ; ½S i f o nf rd r d \ pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; ud k pepf w usaqmif ½ G u f w wf y gu atmifjrifrIrsm;&½SdjyD; ,if;atmifjrifrIrsm;udk csD;jr§ifhrI ajrmufrsm;pGmuvnf; MudKvifhaewwfMuayonf/ þpmtkyfudk zwf½Iolrsm;onf urÇmausmfpGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½SifMuD;rsm; jzpfMuaom Colgate ? Ford Jetty ESifh Rockefeller wdkUudk od½SdjyD;jzpfMu&m ,if;olaX;wdkUonf pGefUpm;OD;aqmifwDxGifMuHqjcif;jzifh ypönf;Opöm"ersm;udk ajrmufrsm;pGmpkaqmif;&½SdMuav&m 4if;wdkUonf½kyfydkif;qdkif&m tjrwfaiGaMu;rsm;udk &½So d nft h jyif pGeUf pm;OD;aqmifwx D iG Mf uHqrIaMumifh atmifjrifr&I ½SMd uonfqo kd nfh todOmPfukd wefz;kd jzwf ír&atmif &½SdoGm;Muayonf/ ,if;tajctaersdK;wGif pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;½Siftaejzifh wdwdususbmawGvkyf&rnfudk pOf;pm;&ef vdktyfayonf/


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]]&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHolESifh Market twuftusrsm;}} OD;Zmenfxuf " The happiness of those who want to be popular depends on others ; the happiness of those who seek pleasure fluctuates with moods outside their control; but the happiness of the wise grows out of their own free acts.” Mascus Aurelius oif o nf Business wpf c k u d k Partner wpf O D ; ES i f h

vufwGJumpwifvkyfaqmifonf/ ¤if; Partner \trnfudk Mr. Market [kqdkBuygpdkU/ Mr. Market onf xl;jcm;aompdwfaepdwfxm; &Sd\/ ¤if;onf vkyfief;wGifyg&Sdaom ol\ydkifqdkifrIudk aeUpOfoifhtm; a&mif;&ef offer ay;\/ ¤if;onf wpfcgwpf&HüvGefpGm pdwf"mwfwuf<u\/ xdkUodkUaomaeUrsdK;wGif ol\ ydkifqdkifrIudk aps;EIef;jr§ifhía&mif;rnf[k offer ay;\/ tcsdKUaersm;wGifrl pdwf"mwfus? vufrdIifcsum ol\ydkifqkdifrIudkvGefpGmenf;aom aps;EIef;jzifha&mif;rnf[k offer ay;jyef\/ odkUqdkvQif oifonf Mr.Market ay;wdkif; ol\ Interest udk0,f,lygrnfvm;/ tu,fí oifonfcsifhcsdefpOf;pm;Edkifaom Investor/ Business man wpfOD;jzpfvQif oif\decision onf ¤if;\offer ay:wGifrrlwnfbJ oifhvkyfief;ay:wGif tajccHíompOf;pm;ayvdrfhrnf/ Investor wpfOD;taejzifh &if;ESSD;jr§KyfESHrIwpfckjyKvkyfonfESifh Market tajymif;tvJtwuftusudk BuHKawGU&ayrnf/ d J aps;EIe;f rsm;wufaewwfonf/ wpfcgwpf&üH aps;EIe;f rsm; wpfcgwpf&üH Market onf taBumif;t&if;r½Sb usaewwfjyefonf/ Intelligent Investor wpfOD;onf jzpfay:vmaom Market twuftusay: rlwnfí tppt&m&m BudKwifjyifqifxm;oifhonf/ xdktjyif Intelligent Investor wpfOD;onf Market tajymif;tvJ rsm;\ ½kyfao;½kyftjzpfrcHbJ rdrdudk,fydkifvGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:í decision csoifhayonf/ Speculator ESifh Investor wdkU\t"du jcm;em;csufonf Market tajymif;tvJay:wGifxm;&Sdaom ¤if;wdkU\oabmxm;


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yifjzpfonf/ Speculator onf Market twuftusay:wGifrlwnfí tusdK;tjrwf&&ef arQmfvifhjyD; Investor url oifhwifhrQwaom aps;EIef;wGif Investment rsm;udk jyKvkyfavh&Sdonf/ Market tajymif;tvJrsm;onf Investor wpfOD;twGuf ta&;BuD;vSayonf/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf aps;EIef;rsm;usaeonfhtcsdefwGif Value Investment rsm;udk0,f,l&½SdEdkifjcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ odkUjzpf&m Intelligent Investor wpfOD;onf Market tajymif;tvJrsm;\ MudK;qGJ&muum url;½I;xdk;vdkufygaqmif½Guf jcif;onf 4if;twGuftusdK;tjrwf rjzpfxGef;apbJ tusdK;enf;rIudkomjzpfay:aponfudk owdjyKoifh ayonf/ 2007 ckESpfrwfv 17&ufaeUwGif Inktomi Corp \½S,f,monf wpf½S,f,mvQif 231.625$ ½Sdonf/ 4if;rSm Internet ½SmazGa&; Software ukrÜPDjzpfjyD; 1998 ZGefvwGif trsm;ydkifukrÜPDtjzpfajymif;vJjyD;onfh aemufydkif;ü ½S,f,mrsm; 1900 &mcdkifEIef;wufvmcJhonf/ þonfrSm 2000 jynfhESpf0ef;usifwGif ay:aygufcJhonfh dot com maniac aMumifhjzpfonf/ 1999 ‘'DZifbmwGif 4if;ukrÜPDonf 0ifaiGa':vm 36oef;½SdcJhonf/ vGefcJhaom 12v\ growth rate twdkif;om½SdrnfqdkvQif 4if;ukrÜPD\revenue onf vmrnfhig;ESpftwGif; wpfvvQif 5 billion ½Sd&rnf[k Market uarQmfrSef;avonf/ odkUaomfvufawGUwGifrl ukrÜPDrSmt½IH;ay:ae\/ vGefcJhaom24vtwGif; ukrÜPDonfa':vm 48oef;t½IH;ay:cJhonf/ vkyfief; oufwrf;wpfavQmufwGif ukrÜPDonftjrwfvHk;0r&cJhay/ odkUygvQuf Market onfþukrÜPD\wefzdk;udk 25 billion [kwefzdk;owfrSwfcJhonf/ xdkUaemufwGifrl ½S,f,maps;EIef;rsm; wpf[kwfxkd;usoGm;jyD; 2002 ckESpf pufwifbmv 30&ufaeUwGif 4if;ukrÜPD\wpf½S,f,m onf 2 5qif h ( 25 cent ) od k U xd k ; usoG m ;cJ h o nf / vG e f c J h a om ESpfESpfcGJcefUuMarket Value 25 billion ½SdcJhaomukrÜPDonf ,cktcg wGif40 million om½Sdawmhonf/ tb,faMumifh þodkUaps;EIef;rsm; xdk;usoGm;ygoenf;/ t"dutm;jzifhrl Market \Mood ajymif;oGm; aomaMumifhjzpfonf/ 2000 jynfhESpftapmydkif;wGifInternet business rsm; tvGefacwfpm;um Inktomi ½S,f,m\ P/E ratio onf 250 ½SdcJh


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aomfvnf; 2002 aESmif;ydkif;wGifrl P/E ratio rSm 0.3 om½Sdawmhonf/ txufyg Oyrmt& Investor wpfOD;onf Market \ajymif;vJrIrsm;twkdif; vkdufygaqmif½GufcJhvQif MuD;pGmaomqHk;½HI;rIESifh awGUMuHK&ayrnf/ odkUaomf Investor wpfOD;taejzifh Market udkvspfvsLr½Ioifhay/ 4if;tpm; Market tajymif;tvJrsm;ay:rlwnfí rdrd\udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfcsufjzifhom Investment decision cs&rnfjzpfonf/ &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&mü rdrd\pdwfudkEdkifeif;&ef vdktyfayonf/ Investor wpfOD;\ t"dupdefac:rIrSm aps;EIef;twufqkH; Stock udk0,fEdkifjcif;r[kwfbJ Market \twuftusudkvdkufí decision csumqHk;½IH;rI MuHKawGU&onfh tjzpfrsdK;rjzpfap&ef rdrdudk,fudkumuG,f&jcif; jzpfayonf/ wpfenf;qdkaomf rdrdonf rdrd\tMuD;rm;qHk; &efolrjzpfap&ef umuG,f&jcif;yifjzpfonf/ 1980 jynfhESpfaESmif;ydkif;wGif jyKvkyfcJhaom prf;oyfcsufrsm;t& Stock aps;EIe;f udk rMumcPMunfah om Investor rsm;onf aps;EIe;f udv k ;kH 0rMunfah om Investor rsm;&½So d nfh return \ wpf0ufom&onfuakd wGU&av onf/ Intelligent Investor wpfOD;taejzifh rdrd0,f,lxm;onfh Stock rsm;\Price udkaeUpOfod½Sd&ef rvdktyfoifhay/ rdrd\&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI atmifjrifjcif;? ratmifjrifjcif;udk wdkif;wm&eftaumif;qHk;enf;vrf;rSm rdrdcsrSwfxm;onfh Financial plan udk rnfrQtxdvdkufemaqmif½Gufum rdrd&½Sdvdkonfh&nfrSef;csufodkU a&mufra&muf jyefvnfpOf;pm;a0zefjcif;yifjzpfonf/ /


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Financial Market rsm;rnfokdU

vIyf½Sm;vnfywfaeygoenf; (odkY) Share price bmaMumifh wuf&ovJ? us&ovJ ? a'gufwmat;at;rm

rsm;rS securities, share price twuftusrsm;onf rD;cvkwfzGifhvQif yGifh? rD;cvkwyf w d v f Qif ydwf qdo k nfh twkid ;f twdtusomG ;aeygonf/ bmESiw hf v l q J akd wmh a&ikyo f rm;wpfa,mufu avtjynfhjznfhxm;aom ylazmif;wpfvHk;udk a&atmufxJodkU,loGm;wJhtcg ylazgif;onfa&eufvmonfh tcgwGiaf ygufomG ;jyD; a&ylazgif;av;rsm;onf OD;wnf&mr&Sad &rsuEf mS jyifay:odUk wufvmvdrrhf nf/ rnfonfh tcsdew f iG f rnfo h nfv h rf;rS oGm;rnf? tcsderf nfrQMumrnfqo kd nfukd twdtuscefUrSe;f &ef cufcv J yS gonf/ xkduJhodkUyif Financial Market {/fvIyf&Sm;vnfywfrIonf rnfodkUjzpfrnfqkdonfudk twdtuscefUrSef;&ef cufcv J yS gonf/ ynm&Sirf sm;onfvnf; rnfonft h csuaf Mumifh stock & share aps;rsm;wuf&onf? us&onfukd avhvmwGucf suMf uygonf/ odUk aomf wcsKd Utcsurf sm;onfom qufpyfr&I adS ejyD;? wdwu d sus wGu&f mr&ay/ xdo k Ukd avhvmrIukd ]econophysics } [kac: onf/ Financial Market

a&ylazgif;av;rsm;onf obm0w&m;t& a&rsufESmjyifay:odkY wufvm&rnfjzpfjyD; stock share aps;rsm;onf a&mif;ol0,folvdkonf a&mif;ol0,folvdkYqdkonfh vl{/fpdwfaeoaabmxm;rsm;udk avhvmprf;ppf&mwGif vlqo kd nfo h bm0twdik ;f ydrk &kd yI af xG;cufcv J mygonf/ xdYk twGuf avhvmpl;prf;aom ynm&Sirf sm;onf vl{/fobm0udk assumption rsm; xm;íavhvm&ygawmhonf/ ]Human are rational, self-serving beings who seek to maximise pleasure and avoid pain} 1900 0ef;f usif rSynm&Sirf sm;onf jyifopf Bond Market {/f Bond price twuftusudk avhvmMuonf/ odUk aomfrnfonfh tcsufrsm;aMumifh aps;rsm;wufonfusonfukd ESpf 50 ausmfonftxdtajzray:cJyh g/


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tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf a&mif;aomolonf tjrifhqHk;aps;ESifh a&mif;csifonf 0,fonfholrSvnf; tenf;qHk;aps;jzifh 0,fcsifonfhvlobm0w&m;aMumifh jzpfygonf/ a&mif;olbufrS aps;aumif;&jyD[k xifjrifonfhtcsdefwGif aps;uGuf bid price wGifa&mif;csjyD;? xdkYtwl 0,folbufrSvnf; jyefa&mif;vQif l nfh share tay: udu k rf nfx h ifonfh the price offered in the market ESi0hf ,fMurnfjzpfygonf/ 0,f,o wu,faf vhvmawGY&cdS sufrmS a&mif;ol0,fo{l /f xifjrifcsuftwkid ;f aps;uGuo f nfajymif;vJvQuf&ydS gonf/ ] The market’s price represents the collective wisdom of all its participants .Since market’s price represents l /f xifjruf,q l csufonf all known information, it takes new information to change the price }}a&mif;ol? 0,fo{ f efpmG &&SEd ikd rf o I nf xdo k w l Ukd &&Sad om information ay:wGif trsm;qH;k rlwnfaeygonf/ xkYdaMumifh information rSeu a&mif;ol0,fo{l /f yg;eyfraI y:wGif rlwnfomG ;ygonf/ Market price onf a&mif;ol0,fo{l /farQmrf eS ;f xm;aom return ESifhnoise qdo k nfh owif;tcsuftvuf trSm;rsm;ay:wGif rlwnfaeygonf/ f vuf topfrsm;onf Market xJoYkd a&muf&v dS mjyD; atmufazmfjyxm;aom figure t& owif;tcsut a&mif;ol? 0,forl sm;{/f od&EdS ikd rf I filters ESihf expections ay:wGif rlwnfjyD; owif;rSe(f singnal) ESi(hf noise) uGJxGufoGm;um aps;wufusrIrsm;jzpfay:vmygonf/ xdkrSwqifh a&mif;olvdkcsifaom aps;ESifh 0,fvdkolvdkcsifaomaps;ESifhwdkYwlnDEdkifaom partial equilibrium a&muf&SdoGm;ygonf/ jyD;vQif owif;rSef? owif;rSm;rsm;udk evaluate vkyfjyD;xifjrif,lqcsuf topfrsm;ESifh information topfrsm;jzpfoGm;um wywfjyefvnfomG ;ygawmhonf/ xdYkaMumifh aps;wufusru I o kd cd siv f Qif Financial Market behavior ESihf reactions udak ocsmavhvmrSomvQif od&EdS ikd rf nfjzpfygonf/


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The market is adaptive; people learn from it and adjust their behavior.. ( Ref: Trading Strategies for Capital Markets)


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Time Management

tydkif; (2)

Obstacles to Effective Time Management •

Too many things at once

Procrastination

Too Much Information

Stress and fatigue

All work and no play

Perfectionism

Ineffective delegations

Ineffective meetings

No priorities, focus or planning

Crisis management

Interruptions

Disorganization

EVERYONE HAS 24 TIME

DROPS EVERYDAY

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THE WAYS TO SUCCESS ™ Spend time in Planning and Organizing ™ Set Goals ™ Prioritize ™ Use a to-do list ™ Be Flexible ™ Consider your Biological Time ™ Do Right Things Right ™ Taking Charge of Procrastination ™ Learn when to say “NO”

Spend time in Planning and Organizing • Your calendar. • Plan for a day. • Plan for a week. • Plan for a month. • Plan for a year. 2/3/2011

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Set Goals Be S.M.A.R.T. • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Time-based 2/3/2011

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Urgent – Important Model Urgent

2/3/2011

Not Urgent

Important

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Not Urgent

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II Crisis Pressing problems Deadline-driven projects, meetings, preparations

. . . . . . .

Preparation Prevention Values clarification Planning Relationship building True re-creation Empowerment

III

IV

.

. . . . . .

. . . .

Interruptions, some phone calls Some mail, some reports Some meetings Many proximate, pressing matters Many popular activities

Trivia, busywork Some phone calls Time wasters “Escape” activities Irrelevant mail Excessive TV

2/3/2011

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The value of the matrix is that it helps us to see how importance and urgency affect the choices we make about how to spend our time. It allows us to see where we spend most of our time and why we spend it there. The degree to which urgency is dominant is the degree to which importance is not.

The rich treat their time more importantly than their 2/3/2011

money.

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Is The Jar Full? â&#x20AC;˘

Stephen Covey in his book, First Things First, shares the following story experienced by one of his associates: I attended a seminar once where the instructor was lecturing on time. At one point, he said, "Okay, time for a quiz." He reached under the table and pulled out a wide-mouthed gallon jar. He set it on the table next to a platter with some fist-sized rocks on it. "How many of these rocks do you think we can get in the jar?" he asked. 2/3/2011

21

After we made our guess, he said, "Okay. Let's find out." He set one rock in the jar . . . then another . . . then another. I don't remember how many he got in, but he got the jar full. Then he asked, "Is this jar full?" Everyone looked at the rocks and said, "Yes."

Then he said, "Ahhh" He reached under the table and pulled out a bucket of gravel. Then he dumped some gravel in and shook the jar and the gravel went in all the little spaces left by the big rocks. Then he grinned and said once more, "Is the jar full?"

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By this time the class was on to him. "Probably not," we said. "Good!" he replied. He reached under the table and brought out a bucket of sand. He started dumping the sand in and it went into all of the little spaces left by the rocks and the gravel. Once more he looked and said, "Is this jar full?" "No!" we roared.

He said, "Good!" and he grabbed a pitcher of water and began to pour it in. He got something like a quart of water in that jar. Then he said, " Well, what's the point?" Somebody said, "Well, there are gaps, and if you work really hard you can always fit some more things into your life."

"No," he said, "that's not really the point. The point is this:

Put the Big Rocks in First

â&#x20AC;&#x153;PRIORITYâ&#x20AC;?

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204


205 “As a child-focused organization, Save the Children in Myanmar seeks to protect to all children we are in contact with” Terms of Reference Nutrition Technical Expert for evaluation of IYCF intervention of BHAP II Background: Save the Children in Myanmar is implementing a one year USAID project in 2 townships in the Middle Island region of the Delta. The overall goal of this USAID BHAP (Burma Humanitarian Assistance Programme) is to improve livelihoods security and maternal health/child survival outcomes among the most vulnerable and marginalized population in the Delta. This goal is dependent upon the attainment of four strategic objectives: (1) Increased coverage of transformational and sustainable livelihood services (2) Increased practice of transformational and sustainable livelihood behaviors (3) Increased use of quality health/nutrition and WASH services (4) Increased practice of health/nutrition and WASH behaviors.

This is an exciting multi-secotrial approach which strives to improve the positive health and nutrition outcomes of children and their mothers through improving the quality of their livelihoods and environment. Save the Children’s (SC) nutrition survey in the Middle Island reveals a Global Acute Malnutrition of 12% among U5 children,1 exceeding the WHO threshold for serious under nutrition. Feeding practices are far from optimal. Only 17% of women are engaged in early initiation of breastfeeding, and the percentage breastfeeding 2 is also very low at 25%). Nearly half of mothers surveyed (44%) fed their 6-23 month old children only rice and biscuits in the past 24-hours before the survey was conducted.3

Mothers with newborns work outside the home in order to provide for their family’s food and other essential needs. Cash Transfers will cover a period of 6 months (increased from 2), at $45 per month for an estimated number of 434 mothers. This amount is based on the daily wages of a woman in the Delta. Cash transfers have been shown to work in various programs implemented by SC in Myanmar, as well as globally by SC and other agencies.1 Cash transfers will also be provided to an estimated 34 households with children who may have severe acute malnutrition and 322 households with children who may have moderate malnutrition. This is to smooth income during the hunger months (August-September.) In addition, we will provide cash transfers to highly vulnerable, labour poor households (households with no member qualified to do cash for work because the household heads/responsible family members are too young, too old, sick with a debilitating illness, or invalid.) Mothers groups have been established in order to provide a forum for information dissemination using BCC strategies. Village peer mothers and volunteers have also been recruited to providing on going support to the nutrition activities and to breastfeeding women and mothers of young children. Partner organisaiton MNMA have received intensive training to provide good quality breastfeeding counselling support and for the support and mentoring of peer mothers.


Objective: To evaluate the success of the IYCF programme design including the suitability and impact of cash transfers on 206 IYCF programming. Work with the lead evaluator to provide technical assistance and ensure the effective collection of evaluation material. Activities: · Coordinate with the lead evaluator for preparation of evaluation materials including assisting with the translation · Liaise and support the lead evaluator on the training design · Conduct training of the field teams the evaluation procedure and provide support to the pilot and feedback. · Assist the lead evaluator in the analysis of the data and interpretation of results Output: · Survey tools developed based on the requirements laid out by the project proposal and log frame. · Enumerators are effectively trained and equipped to collect adequate data in a reliable fashion. · Data is collected in coherence with the evaluation criteria agreed by the lead evaluator · Data analysis is carried out and the results presented in a coherent way. The results should be interpreted in the context of the situation and the project and assistance should be given to the evaluation team to ensure links are made between the interpretation of the nutrition and livelihoods results. · Input into the draft and final report to be submitted and the results presented to SCiM Experience Required · Nutrition programming relating to infant and young child feeding practices · Understanding of cash and social protection programming · Community based evaluation experience · Excellent spoken English Time line: 1 – 25 March 15 working days Interested and qualified candidates are to send a Cover Letter and Curriculum Vitae to the Human Resources Department or by email to recruitment.ygnhr@gmail.com (or) kkhtay@save children.org.mm’ and ncpao@savechildren.org.mm (or) Save the Children, Wizaya Plaza, 226 U Wisara Road, Bahan Township, Yangon, Myanmar, not later than 5 p.m., 18 February 2011 (Friday). Save the Children Wizaya Plaza 226 U Wisara Road, 1st Floor Bahan Township Yangon, Myanmar Phone: 375 739, 375 747, 375 791, 375 796, 375 801, 513 257, 537 387, 536 732, 536 385 Fax: 513 187 Note: Only short-listed candidates will be contacted.


207 â&#x20AC;&#x153;As a child-focused organization, Save the Children in Myanmar seeks to protect all children we are in contact withâ&#x20AC;?. JOB PROFILE Job Title: Place of Work: Grade: Reports to: Line Management Responsibility: Budget Responsibility: Child Protection Level:

Administrative Assistant (Visa/Travel) Yangon 5.1 Administrative Officer (Visa/Travel) None None 1(The responsibilities of the post do not require to work directly with Children or young people)

Job Purpose: To assist the administrative Officer (Visa/Travel) in overall management of visa, travel and residential issues of international staff for effective and efficient administration. Key Accountabilities: Administration Monitor and ensure adherence to administrative policies and procedures Prepare Travel Approval Requests for International staff, submit to Department of Social Welfare Follow up Travel Approval Requests and information and copies to related programmes Update Travel Tracker in the Server and List of Travel on the office bulletin board Assist in Visa Related process Deal with Government Offices relating to Visa and Travel (Immigration, DSW, MOH) Update Visa Tracker in the Server Reservation/Confirmation of Hotels for international staff and visitors Process for rental of Residence Apartments and their Contracts and payments Reservation of Air ticket (Local/Oversea) as required Deal with DHL and Shipping Agencies for excess baggage for International staff Liaise with hotels for workshops and Trainings Prepare payment requests for the above Equipment/Facilities Maintenance Other Prepare Weekly Cash Forecast to be submitted to Finance Department Type in Myanmar office letters Other tasks as requested


Person specifications: Bachelor’s degree in relevant/specific field Three years professional working experience, in development sector preferred Professional working experience with international organizations preferable Proven team working ability Experience in staff management and supervision Strong communications skills, including English language ability Commitment to and understandings of Save the Children’s aims, values and principles Computer proficiency in word processing and spreadsheets

208

Child Protection: This position has Child Protection level 1 which indicates that responsibilities do not require the post holder to have contact with children or young people. Note: Candidates are also requested to mention in the applications if there is, blood/marriage relationships with the existing Save the Children employees. For those who failed to mention or incorrectly mention the apply position title, Programme/Sector name and location in their applications, we will consider those as disqualify and we will not consider for short list. Interested and qualified candidates are to send a Cover Letter and Curriculum Vitae to the Human Resources Department or by email to recruitment.ygnhr@gmail.com (or) kkhtay@savechildren.org.mm’ and mhhaung@savechildren.org.mm (or) Save the Children, Wizaya Plaza, 226 U Wisara Road, Bahan Township, Yangon, Myanmar, not later than 5 p.m., Friday, 18 February 2011. Save the Children Wizaya Plaza 226 U Wisara Road, 1st Floor Bahan Township Yangon, Myanmar Phone: 375 791, 375 801, 375 739, 375 796, 375 747, 537 387, 536 732, 537 092 Note: Only short-listed candidates will be contacted


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