Issuu on Google+


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'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg; „jynfaxmifpk rNydKuGJa&; „wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnTwfrI rNydKuGJa&; „tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfhwHhcdkifNrJa&;

jynfolYoabmxm;

'dkYta&; 'dkYta&; 'dkYta&;

pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf

„jynfytm;udk; ykqdef½dk; tqdk;jrif0g'Drsm;tm;qefYusifMu/

„pdkufysdK;a&;udktajccHí tjcm;pD;yGm;a&; u@rsm;udkvnf;

„EdkifiHawmfwnfNidrfat;csrf;a&;ESifh EdkifiHawmfwdk;wufa&;udk

aESmuf,Suf zsufqD;olrsm;tm; qefYusifMu/ „EdkifiHawmf\jynfwGif;a&;udk 0ifa&mufpGufzufaESmifh,Sufaom jynfy EdkifiHrsm;tm;qefYusifMu/ „jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuform;rsm;tm; bHk&efoltjzpfowfrSwf acsrIef;Mu/

bufpHk zGYHNzdK;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ „aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpGmjzpfay:vma&;/ „jynfwGif;jynfyrS twwfynmESifh t&if;tESD;rsm;zdwfac:í pD;yGm;a&; zGYHNzdK;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ „EdkifiHawmfpD;yGm;a&; wpf&yfvHk;udk zefwD;EdkifrIpGrf;tm;onf EdkifiHawmfESifh wdkif;&if;om;jynfolwdkY\ vuf0,fwGif&Sda&;/

EdkifiHa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf

vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf

„EdkifiHawmfwnfNidrfa&;? &yf&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhw&m;

„wpfrsdK;om;vHk;\ pdwf"mwfESifhtusifhpm&dwÅ jrifhrm;a&;/

Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ „trsdK;om;jyefvnfpnfvHk;nDnGwfa&;/ „cdkifrmonfhzGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya'opfjzpfay:vma&;/ „jzpfay:vmonfhzGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya'opfESifhtnD acwfrDzGYHNzdK; wdk;wufaom EdkifiHawmfopfwpf&yf wnfaqmufa&;/

„trsdK;*kPf? Zmwd*kPfjrifhrm;a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;?

trsdK;om;a&; vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysufatmifxdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufa&;? „rsdK;cspfpdwf"mwf &Sifoefxufjrufa&;/ „wpfrsdK;om;vHk;usef;rmBuHhcdkifa&;ESifh ynm&nfjrifhrm;a&;/


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Investing , Business & Management Digital Learning Kit

onf jrefrmEdkifiH\ Human Resource Development tm;wpfzufwpfvrf;rS axmufyHhay;vdkaom &nf½G,fcsufjzifh pmzwfolrsm;xHodkU ]]tcr ]]tcrJh}} jzefUa0jcif;jzpfygonf/ xdkUaMumifh rnfolrqdkþ ( DLK ) wGiyf g0ifaom taMumif;t&m rsm;tm; vufqifhurf;jzefUa0jcif;jzifh ukodkvf,lEdkifygonf/ ( DLK )

]]vufqifhurf;jzefUa0ay;olrsm;tm;txl;yifaus;Zl;wif½Sdygonf/}}

odkUaomf rdrd\ukd,fusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf þ ( DLK ) tm; vnf;aumif;? þ ( DLK ) wGifyg0ifaom taMumif;t&mrsm;tm; vnf;aumif;? wdu k ½f u kd jf zpfap? oG,0f u kd í f jzpfap? bmomjyefíjzpfap a&mif;csjcif;rsm;udk rjyKMuyg&efav;pm;pGm arwÅm&yfcHtyfygonf/


Table of Contents 1.

Value Line Investment Survey

Pg-1

2.

jyefvnfqef;opfvmwJh pDrHcefUcGJrIynm (a'gufwmatmifxGef;ouf)

Pg-24

3.

Harvard Business Review

Pg-30

4.

Pg-42

6.

arSmifrdkufrI urf;ukefjyDqdkvQif (OD;jrwfjidrf;) Managing People E-book tydkif; (1) tMuyftwnf;rsm;udk ausmfvTm;jcif; (a'gufwmaeZifvwf)

7.

International Business Operation-Amazon.com Inc

Pg-87

8.

The Essential Drucker E-book

5.

Pg-49 Pg-80

9.

tydkif; (1) Pg-92 udk,fydkifpD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;wpfckudk xlaxmifEdkifyghrvm; (OD;&Jjrifh-pGefUOD;wDxGif) Pg-128

10.

Biographies of Famous People -John Adair

Pg-134

11.

w½kwfEdkifiHtm; EdkifiHa&;yx0D0if½IaxmifhrS avhvmjcif; (OD;udkudkvdIif)

Pg-137

12.

Management Checklist

Pg-143

13.

Training Center in Myanmar (Strategy First)

Pg-148

14.

Manager

15.

PowerPoint Presentation - Time Management

16.

Creative Advertisements

Pg-167

17.

[kdw,f pDrHcefUcGJtkyfcsKyfrIqdkif&m tawG;trQifwef;rsm; ( OD;oufEdkif0if; )

Pg-169

18.

Local Business Operation - KMD

Pg-174

vm; ? Leader vm; (OD;at;ausmf-MHR )

Pg-153

tydkif; ( 1 )

Pg-159

19.

Accountancy ESifh Finance taMumif;

odaumif;p&mrsm; (a'gufwmat;at;rm) Pg-177 20. &if;ESD;Nr§KyfESHjcif; Vs tjrwfarQmfrSef;í xifaMu;jzifh0,fa&mif;jcif; (OD;Zmenfxuf) Pg-180

21.

Commodity Prices

Pg-185

22.

Who wants to be our " Partner" ?

Pg-186

23. University Prospectus - The Universtiy of Auckland (New Zealand)

Pg-187

24.

Pg-231

Next issue


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Value Line Investment Survey Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Amazon.com Seagate Tech Sanofi-Aventis Abbott Labs Nvidia Corp Intel Apple Inc Aflac Inc Xerox Corp Strayer Education (With Investment Analysis)


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“STRAYER EDUCATION” (Investment Analysis) SYMBOL-STRA

STOCK EXCHANGE - NASDAQ

Company History

OD;Zmenfxuf

Strayer Education Inc udk 1892 wGif pwifwnfaxmifco hJ nf/ 1996 ckESpf July vwGif trsm;ydkif

ukrP Ü t D Nzpf pwifaNymif;vJco hJ nf/ 4if;onf 4if;wpfO;D wnf;ydik q f ikd af om Strayer University rS wpfqifh t&G,af &mufNyD; vkyif ef;cGi0f ifaeolrsm;twGuf Graduate ESifh Undergraduate Programme rsm;jzpfonfh Business, IT, Education and Public Adminstration ponfh bmom&yfrsm;udk oifMum;ydUk csvQuf&o dS nf/ 31.12.2009 aeYpt JG & 4if;wuúov kd w f iG f pm&if;oGi;f ynmoifMum;aeol ausmif;om;aygif; (54300) &So d nf/ 4if;onf orm&dk;us Classroom Lecture omru online rSvnf; lecture rsm; ydkYcsvsuf&Sdonf/ 1996 wGif hf pS cf o hJ nf/ trsm;ydik f ukrP Ü t D Nzpf aNymif;vJNyD;cJo h nfh tcsderf pS í Physical Campus (78) cktxd wd;k csJUzGiv 4if;zGiv hf pS cf ahJ om Nynfe,frsm;rSm Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio,Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Washington .DC wdYk jzpfMuonf/

ukrP Ü \ D Mission Statement rSm “To make higher education achieveable and convenient for working adults in today`s economy”

Nzpfonf/ ukrÜPD\ t"du common stockholder &Sifrsm; 1. Capital World Investors 12.1%,


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2. Fidelity Management 12.6%, 3. Officers and Directors 3.3%, Chairman and CEO

Robert S. Silberman

No. of Employees

1810

“Checklists for Making Investment Decision” ukrÜPDonf rdrdvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaeaom Industry twGif; NydKifbufrsm;tay: a&&Snf tompD;&rI (Durable Competitive Advantage) &Sdygovm;¿ 1.

ukrP Ü o D nfpwifwnfaxmifco hJ nfh 1892 rSpí 118 ESpw f mtwGi;f t&G,af &mufNyD; tvkyv f yk u f ikd f aeolrsm;udk t"duxm;í Education Program rsm;provide vkycf o hJ nf/ trsm;ydik f ukrP Ü t D Nzpf aNymif;cJo h nfh 1996 rSpí ESppf Ofaf usmif;om;OD;a&ESihf 0ifaiGw;kd wufco hJ nf/ 4if;tNyif Strayer University onf vuf&dS tcsd e f w G i f ausmif ; om;rsm;twG u f Degree, Diploma ES i f h Cetificate Program aygif ; (100) ausmfoifMum;ay;vsuf&o dS nf/ 4if;Strayer University \Campus Location rsm;onf t&G,af &mufNyD; tvkyv f yk u f ikd af eol trsm;qH;k wnf&&dS m Nynfe,frsm;wGif zGiv hf pS x f m;oNzifh wufa&mufvo kd rl sm;twGuf tqifaNyacsmarGUrI&o dS nf/ 118 ESpw f mtwGi;f Strayer University qdo k nfh Brand Name wpfcu k kd PostSecondary Adult Education Industry wGif aumif;pGmwnfaqmufxm;Edik cf o hJ nf/ vuf&t dS yk cf sKyfvsu&f adS om Management Team rSmvnf; ukrÜPDudk 4if;wdkU udk,fydkifuJhodkU oabmxm;um shareholder value wufap&eft"duxm;NyD; pDrt H yk cf sKyfvsuf&o dS nf/


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2. vkyfief;\oabmobm0ESifh 4if;uProvide vkyfaomProduct/ Service onf &if;ESD;NrSKyfESH ol wpfOD;twGuf &dk;&Sif;ítvG,fwulem;vnfEdkifygovm;¿ vkyif ef;cGi0f ifaeolwpfO;D onf &mxl;wd;k &ef odYk r[kwf vpmwd;k &eftwGuf vkyif ef;vdt k yfcsuft& wuúov kd w f pfcck rk S Higher Education ESiyhf wfoufonfh bmom&yfqikd &f mtodtrSwNf yKvufrw S w f pfcu k kd vdt k yfvmonf/ 4if;todynmESihf Certificate udk Strayer Education rS Provide vkyfonf/ odkUNzpf&m ukrP Ü \ D Service onf Potential Investor wpfO;D twGuf &d;k &Si;f í tvG,w f ulem;vnfEikd pf rG ;f &So d nf/ 3. ukrÜPD\ Capital Structure onf Potential Investor tm; qGJaqmifEdkifpGrf; &Sdygovm;¿ 30.6.2010 aeUpGt J & ukrP Ü o D nf umvwd?k umv&Snf acs;aiG( Short Term and Long Term Debt)

vHk;0r&Sdyg/ 4. ukrÜPD\ Earning onf cdkifrmí wuf&dyfNyaeygovm;¿ Year

Earning Per Share (US$)

2000

1.41

2001

1.52

2002

1.78

2003

2.27

2004

2.74

2005

3.26


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3.61

2007

4.47

2008

5.67

2009

7.60

2010

9.29

15

f iG f ukrP Ü \ D earning onf 1 share wGif $1.41 &Sdonf/ 2010 ckEpS f wGif EPS 2000 NynfEh pS w onf $9.29 &So d nf/ odYk Nzpf&m 10 ESpw f mumvtwGi;f ukrP Ü \ D EPS onf ESpfpOfxyfwdk;EIef; (Annual Compounding Rate) 20.74% Nzifh wdk;wufvmcJhonf/ odkYNzpf&mukrÜPD\earning onf NyD;cJhaom f nf/ 10ESpw f mtwGi;f cdik rf mNyD; twufbuf (Upward Trend) odYk OD;wnfaeonf[k ,lqEdik o 5. ukrÜPDonf &&Sdvmaom 0ifaiGudk rdrduRrf;usif&m e,fy,ftwGif;wGifom NyefícGJa0 &if;ESD;NrSKyfESHrSK &Sdygovm;¿ ukrP Ü o D nf 10 ESpw f mumvtwGi;f &&Sv d maom0ifaiGrsm;udk rdru d Rrf;usif&me,fNzpfonfh Higher Education Industry wGio f m &if;ES;D NrSKyfEcHS o hJ nf/ ukrP Ü o D nf 0ifaiG&&Sv d mwdik ;f Future Prospect rsm; hf pS cf o hJ nf/ odYk Nzpf&m ukrP Ü o D nf 4if;uRrf;usifaom &S&d m Nynfe,frsm;wGif New Campus rsm; wd;k csJUzGiv f nf[k ,lqEdik o f nf/ e,fy,ftwGi;f wGio f m reinvest Nyefvyk o 6. ukrÜPDonf 4if;\ share rsm;udkNyefí0,f,lcJhygovm;¿ 2000 ckEpS w f iG u f rk P Ü D rS issued vkyx f m;cJah om comman share pkpak ygif;rSm 15.30 million &So dk nf/

aemufq;kH pm&if;Z,m;rsm;t& 2010 ckEpS w f iG f ukrP Ü rD S issued vkyx f m;cJah om comman share pkpak ygif;rSm


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13.55 million om&So d nf/ odUk Nzpf&m 10 ESpw f mumvtwGi;f ukrP Ü o D nf common share pkpak ygif; 1.75 million udk (share buyback program) t&Nyef0,fcJhonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ þonfrSm ukrÜPD\ Management onf &&Sv d maom0ifaiGukd shareholder value wufap&eft"duxm; vkyaf qmifco hJ nf[k

,lqEdkifonf/ 7. Management Team onf retained earning udk EPS ESifh shareholder value wufvmatmif

xda&mufpGm &if;ESD;NrSKyfESHrSKNyKcJhygovm;¿ Year

EPS (USD)

Dividend Declared Per Share (USD)

2000

1.41

0.25

2001

1.52

0.26

2002

1.78

0.26

2003

2.27

0.26

2004

2.74

0.41

2005

3.26

0.63

2006

3.61

1.06

2007

4.47

1.31

2008

5.67

1.63

2009

7.60

2.25


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9.29

3.00(Estimate)

43.62

11.32

17

ukrP Ü \ D 10 ESpw f mtwGi;f pkpak ygif; EPS rSm $43.62 Nzpfonf/ 4if; 10 ESpw f mtwGi;f wGif ukrP Ü o D nf Dividend tNzpf 1 share vsifpf pk ak ygif; $11.32 (25.95%) xkwaf y;cJo h nf/ okYd Nzpf&m 10ESpw f mtwGi;f ukrÜPD\ retained earning rSm 1 share vQif $32.30 (74.05%) Nzpfonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ f ;kH csdew f iG f EPS xdt k awmtwGi;f wGif ukrP Ü \ D EPS onf 2000 NynfhESpfü $1.41 &Scd &hJ mrS 2010 ukeq onf $9.29 txd wd;k wufvmcJo h nf/ odUk Nzpf&m ukrP Ü \ D EPS onf $7.88 wd;k wufvmcJo h jzifh 10 ESpf wmtwGi;f wGif Management Team onf retained earing $32.30 udt k oH;k csí 24.40% return (EPS $7.88) &&Sad tmif pGr;f aqmifEikd cf o hJ nf/

(8) ukrÜPD\ return on shareholder equity onf ysrf;rQtxufwGif &Sdygovm;? Year

ROE %

2001

27.6

2002

25.7

2003

26.7

2004

27.7


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31.7

2006

30.5

2007

34.4

2008

45.9

2009

55.4

2010

58 (Estimate)

18

average return on shareholder equity for 10 years = 36.31%

vGecf ahJ om tESpf 30 twGi;f tar&duef ukrP Ü rD sm;\ysrf;rQ return on shareholder equity rSm 12% jzpfonf/ odYk jzpf&m Strayer Education \ vGecf ahJ om 10 ESpt f wGi;f ysrf;rQ return on shareholder equity rSm 36.31% jzpf&m above average [k qdEk ikd o f nf/ 4if;tjyif ukrP Ü \ D return on shareholder Ü w D iG f NydKifbufrsm;tay: a&&Snt f ompD;&rI (Durable equity onf 25.7% rS 58% twGi;f &Sjd cif;onf ukrP Competitive Advantage) &Sdonf[k qdkEdkifonf/ (9)

ukrÜPD\ Return on Total Capital onf wpforwfwnf; jrifhrm;rI &Sdygovm;? YEAR

Return On Total Capital %

2001

27.6

2002

25.7

2003

26.2


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27.7

2005

31.7

2006

30.5

2007

34.4

2008

45.9

2009

55.4

2010

58.00 (Estimate)

19

10 ESpt f wGi;f ysrf;rQ return on total capital onf 36.31% &S&d m ukrP Ü w D iG f cdik rf maom a&&Snf tom;pD;&rI&o dS nf[k qdEk ikd o f nf/ k yfygovm; ÜPo govm;? 10. ukrPD D nfvuf&dS earning udk &&S&d ef capital expenditures rsm;pGmoH;k &ef vdt

YEAR

EPS $

Capital Spending per Share$

2000

1.41

0.29

2001

1.52

0.75

2002

1.78

1.61

2003

2.27

0.64


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2.74

0.72

2005

3.26

0.86

2006

3.61

0.92

2007

4.47

1.03

2008

5.67

1.47

2009

7.60

2.18

2010

9.29

2.70 [Estimate]

20

ukrP Ü \ D EPS onf 10 ESpw f mumvtwGi;f $7.88 wd;k wufvmcJph Of capital spending per share onf $2.41 wufvmcJo h nf/ odUk jzpf&m 10 ESpw f mumvtwGi;f ukrÜP\ D capital spending per share onf EPS \ 30.6% &So d nf [kqEkd ikd yf gonf/

“aps aps;EEIefe;f oH;k oyfcsu”f (Price Analysis) 11.(a) “Initial Rate of Return udk wGufcsufjcif;” Current Stock Price

USD 124.07 (19.1.2011)

azmfjyygaeUpG&J dS share wpfapmif\ Market Price t& Initial Rate of Return rSm 7.49% jzpfonf/


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11. (b) “ US Government-Bond ESifhEdiI f;,SOfBunfhjcif;

,ckvuf&dS Long -Term Government-Bond Interest Rate rSm 5% atmufwiG &f o dS nf/ odUk aomf risk udx k nfo h iG ;f pOf;onft h aejzifh historical interest rate 6% jzifh wGuyf gu ukrÜP\ D share 1 apmifvQif relative value US$ 154.83 &rnf/ t"dyÜg,frSm 2010 wpfEpS w f mtwGi;f earning $ 9.29 &&eftwGuf US Government Bond wGif &if;ES;D jrSKyfErHS nfqv kd Qif $ 154.83 ukeu f srnfjzpfonf/ odYk qv kd Qif Potential Investor wpfO;D taejzifh ar;p&mar;cGe;f wpfc&k adS yonf/ wpfEpS w f mtwGi;f $ 9.29 earning &&S&d eftwGuf $154.83 wefzdk;&Sd (US Government Bond with 6% fixed return ) wGif Invest vkyrf nfvm;/ odUk r[kwf market price $ 124.07 &Sjd yD; initial rate of return 7.49% &Su d m EPS ESppf Ofxyfw;kd EIe;f (annual compound rate 20.74% ) &Sdaom Strayer Education \&S,, f mwGif Invest vkyrf nfvm;/ Potential Investor wpfO;D taejzifh aumif;pGmqH;k jzwfEidk rf nf[k ,HBk unfayonf/US Treasury Bond

\ rate of return ESifh EIdif;,SOfvQif ukrÜPD\ stock onf overprice jzpfaeonf[k rqdEk dkiaf y/

k oH;k jyK 12. Annual EPS Growth udt jyKí Annual Compounding Return udk cefUrSe;f wGucf sujf cif; f wGi;f vnf; ESppf Of 20.74 % wd;k wufjyD; tu,fíom ukrÜP\ D EPS onf vmrnfh 10 ESpt 4if;\ 74.05% udk retained earning tjzpf qufvufxdef;odrf;um 25.95% udk Dividend tjzpf xkwaf y;rnfqv kd Qif atmufygZ,m;twdik ;f &&SEd idk o f nf/


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EPS $

Dividend $

2011

11.22

2.91

2012

13.54

3.51

2013

16.35

4.24

2014

19.74

5.12

2015

23.84

6.19

2016

28.78

7.47

2017

34.75

9.02

2018

41.96

10.89

2019

50.66

13.15

2020

61.17

15.87

22

78.37

t"dyÜg,frSm 2020 ckESpfwGif ukrÜP\ D EPS onf $61.17 &Sdrnf[k cefUrSef;Ekdifonf/ tu,fí hf ;kH P/E ratio 12 twdik ;f trade vkyv f sif market price taejzifh xdt k csdew f iG f ukrÜPD stock udk tedrq $734.04 &SEd ikd o f nf/ 4if;udk tcGerf aqmifrD Dividend $78.37 jzifh aygif;ygu1 share vsif pretax return $812.41 &Ekid o f nf/ tu,fí Average Annual P/E ratio 26 jzifhom trade vkyaf ernfqv kd sif 4if; share \ market price onf 2020 ckEpS w f iG f $1590.42 &Srd nf[k cefUrSe;f &onf/ 4if;udk tcGerf aqmifrD Dividend


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yrmP $78.37 jzifh aygif;vsi1f share pretax return $1668.79 &rnf[k cefUrSe;f &onf/ tu,fí Potential Investor wpfO;D onf 2010 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv 31 &ufaeU nae 3em&DcJG tcsdew f iG f ukrÜP\ D 1 share aygufaps;jzpfaom $153.455 ay;um 0,f,cl v hJ sif aemif 10 ESpf (2020) a&mufo f nfh tcsdew f iG f 4if;\ Total Pretax Return rSm 18.14% ESifh 26.95% Bum;wGif &Srd nf[k cefUrSe;f Edik o f nf/ þcefUrSe;f csufrsm;tm;vH;k onf vGecf ahJ om (10) ESpw f mtwGi;f ukrÜP\ D Performance ay:wGif tajccHonf/ ukrP Ü \ D Performance onfvnf;aumif;? Education Industry onfvnf;aumif;? tjcm;aom Factors rsm;onfvnf;aumif; vmrnfh (10)ESpt f wGi;f wGif tajymif;vJrsm;pGm &SEd ikd o f nf/ odUk jzpf&m Potential Investor wpfO;D onf rdr\ d touft&G,?f Resources , Personal Investment Goals ESifh Risk Tolerance tp&So d nfh tcsufrsm;ay:wGif rlwnfí Investment Decision udkqHk;jzwfoifhvSayonf/ /


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info.strategyďŹ rst@gmail.com

http://www.strategyďŹ rstinstitute.com


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New Business Models in Emerging Markets by Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Hari Nair

Artwork: Damián Ortega, Stone—Constructive failures II, 2005, wooden structure, 158 x 80 x162 cm

Right now more than 20,000 multinationals are operating in emerging economies. According to the Economist, Western multinationals expect to find 70% of their future growth there—40% of it in China and India alone. But if the opportunity is huge, so are the obstacles to seizing it. On its 2010 Ease of Doing Business Index, the World Bank ranked China 89th, Brazil 129th, and India 133rd out of 183 countries. Summarizing the bank’s conclusions, the Economist wrote, “The only way that companies can prosper in these markets is to cut costs relentlessly and accept profit margins close to zero.”


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Yes, the challenges are significant. But we couldn’t disagree more with that opinion. We have seen the opportunities of the future on a street corner in Bangalore, in a small city in central India, in a village in Kenya— and they don’t require companies to forgo profits. On the surface, nothing could be more prosaic: a laundry, a compact fridge, a money-transfer service. But look closely at the businesses behind these offerings and you will find the frontiers of business model innovation. These novel ventures reveal a way to help companies escape stagnant demand at home, create new and profitable revenue streams, and find competitive advantage. That may sound overly optimistic, given the difficulty Western companies have had entering emerging markets to date. But we believe they’ve struggled not because they can’t create viable offerings but because they get their business models wrong. Many multinationals simply import their domestic models into emerging markets. They may tinker at the edges, lowering prices—perhaps by selling smaller sizes or by using lower-cost labor, materials, or other resources. Sometimes they even design and manufacture their products locally and hire local country managers. But their fundamental profit formulas and operating models remain unchanged, consigning these companies to selling largely in the highest income tiers, which in most emerging markets aren’t big enough to generate sufficient returns. What’s often missing from even the savviest of these efforts is a systematic process for reconceiving the business model. For more than a decade, through research and our work in both mature and emerging markets, we have been developing our business model innovation and implementation process (see “Reinventing Your Business Model,” HBR December 2008, and “Beating the Odds When You Launch a New Venture,” HBR May 2010). At its most basic level, the process consists of three steps: Identify an important unmet job a target customer needs done; blueprint a model that can accomplish that job profitably for a price the customer is willing to pay; and carefully implement and evolve the model by testing essential assumptions and adjusting as you learn.

Start in the Middle Established companies entering emerging markets should take a page from the strategy of startups, for which all markets are new: Instead of looking for additional outlets for existing offerings, they should identify unmet needs—“the jobs to be done” in our terminology—that can be fulfilled at a profit. Emerging markets teem with such jobs. Even the basic needs of their large populations may not yet have been met. In fact, the challenge lies less in finding jobs than in settling on the ones most appropriate for your company to tackle.


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Many companies have already been lured by the promise of profits from selling low-endproducts and services in high volume to the very poor in emerging markets. And high-end products and services are widely available in these markets for the very few who can afford them: You can buy a Mercedes or a washing machine, or stay at a nice hotel, almost anywhere in the world. Our experience suggests a far more promising place to begin: between these two extremes, in the vast middle market. Consumers there are defined not so much by any particular income band as by a common circumstance: Their needs are being met very poorly by existing lowend solutions, because they cannot afford even the cheapest of the highend alternatives. Companies that devise new business models and offerings to better meet those consumers’ needs affordably will discover enormous opportunities for growth. Take, for example, the Indian consumer durables company Godrej & Boyce. Founded in 1897 to sell locks, Godrej is today a diversified manufacturer of everything from safes to hair dye to refrigerators and washing machines. In workshops we conducted with key managers in the appliances division, refrigerators emerged as a high-potential area: Because of the cost both to buy and to operate them, traditional compressor-driven refrigerators had penetrated only 18% of the market. The first thing these managers wanted to know, naturally enough, was “Could Godrej provide a cheaper, stripped-down version of our higher-end refrigerator?” We asked them to consider instead the key needs of those with poor or no refrigeration. Did they know what those consumers really wanted? In a word, no. A small team was assigned to conduct detailed observations, openended interviews, and video ethnography to illuminate the job to be done for that untapped market. The semiurban and rural people the team observed typically earned 5,000 to 8,000 rupees (about $125 to $200) a month, lived in single-room dwellings with four or five family members, and changed residences frequently. Unable to afford conventional refrigerators in their own homes, they were making do with communal, usually secondhand ones. The shared fridges weren’t meeting these people’s needs very well, but not for the reasons one might expect. The observers found that they almost invariably contained only a few items. Their users tended to shop daily and buy small quantities of vegetables and milk. Electricity was unreliable, putting even the little food they did want to preserve at risk. What’s more, although they wanted to cool their drinking water, making ice wasn’t a job for which these people would “hire” a refrigerator.


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The team concluded that what this group needed to do was to stretch one meal into two by preserving leftovers and to keep drinks cooler than room temperature—a job markedly different from the one higher-end refrigerators do, which is to keep a large supply of perishables on hand, cold or frozen. Clearly, there was no reason to spend a month’s salary on a conventional refrigerator and pay steep electricity prices to get the simpler job done. And just as clearly, the solution wasn’t a cheaper conventional fridge. Here was an opportunity to create a fundamentally new product for the underserved middle market. Targeting this market has two great advantages. First, it’s easier to upgrade the solution to a job people are already trying to do than to create sufficient customer demand where none yet exists —as would-be vendors of purified water and other seemingly essential offerings have found to their dismay. Second, it’s easier to reach people who are already spending money to get their jobs done. That’s essentially what Ratan Tata did with the $2,500 Nano. He didn’t ask, “How can I get people who’ve never bought any form of transportation to buy a car?” He asked, “How can I produce a better alternative for people who hire motor scooters to transport their families?” The goal is to redirect existing demand by offering a clear path from an unsatisfactory solution to a better one.

Offer Unique Benefits for Less To redirect demand, your customer value proposition (CVP) must solve a problem more effectively, simply, accessibly, or affordably than the alternatives. In developing markets, we have found, the components of a CVP that matter most are affordability and access. Let’s look at each in turn.

Affordability. Western companies know that they need to come up with lower-cost offerings in emerging markets, but they too often limit themselves to providing less for less. In 2001, for instance, a 300 ml bottle of Coke cost 10 rupees— a day’s wages, on average, and a luxury the company estimated only 4% of the population could afford. To reach the other 96%, it introduced a 200 ml bottle and cut the price in half, shaving margins to make Coke more competitive with common alternatives such as lemonade and tea.


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In our experience, though, a far more robust approach to creating an affordable emerging market offering is to trade off expensive features and functions that people don’t need for less-expensive ones they do need. To get that right requires a clear understanding of the context in which the offering will be sold—which calls for further fieldwork, preferably of a collaborative rather than a merely observational kind. This is good product-development advice in any market. In fact, it applies to indigenous players operating close to home, like Godrej, as well as to Western companies confronting the unfamiliar. Godrej’s team designed and built a prototype cooling unit from the ground up and tested it in the field with consumers. Then, in February 2008, more than 600 women in Osmanabad, a city in India’s Marathwada region, gathered to participate in a cocreation event. Working with the original prototypes and several others that had followed, they collaborated with Godrej on every aspect of the product’s design. They helped plan the interior arrangements, made suggestions for the lid, and provided insights on color (eventually settling on candy red). The result was the ChotuKool (“little cool”), a top-opening unit that, at 1.5 x 2 feet and with a capacity of 43 liters, has enough room for the few items users want to keep fresh for a day or two. With only 20 (rather than the usual 200) parts, it has no compressor, cooling tubes, or refrigerant. Instead it uses a chip that cools when a current is applied and a fan like those that prevent desktop computers from overheating. Its top-opening design keeps most of the cold air inside when the lid is opened. It uses less than half the energy of a conventional refrigerator and can run on a battery during the power outages that are common in rural villages. At just 7.8 kilograms, it’s highly portable, and at $69, it costs half what the most basic refrigerator does. Because it’s the right size for the job, easier to move, and more reliable in a power outage than a conventional fridge, it surpasses the higherend offering on the performance measures that matter most to these consumers.

Access. It’s not surprising that portability is important to potential ChotuKool customers, given that they move frequently. And because populations in emerging markets tend to be dispersed, obtaining goods and services can be more difficult than in the West. This creates opportunities for companies that solve challenges of access.


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In Kenya, for example, banking services are scarce and transferring money is complicated and expensive. Without access to traditional services, many people must use unsafe alternatives such as hawala—an unregulated network of brokers operating on the honor system— or transport cash by bus. The UK-based Vodafone solved this problem by developing a secure, low-cost mobile money-transfer service. Called M-PESA (M for “mobile” and PESA from the Swahili word for “money”), the system is operated by Safaricom, Kenya’s leading mobile network. Customers register free with an authorized M-PESA agent—typically a Safaricom dealer, but sometimes a gas station, food market, or other local shop. Once registered, they can deposit or withdraw cash at the agent or transfer money electronically to any mobile phone user, even if the recipient is not a Safaricom subscriber. They can also buy Safaricom airtime for themselves or other subscribers. Customers pay a flat fee of about US 40 cents for person-to-person transfers, 33 cents for withdrawals under $33, and 1.3 cents for balance inquiries. Vodafone (which owns a significant stake in Safaricom) manages individual customer accounts on its server, and Safaricom deposits its customers’ balances in pooled accounts in two regulated banks, so their full value is backed by highly liquid assets. Since its launch, in March 2007, the service has acquired more than 9 million customers—40% of Kenya’s adult population. As of June 2010, the Economist reported, M-PESA customers could conduct transactions at some 17,900 retail outlets, more than half of them in rural areas. That figure dwarfs the total number of bank branches, post offices, and Post Banks—which is only about 840 nationwide. Spurred by the success of its original offerings, the service has expanded to include bill payment, business-tocustomer payments such as paychecks and microfinance loan disbursements, delivery of humanitarian aid, and international money transfers. After just three years M-PESA accounted for 9% of Safaricom’s total revenue. More important, it has become the engine driving the company’s profits, which have shifted dramatically from voice to data traffic. Vodafone has launched similar services in Tanzania, Afghanistan, and South Africa and plans to introduce them in Egypt, Fiji, and Qatar as well.


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Failure to address the access challenge is an important reason that so many companies have little success adapting their current models to emerging markets. Time and again, the increased volume they hope will offset slimmer profit margins doesn’t in fact result in profits, because the costs of serving far-flung customers in infrastructure-poor developing countries are just too high. But companies that, like Vodafone, devise novel approaches may find them to be widely applicable in many markets.

Integrate the Elements Business models can be conceived in a variety of ways. Our approach focuses on the basics and also on factors that make it difficult to move from an existing model to a new one— margin requirements, overhead, and “resource velocity” (the capacity to generate a given volume of business within a specific time frame). It has four parts: the customer value proposition, a profit formula, key processes, and key resources the company must use to deliver the CVP repeatedly and at scale. Creating competitive advantage lies in integrating these elements to produce value for both the customer and the company. That’s easy to say but devilishly hard to do. Mapping the traditional functions of your company to these broad categories will show you how much you’d have to change to integrate those functions into a new business model (see the exhibit “Building a New Model”). Building a New Model (Located at the end of this article) Once you’ve devised a CVP for your proposed offering, consider the basis on which you compete —differentiation or price. Offerings that compete on differentiation require that you ask, “What do I have to do to produce this?” which leads you counterclockwise around the model, looking first at what resources and processes are needed, the cost of which (both fixed and variable) will determine what price can deliver the desired profit margin. That’s what Whole Foods did when it created a new market for organic foods. Costs drove prices. For offerings that compete on the basis of price, you move clockwise around the model, again starting with the CVP, but next setting the price, devising a rough cost structure, and then determining what processes and resources (often radically different from those in your current model) are needed to meet your price requirements. Because affordability is so critical in emerging markets, the decision journey is almost invariably clockwise. Innovators start with a revenue model—“We think we can sell this offering to X number of people at price Y”—and then devise the cost structure required to deliver a certain unit margin. Becoming profitable at


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that margin means operating at a certain resource velocity, which in turn drives decisions about how to organize operations, what materials to use, and other questions. More often than not, this exercise reveals that a company can’t meet its profit goals in emerging markets merely by reducing variable costs in its current profit formula and that a viable model will require changes to fixed costs or overhead as well. That’s what Ratan Tata discovered when he set out to produce his $2,500 car. He couldn’t just send the car down the production line and somehow spend less to make it. He needed to reduce fixed costs by designing a car with far fewer parts and changing assembly methods and other key processes. Implementing models that require changes in overhead, margins, or resource velocity tends to be problematic for incumbent companies, which is why it’s not surprising that start-ups so often have the edge in bringing to market offerings that require new ways to turn a profit. An open mind is perhaps the most important asset anyone can bring to emerging markets. We learned that lesson when we set out to solve a basic but knotty cleaning problem for a vast group of frustrated consumers. Village Laundry Service—which was founded by our company and uses the Chamak brand— was aimed squarely at the emerging middle market. In India people who can’t afford a washing machine but want an alternative to laborious washing by hand after a long day’s work have unappealing choices: They can patronize a dhobi (a traditional washing person), or they can take their clothes to a neighborhood laundry or dry-cleaning establishment. The dhobis are cheap, but they use any available water, which can be unhygienic. They slap the clothes against rocks to clean them, which wears down the fabrics, and they don’t compensate customers for damage. Turnaround time is five to seven days. A laundry or dry cleaner can do the job in four or five days, generally returns the clothes in good shape, and makes amends if something goes wrong. A laundry may or may not use clean water, however, and both are far more expensive than a dhobi. In early 2009 we ventured into several parts of India, from urban slums to rural villages, conducting interviews and immersing ourselves in the lives of the people who faced this frustrating choice. What, exactly, was the job to be done? What sort of laundry service would these customers hire? We discovered several things: The job wasn’t to make it affordable for them to clean their clothes the way rich people did; it was to replicate the advantage of a home washer and dryer at a price they could afford. It wouldn’t be sufficient to get the clothes back in four days—they’d have to be ready within 24 hours, and at a price well below the laundry’s or dry cleaner’s.


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And they’d have to be easy to pick up at a nearby location.With those requirements clearly in mind, we examined all parts of the business model to come up with an inventive way of extending access while keeping costs low. We immediately realized that it would be hard to create a profitable business that placed many traditional selfservice laundries across a town, because demand was unpredictable and up-front capital investment and rental deposits would be high. Our solution: Portable seven-foot-square kiosks, each holding an efficient frontloading washer and a dryer, which can be placed wherever there is heavy foot traffic. Customers drop off their clothes to be washed, dried, and ironed, all within 24 hours. The kiosk’s small footprint minimizes rents, and its independent water supply, delivered through a fixed contract, is both less expensive and more reliable than the public utility connection. Covered with ads for the Chamak brand, the kiosks also serve as billboards, reducing the need for paid advertising. We keep transaction costs low through an innovative point-of-sale system, made up of a cell phone linked to a Bluetooth printer and report server, which prints receipts, tracks orders, and captures data on business volume. After much experimentation, we developed standard procedures for staffing and running the kiosks, including tests to gauge potential operators’ aptitude and commitment; simple picturebased operating instructions (much like those used in fast-food restaurants) to ensure consistent service; and a scorecard for traffic level, customer satisfaction, marketing effectiveness, and other variables, allowing us to predict the chances of success at each location and to make operations replicable and scalable. It is this innovative marriage of a novel solution with all the other elements of the business model that makes Chamak’s services affordable and profitable. The model allows the company to charge 40 rupees (about $1) per kilogram of clothing—little more than what dhobis charge and significantly less than what professional laundries and dry cleaners do (sometimes 90 rupees per garment). Village Laundry Service currently has 5,000 customers patronizing some 20 booths in Mumbai, Bangalore, and Mysore. The company expects to reach breakeven in late 2011. Of course, as with any new business, how Village Laundry Service performs over the long term will depend on a number of hard-to-predict factors.


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From Blueprint to Operating Business Testing and implementing the business model blueprint in emerging markets is as much an art as a science. Having a cadre of global “experts” study the market for months and create a plan that is then handed over to the local team for execution simply doesn’t work. Quick adjustments based on early lessons learned on the ground trump the best and most detailed strategic plan developed before the fact. Four Ways to Uncover Unmet Needs (Located at the end of this article) M-PESA succeeded in part because Kenya’s banking regulator permitted Safaricom to test various business models from the very beginning. Safaricom made the most of the opportunity. It started in 2004 by experimenting with 500 customers and a system designed to allow them to repay microloans. As the company market-tested this concept, it discovered a morecompelling value proposition—namely, a way for urban workers to transfer funds to friends and family members in rural areas. That fundamental insight was the basis on which subsequent services were built, and since M-PESA’s commercial launch, its simple but powerful branding message has been “Send money home.” This doesn’t mean that expertise is unimportant when launching a new business in an emerging market. But we’ve found that agile functional expertise is the most critical kind, because the uncertainties in emerging markets are so great. A broad network of resources —including responsive advertising agencies, companies that can produce prototypes on demand, financial service advisers who understand local regulatory guidelines, and a healthy bench of local entrepreneurs to execute the plan—is essential. The ability to conduct rapid experiments inexpensively and use what you learn from them to hone the business model is essential to success. It allows you to make course corrections before you commit to major operational or strategic investments. Recently a company we incubated was looking to launch a men’s grooming business but was uncertain about demand. Rather than commission an expensive 10-city quantitative research study, we rented a small airconditioned truck and created a mini hair salon on wheels, outfitted with a barber’s chair, scissors and other implements, and a mirror.


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For two weeks we drove the truck around the streets of Bangalore to gauge demand and test various pricing scenarios at various locations. The experiment, which cost all of $3,000, provided essential answers that no survey could have and demonstrated the business potential for an affordable and convenient Supercuts-like business for men. The company changed from a roving barbershop model to a kiosk-based model and is considering offering additional services, such as facials and skin lightening, that many customers desire. Ultimately, the potential for such business model innovations, as for many other disruptive innovations, may extend far beyond the markets for which they were created. G. Sunderraman, the vice president of corporate development at Godrej, sees the ChotuKool as a new growth platform. Unit sales are projected to reach 10,000 in the first year and 100,000 by the end of the second. If Godrej considered the ChotuKool to be simply a no-frills refrigerator for the middle market, it might be content with a moderate penetration rate. But the company’s managers regard it as a new product category, based on new technology, that has the potential to perform jobs for people at many income levels. In areas with frequent power outages, the owners of conventional refrigerators might want an inexpensive and reliable backup. Small shops, offices, and manufacturing sites might use it to maintain a supply of cool drinks. Higher-income customers—perhaps in developed economies as well—might use it in their bedrooms, their cars, or their boats. When the technology improves, Godrej believes, it can enter mainstream markets as ChotuKool changes consumers’ expectations about refrigerator prices and performance and addresses a need that previously went unmet.

Many companies view emerging markets as one large foothold market, and in this they are right. Classic disruptive innovation theory holds that, ideally, innovations should first be introduced in markets where the alternatives fall short on some dimension (typically price) or are utterly unavailable. Emerging markets fit that bill in spades. They are excellent arenas for trying out product innovations far from competitors’ prying eyes. But we are convinced that a much greater opportunity lies in viewing these markets not as one vast lab for product R&D but as unique environments filled with poorly done jobs that could be creatively addressed with business model R&D. Creating new business models will give your company a more enduring competitive advantage.


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Building a New Model Business models must integrate four elements: the customer value proposition (CVP), the profit formula, key processes, and key resources. Developing new business models always begins with devising a new CVP. Models designed to compete on differentiation next establish the resources and processes needed to deliver the CVP, the cost of which determines the price required in the profit formula. Models designed to compete on price proceed in the opposite way, establishing first the offering’s price, then the cost structure, and finally the processes and resources required.

Four Ways to Uncover Unmet Needs 1. Study what your customers are doing with your product. Be aware that, as Peter Drucker famously said, “The customer rarely buys what the business thinks it sells him.” 2. Look at the alternatives to your offerings that consumers buy. Investigate a wide range of substitutes for your products, not just what your competitors make. 3. Watch for compensating behaviors. Discover what jobs people are satisfying poorly. 4. Search for explanations. Uncover the root causes of consumers’ behavior by asking what people are trying to accomplish with the goods and services they use.


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arSmifru kd rf I urf;ukeNf yDqakd omf... OD;jrwfNidr;f urÇmt h BuD;jrwfq;kH orkid ;f ynm&Sirf sm;xJwiG f wpfO;D tygt0ifjzpfonfh *Repf wl;0yfr;D vf (John Stuart Mill) onf olYoufwrf; wpfavQmufv;kH ordi k ;f OD;,Ofaus;rIay:xGe;f pumvrS tpjyKumordik ;f jzpfpOfrsm;udk avhvmcJ\ h / rSww f rf;wifc\ hJ / xdo k Ukd ordik ;f jzpfpOfrsm;udk tywfwukyaf vhvmrSww f rf;jyKco hJ nfh q&mBuD;tm; “xl;jcm;xif&mS ;wJh ordik ;f jzpfpOfawGukd wpfoufvHk;avhvmcJhwJhtcg b,fvdkta&;BuD;qHk;tcsufudk q&mBuD; qnf;yl; awGY&cdS &hJ ygovJ” [kar;cGe;f &Siw f pfO;D uar;cJ\ h / xdt k cg vd&k if;wd&k iS ;f ajzcJo h nfh q&mBuD;\tajzrSm “arSmifru dk rf I urf;ukejf yDqv kd sSif Mu,fpifawG xGufay:vmwmygyJ” [l\/ q&mMuD;\tqdktrdefUonf “tcsdefra&G;rSefaeonfh tqdktrdefYjzpfonf/ Mum;em&olwpfOD;udk tNrJwrf;pdwf"mwftm;rmefjr§ifhwifay;aeonfh tqdktrdefUjzpfonf” [kuRefawmf cH,o l nf/ q&mBuD;\ tqdt k rdeYfukd uReaf wmhenf;wl oifvnf; xm0pOfrw S rf ad evdrrhf nf[k arQmv f ifyh gonf/ avmu"Hw&m;\ xkaxmif;ESdyfpufrIudk tvl;vl;tvJvJcHae&csdefrsm;wGif q&mMuD;\rdefYrSmpum;onf oift h wGuf pdwcf eG t f m;rsm; ½H;k MuGxu G af y:&m &if;jrpfjzpfaeygvdrrhf nf/ “arSmifrdkufrI urf;ukefjyDqdkvQif Mu,fpifawGxGufay:vmwmygyJ”

4if;tqdktrdefUrSefuefaMumif; oufaotaxmufxm;awG wifjy&rnfqdkvQif ajymrqHk;aygif awmoHk;axmif jzpfaeygvdrfhrnf/ uRefawmhbufu,HkMunfrIvGefuJvGef;&mvnf; a&mufaeygvdrfhrnf/ odkUjzpfonfhwdkif xl;jcm;xif&Sm;jzpf&yftenf;tusOf;udkawmh razmfjybJraeEdkif/ azmfjyjzpfatmif azmfjyvdu k cf sifygonf/ urÇmo h rdik ;f wGif xl;jcm;xif&mS ;aom yk*K¾d vfMuD;oH;k OD;&Scd o hJ nf/ olwUkd onf ajymr,Hk MuHKzl;rSo[ d k qd&k avmufatmifow l Ukd b0rsm;wGif yde;f yde;f ydwyf w d f tarSmifru kd q f ;kH umvrsm;udk MuHKcJMh u&\/


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odak omf olwUkd onf ewfa'0grsm;u aq;Budrv f ;kH jzifh wdYkxNd yD;ulu,fco hJ nfEh , S f b0qd;k b0½dik ;f rsm;rS tHph zG,f ½ke;f xGuEf ikd cf MhJ uonf/ atmifjrifrt I vHukd wvlvl vTiw hf ifEikd cf MhJ uonf/ uJ...rdwaf qG? olwUkd oH;k OD; taMumif; udak wmh uRefawmfajymrjybJraeEdik yf g/ ajymyg&ap/ t*Fvyd v f rl sdK;wpfO;D jzpfonfh *Refpwl;0yfr;D vfonf aemifwpfcsdew f iG f xl;jcm;xif&mS ;onfh awG;ac: ynm&SiEf iS phf ;D yGm;a&; ynm&Siw f pfO;D / olYtoufEpS q f ,f? 1826 ckEpS w f iG f olonf pdwaf &m*gzdp;D ESyd pf ufr'I Pfukd tvl;tvJcpH m;cJ&h \/ xkYdaMumifh olonf pdwu f sa0'emudk tjyif;txef cHpm;&onf/ olYu, kd o f t l qH;k pD&ifzUkd vaygif;rsm;pGmjzpfatmif tMudrfMudrfMudK;pm;cJh\/ 1826ckESpf qdkonfh acwfumvwGif jyif;xefonfh pdwaf 0oemudk oufomaysmufuif;atmif ukoEdik pf rG ;f &So d nfh ukx;kH ESiahf q;0g;rsm; ray:ao;/ r&Sad o;/ odkUaomf....... *Refpwl;0yfrD;vftwGuf“arSmifrdkufrIurf;ukefaomtcg Mu,fpifrsm;0if;ypGmxGufay:vmawmh\”/ olonf olUudk,f&nfudk,faoG;udk jyKpkysdK;axmifojzifh vQifjrefpGmzGHjzdK;wdk;wufvmonf/ olYpdwftae txm;onf tpGr;f txufq;kH pOf;pm;qifjcifOmPfjynf0h qH;k taetxm;odYk a&mufvmonf/ xYakd emuf olYacwf olUumvwGif tMuD;jrwfqHk;awG;ac:ynm&SifESifh pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;xJwGif wpfOD;tygt0iftjzpf xGef;awmufxif&Sm;cJhavonf/ “arSmifrdkufrIurf;ukefNyDqdkvSsif Mu,fpifawGxGufay:vmwmygyJ”

urÇmt h MuD;jrwfq;kH awG;ac:ynm&Sirf sm;xJwiG f wpfO;D tygt0ifjzpfonfh q&mMuD; 0DvsH*sdrf; (William James) onf [m;AwfwuúodkvfrS atmifjrifausmfMum;aom tawG;tac:ESihf pdwyf nm&Siw f pfO;D jzpf\/ olonfi,fb0wke;f u use;f rma&;csLcsmol/ jyif;xefonfh ud, k pf w d f qufpyfa&m*g vu©mPmrsm;jzpfay:cJo h /l xdak &m*g'PfaMumifh olYtoufEpS q f ,fo h ;kH ESpt f &G,w f iG f olYrsufv;kH ESihf 0rf;Adu k u f x kd cd u kd v f monf/


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aemufEpS Ef pS t f MumwGif ynmoif,q l nf;yl;jcif; tvkyu f v kd ;kH 0&yfem;vdu k &f \/ xdYk aemuf aq;0g; ukoa&;twGuf Oa&myodUk oGm;&onf/ odUk jzpfonfw h ikd f ol\pdwaf zmufjyefrI taetxm;onf qd;k onfxuf qd;k vmonf/ NyD;awmhpw d u f sa&m*g\ESyd pf ufru I kd tvl;tvJcpH m;&jyD; rdru d , kd rf rd o d wfaozdUk rMumrMum MuHpnftm;xkwfcJhonf/ xdYk aemufrmS awmh ........ 0DvsH*sdrf;twGuf arSmifrdkufrIawGurf;ukefoGm;jyD; vif;vufMu,fpifawG xGufay:vmawmh\/ olcpH m;ae&onfh ud, k pf w d f qufpyfa&m*g vH;k 0aysmufuif;oGm;onf/ xdYk aemuf ordik ;f aMumif;wGif MuD;jrwf qH;k aom awG;ac:ynm&Siw f pfO;D tjzpf xnfo h iG ;f owfrw S &f avmufatmif jzpfxeG ;f vmonf/ xdrk Qru olonf tawG;tac:ynmESifh pdwfynmwGif aevdkvvdkxif&Sm;jyD; vQrf;vQrf;awmuf xifay:ausmfMum;aom pma&;q&mwpfO;D jzpfvmonf/ xYjdk yif [m;Awfwuúov kd w f iG f *kPo f u d m© tMuD;rm;qH;k q&mwpfqv l nf; jzpfvmonf/ q&mMuD;\ OmPftajrmftjrifMuD;rm;rIu uRefawmfwUkd udk xde;f odr;f yJjh yif vrf;nTeaf y;\/ jyD;awmh b0tm;rmefrsm; w&Sed &f edS w f ufapcJ\ h / “arSmifrdkufrI urf;ukefNyDqdkvQif Mu,fpifawG xGufy:vmwmygyJ}}

urÇmausmfpw d af &m*gukq&m0ef a'gufwmum;vfrifeif*g (Dr.Karl Menninger) u ol\vuf&m tajrmufqHk; The Vital Balance pmtkyfwGif atb&m[rfvifuGef;taMumif; xnfo h iG ;f a&;om;cJ\ h / vifueG ;f onf jyif;xefaom pdwaf &m*g zdp;D ESyd pf ufru I kd wpfMudrfwpfcgr[kwf tBudrfBudrftcgcg cHpm;&onfqdk\/ vifuGef;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufjzpfolu vifuGef;onf (jyif;xefonfhpdwfa&m*g trsdK;tpm; rsm;xJwGif wpfrsdK;tygt0ifjzpfonfh) pdwfndSK;i,fa&m*g\ulu,f&mrJh om;aumifwpfO;D jzpfco hJ nf[ak jymcJ\ h /


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wu,fawmh vifuGef;\ ZeD;avmif;ESifh ywfoufonfh rdbaqGrsdK;rdwfo*F[rsm;uvnf; vifuGef;udk “pdwrf ESYH ow l pfO;D ” [k rSw, f cl MhJ uonf/ vifueG ;f onf vufxyfr*FvmyGJ usif;yonfah eYwiG f owfrw S f xm;onfhae&modkU a&mufrvmcJh/ wpfjcm;olrsm;u olYtm;wpfarQmfarQmfapmifh&atmif jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh olwdkU\,lqcsufrSefaMumif; cdkifrmatmif tm;jznfhay;cJhavonf/ rwwfomonfhtqHk; olYudkvlcGJjyD; vdkuf&SmMu&onf/ aemufqHk;wGif olYtcef;xJü pdwfrcsrf;romjzifh pdwfysufvufysuf xdkifidkifaeonfh olYuakd wGUMu&onf/ xdt k csdew f iG f oleufeufeeJ J pOf;pm;MuHqaeonfh taMumif;t&mrsm;rSm ta&;rygt&m ra&mufonfh ta&r& tzwfr& tawG;rsm;om jzpfae\/ vifuGef;taMumif; oHk;ESpfwdkifwdkif okawoejyKNyD; vifuGef;tw¦KyÜwÅdudk a&;om;jyKpkcJhonfh a';vfumeuf*sDu vifuGef;onf ½kyfydkif;t&ma&m pdwfydkif;t&myg tonf;toefa&m*g cHpm;cJh&onf/ xdYk aemuf pdwn f KSd ;i,fraI &m*gudk eifeh ifeh eJ J cHpm;cJ&h onf[k azmfjycJah vonf/ olonf bmrQtquftpyf r&Sad om taMumif;rsm;udk yg;pyfryS vH;k yaxG;&Gwq f akd ewwfonf/ pdwt f m;i,fraI 0'emudk jyif;jyif;xefxef cHpm;&jyD; rdru d , kd u f , kd f tqH;k pD&ifzUkd tMudrMf udrMf uHpnfMudK;pm;cJah vonf/ olurdru d , kd rf rd d tqH;k pD&ifonfh taMumif; uAsmwpfy'k yf ifa&;om;cJah o;onf/ 4if;uAsmudk py&if;zD;vfjrdKUxkwf owif;pmwpfapmifwiG f yHkESdyfazmfjycJhonf/ olYudk,foltqHk;pD&ifjcif;rjyKEdkifatmif olYoli,fcsif;taygif;oif;rsm;u olY"m;udk odr;f qnf;xm;Mu&avonf/


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odkUwdkif... atb&m[rfvifuGef;twGuf“arSmifrdkufrIurf;ukefaomtcg Mu,fwm&mawGxGufay:vmwmygyJ}} 4if;Mu,frsm;udk pmcspfolwdkUonf rsuf0g;xifxifjrifEdkif awGUEdkifygonf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpk\ Edik if aH wmftvHukd Munfv h u kd yf g/ tNyma&mifatmufcaH y:wGif xGe;f vufawmufyaeaom Mu,fyiG ahf v;rsm;/ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom; tm;vHk;twGuf vGyfvyfrIESifh w&m;rQwrIay;tyfjyD; ydkif;pdwfcGJjcm;r&atmif pnf;vHk; nDnw G af om Edik if aH wmfukd ud, k pf m;jyKonft h vH/ tDvED KGd ufjynfe,f? py&if;zD;vfjrdKU&Sd vifueG ;f aexdik cf o hJ nft h rd u f kd Edik if aH wmfu tav;tjrwfxm;aom ordkif;0iftaqmufttHktjzpf xdef;odrf;xm;cJh\/ xkdtdrf\eD;em;0ef;usifwGif aexdkifonfh trsdK;orD; wpfO;D onf olr\orD;uav;ESit hf wl xdt k rd af &SUrS rMumrMumjzwfavQmufwwf\/ xdo k Ukd jzwfavQmufwikd ;f rdcifBuD;u orD;i,ftm; vifueG ;f taMumif;ajymjyavh&o dS nf/ vifueG ;f \ BuD;jrwfjcif;taMumif;? vifueG ;f wm0efxrf;cJo h nfh or®woufwrf;twGi;f xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufaom pGr;f aqmifrrI sm;taMumif;? wdik ;f jynfEiS hf vlrsdK;twGuf oYb l 0udk rnfoUkd rnfykH yHt k yfcjhJ cif;taMumif; ........./ wpfcsDwiG rf l olrwdUk om;trdonf vifueG ;f tdraf &SUrS aeYbufwiG jf zwfavQmufrnft h pm; nbufwiG f jzwfavQmufrMd u\/ MuD;jrwfaom Edik if ahH cgif;aqmifMuD; aexdik cf o hJ nfh bHAk rd mef\ *kPt f *FgESihf nDnw G af p&ef tdrcf ef;wdik ;f wGif rD;vH;k rsm;xdex f ed n f ;D nD; zGix hf m;onfuakd wGUjrifaom orD;uav;u wtHwMoajymvdu k o f nf rSm “[,f...arar Munfph rf; Munfph rf;? rpöwmvifueG ;f u rD;awGziG x hf m;cJw h mud;k arar&JU” [l\/ trSet f uefygyJ orD;uav;&,f/ rpöwmvifueG ;f u wu,fyJ tvif;a&mifawG xdex f ed n f ;D aeatmif xGe;f ndx § m;cJyh gw,fu, G /f wpfurÇmvH;k ..... ae&mwumwdik ;f rSm vlom;tm;vH;k nD&if;tudv k kd cspcf ifMuifemjyD; vGwfvyfrIESifh omwlnDrQrI&SdwJh urÇmBuD;qDudk avQmufvSrf;Edkifatmif tvif;a&mifawG xGef;ndSay;cJhwm ayghuG,f/ ajym&rnfqdkvSsif “arSmifrkdufrIurf;ukefNyDqdkvQif Mu,fpifawGxGufay:vmwmygyJ” qdkonfh urÇmeh , d mrw&m; rSeu f efaMumif;udk vifueG ;f u olb0jzif&h if;jyD;oufaojycJah vonf/ /


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Next Issue wGifqufvufzwf½I&ef


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tMuyftwnf;rsm;udak usmv f mT ;Ncif; a'gufwmaeZifvwf b0wpfck pwifjzpfwnfonfEiS Yf tcuftcJrsm;udk &ifqikd &f rnfjzpfonf/ BuD;rm;aom tcuf tcJjzpfvmvQif tMuyftwnf; (Crisis) oabmaqmifvmonf/ tMuyftwnf;? jyóem? tcuftcJwYkdonf a½Smifví JT r&aom obm0w&m;½SNd yD; tMuyftwnf;wdYk ukd ausmv f mT ;Edik Mf u&efom vdo k nf/ tMuyftwnf;udk pd;k ½GYH xw d v f efYygu &ifrqdik rf rD mS yif t½I;H wpf0uf jzpfaewwfNyD; tMuyf twnf;rsm;rsm;udk &ifqikd af jz½Si;f Edik v f Qifvnf; ud, k &f nfu, kd af oG;? pDrcH efYcEJG ikd rf I t&nftaoG;rsm; jrifhwufvmonf/ tMuyftwnf;udk vmvnfwwfaom {nfhonf? a½SmifvTJr&aom obm0 w&m;wpfc[ k k oabmxm;wwf&efvo kd nf/

vTJa½Smifr& ausmif;om;t½G,rf wdik rf yD if tMuyftwnf;wdYkukd awGYEikd o f nf/ pmar;yGJ trSwaf umif;aumif; &vdv k Qif ydí k BudK;pm;&\/ omreftrSwv f eG f &,lvo kd nf½adS omf tMuyftwnf;udk ydí k ausmfvmT ; &jcif;rnfonf/ vkyif ef;cGix f w J iG rf u l m; tMuyftwnf;wdYku tpDt&D apmifBh udKwwf\/ rdr\ d tvkyf NyD;ajrmufatmif tcsderf aD qmif½u G &f jcif;onf omreftMuyftwnf;jzpfNyD;? oabmxm;rwlnaD om txuft&m½Srd sm;Mum; tqifajyatmif vkyu f ikd af qmif½u G &f jcif;onfvnf; tMuyftwnf;wpfcyk if jzpfonf/ vpmESiw hf ;kd wufvmaom vlrpI &dww f Ykd ukd rQwatmif oH;k pG&J jcif;onfvnf; ydí k BuD;rm; vmaom tMuyftwnf;jzpf\/ tMuyftwnf;onf ae&mwdik ;f ? tcsdew f ikd ;f rSm½So d nf/ omref tMuyftwnf;ESiYf omrefveG f tMuyftwnf;[líom uGmjcm;onf/ a½Smif½Sm;vdkíawmYr&acs/ a½Smif½Sm;r&onfht&mjzpfí tMuyftwnf;wdYk EiS hf awGYBuHK&onft h cg atmifjrifpmG ausmfvmT ;Edik &f ef jyifjyifqifqif ½Sx d m;zdYk awmY vdo k nf/ jyifqifxm;ol ESiYf jyifqifrrI ½So d w l Ykd \ &ifqikd &f yHjk cif;? ausmfvmT ;yHjk cif;? udik w f , G yf jkH cif; rwlnMD uovdk &v'f&½Syd jkH cif;vnf; wlnMD urnfr[kwaf cs/


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vkyfief;½Sifrsm;ESifYtMuyftwnf; 0efxrf;b0wGif tqHk;tjzwfrsm;pGm ay;&efrvdkaomfvnf; vkyfief;½Sifb0odkY a&mufvm aomtcg aeYpOfEiS Yf trQ tqH;k tjzwfrsm;pGmudk ay;vm&rnfjzpfonf/ omreftqH;k tjzwfrsm;udk wqifhedrfh refae*smrsm;tm; vkyfydkifcGifhvTJay;jcif;NziYf wm0efay;Edkifaomfvnf; ta&;BuD;aom tqHk;tjzwfrsm;udkrl wm0eft½SdqHk;vlu udk,fwdkif udkifwG,fajz½Sif;&rnfjzpfonf/ tcsdKY tMuyftwnf;wdYk onf tawmftwef qH;k ½I;H rIwYkd jzifY vJv, S &f wwfonfo h abm ½Sad omfvnf; tcsdKY tMuyftwnf;wdYk onfum; vkyif ef;wpfcv k ;kH ? b0wpfcv k ;kH udk ajymif;vJomG ;apEdik o f nftxd BuD;rm; MuonfudkawGY&onf/ (2008)ckESpf urÇmYb@ma&;tMuyftwnf;wGif tiftm;awmifhwif;vSygonf [kqkdaom ukrP Ü BD uD;rsm; vJNydKcJYMuonf/ trSew f u,f pGr;f &nf½^dS r½So d nf tMuyftwnf;wpfcu k kd wu,f &ifqikd &f aomtcgrSom awGYjrifEikd o f nf/ LTCM (Long-term Capital Management) [l a om Hedge Fund (pGefYpm;rIenf;í tumtuG,frsm; &,lxm;aom aiGaMu;&efyHkaiG) onf tvG e f B uD ; rm;aom uk r Ü P D B uD ; wpf c k j zpf o nf / b@ma&;qd k i f & m tzGYJ tpnf;rsm; awmf½EkH iS Yf rvJNydKEdik af p&ef tar&duefwiG f Federal Reserve Board ESiYf US Central Bank wdYk u tNrJwrf;yl;aygif; BuD;Muyfay;aeavh½NdS yD; vdktyfaomb@mrsm;udkvnf; axmufyHhay;wwfonf/ odkYaomfvnf; ½k½Sm;rS b@ma&;tMuyf f iG f NydKvJomG ;cJ&h ygonf/ LTCM udk xdkpOfu twnf;ESiYf twl LTCM onfvnf; (2000) jynfYEpS w tvGefxif½Sm;aom John Merriwether u OD;aqmifcJYonf/ b@ma&;qdkif&mESifY ywfoufí rsm;pGmuRrf;usifo[ l k ,lqcH&oljzpfonf/ odYk aomfvnf; ud&k ;D ,m;rS abm*aA'ynm½Sif Ha-Joon Chang u Merriwether onf olvkyfudkif aeaom tvkyu f kd trSew f u,f rodcí hJ usqH;k cJjh cif;jzpfonf[k qdo k nf/ tMuyftwnf;udk ausmv f mT ;Edik &f ef rdr\ d tajctae? rdr\ d tvky?f rdr\ d pGr;f &nfwYkdukd aumif;pGm odxm;&efvdkonf/


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(2010) wGif a':vmwefz;kd odoo d mom xd;k usomG ;onf/ þoufa&mufru I kd jrefrmEdik if v H nf; vGwu f if;Edik o f nfr[kwaf cs/ jynfyydYk uek v f yk if ef;rsm; tawmfyif tcuftcJ tMuyftwnf;rsm;ESihf &ifqikd af e&ygonf/ rnfoYkd ausmv f mT ;Murnfenf;¿ AFTA onfvnf; rsm;rMumrD a&mufvmawmhrnfh tMuyftwnf;wpfck jzpfygvdrrhf nf/ xkwu f ek -f oGi;f ukeyf pön;f wdYk wpfEikd if EH iS w hf pfEikd if H ,cifuxuf ydí k jrefqefpmG pD;qif;Murnfjzpfonf/ xkwv f yk rf pI &dwf avQmhcsEdik af omEdik if rH sm;rS tompD;&,lEikd f MurnfjzpfNyD; xkwv f yk rf pI &dwf jrifrh m;aom? ypön;f t&nftaoG; edryhf g;aomEdik if rH sm; BuD;pGmaom tMuyftwnf;wdYk EiS hf &ifqikd &f rnfjzpfonf/ jrefrmEdik if \ H jynfyxkwu f ek t f ajctaeudk aumif;pGm dS nfukd tMuyftwnf;ESihf qef;ppfzYkdaumif;onf/ ,SONf ydKifEikd pf rG ;f (Competitive Advantage) rnfrQ½o &ifqikd &f rSr[kwb f J BudKwifí jyifqifxm;oifyh gonf/

ud, k u f pdeaf c:yg If you don’t challenge, you’ll be challenged.

tMuyftwnf;ESiYf &ifqikd &f aomtcg xdt k Muyftwnf;udk ud, k u f pderf ac:Edik v f Qif tMuyf twnf;\ pdeaf c:rIukd ud, k u f cH&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfenf;qd&k aomf ud, k u f atmifjrifatmif rausmf vTm;Edik yf gvQif ½I;H edrrhf jI zifY &ifqikd &f rnfjzpfonf/ ½I;H edrrhf o I nf cg;oD;aomt&om½S\ d / wpfcgwpf&H wpfb0pm ay;qyfvu kd &f onfrsm;vnf;½Sw d wfonf/ (1997)wGif tm½SpD;yGm;a&;tMuyftwnf;ESifY &ifqdkifcJh&onf/ (2008)wGif tar&duef b@ma&;tMuyftwnf;aMumifY urÇmYpD;yGm;a&;yg tawmfyif qkw, f w k cf YJ &onf/ tMuyftwnf;vGeu f mvodYk a&mufaomtcg pGr;f &nf½MdS uolrsm;u tawmftoifo h m cHvu kd Mf u&aomfvnf; trSepf rG ;f &nf r½SMd uolrsm;rSm b0ajymif;vJomG ;Muonftxd qd;k ½Gm;pGm tMuyftwnf;\ ½dkufykwfrI'Pfudk cHvdkufMu&ygonf/ tif'dkeD;½Sm;wGif a':vm(1)oef;rQ wefaom pufypön;f wdYkonf a':vm ESpo f ed ;f rQavmufjzifY csía&mif;Mu&onf txdq;kd 0g;onf/ wpfO;D csif;jzpfap? ukrP Ü t D qifw h iG f jzpfap? Edik if t H qifw h iG f


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jzpfap rnfrQBudKwif jyifqifxm;½Sjd cif;onf tMuyftwnf;udk rnfrQ atmifjrifpmG ausmv f mT ;Edik jf cif; rnfygonf/ pifumylonf (1997) tm½Sp;D yGm;a&; tMuyftwnf;wGif txdemrItenf;qH;k Edik if H jzpfcNhJ yD; tif'ekd ;D ½Sm;onf txdtemqH;k Edik if w H pfck jzpfvmcJo h nf/

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tMuyftwnf;udkpDrHcefYcGJrI zGiYf qckd sufrsm;pGm ½So d nf/ wpfcak om zGiYf qckd sufrmS ... ]]qHk;½IH;rItenf;qHk;jzpf&ef pDrHcefYcGJjcif;ESifh tjrefqHk; emvefxl Edik &f ef aqmif½u G Ef ikd jf cif;}}jzpf }} onf/ pDrcH efYcrJG q I ikd &f m enf;vrf;aumif; rsm;jzifh BudKwifjyifqifxm;Edik v f Qif tMuyftwnf;udk ausmfvmT ;Edik f ygonf/ odYk r[kwf tenf;qH;k aom qH;k ½I;H rIuo kd m &ifqikd &f ygrnf/


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tMuyftwnf;ay: pDrcH efYc&JG mwGif tqH;k tjzwfcsrw S jf cif; (Decision Making) ? jyóemudk ajz½Sif;jcif; (Problem Solving) ? r[mAsL[m (Strategy) ? ½kww f &uf ay:aygufvmaom ab;tEÅ&m,f umuG,af &; pDrcH suf (Disaster Planning) ? pGeYf pm;rIprD cH efYcjJG cif; (Risk Management) ? pGeYf O;D wDxiG rf I (Entrepreneurship) ? pDrcH efYcrJG I (Management) ponfwYkdukd aygif;pyfí toHk;jyK&onf/ Risk Management [laom pGefYpm;rIay: pDrHcefYcGJjcif;wGif urÇmausmfola|;BuD; 0g&if;bwfzwfu ... ]]udk,fYtvkyfESifhudk,fhudk,fudk aumif;pGmodolonf pGefYpm;rI enf;yg;NyD; udk,fhtvkyfoabmESifY udk,fht&nftcsif;udk aumif;pGmrodvQif pGefYpm;rI BuD;rm;onf}} [k qdx k m;ygonf/ tMuyftwnf;onfvnf; pGeYf pm;rIwpfck jzpfonfjzpfí rdrw d Ykd vkyu f ikd f aeaom tvkyu f kd aumif;pGmod½dS uRrf;usif&ef vdt k yfygonf/

BudKwifodjrifEdkifrI Perception udk qdv k o kd nf/ BudKwifojd rifEikd jf cif;onf tcuftcJukd ausmfvmT ;&mwGif rsm;pGm

taxmuf t ul j zpf a pygonf / rD ; ab;Bud K wif u muG , f a &;ud k aqmif½Gufxm;vQif rD;avmifaomtcg qHk;½IH;rItenf;yg;qHk;om cH&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ urÇmBuD;onfvnf;aumif;? pD;yGm;a&; onfvnf;aumif; vGepf mG ½Iyaf xG;odraf rGY ygonf/ jzpfvmEdik o f nfrsm;? jzpfvmEdik zf , G &f mrsm;udk BudKwif arQmfawG;xm;oifo h nf/ f iG f pm;yGw J pfv;kH pDwikd ;f ü wpfcsdefu Bill Gates onf wpfcsdecf sdew uGefysLwm wpfvHk;pD xm;&rnfhacwfodkY a&muf½Sdvmrnf[laom tem*wftay: BudKwifjrifawGYxm;aomaMumifh urÇmYtxifu& ol<u,fBuD;jzpfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf/ (2008) urÇmYp;D yGm;a&;tMuyftwnf;wGif BudKwifarQmfvifx h m;aom ukrP Ü rD sm;rSm txdemrI enf;yg;chNJ yD; BudKwifrjrifcYJ aom ukrP Ü BD uD;rsm;rSm t½G,t f pm; BuD;rm;aomfvnf; Ake;f Ake;f us vJNydK


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oGm;cJMh u&ygonf/ BudKwifojd rifEikd rf rI mS tajctaewpf&yftay:wGio f mru olwYkd\ pdwpf ½du k u f ykd g BudKwifojd rifEikd v f Qif BuD;rm;aom atmifjrifru I kd &½SEd ikd o f nf/ (1960) 0ef;usif ½k½mS ;wdYk\ usL;bm;Ekid if t H ay: ‘'H;k ysjH zefYusurf w I iG f tar&duefwYkdEiS Yf xdyw f u kd f &ifqikd af wGYBuHKcJY&\/ urÇmausmfomG ;cJah om tMuyftwnf;BuD;wpfcjk zpfonf/ ESpzf ufv;kH ravQmY? tEkjrLxdyfzl;wyf ½k½Sm;'Hk;ysHwifoabFmu usL;bm;odkY OD;wnfckwfarmif;vmcJY\/ tar&duefwdkY pdeaf c:cHc&hJ jcif;vnf; jzpfonf/ tar&duefor®w J.F. Kennedy u ol\ tBuHay;rsm;jzifY wdik yf ifum ½k½Sm;oabFmtm; a&aMumif;jzwfrsOf;wpfckudkowfrSwfNyD; xdkrSausmfvQif ]ypfrdefY} BudKwif ay;vdkufjcif;jzifY ½k½Sm;wdkY aemufjyefqkwfoGm;cJhMuonf/ ½k½Sm;acgif;aqmifwdkY\ pdwfp½dkuf? awmifw h if;cdik rf mrIEiS Yf tjcm;tajctaet&yf&yfwYkdukd tar&duefwYkdu aumif;pGm BudKwifavhvmxm; EdkifMuaomaMumifhjzpfonf/

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qufvufzwf½Iyg&ef


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International Business Operation Amazon.com Inc 1994ck/ 21&mpkwGif urÇmBuD;udk shape vkyfaomukrÜPDBuD;rsm;xJrS wpfckjzpfonfh Amazon.com Inc onf Jeffrey P. Bezos qdo k nfh vli,fwpfO;D \ tBuHOmPfrS pwifoaE¨wnf aygufzGm;vmcJhonf/ Amazon.com Inc onf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk qDtufwvf (Seattle) jrdKUwGit f ajcpdu k af om tjynfjynfqikd &f m e-commerce, online rS vufvaD &mif;csaom ukrÜPBD uD; jzpfonf/ 2010 Zefe0g&DvwGif 4if;\ teD;uyfqHk;jydKifbufjzpfaom Staples,Inc xufoHk;qrQ ydrk sm;aomta&mif;0ifaiGukd &&dcS o hJ nf/

Amazon.com's headquarters in the PacMed building in Beacon.Hill, Seattle.


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ukrÜPD Po D rdkif;tusOf; 1994ckEpS w f iG f Jeff Bezos rS pwifwnfaxmifjyD; 1995ckEpS w f iG f 4if;\yxrqH;k online hJ nf/ tpydik ;f wGif ukrP Ü \ D emrnfukd Cadabra, Inc [kay;cJah omfvnf; aemufyikd ;f wGif Website udk pwifco Amazon.com tjzpfajymif;vJcJhonf/ yxrtaBumif;t&if;rSm Amazon jrpfonfurÇmay:wGif tBuD;qHk;jrpfjzpfonfudk taBumif;jyKí 4if;\Website udkvnf;tBuD;qHk; online vufvD ta&mif;ukrP Ü BD uD; jzpfap&ef &nf&, G jf cif;aBumifjh zpfonf/ 'kw, d tcsurf mS Amazon qdo k nfh emrnfonf t*Fvdyftu©&m A jzifhtpjyKaomaBumifh pm;oHk;olrS&SmazGvQif tu©&mpOftvdkuf xdyfqHk;rS &Sad eaomaBumifjh zpfonf/ 2000 ckEpS rf pS íS Amazon {/f Logo wGif A rS Z udt k 0ga&mifjrSm;jzifh qufo, G cf o hJ nf/ t"dygÜ ,frmS A to Z Product rsm;udk Amazon.com wGi&f ½SEd ikd o f nfh t"dygÜ ,faqmifjyD; h "dygÜ ,fjzpfonf/ tjcm;t"dygÜ ,fwpfcrk mS Customer rsm; pdwaf useyfr&I ojzifh jyHK;aeonft

Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon.com


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J Jeff Bezos onf New York rS Seattle odUk um;jzift h oGm;wGif ZeD;onf um;armif;aecdu k f 4if;u Amazon.com \Business Plan udak &;om;cJo h nf[k tcsdKUuajymBuonf/ Amazon.com onf tpydik ;f wGif online Book Store tjzpf pwifrw d q f ufcjhJ yD; aemufyikd ;f wGirf l a&mif;csaom ukeyf pön;f trsdK;trnfrsm;pGmudk t&Sed t f [kejf zifh wd;k csJUcJo h nf/ 1995 Zlvikd v f wGif yxrqH;k a&mif;&aompmtkyrf mS Douglas Hofstadter \ Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought jzpfonf/ 1996ckEpS w f iG f Delaware odUk ajymif;a&TUjyD; 4if;\ IPO (Initial Public Offering) udk 1997arv 15&ufaeUwGif NASDAQ stock exchange ü oauFw AMZN jzifh &S,, f mwpfapmifukd (US$ 18) jzifph wif a&mif;csay;cJo h nf/ Amazon.com \Business Plan rSm orm&d;k usr[kwaf y/ taBumif;rSmukrP Ü o D nf yxr4ESprf S

5ESpftwGif; tjrwf&&ef vHk;0rarQmfvifhaomaBumifhjzpfonf/ 4if;\wdk;wufrIEIef;aES;auG;ojzifh &S,, f m&Sirf sm;\ a0zefrEI iS hf &ifqikd cf &hJ onf/ 2001ckEpS w f iG f dot-com bubble aygufjyD;aemuf rsm;pGmaom tifwmeuftajcpdu k f ukrP Ü rD sm;jydKvJcahJ omfvnf; Amazon.com rSmBuHBh uHch &H yfwnfEikd cf jhJ yD; yxrOD;qH;k tjrwfaiGtjzpf 2001ckESpf\ pwkw¬oHk;vywfwGif tar&duefa':vm 5oef; (odkU) wpf&S,f,mvQif 1 cent &&SdcJhonf/


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1999ckEpS w f iG f Time r*¾Zif;rS Amazon .com \Chairman, President, CEO jzpfol Jeff Bezos tm; wpf E S p f w mtwG u f xl ; cRef t ajymif a jrmuf q H k ; vl o m; (Person of the Year) tjzpfa&G;cs,fcJhonf/ 1997rSpí vkyfief;csif;qufpyfaeaom ukrÜPDrsm;pGmudk 0,f,lodrf;ydkufum Amazon .com \tifyg,mudk t&Sed t f [kejf zifh qufwu kd f csJYxiG cf o hJ nf/ vkyif ef; atmifjrifvmonfEiS hf trQ0ifaiGrmS vnf; wpwp wd;k wufvmjyD; 2009ckEpS w f iG f wpfEpS w f mtwGi;f a&mif;&aiG (US$ 24.509 billion ) txda&muf&cdS jhJ yD; 0efxrf; 31200 txdcefUxm;cJo h nf/ 2007ck E S p f Ed k 0 if b mvwG i f Amazon Kindle (tD v uf x a&mepf pmzwf p uf ) ud k pwifa&mif;cscJo h nf/ 4if;rSm wpwpatmifjrifvmjyD; ,ckaemufq;kH (2010)wGif Amazon Kindle 3 wwd,ajrmufrsdK;quftxd xkwv f yk f a&mif;cscJjh yD; jzpfonf/ Zlvikd 2f 010 wGif yxrqH;k tBudrt f jzpf E- book a&mif;cs&rIonf orm&dk;uspmtkyf a&mif;cs&rIxuf ausmfvGefoGm;cJhjyD; &dk;&dk;pmtkyf100 a&mif;&onfeSifhtrQ E-book 180 a&mif;cscJh&jyD; jzpfonf/

Amazon Kindle DX


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Amazon kindle 3

þonfum; Jeff Bezos qdo k nfh vli,fwpfO;D \tBuHOmPfrS tpjyKay:aygufvmjyD; 16ESpw f m tcsdeftwGif; urÇmBuD;ay:wGif aexkdifaomvlom;wdkU\ (Buying Behaviour) udk ajymif;vJum tifyg,mBuD;tjzpf a&muf&cdS ahJ om Amazon .com Inc \ordik ;f tusOf;jzpfygonf/ /


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The Essential Drucker E - Book

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Next Issue wGifqufvufzwf½Iyg&ef


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]]ud vm;}} ud, k yf ikd pf ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;wpfcu k kd xlaxmifEikd yf ghrvm; OD;&Jjrifh (pGefYOD;wDxGif) ]]Should I Start my business?}} qdo k nfh “ud, k yf ikd pf ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;wpfcu k ?kd igxlaxmif Edkifyghrvm;” ar;cGef;udk vli,fawmfawmfrsm;rsm;ar;aeMuygonf/ tajzuawmh&iS ;f ygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;vkycf sifygu tawG;tac: tMuHtpnf rSe&f rnf/ “ Business minded” jzpfatmifzefw;D ,l&rnf/ Entrepreneurial spirit [kac:aom pGefYOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&Sif pdwf"mwfay:vmatmif arG;jrL&ygrnf/ odkUjzpf&m atmufwGif azmfjyaom? tawG;tac:enf;vrf;rsm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&ayrnf/ (1) atmifjrifaeaom ukrÜPDrsm;udk avhvmjcif; pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&Siftaejzifh ,if;enf;udk ydkrdktav;xm;wwfMuayrnf/ ,if;enf;rSm vuf&Sd aps;uGufwGifukefypönf;rsm;udk xkwfvkyfa&mif;csjzefYjzL;aeaom ukrÜPDrsm;ESifh aqmif&GufrIvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkifaeMuaomukrÜPDrsm;udk udk,fwdkifudk,fus uGif;qif;avhvmoHk;oyfNyD;rS rdrdudk,fwdkif ,if;ukef ypön;f rsm;? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf v I yk if ef;rsm;udk xkwv f yk af &mif;csjzefUjzL;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ jrefrmpum;yHw k iG f &Sdonhf ]]tMuHwl aemufvlompNrJ}} qdkonfhtwdkif; rdrduGif;qif;avhvmxm;aom ukrÜPDrsm;xuf ydrk o kd mvGeaf tmif aqmif&u G u f m jydKifqikd rf t I jynf&h adS omaps;uGuf (Perfect Competition Market) odUk xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufEdkifjcif;yifjzpfonf/ (2)

udk,fydkifwDxGif prf;oyfjcif;

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prf;oyfcef;rsm;jyKvkyfum rdrdudk,fydkiftwwfynmESifhaomfvnf;aumif;? twwf ynm&Sirf sm;\ tultnD&,líaomfvnf;aumif; prf;oyfNyD;rS ukeyf pön;f topfwpfcu k kd aps;uGuo f Ukd ydUk aqmifjzefUjzL;olrsm; &Sad yonf/ rnfo h nfv h yk if ef;vky&f rnfukd a&G;cs,o f nfh enf;wGif udk,fydkifokawoejyKvkyfrIenf;onf tawG;tac:opfrsm;twGuf tMuD;rm; qH;k aom t&if;tjrpfwpfcyk ifjzpfonf/ (3) jyXmef;csufrsm;? Oya'rsm;udk avhvmjcif; pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&Siftaejzifh rnfonfhypönf;? odkUr[kwf aqmif&GufrIvkyfief;xkwfvkyfrnfudk EdkifiHawmftpdk;&\ tcgtm;avsmfpGm xkwfjyefaom aMunmcsufrsm;? pnf;urf;csufrsm;udk avhvmjyD;rS a&G;cs,fEikd af yonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Edik if aH wmftpd;k &u Edik if yH idk pf uf&?kH tvky&f ?kH or0g,rydik ?f yk*v ¾ u d ydik f puf&?kH tvky&f w kH Ukd wGif rD;owfaq;bl;rsm;csw d q f &JG rnf[k jyXmef;aomtcg yk*v ¾ u d rsm;u rD;owfaq;bl;rsm; xkwv f yk af &mif;csMuayrnf/ xdYk twl Edik if aH wmftpd;k &? pnfyifom,mXmeu aps;rsm;wGif xkyyf ;kd ypön;f rsm;udk yvwfpwpftw d yf g;rsm;tpm; tjcm;ypön;f rsm;udt k oH;k jyK&rnf[k pnf;urf;xkwjf yefaomtcg yk*v ¾ u d rsm;u obm0ywf0ef;usiu f kd rxdcu kd af omypön;f rsm;jzifh tdwrf sm;vkyu f m wGiu f s,pf mG xkwv f yk af &mif;csMuayonf/ (4) ukefypönf;jzefUjzL;olrsm;udk avhvmjcif; pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&SifwpfOD;taejzifh rnfonfhypönf;? odkUr[kwf aqmif&GufrIvkyfief; xkwfvkyf &rnfukd pOf;pm;&mwGif vufv-D vufum; jzefYjzL;a&mif;csorl sm;ESihf awGUqHak r;jref;jcif;onf xl;jcm;rI&adS om t&if;tjrpfwpfcyk ifjzpfonf/ vufv-D vufum;jzefUjzL;a&mif;csolrsm;onf aps;uGu\ f vdt k yfcsufrsm; (Market Needs) udt k odq;kH yifjzpfonf/ ,aeUaps;uGuw f iG f 0,fvt kd m;trsm;qH;k ? a&mif;vdt k m;toGuq f ;kH ypönf;onf rnfonfhypönf;jzpfonfudk 4if;wdkUtodqHk;yifjzpfonf/ vufvD-vufum;jzefUjzL;a&mif;cs olrsm;onf aps;uGufwGif tEkwftodrf;rsm;aeaom ypönf;udk todqHk;yifjzpfaomaMumifh pGefUOD;wDxGif vkyif ef;&Sit f aejzifh ,if;wdUk ESiahf wGUqHak r;jref;&ef vdt k yfayonf/ rnfonfyh pön;f ? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf I vkyif ef;onf aps;uGuw f iG t f a&mif;&qH;k [k od&&dS aomtcg ,if;odYk ypön;f rsKd ; xkwv f yk af &mif;csvQif rdrb d ufrS ydik Ef ikd af ocsmrnfjzpfaomaMumifh ,if;enf;udv k nf; toH;k csoifah yonf/


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(5) trSefwu,fpm;oHk;olrsm;udk avhvmjcif; pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&Sifonf rdrdrnfonfhpD;yGm;a&;vkyfudkifrnf? rnfonfhypönf;udk xkwfvkyfrnf? odkUr[kwf rnfonfhaqmif&GufrIvkyfief;vkyfrnfudk pwifpOf;pm;a&G;cs,faomtcg pm;oHk;olESifh awGUqHk ar;jref;&efvt kd yfayonf/ ,if;odUk awGUqHak r;jref&mwGif pGeUf OD;wDxiG v f yk if ef;&Siu f , kd w f ikd f uGi;f qif;um pm;oH;k ol&adS omae&mrsm;jzpfonfh aps;rsm;? pwd;k qdik rf sm;? ta&mif;t0,fjzpfaeonfh ae&mrsm;odUk oGm;a&mufum pm;oH;k olrsm;\ vkyif ef;rsm;ay: 4if;wdUk \tjrifoabmxm;? BudKufEpS o f ufrI twdrt f eufwUkd udk ar;jref; &ayrnf/ ,if;odkUpm;oHk;olESifh awGUqHkar;jref;NyD; 4if;wdkU\oHk;oyfxifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk &,la&;rSm vufawGUwGif vG,u f rl nfr[kwaf y/ rnfonfph m;oH;k olrS tcsdeu f ek cf í H pdw&f n S v f uf&n S f &Si;f jyaernf r[kwyf g/ tu,fí &Si;f jyEdik o f &l v dS Qiv f nf; ta&twGuf awmfawmfenf;yg;ygvdrrhf nf/ odUk jzpf&m pGeUf OD;wDxiG f vkyif ef;&Sif wpfO;D taejzifh pm;oH;k olrsm;ESirhf suEf mS csi;f qdik f awGUqHak r;jref;rItpm; pm;oH;k olrsm; 0,faeMuonfh ae&mrsm;wGif 4if;wdUk \0,f,t l m;ay;rI twdik ;f twm? MudKufEpS o f ufr?I ukeyf pön;f ? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf I tay: xifjrif,q l csufrsm;udk oif&h menf;jzifh avhvm&,l&ef vdt k yfayonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh pm;oHk;olrsm;rSm rdrdqDrS 0,f,lrnfhazmufonfrsm;jzpfojzifh 4if;wdkU\ pdwfae oabmxm;? aiGaMu;wwfEikd rf ?I 4if;wdUk \ tusKd ;tjrwf&rdS &SEd iS hf pdwcf sr;f omauseyfr?I 0,f,o l nfh aps;EIe;f ESihf ukeyf pön;f wefz;kd wef? rwef ponfwUkd udk pm;oH;k olrsm;xHrS pOfqufrjywfqE´c, H &l ef vdt k yfayonf/ xdo k Ukd pGefUOD;wDxGifvkyfief;&Sifrsm;onf pm;oHk;olrsm;&Sd&mae&modkU oGm;a&mufavhvmjyD; ,aeUrnfonfhypönf;? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf v I yk if ef;onf aps;uGuw f iG f wGiu f s,af &mif;0,fazmufum;aeonfukd od&adS vhvmjyD;rS rnfonfyh pön;f ? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf v I yk if ef;vkyu f ikd rf nfukd qH;k jzwfa&G;cs,fEikd af yonf/ (6) aps;uGuf0,fvdktm; rdrdxkwfvkyfrnfhukefypönf;? odkUr[kwf aqmif&GufrIvkyfief;wdkU\ aps;uGuf0,fvdktm; (Market d nfonfv h yk if ef;vky&f rnfukd tqH;k tjzwfay;onf/ owdjyK&eftcsuf Demand) tajctaeuvnf; rdrr wpfcsufrSm rdrdxkwfvkyfrnfhukefypönf;? odkUr[kwf aqmif&GufrIvkyfief;onf vlwdkif;aqmif&Gufaeaom


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pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;jzpfjcif;? MuD;rm;aomjydKifqdkifrIrsm; &Sdaejcif;wdkUjzpfvQif ,if;vkyfief;udk a&Smif&ayrnf/ tu,fí ,if;vkyif ef;twGuf ukeMf urf;ypön;f rsm;udk aps;EIe;f csKd ompGm&jcif; ponfh rdrpd ;D yGm;a&;jydKifbufrsm; r&Edik af om tcGit hf vrf;rsm;udk rdr&d aevQif ,if;vkyif ef;udk a&G;cs,fvyk u f ikd o f ifah yonf/ odUk &mwGif rdru d ek f ypön;f rsm;udk a&mif;cs&mwGiaf wmh tcuftcJawGU jyóemjzpfrnfrmS rkcsyifjzpfonf/ ta&;tMuD;qH;k rSm jydKifqikd rf t I enf;qH;k ESihf rdryd pön;f udk a&mif;cs&mwGif tvG,q f ;kH jzpfEikd rf nfu h ek yf pön;f ? odUk r[kwf aqmif&u G rf I vkyif ef;udk a&G;cs,fwwfzUdk vdak yonf/ (7)

t&if;tESD; vdktyfcsuf

t&if;tESD; vdktyfcsufudk pOf;pm;&mwGif ajrae&mtwGuf t&if;tESD;? taqmufttHk? pufypönf;? pufud&d,mrsm;twGuf ponfhyHkaoydkifqdkifrI t&if;tES;D rsm;ESihf ukeMf urf;0efxrf; tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf vpm? tjcm;ukeu f s p&dwfrsm;twGuf vSnfhvnf&if;ESD;aiGrsm;udk pOf;pm;&ayrnf/ rdrdydkifqdkifaom t&if;tESD; yrmPu rdrdrnfonfhvkyfief;trsdK;tpm; vkyf&rnfudk uefYowfay;xm;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh rdrBd udKwifpOf;pm;aomvkyif ef;rsm;jzpfonfh t0wftxnfxw k v f yk o f nfv h yk if ef;? tpm;taomuf xkwv f yk o f nfv h yk if ef;ESihf y&dabm*ypön;f vkyif ef;rsm;teuf tu,fí rdr\ d aiGt&if;tES;D t&if;tjrpfonf ao;i,faevQif tpm;taomuf vkyif ef;udo k m a&G;cs,f&ayrnf/ tpm;taomuf xkwv f yk af &;vkyif ef;rSm a,bk,stm;jzifh usefonfEh pS cf x k uf t&if;tES;D vdt k yfcsufrsm;pGm rvdyk g/ taMumif;rSm tpm;taomuf xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;wGif wefzdk;MuD;aom pufypönf;ud&d,mrsm;twGuf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESH&ef rvdktyfjcif;ESifh puf&w kH nfaqmuf&ef rvdt k yfjcif;wdUk aMumifh jzpfygonf/ ,aeY rsdK;qufopfv f il ,frsm;onf pD;yGm;a&; vkyif ef;udk pwifvyk u f ikd f Mu&eff tjydKiftqdik f MudK;pm;aeMujyD; aps;uGupf ;D yGm;a&;pepfxJ 0ifa&muf&ef pdeaf c:vsuf&adS eMu&mwGif pD;yGm;a&; tawG;tac:rSeu f efjyD; Entrepreneurial k , f o l mG ;MurnfjzpfaMumif; wifjyvdu k &f spirit &Sad omolrsm;uom OD;aqmiftEdi ygonf/ /


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Biographies of Famous People

(1) a*smeftuf'J(John Adair)

(9.1.1757- 19.5.1840)

a*smeftuf'JrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpkudk pwifwnfaxmifcJholrsm;wGifyg0ifonf/ EdkifiHa&;orm;? ppfom;ESifh EdkifiHh0efxrf;vnf;jzpfNyD; uJefwyfuDjynfe,f(Kentucky) \&Spfa,muf ajrmuf tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;tjzpf tar&duefvTwfawmfESifh qJedwfESpf&yfvHk; udk udk,fpm;jyKcJholjzpf\/ a*smeftuf'Judk awmifuJ½dkvdkif;em;jynfe,f(South Carolina)? csufpwma'o(Chester County) wGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/ rdbrsm;rSm paumhvlrsdK;tajccsolrsm;jzpfaom bJ&Jef0DvsH(Baron William) ESifh ar&Dtuf'J (Mary Adair) wdkYjzpfonf/ i,fpOfu &Sm;vwf(Charlotte) ESifh ajrmufuJ½dkvdkif;em;ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;cJh\/ tar&duef awmf v S e f a &; (American Revolution) wG i f y g0if wd k u f c d k u f c J h & m ppftusOf;om;tjzpf NAdwdoQwyfrsm;\ zrf;qD;jcif;udkcH&onf/ ppfNyD;aomtcg tar&duefjynfe,frsm; aygif;pnf;a&;nDvmcHodkY awmifuJ½dkvdkif;em;jynfe,f udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf wufa&mufcJhonf/ ZeD;jzpfol uufo&if;ygvfrm (Katherine Palmer) ESifh 1784 wGif vufxyfcJh&m om;orD; 12 a,muf teuf 10 a,mufrSm orD;rsm;jzpfonf/ 1788 wGif uJefwyfuDa&SYwef;a'o rmqm (Mercer County) odkYajymif;a&TY aexdkifMuonf/ vleD½dkif;rsm;ESifh jzpfaomppfyGJwGif AdkvfBuD;tqifhjzifh uJefwyfuDwyfudk OD;aqmifwdkufcdkufcJhonf/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;*sdrf;0Dvfuifqif (General James Wilkinson)\vufatmufwGif AdkvfrSL;tjzpf¤if;? aemifwGif 'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD;tjzpf tqifhqifh wdk;jr§ifhcefYxm;jcif;cH&onf/ tuf'JrSm ppfqifa&;rsm;pGmwGif yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJhonf/ 1797 azazmf0g&D 25 &ufwGif AdkvfrSL;csKyftjzpf uJefwyfuDwyf&if; 2udk uGyfuJ&onf/ wzef 16 'DZifbm 1799 wGif uJefwyfuD


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wyfr 2 udk uGyfuJ&ef AdkvfcsKyftqifhodkY wdk;jrSifhwm0efay;jcif;cH&onf/ 1805 wGif ajr,mXmewm0efcH jzpfvmcJhNyD; xdkESpfrSmyif w&m;olBuD;csKyfjzpfoGm;aom a*smefb&ufuif&(*sf) (John Breckinridge) \trwfae&mudk tuf'JrS0ifa&mufwm0ef,l&onf/ ,cif'kwd,or®w tJ&efbm; (Aaron Burr) \ ruúqDudkusL;ausmfa&;BuHpnfrIwGif ywfouf rdaomaMumifh tuf'J\ EdkifiHa&;odu©musqif;cJhNyD; Edk0ifbm 18? 1806 wGif qJedwfudk aMumcdkif; cJh&onf/ ,if;ESpf 'DZifbmwGif vl0DZD,m;em; (Louisiana) &Sd ol0,fxm;aom ajr,mrsm;udk Munfh½I&ef toGm; ,cifol\txuft&m&SdjzpfcJhaom *sdrf;pf0Dvfuifqif (James Wilkinson) \trdefYjzifh eL;atmfvif;NrdKYwGif opömazmufrIjzifh zrf;qD;pGJcsufwifjcif; cH&onf/ tuf'JrSvnf; jyefw&m;pGcJ &hJ m trIrmS ESpt f wefMumcJo h nf/ ckid v f akH om oufaotaxmufxm; rjyEdik af omaMumifh w&m;½Hk;u 0DvfuifqifrS tuf'Jtm;vlod&SifMum; 0efcsawmif;yefapcJhum epfemrItwGuf a':vm2500 udkvnf;ay;apcJhonf/ 1812 wGif t*FvefESifh ppfjzpfjyef&m ,ciftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;a[mif; tdkufZuf&S,fvfbD (Isaac Shelby) u tuf'Judk ol\udk,fa&;t&m&Sdvkyf&ef urf;vSrf;onf/ tuf'Juvnf; uae'D,H ppfqifa&;? txl;ojzifh atmefwJ&D,dk (Ontario) wkdufyGJwGif ajymprSwfjyKavmufatmifyif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh 1814wGif ppfa&;csKyfjzpfvmNyD; AdkvfrSL;csKyf tuf'Jtjzpf ½dkifz,f wyfom; 1100 udk uGyfuJí AdkvfcsKyfBuD;*sufqif (Jackson) \ wyfzGJYrsm;udk ulnDwdkufcdkufcJhNyD; eL;atmfvif;wdkufyGJ (Battle of New Orleans) wGiftEdkif&cJhonf/ ppfNyD;aomtcg eL;atmfvif; wdkufyGJwGif o&JabmaMumifonf[k ol\uJefwyfuD wyfom;rsm;tay: *sufqif\pGyfpGJcsufudk 2 ESpfMumckcHacsycJhonf/ 1812 ppfyGJu ol\odu©mudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufEdkifcJhonf/ 1816 azazmf0g&D (10)&uf uJefwyfuD jynfe,fawGYqHkyGJrS tuf'J\ eL;atmfvif;wdkufyGJwGif pGrf;aqmifcsufESifh ol\wyfom; rsm;tay: pGyfpGJcsufudk ckcH&yfwnfcJhjcif;twGuf aus;Zl;wif&SdaMumif; xkwfjyefcJhonf/ tuf'JrSm ppfa&;csKyf&mxl;jzifh qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhNyD; 1817 wGif rJqE´&Sifrsm;\tvdkt&


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w½kwEf ikd if t H m; Edik if aH &;yx0D0if ½Iaxmifrh aS vhvmjcif; OD;udkudkvdIif w½kwEf ikd if [ H t k rsm;u ac:a0:Buaom w½kwjf ynfoUl or®wEdik if o H nf urÇmx h yd w f ef; tiftm;BuD; EdkifiHtjzpfodkU a&S;½IOD;wnfaeaom EdkifiHjzpfonf/ ,cktcgü tiftm;t&mwGif urÇmhxdyfqHk;wef; ae&mü&Sdaeaom EdkifiHBuD;ESpfck (*sD-2) tjzpf tar&duefESifh w½kwfwdkUudk wifpm;owfrSwfaeBuonf/ qd k v d k o nf r S m urÇ m ud k t rS e f w u,f ud k i f v I y f E d k i f p G r f ; &S d o nf h Ed k i f i H [ l í xd k E S p f E d k i f i H o m&S d o nf [ k azmfnTef;jcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHonf w½kwfEdkifiHESifh e,fedrdwfcsif;xdpyfaejyD; jrefrm\tdrfeD;csif; EdkifiHrsm;teuf w½kwfEdkifiHonf t&Snfvsm;qHk;&Sdaom EkdifiHjzpfonf/ xdkUtjyif yx0Dtaetxm; pD;yGm;a&;tiftm; ordik ;f aBumif;ESihf r[mAsL[mtiftm; taetxm;ponfh bufaygif;pHrk S avhvmyguvnf; jrefrmEdik if t H wGuf ta&;BuD;qH;k tdref ;D csif;Edik if BH uD;jzpfonf/ od k U jzpf & m w½k w f E k d i f i H \ tif t m;twuf t us pD;yGm;a&;tajymif;tvJ vHjk cHKrItajctae? Edik if aH &;jzpfxeG ;f wdk;wufrIrSeforQonf jrefrmEdkifiHtay:odkU BuD;rm;pGm oufa&mufrI&Sdaeay&m w½kwfEdkifiH\taMumif;udk ajcajc jrpfjrpf avhvmod&Sdxm;&efrSm jrefrmwdkUtwGuf rjzpfrae vdktyfcsuf [kqdkEdkifonf/ odkU&mwGif a,bk,stm;jzifh w½kwfEdkifiHtaMumif; avhvmrIe,fy,f (Sinology) rSm jrefrmEkid if w H iG f tm;enf;aeao;jyD; ynm&Sit f odu k t f 0ef;üyif enf;yg;ao;aBumif; awGUjrifae&ygonf/


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xkad Bumifh w½kwEf ikd if \ H yuwdtajctaeESihf tem*wftvm;tvmudk ½Iaxmifph rkH S avhvmEdik &f eftwGuf rdrdwwfpGrf;EdkiforQ tpdwftydkif;rS &SmazGwifjyoGm;rnf jzpfygonf/ yxrOD;pGm w½kwfEdkifiH\ yx0D0iftaetxm;udk EdkifiHa&;½IaxmifhrS avhvmwifjyvdkyg\/ taBumif;rSm EkdifiHwpfcktaBumif;udk aocsmCepGm avhvmvdkygu EkdifiH\tcdkiftrmqHk; tpdwftydkif;jzpfaom yx0D0iftaetxm;udk pwifuikd w f , G jf cif;onf tajccHtusqH;k ESihf tBurf;zsif;yHt k ay:qH;k odjrifEidk af omaBumifh jzpfygavonf/

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t½G,t f pm;tm;jzifh pwk&ef;uDvrkd w D m 9,596,960 cefY&jdS yD; urÇmay:ü wwd, (odUk r[kw)f pwkw¦ tBuD;rm;qHk; EdkifiHjzpfonf/ ajrjyifoufouftus,ft0ef;tm;jzifhrl ½k&Sm;jyD;vQif 'kwd,tBuD;rm;qHk; Edik if jH zpfonf/ Edik if \ H uke;f ydik ;f e,ferd w d t f &Snrf mS 22117 uDvrkd w D m&Sjd yD; Edik if aH ygif; 14 Edik if EH iS fh e,ferd w d jf cif; xdpyfae&m tm½Swu kd w f iG f e,ferd w d x f pd yfaeaom tdref ;D csif;Edik if t H rsm;qH;k jzpfonf/ ukef;ydkif;e,fedrdwfjcif; xdpyfaeaom EdkifiHrsm;rSm tmz*efepöwefEikd if H (76uDvrkd w D m)? blwef(f 470uDvrkd w D m) jrefrm(2185uDvdkrDwm)? tdE´d, (3380uDvdkrDwm)? umZuf p wef (1533uD v d k r D w m)? ajrmuf u d k & D ; ,m; (1416uDvrkd w D m)? um*spfpwef(858uDvrkd w D m)? vmtdk (423uD v d k r D w m)? rG e f * d k v D ; ,m; (4677uD v d k r D w m)? eDayg(1236uDvrkd w D m)? ygupöwef(523uDvrkd w D m)? ½k&mS ; (4300uD v d k r D w m)? wm*sD u pö w ef ( 414uD v d k r D w m)? AD,uferf(1281uDvdkrDwm) wdkUjzpfygonf/ þae&mü axmufjyvdo k nfrmS jrefrmEdik if o H nf w½kwEf iS ehf ,ferd w d f quf p yf r I ü ½k & S m ;? rG e f * d k v D ; ,m;ES i f h td E d ´ , jyD ; vQif pwkwa¬ jrmuft&Snv f sm;qH;k Edik if jH zpfonf/ xdkUtjyif urÇmha&aMumif;vrf;odkU xGufayguftjzpf toHk;jyKEdkif&ef avhvmyguvnf; ukef;ydkif; EdkifiHBuD;jzpfaom½k&Sm;? ukef;wGif;ydwfrGef*dkvD;,m;wdkUESifh ayESpfaomif;ausmf [dr0EÅmawmifaBumBuD; umqD;aeaom tdE´d,wdkUxufpmvQif {&m0wDjrpfaBumif;wpfavQmufrSwqifh b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfESifh rkwrÅ auGUodUk vG,v f ifw h ul c&D;wkad wmif;pGma&mufEikd af om jrefrmEdik if o H nfomvQif w½kwEf ikd if t H wGuf taumif;qH;k yifv,fxu G af yguf aemufaz;rvG,af yguf jzpfaeonfukd awGUEdik o f nf/


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ajrrsuEf mS toGit f jyiftm;jzifh Bunfyh gu w½kwEf ikd if H taemufawmifbuf½Sd wdAufukef;jyifjrifhonf ysrf;rQ tjrifah y 4500rDwm ( ay13000 ausmf) jrifu h m? pwk&ef; uDvrkd w D m 2.5oef;us,f0ef;í urÇmay:ü tus,fjyefUqH;k uke;f jyifjrifjh zpfonf/ wdbufuek ;f jyifjrifh \ajrmufbufEiS hf ta&SUajrmufbufwiG f wufuvmrefuef ESihf *db k o D u J EÅm& rsm;&So d nf/ *db k o D u J EÅm&udk vGeaf omf rGe*f v kd ;D ,m;uke;f jrifh jrufcif;vGifjyif&Sdonf/ wdbufukef;jrifh\ ta&SUbuf w½kwEf ikd if H tv,fyikd ;f wGif ta&SUrS taemufoUkd oG,w f ef; aeaom awmifaBumrsm;ESihf jrpfBuD;rsm;&So d nf/ xdrk t S a&SUESihf ta&SUawmifbufwGif jrpfMuD;rsm;\ jrpf0Srf;vGifjyifESifh w½k w f y if v ,f urf ; &d k ; wef ; &S d o nf / w&k w f E d k i f i H o nf xif & S m ;aom jrpf M uD ; oH k ; oG , f u d k r S D í wnfaxmifxm;cJjh cif;jzpfjyD;? ,if;wdUk rSm (ajrmuf rS awmifoUkd ) jrpf0gjrpf? ,efZjD rpf ESihf qDusefjrpfac: ykvjJ rpfwUkd jzpfonf/ xdjk rpfo;kH pif;udk w&kww f Ukd u e*g;BuD;oH;k aumif [kwifpm;ac:a0:avh&BdS uonf/ w½kwEf ikd if o H nf ta&SUbuftpGeüf &Snv f sm;aom urf;½d;k wef;udk ydik q f ikd x f m;onf/ w½kwu f rf;½d;k wef; onf uDvdkrDwm 18000 cefU&Snfvsm;jyD; (ajrmuf rS awmifodkU) yifv,f0g? ta&SUw½kwfyifv,fESifh awmifw½kwfyifv,fwdkUudk rsufESmjyKxm;onf/ w½kwfyifv,furf;vGefü uRef;aygif; 5000cefU&SdjyD; tcsdKUuRef;rsm;rSm tdref ;D csif;Edik if rH sm;ESiyhf ikd q f ikd rf I tjiif;yGm;aeaom uRef;rsm;jzpfonf/ wGi;f xGuo f ,HZmw taejzifh w½kwEf ikd if o H nf ouf&ifah usmufvmT rsm;jzifh a&S;usvSaomEdik if jH zpfonfEiS t hf nD wGi;f xGuo f wåK trsdK;tpm;rsm;pGm xGu&f o dS nf/ tifwrD ;kd eD? *&ufzu kd ?f wefpwif? oGyf owÅKrsm;udk urÇmay:ü trsm;qH;k xkwv f yk af y;aeouJo h Ukd tvlreD , D aH tmufqu kd ?f ausmufr;D aoG;? oH&ikd ;f ? a&T? cJ? a&eH obm0"mwfaiGU?


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azmpzdw?f oHjzL? ,la&eD,?H a&T? pdepf onfwUkd wGiv f nf; urÇmay:ü xdyw f ef;rSxw k v f yk af y;aeaom Edik if jH zpfonf/ awmawmifxx l yfí a&tm;vQyfppfxkwfvkyf&ef tajctaeay;onfhtwGuf urÇmay:ü a&tm;vQyfppftrsm;qH;k xkwv f yk af om Edik if jH zpfonf/ ajrtoHk;csrIESifh ywfoufí avhvmygu w½kwfEdkifiH\ ta&SUydkif;jrpf0uRef;ay:a'oonfomvQif pdkufysdK;a&;vkyfief; us,fus,fjyefUjyefU vkyfaqmifEdkifjyD; rdk;a&csdefESifh ajrqDBoZm aumif;rGeaf om a'ojzpf\/ 2005ckEpS pf m&if;t& w½kwEf ikd if \ H {&d,mpkpak ygif; 14.86% (pwk&ef;uDvrkd w D m 1.4oef;cefU) omvQif pd k u f y sd K ;Ed k i f o nf h {&d , mjzpf o nf / 24.9%rS m pm;usuf a jr tjzpfomtoH;k jyKEikd jf yD; 17.5%rSm opfawmrsm; zH;k vTr;f vQu&f o dS nf/ Edik if BH uD;rm;vSonft h wGuf &moDOwk uGmjcm;csufrmS vnf; tvGerf sm;jym;onf/ EdkifiHajrmufpGef;ydkif;rS tmwdwf0if½dk;pGef;wpfavQmuf tvGefat;jraom &moDOwkrSonf awmif y d k i f ; tpG e f ; ü tyl y k d i f ; &moD O wk t xd uG J j ym;rI & S d o nf / od k U aomf E d k i f i H \ a'otrsm;pk r S m orydik ;f &moDOwkjzpfonf/ tylq;kH ae&mESihf tat;qH;k ae&mwdUk \ tylcsdefuGmjcm;csufrSm 50'D*&D pifwD*&dwfcefUtxd&Sdonf/ ypdzw d o f rk'&´ mudk rsufEmS jyKxm;onfh w½kwEf ikd if o H nf rkwo f akH v ay:rlwnfí &moDOwkajymif;vJaejcif;jzpfonf/ aEG&moDü a&aiGUrsm;pGm o,faqmifvmaom rkwfoHkavaBumifh w½kwfEdkifiH ta&SUawmifyikd ;f a'orsm;wGif rd;k rsm;pGm&GmoGe;f onf/ uke;f wGi;f ydik ;f odUk 0ifa&mufvmonfEiS t hf rQ rkwo f akH vtm;aysmo h mG ;jyD; wdAufuek ;f jrifah Bumifah vuG,rf ;kd uG,t f &yfrsm;wGif rd;k enf;oGm;onf/ xdUk aBumifh


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a,bk , stm;jzif h ta&S U awmif u rf ; ajca'owG i f rd k ; a&csd e f w pf E S p f ysOf ; rQ60vuf r &&S d c sd e f ü taemufajrmufpeG ;f a'owdUk wGif rd;k a&csderf mS 2vufrcefUom&So d nf/ obm0uyfab;rsm;teuf w½kwfEdkifiHü t"ducHpm;&aom ab;qd k ; rsm;rS m jrpf a &vQH j cif ; ? rk d ; acgif j cif ; ivsif v I y f j cif ; ? rkew f ikd ;f wdu k jf cif; ponfwUkd jzpfonf/ ajrrsuEf mS oGijf yifBurf;wrf;aom a'orsm;rS jrpfzsm;cHpD;qif;aom jrpfBuD;rsm;onf a&pD;oefjyD; rd;k &moDwiG f 0g;vH;k xd;k pD;qif;vmum jrpfa&vQaH vh&o dS nf/ txl;ojzifh jrpf0gjrpfonf tvGefa&pD;Burf;ía&vQHaomtcg jrpf0uRef;ay: vlaea'o&SdjrdKU½Gmrsm;udk wdkufpm;jzdKzsufwwfaomaBumifh “w&kwf jynf\rsuf&nf” (china’s Sorrow) [líyifwifpm; ac:a0:jcif; cHcJh&onf/ ukef;wGif;ydkif;ajrmufbuf a'orsm;rSm rdk;acgifrIESifh oJuEÅm&wd;k csJUvmrIu t"dujyóemjzpfonf/ ,cktcg oJuEÅm& qefro I nf ayusif; jrdKUawmf teD;odkUyif a&muf&Sdvmonf/ w½kwfEdkifiH\ vlaea'otrsm;pkrSm ivsifaBumESihf a0;uGmaomfvnf; Edik if t H aemufawmifyidk ;f ESifh tv,fydkif;wdkUü ivsifab; BuHK&rIrsm;&Sdonf/ 2008ckESpfu ZDcRrfivsifrSm jyif;xefvSaomaBumifh tysuftpD;rsm;cJo h nf/ ta&SUawmifurf;ajca'orsm;rSmrl wdkifzkef;rkefwdkif; 'PfcH&avh&SdjyD; wpfESpfvQifrkefwdkif; ig;Budrcf efUESihf awGUBuHK&avh&o dS nf/ / Next issue wGif qufvufzwf½Iyg&ef


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The Management Checklist: Creating a Winning Environment Managing an organization can be a daunting task. Many business leaders find themselves concentrating heavily on the numbers and customer satisfaction while neglecting one of the most important assets of their business; their employees. I have seen it happen more than once. A company is achieving great profits while the company culture is crumbling around it. Soon the numbers will reflect this lack of synergy within the organization and the business will go under. Think of the most successful companies such as Wal-Mart, General Electric, 3M, etc. These companies have wonderful cultures enabling them to achieve great success and grow to dominant players in their industries. So how can you ensure that your company has a wonderful culture and an environment that promotes creativity? Read the following list and rate yourself on how well you accomplish these tasks within your organization and/or how you could implement those that you do not currently utilize. Be honest with yourself and take an objective view. 1. I keep my employees informed about our overall organizational plans and operating results. 2. When I ask my employees to accomplish something, I specify the end result wanted rather than specifying how to do it. (Induces creativity) 3. I keep my employees informed on how theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re doing on the job. 4. I provide support and backing to my employees. 5. I express my displeasure and concern to my employees whenever they do not achieve expected results. 6. I am accessible to my employees and easy to talk to, even when I am very busy and under pressure. 7. I have thorough discussions with my employees to help them learn from their success and failures. 8. I talk with my employees about their ambitions and aspirations for the future. 9. I encourage my employees to participate in setting goals and determining how to achieve those goals. 10. I insist that my employees think through problems and make important decisions on their own.


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11. When I talk with my employees about their performance, I am very open and frank in telling them what I think. 12. I provide encouragement to my subordinates whenever they are undertaking difficult assignments. 13. I praise my subordinates whenever they achieve a significant result. 14. I try to understand my subordinateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s viewpoints when I discuss problems and undertakings with them. 15. I provide opportunities for my subordinates to broaden their experience and increase their competence. 16. I explain to my subordinates the requirements they would be expected to meet to qualify for larger responsibilities within our organization in the future. 17. I clarify with my subordinates their duties, responsibilities and the important results they are expected to accomplish. 18. In working with my subordinates, I follow up on just the significant items rather than on all the various minute details. 19. I work with my subordinates in developing agreed-to â&#x20AC;&#x153;standards of performanceâ&#x20AC;? to use in judging the results they have achieved. 20. I contribute ideas, (tactics, strategies, approaches, etc.), to my subordinates to help them do their jobs. 21. I provide appropriate recognition and rewards to my subordinates for the results they have achieved on the job. 22. I encourage my subordinates to express themselves openly, even when their views are different from mine. 23. I chat with my subordinates about ways they might improve their effectiveness on the job. 24. I discuss with my subordinates specific things they might do to better qualify themselves for taking on greater responsibilities in the future.


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Now read it again and print out the list above and grade yourself on a scale from 1-5 (5 being the best) on how well you think you accomplish these tasks and print the one below and pass them out to your subordinates and have them grade you from 1-5 (5 being the best) on how well they think you accomplish these tasks. Please be sure to make it anonymous to ensure that your employees are honest in their opinions. By comparing how well you think you are accomplishing these tasks with how well your subordinates think that you are accomplishing them youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll perhaps get a different view on the current state of your organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture. 1. My manager keeps me informed about our overall organizational plans and operating results. 2. When my manager asks me to accomplish something, he/she specifies the end result wanted rather than specifying how to do it. (Induces creativity) 3. My manager keeps me informed on how Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m doing on the job. 4. My manager provides support and backing. 5. My manager expresses displeasure and concern whenever I do not achieve expected results. 6. My manager is accessible and easy to talk to, even when he/she is very busy and under pressure. 7. My manager has thorough discussions with me to help me learn from my success and failures. 8. My manager talks with me about my ambitions and aspirations for the future. 9. My manager encourages me to participate in setting goals and determining how to achieve those goals. 10. My manager insists that I think through problems and make important decisions on my own. 11. When my manager talks with me about my performance, he/she is very open and frank in telling me what he/she thinks. 12. My manager provides encouragement whenever I undertake difficult assignments. 13. My manager praises me whenever I achieve a significant result.


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14. My manager tries to understand my viewpoints when I discuss problems and undertakings with them. 15. My manager provides opportunities to broaden my experience and increase my competence. 16. My manager explains the requirements that I would be expected to meet to qualify for larger responsibilities within our organization in the future. 17. My manager clarifies my duties, responsibilities and the important results I am expected to accomplish. 18. In working with me, my manager follows up on just the significant items rather than on all the various minute details. 19. My manager works with me in developing agreed-to â&#x20AC;&#x153;standards of performanceâ&#x20AC;? to use in judging the results I have achieved. 20. My manager contributes ideas, (tactics, strategies, approaches, etc.), to help me do my job. 21. My manager provides appropriate recognition and rewards to me for the results I have achieved on the job. 22. My manager encourages me to express myself openly, even when my views are different from his/hers. 23. My manager chats with me about ways I might improve my effectiveness on the job. 24. My manager discusses with me specific things I might do to better qualify for taking on greater responsibilities in the future.


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(2) qHk;jzwfcsuf Manager awGuqHk;jzwfcsuf csMuygw,f/ Leader awGuawmh qHk;jzwfcsufawG ay:xGufvmatmif vG,fulacsmarGUaprIudk ay;ygw,f/ (3) tav;ay;rI Manager awG[m tvkyfawG jyD;ajrmufatmif pDrHcefUcGJygw,f/ Leader awGuawmh vlawGudkOD;aqmif ygw,f/ (4) tzGJUom;rsm; Manager awG&JU tzGJUom;awGuawmh vufatmuf0efxrf; ( Subordinates ) awGjzpfMujyD;? Leader awGqDrSmawmh aemufvdkuf( Followers ) awGu tzGJUom;awGyg/ (5) a½SUodkUarQmfjrifjcif; Manager awG[m Short Term eJU Medium Term udkarQmfawG;Muavh½SdjyD;? Leader awGuawmh Long Term udk MunfhMuavh½Sdygw,f/ (6) &,lMudK;yrf;jcif; Manager awG[m &nfre S ;f csuf ( Objectives ) awG atmifjrif&½Szd Ukd MudK;yrf;Muw,f/ Leader awGuawmh tem*wfjrifuGif; ( Vision ) udk &,lMudK;yrf;Muygw,f/ (7) csOf;uyfyHk Manager awGu tao;pdwfpDrHudef;csMuygw,f/ Leader awGuawmh OD;wnf&mvrf;aMumif;udk owfrSwfavh½SdMuygw,f/ (8) MoZm Manager awGqDrSm w&m;0ifay;tyfxm;wJh vkyfydkifcGifh? tmPmpuf&JU MoZmawG½SdMujyD;? Leader awGqDrSmawmh yk*¾dKvfa&; t½Sdeft0gawG ½SdMuygw,f/ (9) tjrJwrf;tm;udk;toHk;jyKrI Manager awG[m OD;aESmufudk t"duxm;jyD;toHk;jyKMuygw,f/ Leader awGuawmh ESvHk;om;udk


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tm;udk;wMuD;oHk;avh ½SdMuygw,f/ (10) um,OmPpG r f ; tm; Manager awG&JU um,OmPpGrf;tm;[m xdef;csKyfrIjzpfjyD;? Leader awG&JUum,OmPpGrf;tm;uawmh jyif;jyxufoefwJhpdwfjzpfygw,f/ (11) tavhtx trltusifh Manager awG[m vkyfp&m½SdwmawGudk rlvt½Sdtwdkif; vkyfudkifavh½SdMujyD;? Leader awGuawmh e*dkrlv tajctaeudk toGifajymif;? yHkajymif;jyD;vkyfudkifaqmif½Gufavh ½SdMuygw,f/ (12) vIyf½Sm;rI Manager awG[m udpw ö pfcck ak y:vm&if vdt k yfovdw k ek Uf jyefavh ½SMd ujyD;? Leader awGuawmh bmudprö S ray:vmcif wpfckckvkyfxm;avh½SdMuygw,f/ (13) qGJaqmifrI Manager awG[m olwdkUjzpfcsifwmudk &atmifajymqdkjyD; qGJaqmifMuygw,f? Leader awGuawmh olwdkU jzpfcsifwmudk wzufvlvufcHvmatmif qGJaqmifajymqdkMuygw,f/ (14) MudKufESpfoufrI Manager awG[m yHkrSefvkyfudkif aqmif½Gufp&m½SdwmawGudk wm0efausvkyfukdif EdkifMuygw,f? Leader awGuawmh yHkrSefr[kwfwJh yHkrSefxuf(yHkrSefxufydkjyD; MudK;yrf;tm;xkwf&wJh) udpöawGudk ydkrdkESpfouf Muygw,f/ (15) vdktifqE´ Manager awG[m tvkyjf yD;pD;wJh tusKd ;&v'fukd &½Sc d siw f q hJ E´½MdS ujyD;? Leader awGuawmh atmifjrif&½Sd rIudk qE´½SdMuygw,f/ (16) qHk;½IH;EdkifrI tvm;tvm Manager awG[m qHk;½IH;EdkifrItvm;tvmudk wwfEdkifoavmuf avsmhusatmifvkyfMujyD;? Leader awGuawmh qHk;½IH;EdkifrI tvm;tvmudk cH,lMuygw,f/


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(17) pnf ; rsOf ; pnf ; urf ; rsm; Manager awG[m Rules awG azmfxkwfowfrSwfMuygw,f? Leader awGuawmh Rules awGudk vdktyfovdk xdk;azmufjzwfausmfMuygw,f/ (18) y#dyu© Manager awG[m Conflict awGudk wwfEdkifoavmuf a½Smif½Sm;Muygw,f?Leader awGuawmh Conflict jzpfwmudk (½Sdwmudk) ra½Smifwdrf;Muygbl;/ (19) OD;wnf&mvrf;aMumif; Manager awG[m vuf½Sdvrf;a[mif;udk OD;wnfMuygw,f? Leader awGuawmh vrf;opfuae oGm;csifMuygw,f/ (20) vd k u f e mapaomenf ; pepf Manager awG[m qkay;'Pfay;pepfudk usifhoHk;Muygw,f? vuf½Sdvrf;a[mif;udk OD;wnfMuygw,f? Leader awGuawmh qkay;? qkray; pepfudkusifhoHk;Muygw,f/ pum;eJU ajym&&ifawmh Manager awG[m (Doing things right) vkyf&ifudkif&if pepfwus enf;vrf; rSefuefpGm vkyfudkifMuygw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh ukrP Ü D tzGUJ tpnf;twGuf (Efficiency) qkw d hJ aus;Zl;&&Syd gw,f/ Leader awGuawmh ( Doing the right things ) vkyfoifhwJhudpöudkom vkyfudkifMuwJhtwGuf (Effectiveness) qdkwJh tusdK;aus;Zl;udk Stakeholders awGudk &½Sdapygw,f/ aemufqHk;tcsuftaeeJU ajym&r,fqdk&ifawmh vkyfief;wpfck atmifjrifzdkUtwGufqdk&ifManager a&m Leader yg ESpfOD;pvHk;vdktyfygw,f/ 'grSr[kwf wpfOD;wnf;uae tJ'D ( roles ) ESpfrsdK;pvHk;udk ,lEdkifolawG vdktyfygw,f/ wpfcgwpf&HrSmawmh wpfu,fawmfwJh Manager awG[m cyfnHhnHh Leader awGjzpfaeMujyD;? wu,fawmfwhJ Leader awG[m cyfnn hH hH Manager awGjzpfaeMuygw,f/ ESpcf pk vH;k ta&;MuD;jyD;awmh OD;pm;ay; tpDtpOft& Professional Manager jzpfatmif t&ifvkyf&ygw,f/ jyD;rSolUudk Leadership ynmoifjyD;awmh Leader wpfa,muftjzpfudkyg &½Sdatmifvkyf&rSmjzpfygw,f/ / Peter Drucker


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TIME MANAGEMENT

How much do you suffer from Time Management? Do you suffer from ineffective Time Management Problems?

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Why are you here? • Because you want to make the most of your time. OR • You recognize that “ time is a unique and precious resource that you need in order to do your work, accomplish your goals, spend time with your loved ones, and enjoy everything that life has to offer. OR • You want to find ways to become more effective so you can get more time in less time. OR • You want to feel more focused and in control of your time. OR • You want to find ways to do less and enjoy more.

Do you…… • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Undertake work as it appears, rather than in order of priority? Accept unimportant interruptions when working on an urgent task? Say “yes” to work requests even when unsuitable? Put off tasks which are uninteresting? Rarely take proper breaks? Deal with the same material several times, when it should have been dealt with in one sitting? Not trust others with various tasks, in case they make mistakes? Maintain an inadequate filing system (can never find things)? Waste considerable time on unimportant phone calls? Often assign work to later when it should be dealt with on the spot? Have considerable difficulty making decisions? Allow your work surroundings to become disorganized and messy? Frequently lack the concentrative powers to see tasks through to the end? Let your career path just “happen” rather than taking positive steps towards achieving desirable and realistic life goals? THEN

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Congratulations! Others can learn from your positive time management techniques. If you answered YES to 4-7 questions, Reasonable, but no cause for bragging! Start working on those YES responses. If you answered YES to more than 7 questions,then It really is time you have to manage your time more effectively!

“Remember that time is money” Benjamin Franklin -1748

He also said, “ Do you love life?”

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Why Time Management is Important? • “ The Time Famine” • Bad time management = Stress • This is life advice

Beingsuccessful doesn’tmakeyou manageyourtime well

Time Management “ a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and systems working together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life” It is understanding exactly how much time we have and how to use it effectively.

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You possess

24 hours a day

1 Day = 24 Hours 1 Day = 1440 Minutes 1 Day = 86400 Seconds To Realize the Value of:

¨ONE YEAR ¨ONE MONTH

Æask a student who failed a grade. Æask a mother who gave birth to a premature baby.

¨ONE WEEK ¨ONE DAY ¨ONE HOUR ¨ONE MINUTE ¨ONE SECOND

Æask the editor of a weekly newspaper. Æask a daily wage laborer with kids to feed. Æask the lovers who are waiting to meet. Æ ask a person who missed the train. Æ ask a person who just avoided an accident.

¨ONE MILLISECOND Æask the person who won a silver medal in the Olympics.

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Benefits of Time Management 3Affect your efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. 3Decrease the pressure that goes with any job. 3Promotes authority over our lives and ourselves. 3A characteristic of successful people.

Next Issue wGifqufvufzwf½Iyg&ef


Welcome to " Green Learning Society "

165

A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS jzefUa0aom Investing, Business & Management

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Green Learning Society Member rsm;xJrS 10 issue jyD;wdkif;rJEIdufí rJaygufoludk “ Green Learning Society Lucky Member qk” udak y;tyfrnf jzpfygonf/

(ii)

A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS tcgtm;avsmpf mG jyKvkyaf om Seminar rsm;wGiv f nf; “tcrJ”h wufa&mufEikd rf nf jzpfygonf/

(iii) A 1 Learning Technologies Group rS tcgtm;avsmfpmG aqmif&u G af om Social Activity

rsm;wGiv f nf; yg0ifEikd rf nf jzpfygonf/


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Green Learning Society Member Form

NRC.No

Date of Birth Photo

Fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name Education

Other Qualification

Current Job

Address

Phone No.

E-mail

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CREATIVE ADVERTISEMENTS

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prf;w0g;0g;ESihf [dkw,fpDrHcefUcGJaernfhtpm; vufawGUusaom pOf;pm;oihfonfh tcsufrsm;jzpfygonf/ odkUaomf wpfxdkifwnf;jzihf jynfhpHkpGm wifjyEdkifjcif; r[kwfao;yg/ owdrl&eftcsufrSm aqmif;ygtpü azmfjyouJhodkU 0ifaiGwdk;jcif;? [dkw,fü {nfhonfjynfhaejcif;wdkUrSm [dkw,fpDrHcefUcGJrIaumif;rGefjcif;\ tydik ;f wpfyikd ;f omoufqidk Nf yD; auseyfEpS o f rd afh e&ef roihaf y/ 0ufom;wpfydómudk vlwpfodef;aeaom t&yfüa&mif;&m (15)rdepftwGif;ü ukefoGm;onf qdkouJhodkU tajctaet&yf&yfu rsufESmomay;aeíom wpfcgwpf&H tqifajyEdkifMuNyD; rdrdwdkU vk y f a qmif & rnf r sm;ud k arh a vsmh a eMuayrnf / trS e f p if p pf r S m (15)rdepftwGi;f ukeaf tmif a&mif;Edik af omvlukd qkray;bJ Budr'f Pfyif ay;&efoifhonf/ taMumif;rSm vdktyfcsufrsm;u jznfhqnf;EdkifrI\ tqaygif;rsm;pGm omvGeaf ejcif;aMumihf jzpfonf/ ,cktcg jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 0ifa&mufvmEdkifonfh c&D;onfta&twGufonf [dkw,ftcef;ta& twGuu f kd tvG,w f ul ausmjf zwf&efwmplaeNyDjzpfygonf/ xdt k ajctaeü rdrb d momawmfaomaMumihf r[kw?f {nfo h nfursm;í tcef;enf;aejcif;? vljynfí h aiGy&kd aejcif;[laom rjiif;Edik o f nfh ed,mrtwGi;f rdr\ d [dw k ,f pDrHcefUcGJtkyfcsKyfrIrsm;udk vspfvsL&Irxm;bJ udk,f&nfudk,faoG;rsm;udk ajzazsmufvQuf a&&SnftwGuf 0efaqmifrt I m; auseyftm;&rItjynft h 0 ay;pGr;f Edik o f nfh tajctaersdK;twGuf pDrt H m;xkwo f ihaf Mumif; a&;om;wifjytyfygonf/ /


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Local Business Operation KMD (Knowledge Management & Dedication) KMD onf

1986 ckESpfuwnf;u pwifwnfaxmifcJhNyD; ICT qdkif&moifwef;rsm;? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;qdkif&m oifwef;rsm;? pm&if;Z,m;ydkif;qdkif&m oifwef;rsm;ydkYcsjcif;? EdkifiHwum ausmif;rsm;odkY oGm;a&mufynm oifMum;vdkaom ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;udk ynma&;0efaqmifrIay;jcif;? uGefysLwmESifh qufpyfypönf;rsm;udk a&mif;csay;jcif;? uGefysLwm Software rsm;a&;om;ay;jcif; paomvkyfief;rsm;udk 0efxrf;aygif; (620) ausmfjzifh 0efaqmifrIay;aeaom uGefysLwm ukrÜPDBuD;wpfckjzpfygonf/ KMD taejzihf

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(1) KMD Education Service (2) KMD Sales & Service (3) SoftComm Technology (The e-biz dimension of KMD) (4) iCorner Cyber Cafe‘ (1) KMD Education Service

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- jrefrmEdkifiHwGif (39)ck? uarÇm'D,m;EdkifiHwGif (2)ck - NCC Education (UK), ABE (UK), University of Portsmouth (UK), London

Metropolitan University (UK), James Cook University (Singapore/ Australia), Assumption University (ABAC, Thailand), LCCI (UK), MYOB (Malaysia), MDIS (Singapore), APIIT (Malaysia), Northumbria (UK), Informatics (Singapore), Middlesex University (UK), EF Brittin College (UK), AEC (Singapore), Nottingham University (Malaysia), Taylor’s University College (Malaysia), Nilai University College (Malaysia), University of Greenwich (UK), The British Council (Myanmar)


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175

oifwef;rsm; - MSc Strategic Business in IT, B.Sc (Hons) Degree, International IT &

Business Diploma , IT Diploma (Joint Program with govt.), Software & Network Courses, Web Technology Course, Office Application Courses, Kids Courses.

KMD Edi k if w H umoifwef;rsm;rS xl;cReaf usmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;


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(2) KMD Sales & Service

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(3) SoftComm Technology

„pwifwnfaxmifaomESpf

- 2001

„0efaqmifrIvkyfief; - Web Site Developement, Internet Domain Name Registration, Web Hosting & Web Portal Maintainance, E-Commerce Solutions Development, Business Applications Developement „½Hk;cGJaygif;

- &efukefwGif (2)ck? rEÅav;wGif (1)ck

(4) iCorner Cyber Cafe

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pwifwnfaxmifaomESpf - 2003 „0efaqmifrIvkyfief; - Internet, General Internet Access, Word Processing, Desktop Publishing, Business Centre, Computer Games


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Learning Technologies Group KNOWLEDGE

Accountancy ESihf Finance taMumif;

177

odaumif;p&mrsm; a'gufwmat;at;rm

pma&;olonf 'Daqmif;yg;udk a&;om;&aom&nf&, G cf surf mS Accountancy ESihf finance udk pmzwforl sm; taeNzifh uJGNym;pGmod&Sdapvdkí Nzpfygw,f/ aemufydkif;aqmif;yg;rsm;rSmawmh finance ESifh ywfoufaom Investment Decision, Sources of Finance, Financial Market ponft h aBumif;udk a&;om;oGm;rSmNzpfygw,f/'Daqmif;yg;udk a&;om;&jcif; taBumif;rSm rdrdodxm;aomA[kokwrsm;udk a0rQcHpm;vdkíNzpfygw,f/ odkYNzpfygí pma&;om;&mwGif trSm;rsm;&Scd yhJ gaomf em;vnfciG v hf w T af y;apvdyk gw,f/ NrefrmEdkifiH\ economy onf Socialist economy rS Market-oriented economy odkYul;aNymif;vmNyD; aemufyikd ;f wGipf ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;? ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;? wdik ;f olNynfom;rsm;twGuf tcGit hf vrf; opfrsm;pGm ay:aygufvmygonf/ Market economy qdo k nfrmS aps;uGut f wGi;f ukeyf p©n;f udk vGwv f yfpmG NydKifqikd ?f 0,f,?l a&mif;csEikd Nf cif; Nzpfonft h wGuf vli,frsm;? vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;taejzifh ]pD;yGm;a&;? pDrcH efYcrGJ }I ynm&yfrsm;udk avhvmoif,&l ef vdt k yfvmygonf/ xdYktNyif ud, k yf ikd pf ufr?I vufrv I yk if ef;rsm;udk wGiu f s,pf mG vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf &Sv d mNcif;? wdik ;f Nynf wd;k wuf&eftwGuf vdt k yfaomtcef;u@tcsdKUudk Nynforl sm;tm; vGwv f yfpmG vkyu f ikd cf iG Nhf yKNcif;wdYk aBumifh ]pD;yGm;a&;? pDrcH efYcrGJ }I ynm&yfonfvil ,frsm;? vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;uydrk kd pdw0f ifpm;vQuf&ydS gonf/ ,ckuo hJ Ykd ul;aNymif;qJumvwGif ododomomaNymif;vJvmaomtydkif;rSm financial system ESifh financial activities wdYk Nzpfygonf/ NrefrmEdik if o H m;ydik b f Pfrsm; ay:aygufvmNcif;? Edik if NH cm;rSbPfrsm;? ud, k pf m;vS,&f ;kH rsm; zGiv hf pS af y;Ncif;wdYkonf NrefrmEdik if \ H financial system aNymif;vJw;kd wufvmonfukd oufaoNyvQu&f ydS gonf/ NrefrmEdkifiHonf ASEAN \ full member Nzpfvmí wdik ;f olNynfom;rsm;twGuf pD;yGm;a&;ESihf ywfoufaom tcGit hf vrf;opfrsm;pGm xGuaf y:vmygonf/ xdo k Ykd Eikd if w H umESihf qufqaH e&onft h csdew f iG f trsm;enf;wl &ifabmifwef;Edkif&ef? pD;yGm;a&;pDrHcefYcJGrINyKvkyfedkif&ef? NynfwGif;aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;ydkrdkus,fNyefYvmap&ef avhvmoif,l&rnfh ynm&yfrsm;pGm&Sdygonf/ xdkynm&yfrsm;xJrS ,ckvltrsm;ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;vmaom Accountancy ESifh Finance taBumif;udk OD;pGm&Si;f Nyvdy k gonf/ Accountancy onf udk,fydkifpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;ESifh ywfoufaompm&if;rsm;udkpepfwuswduspGm rSwfwrf;wifxm;&ef? rdrd\pD;yGm;a&;onf rnfonfhtaNctaea&muf&Sdaeonfrsm;udk tuJNzwfEdkif&ef twGuNf zpfNyD;? Finance qdo k nfrmS b@ma&;ESio hf ufqikd Nf yD;? ud, k pfh ;D yGm;a&; ydik q f ikd rf rI sm;udk rnfoYkdtusKd ;&Spd mG toH;k csrnf? ESpw f t kd wGi;f aiGaBu;vnfywfru I kd rnfoYkdaqmif&u G rf nfponfwYkdukd pOf;pm;qH;k Nzwfwu G cf su&f ef Nzpfygonf/ Accountancy onf ‘mathematical science’ \ tpdwftydkif;wpfckNzpfygonf? Business wpfck\ tem*gwfatmifNrifrI&&SdEdkif? r&EdkiftwGuf tvGefta&;ygaom u@rSyg0ifygonf? Accountancy wGif t"duusaomtydik ;f (3)ck&ydS gonf/ x Accounting 4if;wdkYrSmx x

Bookkeeping Auditing


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Accounting wGif a,bk,stm;Nzifh financial ESifh management [lí tydi k ;f ESpyf ikd ;f &Syd gonf/ Financial Accounting qdo k nfrmS tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk rdrpd ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;tNyifwiG &f adS omvlrsm; (external

-Oyrmtm;Nzifh rdrdESifhywfoufaombPfrsm;? aBuG;&Sifrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;? tcGefXmerSL;? oufqikd &f mtpd;k &tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;twGuf &nf&, G yf gonf/ xdYk tNyifinternational standards & format ay:wGif rlwnfa&;qGo J nft h wGuf pdw0f ifpm;ol? toH;k NyKolwpfO;D csif;pD\ vdt k yfcsufrsm; rNynfph EkH ikd yf g/ Management Accounting qdkonfrSm tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk rdrd\tzGJYtpnf;twGif;wGif&Sdaomvlrsm; (internal users) rS pDrHcefYcGJrIqHk;Nzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfEdkif&eftwGuf wpfOD;csif;pDtvdkuf vdktyfaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk OD;wnfa&;qGx J m;ygonf/ Financial Accounting \t"dutydkif;onf pD;yGm;a&; taNctaersm;udk historical information ay:rlwnfí tpD&ifcpH ma&;qGNJ cif;Nzpfygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;pDrcH efYcaJG eaom ref*smrsm;onf xdt k pD&ifcpH mrsm;xuf ydrk Nkd ynfph t kH ao;pdwaf om tcsuftvufrsm;vdt k yfygonf/ odYk ro S m tem*wftwGuf OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk owfrSwfEdkifrnfNzpfygonf/ wenf;qdk&aomf management accounting onf present information ay:wGirf w l nfNyD; future plan twGuv f t kd yfaom tao;pdwt f csuftvufrsm;udk tpD&ifcNH cif; Nzpfygonf/ Bookkeeping onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyi f ef;ESiyhf wfoufaom ta&mif;t0,f? 0ifaiGxu G af iGrsm;udk wdus aocsmpGmrSww f rf;wifxm;Ncif; Nzpfygonf/ xdpk m&if;oGi;f aomolukd Bookkeeper [k ac:ygonf/ Bookkeeper onf pm&if;rSw&f eftwGuo f mNzpfNyD; txufazmfNyygtpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk a&;qGNJ cif;rSm accountant\ wm0ef Nzpfygonf/ Accountant rsm;onf Bookkeeper rsm;oGif;cJhaom pm&if;rsm;ay:rlwnfí tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk a&;qGJay;Ncif;Nzpfygonf/ Bookkeeping wGif method ESpr f sdK;&Syd gonf/ Single-entry bookkeeping system ESihf Double-entry bookkeeping system wdYk jzpfygonf/ Single-entry bookkeeping onf 0ifaiGxu G af iGrsm;udk revenue ESifh expenses journal rsm;wGif xnfhoGif;NyD; Cash Book udk taNccHí Income account ESifh Expenses account ESprf sdK;udo k m toH;k NyKpm&if;rSwyf gonf? xdYk aBumifh rsm;aomtm;Nzifv h yk if ef;ao;rsm;wGif toH;k NyKygonf/ Double-entry bookkeeping qdo k nfrmS pm&if;NzpfpOfwpfcu k kd Debit ESihf Credit qdNk yD; ESpBf udro f iG ;f rSwNf cif; Nzpfygonf/ pm&if;oGi;f onft h cgwGif Assets, Liability, Equity, revenue expense qdNk yD; tkypf (k 5)ckay:wGif rlwnf pm&if;oGi;f ygonf/

users)

“Double entry accounting means that money is never lost or gained. It is always transferred from one place to another. This is done by recording transactions. Each transaction requires the use of at least two accounts''

aeYpOfpm&if;ESifhywfoufaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifaomolrsm;rS wm0ef,l&aom pm&if;pmtkyfrsm;udk ‘day book’ [k ac:ygonf/ xdk ‘day book’ rsm;rSpm&if;rSwfwrf;rsm;udk ‘trial balance’ tNzpftoGiaf Nymif; a&;qGNJ yD;onftxd Bookkeeper rsm;rS wm0ef,&l ygrnf/ xdk Bookkeeper rsm;a&;qGx J m;aom ledger, trial balance rsm;udt k oH;k NyKNyD; Income Statement, Balance Sheet tp&So d nfh tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk Accountant rsm;ua&;qG&J ygonf/ Balance sheet qdo k nfrmS rdrv d yk if ef;\ taNctaewpfcu k kd xd&k uftwGuf rnfrQ&So d nfqo kd nfukd a&;qGx J m;aom tpDt&ifcpH mNzpfygonf/ Balance sheet onf Assets = Liability + Equity qdo k nfh accounting J m;ygonf/ equation udk taNccHía&;qGx


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tem*wfumvwGif rdrdpD;yGm;a&;twGuf Benefits rsm;0ifvmEdkifvQif Assets [k owfrSwfNyD; xGufoGm;Edkifonf[k xifNrifvQif Liability [k owfrSwfygonf/ Equity qdkonfrSm vkyfief;ydkif&Sif\ &if;ESD;NrSKyfESHrIESifh tNrwft&IH; Nzpfygonf/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifq h akd omf (Equity = Assets – Liability) tem*wfwiG &f &ef&o dS nfrsm;? ,ckvuf&rdS sm;xJrS ay;&ef&o dS nfrsm;? z,fvu kd Nf yD; ydik &f iS t f wGuf usefaomwefz;kd Nzpfygonf/ Financial Auditing qdo k nfrmS pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;twGuf r&Srd NzpfNyKvky&f rnfh accounting process wpfck Nzpfygonf/ Auditing udk independent pm&if;ppftzGYJ tpnf;wpfcrk S NyKvky&f rnfNzpfygonf/ t"du&nf&, G cf suf uawmh wdusrSeu f efNyD; w&m;rQwrI&adS om pm&if;rsm;NzpfaBumif;udk twnfNyKcsuf&,ljcif;Nzpfygw,f/ “Auditing is the independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, and irrespective of its size or legal form, when such an examination is conducted with a view to expressing an opinion thereon.”

Accounting ESifh Finance qufoG,fyHk Accounting onf Finance twGuft"duusaom tpdwftydkif;wpfckNzpfygonf/ Accounting onf rdrd pD;yGm;a&;\ taNctaersm;rnfodkY&Sdonf? t&IH;tNrwfrnfrQ&Sdonf? ay;&ef&&efrsm; rnfrQ&Sdonf ponfh wpfESpfpm taNctaersm;udk azmfNyay;ygonf/ Financing \tydkif;onf xdktcsuftvufrsm;ay:rlwnf oH;k oyfí tem*wfwiG rf nfoYkd NzpfvmEdik o f nfukd tpDtpOfa&;qG&J ef toH;k NyKygonf/ Accounting onf wpfEp S pf mtwGuf 0ifaiGxu G af iG rnfrQ&o dS nfukd wGu&f mwGif wu,frh nfrQ 0ifonf wu,fhrnfrQxGufonfudk cash flow wefzdk;ay:wGifrwGufbJ ‘''accrual basis" 'DESpfESifhqdkifonfh 0ifaiGxGufaiGay:wGif rlwnfpm&if;a&;qGJNcif;? t&IH;tNrwfwGufjcif; Nzpfygonf/ odkYaomf Financing ü wu,fhvufawGUwGif aiGb,favmufxGufrnf? aiGb,favmuf0ifrnf [laomtcsuf? Cash flow ay:wGirf w l nfí qH;k Nzwfcsufrsm;csrSwyf gonf/ xdkYtNyif &nf&G,fcsufrsm;onfvnf; rwlnDBuyg/ Accounting onf wpfESpfpmtwGif; NyD;cJhaom pm&if;tif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk wdusrSefuefpGm wGufcsufEdkif&ef t&iftajctae ,cktajctaeESifh tem*wfwiG f rdrpd ;D yGm;a&;\vdt k ifqE´rsm;jynfah jrmuf&ef rnfoYkd tpDtpOfjyKvkyEf ikd &f ef&nf&, G yf gonf/ Financing ESiy hf wfoufonft h ydik ;f wGif Financial strategy rnfoYkd csrSw&f rnf? aiGaBu;0ifrI xGurf EI iS hf ywfoufírnfoYkd pDrcH efYc&JG rnf? rnfoYkd xed ;f odr;f &rnf ponfq h ;kH Nzwfcsufrsm;udk tpDtpOfNyKvkyEf ikd &f ef &nf&G,fygonf/ ‘Finance is the science of funds management.’ Financial function onfwdkif;Nynfwdk;wuf&eftwGuf ta&;ygaomtcef;u@wpfckNzpfygonf/ tb,faBumifh qdak omf Nynfov l x l \ k saving money rsm;rS wdik ;f NynftwGuf ydrk t kd usdK;&Spd mG toH;k NyKEdik rf nfh &if;ESD;NrSKyfESHrI NyKvkyfEdkif&efvdktyfygonf/ xdkodkY&if;ESD;NrSKyfESHrIrsm;udk Financial Market rsm;üjyKvkyfvQif ydkrdktusdK;&SdvmrnfNzpfygonf/ xdkaBumifh aemufaqmif;yg;rsm;wGif Financial Market rsm;taBumif;udk

a&;om;azmfNyoGm;ygrnf/

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&if;ED;S Nr§KyEf NHS cif; Vs tNrwfarQmrf eS ;f íxifaMu;jzifY0,fa&mif;jcif; (Investment Vs Speculation) OD;Zmenfxuf a&Taps;rsm;wpf&dyf&dyfwufae\/ Cynthia wpfa,muf jcpfukyfpkaqmif;xm;aom aiGodef; ajcmufq,fjzifh a&Twpfq,fom;0,fvdkufonf/ olYarQmfrSef;csufu aemufxyf&uftenf;i,ftwGif; aps; xyfwufvQif jyefa&mif;í tjrwf&&efjzpf\/ uHqdk;onfvm;rqdkEdkif? a&Taps;jyefusoGm;onf/ rpm;& raomuf&bJ av;? ig;odef;½IH;oGm;\/ Cynthia crsm awmfawmfcHpm;vdkuf&onf/ a&TwGif&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;u olESifh rudkuf[k qdk&rvdkyif/ aemufwpfa,muf ......... David / olYoil ,fcsif;wpfa,mufu tdrjf cHajryGpJ m;vkyaf eonf/ tdrjf cHajr aps;wufaeaBumif; vmajymojzifh olpw d 0f ifpm;oGm;\/ pkaqmif;xm;aom aiGav;jzifh wdu k cf ef;vdu k 0f ,f? NyD;vQif txdu k t f avsmufjyefjyKjyif? xdYk aemuf aps;wifNyD; jyefa&mif;&ef/ 'guolYarQmfreS ;f csuf/ wdkufcef; wpfcef;udk oloabmusí aiGacsNyD;odyrf Bum? wdu k cf ef;aps;awG usomG ;jyefonf/ olu ydq k ;kd onf?? rdrpd ak iGav; tvum;ae&if;avsmhusoGm;í pdwfxdcdkuf&jyefonf/ tdrfjcHajr&if;ESD;jrSKyfESHjcif;u oleSifhtusdK;ray;[k qdk&rvdkyif/ ,ckacwfwGif “&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;” qdkaom pum;vHk;udk ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;ü wGifwGifus,fus,f oHk;aeBuonf/ tdrfjcHajraps;uGuf? um;aps;uGuf? a&eHpdrf;? a&Taps;uGu?f pawmh½, S , f maps;uGu?f Edik if jH cm;aiGaBu;aps;uGuf ponfjzifh rsm;pGm½S\ d / vlrsm;pGmvnf; rdrdEdkifonfh yrmPjzifh 0ifí&if;ESD;jrSKyfESHBuonf/ odkYqdkvQif txufuOyrmESpfckt& Cynthia ESifh David wdkYonf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;jyKvkyfcJhonf[k qdkEdkifygovm;/kk


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&if;ES;D jr§KyfEjHS cif;qdw k mbmvJ (what is an investment?) &if;ES;D jr§KyfEjHS cif;udk t"dygÜ ,ftrsKd ;rsKd ; zGiq hf Bkd uonf/ 4if;teuf t&Si;f vif;qH;k ESihf tBudKufq;kH udk azmfjy&vQif Investment Guru BuD; wpfO;D jzpfonfh Benjamin Graham \ t"dyÜg,f&Sif;vif;csufjzpfonf/ Benjamin Graham qdkonfum; e,fe,f&& yk*¾dKvfr[kwf/ ,cktcgurÇmay:wGif tBuD;jrwfqHk; &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHol[kac:qdk&aom Berkshire Hathaway Inc \ Chairman & CEO jzpf o l Warren Buffett \ q&mt&if;jzpfayonf/ tcsdKUuvnf;4if;udk Dean of the Wall Street [k ac:Buonf/ 4if;u &if;ES;D jr§KyfErHS Iwpfcu k kd atmufygtwdik ;f t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcJhonf/ “ An investment operation is one which, upon thorough analysis, promises safety of principal and an adequate return. Operations not meeting these requirements are speculative.''

]]&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIwpfck}}[kqdk&eftwGuf (1) 4if;&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHronf Ionf aocsmpGm pdppf? a0zefoHk;oyfxm;jcif;cH&rnf/ (2) 4if;&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIonf pdkufxkwfxm;aom &if;ESD;aiGtm; ab;uif;vHkjcHKí qHk½HI;rrIrSru S if;a0;ap&rnf/ (3) 4if;&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrS oifhwifhrQwaom jyef&csuf (return ) &Sd&rnf/ þ (3)csuEf iS hf rudu k n f aD om aqmif&u G cf surf eS o f rQonf tjrwfarQmí f xifaBu;jzifh 0,fa&mif;jcif; (Speculation) jzpfonf/ vGepf mG &Si;f vif;vSaom t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsuf jzpfayonf/ 4if; Definition t& David ESifh Cynthia wdkUESpfOD;vHk;onf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif; jyKvkyfcJhonf[k rqdkEdkifay/


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tb,faBumifq h akd omf 4if;wdUk ESpOf ;D pvH;k onf (1) jyKvkyfrnfh &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIukd aocsmpGmpDppf a0zefo;kH oyfrI rjyKcJah y/ (2) rdrpd u kd x f w k x f m;aomaiG&if; qH;k ½H;I rIr&Sad tmif umuG,&f efvnf; BudKwifrpOf;pm;? rjyifqifcahJ y/ (3) &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrItay:wGif rnfrQjyef&rnf (Return) udkvnf;rwGufcJhay/ avmbaemufvdkufum aps;wufvQifjyefa&mif;í tjrwf&&efom arQmfrSef;cJhBuonf/ urÇmausmf pma&;q&m? oef;<u,foal X; Robert Kiyosaki uvnf; investing udkxyfrí H t"dyÜg,f zGifhqdkcJhonf/ ]]Investing is a personal plan to achieve personal goals}} &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHjcif;qdkonfrSm vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufcsif;\ &nfrSef;csuf jynfah jrmuf&ef 4if;ESio hf m oufqikd af om tpDtrHjzpfonf/

]]todOmPfjrif&h if;ES;D jr§KyfEo HS l qdo k nfrmS bmvJ” What is an intelligent investor? 4if;udk Graham u þodkYxyfrH t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcJhonf/ ]] todOmPfjrifh&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHol qdkonfrSm (1) pdwf&Snfonf;cHrI&Sdol (2) pnf;urf;&Sdol (3) tNrJrjywfoif,l avhvmvdkpdwf&Sdol (4) rdrd\pdwfcHpm;csuf (Emotion) xuf aMumif;usdK;qDavsmfpGm pOf;pm;awG;ac:jcif;udk OD;pm;ay;ol}} jzpfonf/


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2011 The University of Auckland

Postgraduate Prospectus


188

Contents

2

Welcome to The University of Auckland

3

Choose The University of Auckland for your postgraduate study

5

Postgraduate research

7

Funding your studies

9

Student services, support and places to go on campus

11

International students

14

Auckland, New Zealand – a great place to live and study

16

Finding accommodation

18

360˚ Auckland Abroad – Add the world to your programme

20

Postgraduate programmes

21

About our programmes

23

Deciding what to study

36

Making your application

37

Dates to remember

38

Admission to postgraduate programmes

39

How to apply

40

Admission for international students

41

Glossary

42

| The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


189

Welcome to The University of Auckland

Deciding to undertake postgraduate study is one of the most exciting and important decisions you will make in your life. Choosing the best university for your postgraduate study is key to determining your future success, whether you go on to further research or into the next stage of your career. You will need to look for a university with a reputation for quality and a proven trackrecord of excellence – qualities that The University of Auckland embodies. In an increasingly competitive and demanding job market, postgraduate study offers you the opportunity to differentiate yourself and be valued for your specialised knowledge and skills. Through postgraduate study at The University of Auckland, you can impact and influence our world, go on to become a leader in your field and enjoy an enriching and fulfilling career. The University of Auckland is New Zealand’s highest ranked university.* Of the 600 top-ranked researchers in the country’s tertiary sector, one-third are located at just one institution – The University of Auckland.** This means we can provide you with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with world-class academic staff who are outstanding in their fields. As New Zealand’s premier research-led university, we have 40 research units and centres and host four national Centres of Research Excellence (CoRES), giving you the

chance to participate in major ground-breaking research. As a postgraduate student at The University of Auckland, you will not only shape but share in our reputation – a reputation that you will carry with you into your future. If you are ready to pursue your passion and commitment for your subject in an inspiring and supportive environment that constantly strives for excellence, The University of Auckland is an excellent choice.

STUART MCCUTCHEON Vice-Chancellor The University of Auckland *Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2008. **Performance Based Research Fund Report 2006.

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Unique perspectives on New Zealand life Māori Studies PhD student Arapera Bella Ngaha (right) and her supervisor, Margaret Mutu, discuss ways in which the regeneration and ongoing use of te reo Māori can be promoted and encouraged. Using a sociolinguistics framework, she is analysing data about te reo and Māori identity collected through surveys and community hui. Her research builds on current te reo revitalisation strategies and investigates the possibility of increasing the numbers of speakers of te reo through encouraging non-Māori to learn the language. Arapera gratefully acknowledges the support of Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga and her Māori Studies colleagues as key contributors to her success.

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Choose The University of Auckland for your postgraduate study

Postgraduate study enhances your employment prospects, hones your skills and expands your understanding. It offers the personal satisfaction of working in an area that really interests you, with the opportunity to work alongside academic staff and take an active role in your own learning and development. If you want the best in postgraduate study opportunities, then The University of Auckland is the place for you. International reputation • We’re ranked among the top 1% of the world’s universities by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings released in October 2009. • We are the only university in New Zealand (and one of only four in Australasia) with membership to Universitas 21, an exclusive group of major research-intensive universities. • The University of Auckland is also the only New Zealand member of Pacific Rim Universities, a grouping of some of the world’s premier universities. • We attract students from all over the world, with an inclusive multi-cultural population made up of students from more than 100 countries. • Our student exchange programme, 360° Auckland Abroad, has over 90 partner universities in 24 countries, offering you the opportunity to complete part of your course, short courses, field trips or internships overseas (see p20).

First-class teaching and research • The University of Auckland has more internationally and nationally esteemed researchers than any other tertiary institution in New Zealand - you’ll be working with academic staff who are leaders in their fields. • We have the largest number of research degree completions in the country. • We have the highest level of research income of any university in New Zealand winning 30% of the nation’s research fund, despite having only 18% of the PBRF-eligible staff in the university system. • We have 40 departmental and faculty research centres and nine University research institutes. • We host four of the eight Centres of Research Excellence in New Zealand.

Exciting range of postgraduate programmes • Over 130 top-quality postgraduate programmes and more than 180 subject areas are on offer to meet your goals and interests. • You can choose from a wide range of taught and research programmes - from one-year postgraduate diplomas to extended research degrees. • More than two-thirds of our programmes allow entry in the second semester, so you don’t need to wait to get started. Doctoral students can apply and begin their studies at any time.* • Subjects on offer range from strong traditional disciplines to exciting emerging cross-disciplinary subject areas. • Most of our postgraduate programmes can be studied part-time, so you can continue to develop your skills and understanding around employment or other commitments. • Industry involvement is also a component of many programmes, allowing you to gain practical insight and experience as you study. • For a full list of our postgraduate programmes see pp24-35. *This does not apply to EdD and DClinPsy programmes.

Funding and support • More than $18 million in postgraduate scholarships every year are available (p9). • We have a specialist career consultant for postgraduates, giving you access to workshops, CV development services, career planning and one-to-one personalised advice (p11). • You can access a full range of student support services on campus - from healthcare to recreation, childcare to counselling (pp11-13). • Our active Postgraduate Students’ Association gives you the chance to network with other postgraduates throughout the University at social functions and postgraduate events (p11).

World-class resources and facilities • Our library is the biggest university library in New Zealand and ranks alongside the top five university libraries in Australia (p12). • Our School of Graduate Studies offers specialised support to postgraduate students across all faculties (p11). • The University of Auckland has a vibrant student community of over 10,500 postgraduate students, with over 4,000 graduating annually, so you’ll be able to network with others who share your interests and commitment to education.

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland |

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Original research with broad implications Biomedical Science masters student Alexandra Mowday and her supervisors, Drs Chris Guise (left) and Adam Patterson (middle) evaluate bacterial nitroreductases for cancer gene therapy. The aim for her original research is to identify and characterise a therapeutic gene for viral-targeted cancer treatments with signiďŹ cantly less toxicity than chemotherapy. She ďŹ nds her support from the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences Postgraduate Students Association and the Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre invaluable. Alexandra has a Faculty of Science Masters Award. 6

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Postgraduate research

As New Zealand’s leading and largest university*, we have a strong focus on research that benefits not only our students and staff, but also our society, economy and nation. Postgraduate research is a cornerstone of The University of Auckland. Whether you are considering a small research project as part of your postgraduate study, or a doctoral thesis, we offer the chance to work with international leaders in their field in a supportive, world-class environment. Our greatest resource As a research-intensive university of high international standing, we know people are our most vital resource. Students at The University of Auckland have the opportunity to work with supervisors who have earned international acclaim and are making world-changing discoveries. To learn more about specific research and researchers at The University of Auckland, visit www.auckland.ac.nz/research

Research units The University of Auckland has: • two internationally renowned Large Scale Research Institutes (LSRI) – the Liggins Institute and the Auckland Bioengineering Institute

to identify and guard discoveries with commercial potential, find business partners and negotiate licence agreements. It protects the University’s intellectual property portfolio and has an extensive range of new technologies available for commercial licensing.

Research in a supportive environment Research students work with at least one experienced and specifically-trained supervisor, often have opportunities to work in a team, and can develop networks in their department and faculty, across the University and with other researchers undertaking similar projects the world over.

• 50 research units, centres and institutes at departmental, faculty or University level

The Research Office, Career Services, Auckland UniServices Limited and other University support services also offer assistance to research students (see pp11-12 and www. research.auckland.ac.nz).

• four of New Zealand’s eight national Centres of Research Excellence:

Funding

• National Research Centre for Growth and Development (NRCGD) • Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga • The Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery (CMB) • New Zealand Institute of Maths and its Applications (NZIMA) For more information about research units at the University, visit www.auckland.ac.nz/ research

Students undertaking research may be eligible for both University-sponsored and externallysponsored research funding. This includes funding for both public-domain and commercial research.

Useful web addresses Postgraduate research at the University www.auckland.ac.nz/postgradresearch Research at The University of Auckland www.research.auckland.ac.nz Auckland Bioengineering Institute www.abi.auckland.ac.nz Liggins Institute www.liggins.auckland.ac.nz UniServices www.uniservices.auckland.ac.nz University of Auckland research units, institutes and centre www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/re-research-unitsinstitutes-and-centres For information about specific research at The University of Auckland, visit the University’s faculty homepages at www.auckland.ac.nz Research Office Level 2, 76 Symonds Street, Auckland Phone: +64 9 373 7599 ext 87956 Email: researchoffice@auckland.ac.nz Web: www.research.auckland.ac.nz *Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2009.

PReSS Postgraduate Research Student Support (PReSS) is funding that is automatically available to doctoral students undertaking supervised research. For more information see p9 or visit www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/cs-postgraduateresearch-funding

From us to the world The commercialisation of research at the University is managed by Auckland UniServices Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of the University. UniServices, the largest commercialisation company of its kind in Australasia, develops partnerships ranging from small research and consultancy contracts to large projects drawing on the expertise of the University’s schools, faculties and research centres. The company works alongside academic staff

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland |

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Getting a grip on medical robotics Mechatronics Engineering masters student Thomas Hurst shows his supervisor, Dr Kean Aw, his air-muscle, robotic hand. Thomas uses medical and assistive robotics along with his background in industrial automation and process control in his unique research. He is grateful for the enthusiastic support of his supervisor, technician and the University.

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Funding your studies The University of Auckland believes in investing in our postgraduate students - that’s why we offer nearly 400 postgraduate scholarships to a total value of over $18 million each year. It pays to investigate funding possibilities as early as possible, so you know what you may be eligible for and when applications are due. Other options also exist to help you meet the costs of your study. Scholarships The University of Auckland has a range of postgraduate scholarships, awards and bursaries for New Zealand citizens and permanent residents, including:

Postgraduate scholarships Health Research Doctoral Scholarships Mäori and Pacific Graduate Scholarships (Masters/Honours /Postgraduate Diplomas) Masters/Honours /Postgraduate Diploma Scholarships Senior Health Research Scholarships Universitas 21 Doctoral Mobility Scholarships Universitas 21 Joint PhD Programme Scholarships University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarships Various subject-specific scholarships In addition, $1 million is granted each year in Summer Scholarships (offered by individual faculties), which provide financial support to high-achieving students to work on research projects with leading academics over the summer months. Scholarships are generally awarded on academic merit. For example, as a highachieving student you could apply for a University of Auckland Masters/Honours/ Postgraduate Diploma Scholarship, which offers $10,000 per annum towards your living expenses, plus the cost of your compulsory fees. However, many scholarships also make provisions for additional criteria (such as ethnicity, gender or financial hardship). In addition to administering The University of Auckland’s scholarships, our Scholarships Office provides access to a comprehensive database of external scholarships to give you information about the widest range of funding providers.

Scholarships for international students The University of Auckland also offers a range of scholarships specifically to international students, and maintains a database of other scholarships for which international students can apply (see p15).

Doctoral scholarships and support funding Our University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarships are among the most generous of postgraduate scholarships - the scholarship pays your fees and also provides a stipend (living allowance) for three years of full-time doctoral study, which may be extended by a further six months on application. Under a New Zealand government scheme, new international PhD students who reside in New Zealand during their doctoral study will pay the same annual tuition fees as New Zealand students (2010 fees: NZ$5,100, US$3,774* per annum) If you’re a doctoral student undertaking supervised research, you’re automatically entitled to research support funding through a university PReSS account for up to four years. You can use the money for things like attending conferences, research-related travel and accommodation costs, photocopying, printing and internet access. Faculty funding may also be available on application; talk to your faculty or departmental adviser for more information. The Research Office provides up-to-date information about independent research grants and external funding organisations, both national and international, so you can stay well-informed about your funding options. For detailed scholarship information, including criteria, closing dates and application forms, visit www.auckland.ac.nz/scholarships *Exchange rate as at November 2009: NZ$1 = US$0.74

Student loans and allowances The student allowance is a weekly payment to help with a student’s living costs while in full-time study on an approved programme. It is available to New Zealand citizens and permanent residents who have held New Zealand residency for at least two years. To be eligible for a student loan you must be a New Zealand citizen or have been granted permanent resident status. You must be studying full-time, or part-time for a minimum of 32 weeks per year, at an approved tertiary institution. You may be eligible for tuition fees, courserelated costs (eg, books, stationery and travel)

and living costs (living costs are not available to part-time students). Applications for loans should be made at least two months before study begins. Full information about loans and allowances is available by contacting StudyLink on 0800 88 99 00 or visiting www.studylink.govt.nz

Employment during study Advanced postgraduate students are often employed as paid tutors, laboratory demonstrators or teaching assistants for undergraduate courses. Tutoring is a great way to gain valuable professional and teaching experience during your masters or PhD study. Other opportunities include part-time research assisting, administrative duties or library work. There may be limits on allowable work hours (particularly for scholarship or international students), so you need to check any conditions that may apply. International students enrolled in full-time study may apply to work up to 20 hours per week. If you are working outside of the University to finance your study, it’s important that you discuss your work commitments with your department’s postgraduate adviser or your supervisor to ensure you can balance your workload realistically.

Cost of living in Auckland Auckland is considerably more affordable than many other world cities. Auckland is ranked 138th place out of 143 global cities for cost of living** (with number one being the most expensive). As a guide, you will need to allow NZ $15,000 – $18,000 per year (about $350 – $450 per week) to cover your living costs, including accommodation, food and transport, but excluding your tuition fees and related study costs (see www.auckland.ac.nz/ international/living-costs). ** Mercer Cost of Living Survey 2009.

Estimated general living costs

$NZ

Rent – per week

120 - 200***

Groceries – per week

80 - 100

Gym membership – per year

225 - 305

Entertainment – per night

40

Lunches/takeaways – per week

50

***For one room in a rented accommodation, with other people sharing

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A top performer Master of Music student Christine Kim is appreciative of the University’s top quality learning opportunities, including teachers, lecturers and other students. “After completing both my Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Music (Honours) with first class honours at The University of Auckland, I didn’t hesitate to come back and do my masters here. Overall, I’m extremely grateful for everything The University of Auckland and the School of Music have given me, and I’m sure that no matter what I want to do in the future I’ll be able to achieve it.”

10 | The University of Auckland - 2010 Postgraduate Prospectus


Student services, support and places to go on campus

197

When you embark on the challenge of postgraduate study, it’s important to feel confident that you have the support you need to succeed. Our extensive range of student services ensures that help is readily available; we can assist you with everything from research skills to career planning. The School of Graduate Studies The School of Graduate Studies has overall responsibility for the development and oversight of policies and procedures for graduate programmes, for the promotion of graduate study and advocacy for graduate students. You can access the information and advice they offer by dropping in to the Graduate Centre in the East Wing of the ClockTower. The Doctoral Skills Programme is also coordinated by the School of Graduate Studies. This programme offers a variety of courses and individual consultations to assist doctoral students in gaining the study, organisational and self-management skills necessary to complete a major research project. Courses run throughout the year, so you can book for sessions that suit your timetable.

Postgraduate Careers Service Our Careers Centre in the ClockTower is custom-built, well-resourced and the largest of its kind in New Zealand. While you are doing postgraduate research at The University of Auckland (and for two years after you

complete), you can access our comprehensive range of postgraduate careers services free of charge. • Individual consultations with a specialist postgraduate careers consultant to discuss any aspect of your career development (future direction, job seeking, skill identification and CV writing, interview skills and practice). • Targeted doctoral workshops as part of the Doctoral Skills Programme, plus general careers workshops for all postgraduate research students. “I have always been very interested in identifying and researching new opportunities in the world of finance. I have also considered for some time the notion of combining my practical experience in the field with a desire for additional academic rigor, and hence was keen to complete a PhD. “I am interested in the information contained within stock analysts’ forecasts for the macroeconomy; there has been little research into the aggregate market implications of stock analysts’ forecasts. I hypothesise there is information in this data for certain aspects of the business cycle. “Since enrolling I have been amazed by the facilities available here (the IT services are better than any company I have worked for!) and the extraordinary friendliness of all staff and students. With a range of university, faculty and departmental postgraduate and PhD groups, clubs and committees, there is no end of opportunities to obtain assistance and support, and to develop contacts and friends.

• Information on careers fairs, employer events on campus, books and resources on academic careers, and access to the Alumni Careers Network database for careers research. • Online resources, from sample CVs to the Auckland CareerHub, a specialised employment website for graduates (see www.careerhub.auckland.ac.nz).

Postgraduate Students’ Association (PGSA) The Postgraduate Students’ Association (PGSA) is an incorporated society dedicated to strengthening the postgraduate community at the University. The vision of the Association’s volunteer board is to create and foster a sense of identity and community for all University postgraduate students and provide an effective voice that promotes the distinct and unique academic, professional and social interest of postgraduates within the University and the community. Membership is free and entitles you to discounts at Strata, the postgraduate commons, plus invitations to special postgraduate events. The PGSA also hosts Exposure, an annual research exposition – organized with the School of Graduate Studies. This gives postgraduate students an opportunity to showcase their work to an audience, gain public recognition, receive feedback and network with employers. Winners and runners up receive generous cash prizes.

Hamish Macalister is studying for a PhD in Finance and is the recipient of a University of Auckland Business School Scholarship. 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 11


198 Learning support

or questions about University life and also offer enrolment and course advice, information on scholarships and grants, and pastoral support.

The Library and Information Commons The University of Auckland Library is the largest university library in New Zealand and ranks alongside the top five university libraries in Australia.

Additionally, students can seek advice and support from the two Māori Student Officers from the Auckland University Students’ Association (AUSA) and the Student Officer from the Pacific Islands Students Association (AUPISA).

As a University of Auckland student, you have immediate access to more than 800 databases, 87,000 electronic journals, 340,000 electronic books, as well as print, multimedia and microtext collections totalling over 2.2 million items, including unique manuscript and archive collections. The Library system covers five campuses and includes the General Library, 12 subject-specific libraries and three Information Commons facilities. There are over 4,600 study spaces, with 1,100 computer workstations. Specialist subject librarians are available to assist with in-depth information enquiries, recommend the best resources for your research needs and advice on information retrieval and management. Library courses tailored to the needs of postgraduate and research students are held throughout the year. Visit www.library.auckland.ac.nz The Information Commons, a Library service, also provides multi-purpose computers as well as printers, photocopiers and scanners. Visit www.information-commons.auckland.ac.nz

Student Learning Centre The Student Learning Centre (SLC) runs regular postgraduate skills workshops, and you can also book an individual consultation with an academically qualified and experienced tutor to discuss your personal learning needs. Additionally, the SLC provides a great range of online resources for postgraduates, including information about: • research proposals • choosing a thesis topic • thesis expectations • thesis writing • choosing your supervisor • making supervision work • literature reviews • report writing • writing essays • examinations • self management (time management, motivation, dealing with stress and procrastination).

12 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

International student support

Study space In addition to the plentiful general study spaces, Strata (the postgraduate students’ commons) has a quiet study/meeting space reserved for postgraduate students. Many faculties also offer dedicated postgraduate workstations or research facilities - for example, the Arts Graduate Study Centre provides computers and study space specifically for postgraduate students in Arts. Check your faculty website for details, or request more information from the postgraduate adviser in your department.

Personal support

A range of support services, workshops and activities are available on campus. International students can have their say via the International Student Representative at the International Committee and the AUSA Overseas Student Officer (see pp14-15).

Students with disabilities The Disabilities Office provides support to students with a range of impairments , including specific learning impairments such as dyslexia, impairment due to medical conditions, diagnosed mental health conditions, physical/mobility impairments and sensory impairments, so they can succeed and excel within the University. Solutions can be tailored to your needs to help make studying at the University an accessible and positive experience for you.

Mäori and Pacific student support Waipapa Marae provides a home-base for Māori students on campus. The marae is used throughout the year for teaching, learning and other student activities such as kapa haka. It also provides a place where visitors can be formally welcomed to the University. Te Puni Wānanga is the Māori arm of the Student Learning Centre. It provides individual assistance for Māori students, and programmes to enhance students’ learning. For Pacific students, the Student Learning Centre has a Fale Pasifika programme that provides academic learning support within culturally-appropriate frameworks. The Fale Pasifika on Wynyard Street houses the Centre for Pacific Studies, and is a centre of excellence for Pacific research, teaching and learning, and provides a space for discussion and support. All faculties offer academic enhancement programmes (Tuākana) for Māori and Pacific students. Tuäkana staff provide academic mentoring and pastoral support to enable students to succeed. Māori and Pacific Equity Advisers in the Equity Office ensure Māori and Pacific students receive all the assistance they need to succeed at University. They can help with any problems

Childcare The University Early Childhood Centres offer assistance with juggling childcare and study. There are eight campus early childhood centres that offer places for children of students. There is a Te Kohanga Reo on the city campus and a bi-lingual centre at Epsom. Bookings are essential as there are waiting lists at all centres. For further information please phone +64 9 373 7599 ext 85894 or +64 9 923 5894. Parentspace (available at Tämaki and City Campuses) offers facilities for students with children under 16, such as study space, telephones, student/parent PCs and a place for you to relax. Bring your children with you when the need arises; toys and books are available for their entertainment. There is also a parents’ room in the General Library that allows you to research while your children play.

Healthcare General practice medical clinics are available at the City, Grafton, Tämaki and Epsom Campuses. The City Campus also has a dental clinic and a physiotherapist. Counselling services are offered at the City, Grafton and


199 Epsom Campuses, and the Grafton and Tämaki Campuses have optometry clinics. International students are required to have health and travel insurance (see p15). See www.auckland.ac.nz/ childcare

Recreation and entertainment Cafés and bars Strata, the postgraduate commons, has a pleasant café and bar and is situated in the Kate Edger Student Commons in the heart of the City Campus. Strata has a balcony and a large quiet study area for postgraduate students only. The PGSA hosts a number of postgraduate functions at Strata throughout the year. There are also around 15 other cafés on campus, along with a great range of ethnic food outlets, from Indian to Turkish.

Sport and recreation The City Campus Recreation Centre provides facilities for most indoor sporting and fitness activities, so you can enjoy group fitness, a gym workout, social team sports, yoga, indoor rock climbing and squash. Colin Maiden Park, a 16-hectare sports complex near the Tämaki Campus, provides space for outdoor games, along with social facilities. AUSA’s recreational clubs (130 in all) include badminton, canoeing, diving, cricket, martial arts, netball, rock and alpine, rugby, soccer, snowsports, tramping and yoga. AUSA/University teams regularly represent Auckland in a variety of sports at a number of national sports tournaments.

Music and culture

Campus, providing a great blend of New Zealand news, views, music and gig guides. Visit the Gus Fisher Gallery to see work by established New Zealand and international artists or try the George Fraser Gallery for a taste of the talent at Elam School of Fine Arts. The Maidment Theatre on the City Campus hosts a range of professional theatre productions, while The Musgrove Studio Theatre houses alternative theatre, including work by student clubs. Drama students present frequent productions in the Drama Studio. Details of music concerts, dance performances and art exhibitions produced by the National Institute of Creative Arts and Industries can be found at www.creative.auckland.ac.nz

On campus you can enjoy free musical events in the City Campus Quad and free lunchtime concerts at the School of Music. 95bFM broadcasts from the centre of the City

“Throughout my undergraduate degree in nursing I had an interest in research. After completing my undergraduate training I continued on to complete my honours in nursing. This gave me an introduction to developing, undertaking and analysing research. Completing my own research study confirmed that I wanted to pursue a research-related career. “My PhD study looks at reducing the future burden of chronic disease by investigating maternal diet during pregnancy. I examine the nutritional status of infants at birth through the measurement of a number of nutritional biomarkers in cord blood. The study uses a subsample of women participating in the current Growing Up in New Zealand study, a longitudinal and ethnically-diverse study that describes what it’s like to grow up in New Zealand in the twenty-first century. “There are many courses at the University of Auckland specifically designed for doctoral students. They are very useful the further I get on in my study, as they enable me to refresh skills I’ve already learnt as well as learn new skills that I need in the future.” Lara Baylis is a PhD student in nursing. She is a recipient of the Strategy to Advance Research scholarship. Her supervisors and advisers come from nursing, nutrition and Growing Up in New Zealand.

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 13


International students

200

The University of Auckland warmly welcomes students from all over the world. Studying with us offers you a wonderful opportunity to gain an internationally recognised qualification in a stimulating environment. Our diverse student population includes over 4,200 international students from more than 90 countries, so you'll be part of a genuinely global academic community. Why study in New Zealand?

Support for international students

• As a safe and politically stable country with a high standard of living, New Zealand is an ideal place to enjoy your postgraduate study.

As a postgraduate international student, you will have access to general support services The University of Auckland offers to its students. In addition, there are specialist support services to help you adjust to life in New Zealand and enjoy your studies at Auckland.

• New Zealand enjoys a global reputation for technical innovation supported by its world-class education system and reputation for research excellence. • Education in New Zealand is not just about imparting knowledge, but also about generating new ideas and fostering independent thinking. • Studying at The University of Auckland, New Zealand’s leading university, will equip you for the global marketplace with an internationally recognised qualification.

Benefits of studying for a PhD in New Zealand • Under a New Zealand Government scheme, new international PhD students who reside in New Zealand during their doctoral study will pay the same annual tuition fees as New Zealand students (NZ$5,100, US$3,774* per annum) • Dependent children will also be classified as domestic students in New Zealand primary and secondary schools. • Your spouse or partner will be able to apply for an open work permit valid for the duration of your course of study. • On completion of your PhD, you can apply for a one-year open work permit through Immigration New Zealand. • If you are able to find a suitable job in your chosen field, you can then apply for a two-year work permit. • During that two-year work permit period, you are then eligible to apply for permanent residency under the skilled migrant category, provided that you meet the points requirement set out by Immigration New Zealand (see www.immigration.govt.nz).

International Student Information Centre The International Student Information Centre is the first point of contact for all international students. We can help with enquiries about studying and living in Auckland, immigration, health, work and other general matters. International students can also renew their student visa online at the centre.

International Orientation Auckland International arranges an extensive orientation programme for new international students. The international orientation programme is designed to give you all the information you need about the University and living in Auckland. In addition it’s a great opportunity to make new friends through a number of social and cultural activities, including a quiz night, pub night, barbecue and ethnic food evening. When you arrive, you can sign up for a Uniguide - a current student who can answer your questions and help you find your way around campus during your first few weeks. For more information visit www.auckland.ac.nz/international_ orientation

Pastoral care for international students Our international student advisers can help if you need to talk to someone about any difficulties. They offer a free, confidential service to help you sort out issues related to your studies, accommodation, health, money, work, immigration or adjusting to life in New Zealand. For more information see www.auckland.ac.nz/internationalstudentadvisers *Exchange rate as at November 2009: NZ$1 = NZ$0.74

“I decided to pursue the postgraduate diploma in literacy to support the literacy and leadership roles I currently have in my school and in the professional learning communities within my school cluster. My study has been pivotal to the planning of my classroom literacy programmes and in the development of school-wide initiatives and professional development. “I chose The University of Auckland as I wanted to learn from lecturers who are recognised experts in literacy education. “The areas of expertise of other University students, who are represented in our face-to-face course contacts, have been inspiring; and corresponding discussions have facilitated professional sharing that is so important in our work.” Desiree McNie, pictured here with her supervisor, Libby Limbrick, is pursuing a postgraduate diploma in literacy and has a Pearson and Faculty of Education (Literary Specialisation) Scholarship.

14 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


201 iSPACE iSPACE is an area in the Kate Edger Information Commons for international students to meet other students, and attend activities. iSPACE is located on Level 4 of the Kate Edger building on the City Campus - see www.auckland.ac.nz/ispace

International scholarships The University of Auckland administers scholarships which are on offer to international students wishing to pursue postgraduate study.

International postgraduate scholarships The University of Auckland International Doctoral Scholarship New Zealand International Doctoral Research Scholarship The University of Auckland Fulbright Scholarship Asian Development Bank-Japan Scholarship New Zealand Aid and Development Agency (NZAID) scholarships For more information on these and additional scholarships available to international students, including selection criteria, application forms and closing dates, visit www.auckland.ac.nz/io

English language support If English is not your first language, you will be required to provide proof of your English language proficiency to be accepted for postgraduate study (see p39 for more information about English language requirements). The University provides plenty of support to help you further develop your academic English skills during your studies. DELNA (Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment) is a free service that determines the level of English language support you will need to succeed in your studies (www.delna.auckland.ac.nz). Free services to improve your academic English skills, including language learning materials and help with academic writing, listening skills and pronunciation, are provided by the English Language Self Access Centre (ELSAC) (www.elsac.auckland.ac.nz). Workshops and individual consultations to help you develop necessary academic communication skills are provided by the Student Learning Centre (www.slc.auckland.ac.nz). You can also sign up for the LEX Language Exchange programme and practise your English with a fellow student.

Part-time work while you study If you are enrolled in fulltime study you may apply to work up to 20 hours per week for the duration of your programme of study. For up-to-date information on application procedures for obtaining any variation of the conditions of your student visa, please refer to www.immigration.govt.nz/study

Careers assistance Our careers consultants are professionally qualified in guidance, so you’re in good hands if you need help to identify your career options, plan your career, find a job or consider further study. You can attend workshops designed especially to assist international students to prepare for entry into the New Zealand job market.

Before you arrive in New Zealand Immigration You will need to apply for a student study permit to cover the period you intend to study in New Zealand. You must show evidence that you have been accepted into a fulltime programme*, that you have paid your first year’s tuition fees and that you have sufficient funds to cover your living costs while in New Zealand. You will need to apply for your visa before entering New Zealand. Full details on rights to employment in New Zealand while studying, and the necessary reporting requirements, are available through Immigration New Zealand, and can be viewed on their website at www.immigration.govt.nz *For the purposes of your visa, fulltime study is defined as a minimum of 105 points per year or 60 points if your programme is for one semester only.

Health and travel insurance All international students are legally required to have appropriate health and travel insurance. The University of Auckland offers a scheme that meets these requirements. Enrolment will not be completed until you have provided proof of suitable cover. You will receive details with your letter of acceptance into the University. Refer to www.auckland.ac.nz/ heathandtravelinsurance For help with your application, assistance with visas and insurance, or for more information about life and study in New Zealand, contact:

Auckland International The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand Phone: +64 9 373 7513 Fax: +64 9 373 7405 Email: int-questions@auckland.ac.nz www.auckland.ac.nz/international

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 15


Auckland, New Zealand – a great place to live and study

202

Located in the heart of New Zealand’s largest city, The University of Auckland enjoys the pulse of an urban lifestyle alongside tranquil settings of parks and beaches. With a population of 1.4 million, Auckland has a bustling centre with activities galore, from international concerts and sporting events to cultural festivals and celebrations. Add to that great cafés and bars, an exciting nightlife, terrific shopping and colourful Polynesian and Asian cultural influences and it’s clear why Auckland has been ranked fourth out of 215 world cities for quality of living*. The lifestyle city Auckland is called the ‘City of Sails’ thanks to its location on the edge of the beautiful Waitemata Harbour. Relax on the beaches, take a ferry trip to the Gulf islands, or enjoy the wide range of marine sports on offer. Viaduct Harbour offers upmarket eateries and bars, and waterfront suburbs like Mission Bay and Devonport offer many bars and restaurants and entertainment events throughout the year. The city is a multi-cultural hub, with great ethnic restaurants and markets, and annual events such as the Pasifika Festival, the Lantern Festival and Diwali Festival of Lights. The Big Day Out

16 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

attracts dozens of international bands to entertain the crowds in summer. Many bands and international stars appear at entertainment venues throughout the year. There are half a dozen theatres within ten minutes walk of the City Campus, plus a dozen art galleries. Auckland has attractions unparalleled elsewhere in New Zealand. Top spots include the Auckland War Memorial Museum, Sky Tower and SKYCITY, Kelly Tarlton’s Underwater World, Snowplanet indoor ski centre, Rainbow’s End adventure theme park, Auckland Zoo and MOTAT (Museum of Transport and Technology). Eden Park showcases national and international rugby, and is also great for a day

at the cricket. North Harbour Stadium hosts rugby games as well as concerts and performances. The Waitakere ranges - one of New Zealand’s finest natural reserves - are only 30 minutes drive west from the city centre. The ranges and surrounding coast offer the opportunity for short walks or rugged coastal tramps, plus great surf and fishing. Parks, beaches and walkways abound - there are over 800 in the greater Auckland area for you to explore. Visit the wildlife sanctuary at Tiritiri Matangi, or enjoy the views from the peak of volcanic Rangitoto Island. Visit www.aucklandnz.com *Mercer Quality of Living Survey 2009.


203 Our campuses City Campus As a student at The University of Auckland, you could be studying at the main City Campus, only five minutes walk from Auckland’s bustling central business district (CBD). Here you’re well placed to take advantage of the shops and social scene, plus some fantastic work opportunities - the head offices of some of New Zealand’s largest companies are just a stone’s throw away. Covering 16 hectares of land, the campus provides a full range of amenities, including cafés, health services, libraries, childcare facilities and a recreation centre.

Grafton Campus Home to the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, the Grafton Campus is situated opposite Auckland Hospital and on the boundary of Auckland Domain. It houses the Schools of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences plus the Department of Optometry and Vision Science. Ground-breaking discoveries made by faculty researchers are facilitated by the resources provided at the Grafton Campus home to state-of-the-art (and often custombuilt) research facilities. A specialist medical library is complemented by an Information Commons with over 100 computers for student use. You’ll also find a Student Centre, licensed café and student health centre at the Grafton Campus.

Tämaki Campus Surrounded by green space and sports fields, the Tämaki Campus is 20 minutes’ drive from the City Campus. Tämaki is home to postgraduate courses in biosecurity, population health, psychology, speech language therapy and wine science, and the campus community maintains strong links with relevant industry partners. A complimentary university bus service between the Tämaki and City Campuses runs on a regular basis throughout the day, and there are also regular public bus and train services. Student parking is available on campus. The campus features cafés and a convenience store.

Epsom Campus The Epsom Campus is the main Faculty of Education campus, offering programmes in teacher education and social services at postgraduate level. Less than 10 minutes’ drive from the CBD and City Campus, the campus is a short walk from the cafés and shops of Mt Eden village. The Epsom Campus is close-knit and multicultural. There’s car parking on site and regular buses run to and from Mt Eden/ Epsom and the city. The Sylvia Ashton-Warner Library is one of the most extensive teacher education libraries in New Zealand, with impressive book and journal collections, complemented by the University’s vast number of electronic resources. There are plenty of study spaces and computer rooms, plus tennis courts, a swimming pool, sports centre and marae. Student services available at the Epsom Campus include learning support, support services for Mäori and Pacific students, a health centre, and early childhood education centres.

Leigh Marine Laboratory

Smoke free campuses

The Leigh Marine Laboratory is effectively a ‘marine campus’ of The University of Auckland. Situated on the northeast coast of New Zealand, about 100 km north of the city of Auckland, it has access to a wide range of unspoiled marine habitats. Approximately 30 postgraduate students are based at the laboratory, with 11 full-time and two part-time staff.

From 2010, all University campuses are smoke free environments.

on the free red City Circuit bus which circulates the CBD. The Link bus runs through the City Campus and is a cheap way of getting around the city and inner suburbs. MAXX provides information (including timetables and journey planners) about the multiple bus, train and ferry services in Auckland - for more information visit www.maxx.co.nz

Exploring New Zealand Auckland is also within driving distance of many famous New Zealand attractions, so you can maximise your weekends and holidays. Head south to see Rotorua’s bubbling thermal pools, the beautiful beaches of the Bay of Plenty, or ski the snowfields of Whakapapa and Turoa in the centre of the North Island. Drive northwards and you’ll soon be in the historic Bay of Islands where you can take part in adventure activities or enjoy a relaxing break in the sun. At the very top of the island, you can watch two mighty oceans meet - the Tasman Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Visit www.newzealand.com

Transport around the city A range of transport options are available including regular bus, ferry and train services into the city. Students receive 40% discounts on most Auckland transport fares. Central Auckland is compact to walk around, or jump

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 17


Finding accommodation

204

As a postgraduate student, you need a living environment that allows you to focus on your studies, while enjoying all the social and recreational opportunities that the University and city of Auckland have to offer. The University of Auckland residences offer postgraduate students both catered and self-catered accommodation options that include larger rooms in catered Halls of Residence, self-catered apartments, single bedsits and unfurnished family flats. Most of our residences are qualityassured by Qualmark and The New Zealand Association of Tertiary Education Accommodation Professionals recognition that your student accommodation is among the best in the country. Star grade definitions: ***** Exceptional **** Excellent *** Very good ** Good * Acceptable

Furnished self-catered accommodation Park Road Student Flats This residence is exclusively for postgraduate students. It offers 22 comfortable single bedsit rooms and six double rooms for couples, each with its own bathroom. The 34 residents share a communal kitchen and Sky TV lounge. The Park Road Student Flats are located close to the Grafton Campus and Grafton shops. It is an easy walk to the City Campus.

Parnell Student Village Adjacent to the beautiful Auckland Domain and in its own spacious grounds, Parnell Student Village houses postgraduate and more senior undergraduate students. The 91 residents live in furnished, four, five or six-bedroom flats. Parnell Student Village is on a bus route to the City Campus, an easy walk through the Domain from the Grafton Campus and a 15-20 minute walk to the City Campus.

Unfurnished self-catered apartments The Royal The Royal offers six one-bedroom or twobedroom unfurnished self-contained apartments to postgraduate students with young families. It is adjacent to the Grafton

18 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

Campus and to the University crèche, and about a 15-minute walk to the City Campus.

Halls of Residence The Halls of Residence are located within easy walking distance of the City Campus. With the exception of Huia Residence, all Halls are fully catered and offer three meals a day. The rooms are comfortably furnished and have broadband internet access. Hall facilities also include games, music and computer rooms, outdoor volleyball and tennis courts, TV lounges, laundries and libraries.

Huia Residence Huia Residence has 319 single rooms. Situated close to Grafton Campus and the Auckland Domain, it is a 10-15 minute walk from the City Campus. The Hall caters for students at all stages of their academic career. In addition to the self-catered facilities, you can also sign up for an optional meal plan for evening meals.


205 O’Rorke Hall Just five minutes’ walk from the City Campus, O’Rorke Hall houses 352 students in single rooms (in pods of six rooms) with shared bathroom facilities. The large rooms on the top two stories are reserved for senior and postgraduate students. Limited under-cover parking is available at a weekly rate.

Grafton Hall Set back from Grafton Road in its own gardens with a tennis court, Grafton Hall offers single and twin share rooms to 203 students at all stages of their academic careers. It is close to the Grafton and City Campuses.

International House Located off Symonds Street and only minutes from the City Campus, this Hall is home to 172 students ranging from recent school leavers to postgraduate students. Choose between single rooms, twin share standard rooms or twin share deluxe rooms with bathroom.

Private accommodation If the University’s fully-catered Halls or self-catered flats aren’t for you, we can recommend other options or private accommodation providers. Please note that we do not inspect or guarantee the quality or availability of private accommodation.

Flatting If you choose to go flatting, you will share a house or flat with other residents and are responsible for paying the rent, electricity, gas, insurance, water, garden maintenance and phone charges, according to the details in the tenancy agreement. You’ll also need basic furniture such as a bed and a desk.

Rentals We can refer you to a reputable estate agent for assistance with renting a home if you have a family.

How to apply for Universitymanaged accommodation You can apply online from 1 August 2010 at www.auckland.ac.nz/accommodation

Your accommodation fees cover utilities such as water and electricity and all your meals in a fully- catered Hall (meals at Huia Residence are additional). Internet access in the Halls is included but you need to make your own arrangements at The Royal and Parnell Student Village. Free membership to the University Recreation Centre is also available for all residents except for The Royal.

Fax: +64 9 373 7552 Email: accom@auckland.ac.nz www.auckland.ac.nz/accommodation

Your residential contract covers the academic year but you can also stay in residence over the summer vacation period. Comprehensive details of all properties, facilities, contract periods and fees are on our website. Accommodation Services Phone: +64 9 373 7599 ext 87691 or 0800 UNIHOST

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 19


206

360° Auckland Abroad Add the world to your programme

Immerse yourself in another culture, attend lectures on the other side of the world, have an adventure of a lifetime! The 360° Auckland Abroad student exchange programme gives you the opportunity to complete part of your University of Auckland postgraduate programme overseas. With over 80 partner universities in 23 countries, there are 360° of exciting possibilities. Where will you go? Note: Postgraduate study may be done on exchange for one semester of a one year degree for coursework only. You must discuss feasibility and timing with your faculty.

Australia

Germany

Spain

Australian National University** University of Melbourne* ** University of New South Wales* University of Queensland* University of Sydney**

Philips University of Marburg University of Freiburg University of Heidelberg*** University of Kaiserslautern University of Konstanz

Oviedo University University of Granada University of Salamanca***

Brazil

Iceland

Universidade de São Paulo

University of Iceland

Canada

India

McGill University* McMaster University*** Queen’s University*** Simon Fraser University University of British Columbia* ** University of Calgary University of Toronto

Delhi University* *** Jamia Hamdard

Chile

Japan

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Universidad de Chile**

Hiroshima University*** Hitotsubashi University Hokkaido University Keio University Kyoto University** Sophia University Tohoku University** University of Tokyo** Waseda University* **

China Chinese University of Hong Kong Fudan University* ** Hong Kong University of Science and Technology** Nankai University Shanghai Jiao Tong University* *** Tsinghua University** University of Hong Kong* ** University of Nottingham at Ningbo*

Denmark Aalborg University** University of Copenhagen

France ESC Toulouse Sciences Po (Paris) Université de Bretagne-Sud Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1) Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3) Université de la Rochelle Université Paris-Sorbonne

Ireland University College Dublin*

Italy University of Bologna

Korea Korea University* ** Seoul National University** Yonsei University

Lund University* Stockholm University

The Netherlands Groningen University University of Utrecht

United Kingdom Kingston University, London University of Birmingham* University of East Anglia University of Edinburgh* University of Exeter University of Glasgow* University of Manchester University of Nottingham*

United States of America Oregon State University Pennsylvania State University State University of New York at Stony Brook University of Arizona University of Hawaii at Manoa University of Texas at Arlington University of Virginia* University of Washington**

*Universitas 21 (U21) partner institution.

Mexico

**Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) partner institution.

El Colegio de México – Colmex Tecnológico de Monterrey* **

***Exchange agreement is subject to final approval.

New Caledonia Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

Norway University of Oslo

Singapore Nanyang Technological University National University of Singapore * **

20 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

Sweden

This list was correct at the time of printing.

Keen to find out more? For more information visit www.auckland.ac.nz/360 Come to one of our exchange seminars held every Thursday at 2pm in: iSPACE, Level 4, Student Commons Building 2 Alfred Street


207

Postgraduate programmes

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 21


208

Protecting our environment through specialised research Master of Laws student Vernon Tava explores the connection between environmental protection and ecological governance provisions in the Venezuelan, Ecuadorian and Bolivian constitutions. He uses a comparative approach in his research to examine the constitutionsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; incorporation of indigenous wisdom and treatment of non-human nature, and to explore how their environmental protection vision translates into practice. He hopes to apply his ďŹ ndings to environmental governance in New Zealand. Vernon is currently working as a Research Fellow at the New Zealand Centre for Environmental Law, a specialist centre of the Faculty of Law. 22 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


209

About our programmes

Your postgraduate study builds on the foundation laid during your undergraduate degree. You can choose to deepen your awareness of your general subject area, or focus on one particular area of your field to develop specialist knowledge and skills. You can make an active contribution to the world’s knowledge by undertaking an independent research project, such as a research paper or thesis. Our wide range of programmes means you have plenty of study options - from single-year postgraduate diplomas to research-based degrees.

Bachelors (honours) degrees Honours degrees are designed to attract the best undergraduate students commencing graduate-level studies. An honours degree is usually worth a total of 120 points, completed in one year full-time or two years part-time. In some disciplines a bachelors (honours) programme or a postgraduate diploma is required as the first year of enrolment for a two year programme leading to the award of a masters degree. Alternatively, if you perform well with a dissertation in your programme you may be given the opportunity to fast-track through to a doctoral degree programme.

Postgraduate diplomas A postgraduate diploma (PGDip) is a coherent programme of courses that builds on the knowledge gained in your major subject at undergraduate level. The PGDip is normally completed by coursework only, but may sometimes include a research project. In some disciplines a postgraduate diploma or a bachelors (honours) is required as the first year of enrolment for a two year programme leading to the award of a masters degree.

Masters degrees A masters degree allows you to build on your previous postgraduate study by increasing your knowledge in a specific subject area. Most masters programmes comprise 120 points following the completion of an honours degree or a postgraduate diploma, though in some cases you can enrol directly into a 240-point masters programme after completing a bachelors degree. Masters are usually offered as research or taught options, but not all masters programmes offer both options. • A research masters provides the opportunity to develop advanced research skills and to present findings in documented scholarly form (such as a thesis). Your research should make an independent contribution to learning or offer a critical perspective on existing scholarship or methodology. • A taught masters will provide you with advanced specialist training in your chosen field, and is completed by undertaking taught courses, often in combination with a dissertation or research project.

Doctoral degrees The doctorate is an advanced degree, providing you with an appropriate qualification if you want to pursue an academic or research career. The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree is offered in all faculties; named doctorates are also offered in some faculties. Named doctorates are all doctorate degrees that are not Doctor of Philosophy or Higher Degrees. At The University of Auckland, our named doctorates include the Doctor of Education (EdD), Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsych), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA), Doctor of Fine Arts (DFA), Doctor of Music (DMus) and Doctor of Pharmacy (DPharm). “My research deals with timber structures and timber connections. My aim is to compare timber standards in other countries with New Zealand Radiata Pine characteristics to establish or improve New Zealand standards in this field. “I came to study at The University of Auckland to work under the supervision of Professor Quenneville, the Chair in Timber Design, who is well-known for his work on timber connections. “What I like most about my programme is the autonomy and the freedom I have to lead my research project. I also appreciate the professionalism expected from me - I do not have the feeling I am a student but rather a researcher. Anna Dupleix is studying for a Master of Engineering in timber structures through the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. She has an AUEA Braithwaite-Thompson Graduate Award.

The doctorate is directed by an appointed supervisor and usually takes three to four years of full-time study to complete. Almost invariably, you are required to prepare a substantial thesis that represents original research into an approved topic and contributes significantly to knowledge and understanding or application of knowledge. Your thesis is then assessed by two examiners external to the University, appointed by the University’s Senate. In most cases this is followed by an oral examination of your thesis and your knowledge in the area, before the degree is awarded.

Study Abroad Programme If you are an international student who is studying at a recognised overseas institution, you can apply for our Study Abroad Programme. Complete one or two semesters of study with us, while earning credits towards your overseas qualification (www.auckland.ac.nz/studyabroad).

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 23


210 Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

Start in Semester One

Two

Bachelor of Arts (Honours) (BA(Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Graduate Diploma in Arts (GradDipArts)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Postgraduate Diploma in Arts (PGDipArts)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Faculty of Arts

Postgraduate Diploma in Language Teaching (PGDipLT)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Social Science Research Methods (PGDipSocScResMeth)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Translation Studies (PGDipTranslationStud)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Advanced Interpreting (PGCertAdvInterp)

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Arts (MA)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Master of Creative Writing (MCW)

120

1 year

No

Yes

No

Master of Literature (MLitt)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Public Policy (MPP)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MTESOL)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Faculty of Arts Master of Professional Studies (MProfStuds) – International Relations and Human Rights / Language Teaching / Translation

Yes

School of Theology - degrees and diplomas Bachelor of Theology (Honours) (BTheol(Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Theology (PGDipTheol)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Theology (MTheol)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

“I’d always been fascinated with the past, and as I pursued Anthropology throughout my undergraduate degree, I started to understand the extensive range of variables people had to contend with to cope in specific environments and conditions. “I am currently working with my supervisor, looking at grindstones thought to date to the early Holocene, and stone artefact assemblages from site E29H1 - a surface stone artefact assemblage located along the northern shores of Lake Qarun, the Fayum Depression, Egypt. “The two best aspects of my programme are the field work and the actual conceptual work which provides the basis for research. Field work is often a great way to really come to terms with some of the conditions people may have contended with. Where we work in Egypt, we’re surrounded by vast expanses of desert which extend into the horizon. That said, it’s not at all how it’s portrayed in Indiana Jones.” Shezani Nasoordeen (right), pictured here with her supervisor Simon Holdaway, is studying for a Master of Arts in Anthropology.

24 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


211

Phone2

Postgraduate adviser

Email

Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Additional information

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Jacqueline Greenwood

ext 87073

j.greenwood@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Prof Peter Davis

ext 85109

pb.davis@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

..

ext 87109

f.austermuehl@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

..

ext 87109

f.austermuehl@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Assoc Prof Frank Austermuhl Assoc Prof Frank Austermuhl Specialist advisers for each subject Assoc Prof Lisa Samuels

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz ext 87092 l.samuels@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822 Admission requirements include a portfolio of writing. Early application closing date

$5,548 - $6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Associate Professor Michael Mintrom ext 87947

m.mintrom@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,822

Dr Tan Bee Tin

mtesol@auckland.ac.nz

ext 87078

Web-based distance programme

$5,548 - $6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dr Nicholas Thompson

ext 81980

nj.thompson@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,177

Dr Nicholas Thompson

ext 81980

nj.thompson@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,177

Dr Nicholas Thompson

ext 81980

nj.thompson@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $6,177

Dr Nicholas Thompson

ext 81980

nj.thompson@auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 25


212

Start in Semester Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

One

Two

120

Yes

Yes

Yes3 Yes

Business School Bachelor of Commerce (Honours) (BCom (Hons))

1 year

Bachelor of Property (Honours) (BProp (Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Business (PGDipBus)4

120

Not offered full-time

Part-time only

Taught in quarters5

Postgraduate Diploma in Commerce (PGDipCom)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in International Business (PGDipIntBus)

120

9 months

No

Start in quarter 35

Yes3

Postgraduate Diploma in Property (PGDipProp)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Business (PGCertBus)

60

Not offered full-time

2 years part-time

Taught in semesters and quarters5

Yes

Master of Business Administration (MBA)6

240

Not offered full-time

Part-time only

Taught in quarters5

Master of Commerce (MCom)

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

Master of International Business (MIntBus)

240

18 months

No

Start in quarter 35

Master of Management (MMgt)

120

1 year

Yes

Taught in semesters and quarters5

Master of Property (MProp)

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes3

Master of Taxation Studies (MTaxS)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Postgraduate Diploma in Bioscience Enterprise (PGDipBioEnt)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes (parttime only)

Postgraduate Diploma in Operations Research (PGDipOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes No

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Business School

Master of Bioscience Enterprise (MBioEnt)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Master of Engineering Management (MEMgt)6

120

1 year

Yes

Taught in semesters and quarters5

Master of Health Management (MHealthMgt)6

120

1 year

Yes

Taught in semesters and quarters5

Master of Operations Research (MOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Professional Studies (MProfStuds)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Graduate School of Enterprise Quarters 2011 Quarter One - 2011 Monday 10 January - Friday 18 March

Quarter Two - 2011 Monday 4 April - Friday 10 June

Quarter Three - 2011 Monday 27 June - Friday 2 September

Quarter Four - 2011 Monday 19 September - Friday 25 November

26 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


213 Postgraduate adviser

Phone2

Specialist advisers for each subject Myriam Benito

Email

Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Additional information

Refer to www.business.auckland.ac.nz

$6,324 - $6,867 $6,324 - $6,867

ext 86290 m.benito@auckland.ac.nz 0800 227 337

Specialist advisers for each subject

gse@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate School of Enterprise programme (www.gse.auckland.ac. nz). Applicants should have appropriate work experience

Refer to www.business.auckland.ac.nz

$6,550

$6,324 - $6,867

Susan Sum

ext 86565 s.sum@auckland.ac.nz

Myriam Benito

ext 86290 m.benito@auckland.ac.nz

$6,324 - $6,867

Usha Jacobs

ext 86558 u.jacobs @auckland.ac.nz

$6,550

0800 227 337

Specialist advisers for each subject

$13,100 (Part I)

gse@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate School of Enterprise programme (www.gse.auckland.ac. nz). Applicants should have appropriate management experience

$13,100 (Year One) $23,700 plus overseas trip (Year Two)

Refer to www.business.auckland.ac.nz

Entry to second year is possible from BCom(Hons) or PGDipCom

$6,324 - $6,867

Susan Sum

ext 86565 s.sum@auckland.ac.nz

Usha Jacobs

ext 86558 u.jacobs@auckland.ac.nz Refer www.gse.auckland.ac.nz

GSE programme. Start in any semester/quarter subject to prerequisites and availability

$23,700 (Part II)

$13,100 (Part II)

Myriam Benito

ext 86290 m.benito@auckland.ac.nz

Entry to second year is possible from BProp(Hons) or PGDipProp

$6,324 - $6,867

Janet Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Souza

ext 85077

j.dsouza@auckland.ac.nz

John Montgomery

ext 88716

john.montgomery@auckland.ac.nz

Prof Joerg Kistler

ext 88250 j.kistler@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dr Fernando Beltran

ext 87850

$7,098

f.beltran@auckland.ac.nz

$13,100 Direct entry from coursework masters $5,100 (eg, MBA) is not normally permitted unless a bridging programme is undertaken

Prof Joerg Kistler

ext 88250 j.kistler@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Usha Jacobs

ext 86558 u.jacobs@auckland.ac.nz

$ 7,597 - $13,100

Usha Jacobs

ext 86558 u.jacobs@auckland.ac.nz

$3420 - $90407

Anson Li

ext 83730

a.li@auckland.ac.nz

$7,098

Refer to www.arts.auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 27


214 Start in Semester Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

One

Two

National Institute of Creative Arts and Industries Architecture Postgraduate Diploma in Architecture (PGDipArch)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Architecture (MArch)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Architecture (MArch) – Sustainable Design

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Architecture (Professional) (MArch(Prof))

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

No

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Postgraduate Diploma in Creative and Performing Arts (PGDipCPA) – Dance Studies

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Creative and Performing Arts (MCPA) – Dance Studies

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Bachelor of Fine Arts (Honours) (BFA(Hons))8

480

1 year (Part IV only)

Yes

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Fine Arts (PGDipFA)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Fine Arts (MFA)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Doctor of Fine Arts (DocFA)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Bachelor of Music (Honours) (BMus(Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Graduate Diploma in Music (GradDipMus)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Creative and Performing Arts (PGDipCPA) – Sound Recording and Design

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Music (PGDipMus)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Master of Creative and Performing Arts (MCPA) – Sound Recording and Design

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Music (MMus)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes3

Doctor of Music (DMus)

360

3 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA)

360

3 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Master of Planning (MPlan)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Planning Practice (MPlanPrac)

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

No

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Dance Studies

Fine Arts

Music

Planning

Urban Design Master of Urban Design (MUrbDes)

28 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

No


215

Postgraduate adviser

Phone2

Email

Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Additional information

S1 = Semester 1 and S2 = Semester 2 Dr Julia Gatley

ext 84656 or 88134

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

$5,648 - $6,259

Dr Julia Gatley

ext 84656 or 88134

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

$5,648 - $6,259

Dr Julia Gatley

ext 84656 or 88134

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

$5,648 - $6,259

Dr Julia Gatley

ext 84656 or 88134

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

Dr Julia Gatley

ext 84656 or 88134

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI required $5,100 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Alys Longley  

ext 88705

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,826

Alys Longley  

ext 88705

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,277 - $6,826

Alys Longley  

ext 88705

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI required $5,100 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Assoc Prof Derrick Cherrie

ext 88000

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,019 - $6,084

Assoc Prof Derrick Cherrie

ext 88000

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,084

Assoc Prof Derrick Cherrie

ext 88000

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI and Supplementary Application required $6,084 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Dr Ruth Watson

ext 88000

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI and Supplementary Application required $4,630 - $5,229 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Dr Ruth Watson

ext 88000

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI required $5,100 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,277 - $6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$6,277 - $6,826

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI required $4,630 - $5,229 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI and Supplementary Application required $4,630 - $5,229 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Dr Dean Sutcliffe (S1) Assoc Prof John Elmsly (S2)

ext 87409

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI and Supplementary Application required $5,100 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Marjorie van Roon (S1) Dr Michael Gunder (S2)

ext 88134 or 88596

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

$5,648 - $6,259

Dr Kai Gu (S1) Dr Asif Khan (S2)

ext 88134 or 88596

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822 - $7,597

Marjorie van Roon (S1) Dr Michael Gunder (S2)

ext 88134 or 88596

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

EOI required $5,100 www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/apply-doctorate

Prof Errol Haarhoff

ext 88134 or 88596

info-creative@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary Application required www.creative.auckland.ac.nz/pg-supp-app

$5,648 - $6,259

$6,822 - $7,597

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 29


216 Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

Start in Semester One

Two

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Graduate Diploma in Education (GradDipEd) – Disability Support

120

Not offered full-time

Yes (part-time only)

Yes

No

Graduate Diploma in Education (GradDipEd) – Special Needs Resource Teaching6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Graduate Diploma in Special Education (GradDipSpecEd)6 – Early Intervention / Hearing Impairment / Vision Impairment

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Graduate Diploma in TESSOL (GradDipTESSOL)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Professional Supervision (PGCertProfSup)6

60

Not offered full-time

Yes (part- time only)

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Counselling Theory (PGDipCousTh)9

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDipEd) – Generic / Special Needs Resource Teaching / Literacy Education / Early Career Teaching

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Educational Leadership (PGDipEdLd)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Faculty of Education Bachelor of Education (Teaching) (Honours) (BEd(Tchg)(Hons)) Graduate Diploma in Education (GradDipEd) – General / Reading Recovery

Postgraduate Diploma in Professional Supervision (PGDipProfSup)

6

6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Social Work (PGDipSW)9

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Counselling (MCouns)

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Education (MEd)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Educational Leadership (MEdLd)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Social Work (MSW)9

240

2 years

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Education (EdD)

360

4 years

Yes

Yes

No

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCertAcadPrac)6

60

Not applicable

Yes (part-time only)

Yes

Yes

Master of Professional Studies (MProfStuds) - Education

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas - Faculty of Education

Education options also exist within the programmes for BA(Hons) and MA. See Faculty of Arts. Social Work options also exist within the programmes for PGDipHSc and MHSc. See Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences.

Faculty of Engineering Graduate Diploma in Engineering (GradDipEng)

120

1 year

Yes

Graduate Diploma in Engineering (Transportation) (GradDipEng (Transp))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Engineering (PGCertEng) - Plastics

60

Not offered full-time

Yes (part-time only)

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Geothermal Energy Technology (PGCertGeothermTech)

60

1 semester

No

Start dates vary check with adviser

Postgraduate Certificate in Light Metals Reduction Technology (PGCertLMRTech)

60

1 semester

No

Start dates vary check with adviser

Master of Engineering (ME)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Engineering Studies (MEngSt)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Beginning of any month

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Faculty of Engineering Postgraduate Diploma in Operations Research (PGDipOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Operations Research (MOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Energy9 6

Master of Engineering Management (MEMgt)

30 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


217 Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Postgraduate adviser

Phone2

Leigh Beever

ext 48882 l.beever@auckland.ac.nz

Ksenia Kiykova

ext 48810

Paolo Macalincag

ext 48627 p.macalincag@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate diplomas are not covered in $5,658 this prospectus. Contact the faculty

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate diplomas are not covered in $5,658 this prospectus. Contact the faculty

Paolo Macalincag

ext 48627 p.macalincag@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate diplomas are not covered in $5,548 - $5,658 this prospectus. Contact the faculty

Maren Luehrs

ext 48793 m.luehrs@auckland.ac.nz

Graduate diplomas are not covered in $5,548 - $5,658 this prospectus. Contact the faculty

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $5,658

Delia Mattias

ext 48640 d.mattias@ auckland.ac.nz

TBC

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $5,658

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

**

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $5,658

Delia Mattias

ext 48640 d.mattias@ auckland.ac.n

TBC

Delia Mattiasr

ext 48640 d.mattias@ auckland.ac.n

TBC

Leigh Beever

ext 48882 l.beever@auckland.ac.nz

$5,548 - $5,658

Prasuna Kumar

ext 48307 p.kumar@auckland.ac.nz

**

Delia Mattias

ext 48640 d.mattias@ auckland.ac.n

TBC

Email

k.kiykova@auckland.ac.nz

Additional information

$5,548 - $5,658 Graduate diplomas are not covered in $5,658 this prospectus. Contact the faculty

Leigh Beever

ext 48882 l.beever@auckland.ac.nz

$5,326 - $5,441

Leigh Beever

ext 48882 l.beever@auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

Helen Sword

ext 86686 h.sword@auckland.ac.nz

**

Leigh Beever

ext 48882 l.beever@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Departmental graduate advisers

Refer to www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz

$7,597

Assoc Prof Roger Dunn

ext 87714

Neil Edmonds

ext 88321 nr.edmonds@auckland.ac.nz

rcm.dunn@auckland.ac.nz

Prof Michael Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Sullivan

ext 88393 m.osullivan@auckland.ac.nz

Geothermal Institute programme

$7,597

Assoc Prof Margaret Hyland

ext 87865

Extramural and site-based programme

$28,920

m.hyland@auckland.ac.nz

$7,597 $7,597

Departmental graduate advisers

Refer to www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz

$7,098 - $7,597

Departmental graduate advisers or programme convenors for specialisations

Refer to www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz

$7,597

Departmental graduate advisers and individual supervisors

Refer to www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

Dr Piaras Kelly

ext 87225

pa.kelly@auckland.ac.nz

$7,098

Dr Piaras Kelly

ext 87225

pa.kelly@auckland.ac.nz

$7,098

Prof Michael Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Sullivan

ext 88393 m.osullivan@auckland.ac.nz

Dr Rainer Seidel

ext 87578

rha.seidel@auckland.ac.nz

$7,597 - $13,100

2010 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 31


218

Start in Semester Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

One

Two Yes

Faculty of Law Postgraduate Certificate in Law (PGCertLaw)

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Master of Laws (LLM)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Legal Studies (MLS)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Bachelor of Health Sciences (Honours) (BHSc (Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Bachelor of Medical Science (Honours) (BMedSc (Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Bachelor of Nursing (Honours) (BNurs (Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Diploma in Paediatrics (DipPaed)

120

1 year

No

Yes

No

Postgraduate Certificate in Clinical Education (PGCertClinEd)6

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Health Sciences (PGCertHSc)

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Mäori Health (PGCertMH)

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Science (PGCertMedSc)6

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Certificate in Pharmacy Practice (PGCertPharmPrac)6

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Faculty of Law Master of Professional Studies (MProfStuds) - International Relations and Human Rights

Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences

Postgraduate Certificate in Public Health (PGCertPH)

60

1 semester

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Education (PGDipClinEd)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Community Emergency Medicine (PGDipComEmMed)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Health Psychology (PGDipHealthPsych)6

120

1 year

No

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Health Sciences (PGDipHSc)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Mäori Health (PGDipMH)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Medical Science (PGDipMedSc)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Obstetrics and Medical Gynaecology (PGDipObstMedGyn)6

120

1 year

No

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Pharmacy Practice (PGDipPharmPrac)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Public Health (PGDipPH)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Sports Medicine (PGDipSportMed)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Audiology (MAud)

240

2 years

No

Yes

No

Master of Clinical Education (MClinEd)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Health Sciences (MHSc)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Mäori Health (MMH)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Medical Science (MMedSc)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Nursing (MNurs)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Pharmacy Practice (MPharmPrac)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Public Health (MPH)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Doctor of Medicine (MD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences Master of Health Management (MHealthMgt)6

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Science in Health Psychology (MSc)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

32 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


219

Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Postgraduate adviser

Phone2

Email

Jeanna Tannion

ext 82123

postgradlaw@auckland.ac.nz

$6,324 - $7,435

Jeanna Tannion

ext 82123

postgradlaw@auckland.ac.nz

$6,324 - $7,435

Jeanna Tannion

ext 82123

postgradlaw@auckland.ac.nz

$6,324 - $7,435

Jeanna Tannion

ext 82123

postgradlaw@auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

See Faculty of Arts

$6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Additional information

Dr David Newcombe

ext 86557 d.newcombe@auckland.ac.nz

$6,277 - $6,822

Associate Professor Andrew Shelling

ext 83504 a.shelling@auckland.ac.nz

$6,277 - $6,822

Lee-Anne Govender

ext 83059 la.govender@auckland.ac.nz

Shaelynn Schaumkel

ext 89190

s.schaumkel@auckland.ac.nz

Dulcie-Jane Brake

ext 87159

dj.brake@auckland.ac.nz

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

Kashmira Irani

ext 86549 k.irani@auckland.ac.nz

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,822

Dr Simon Young

ext 88774

pharmacy_postgrad@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Pharmacy Council of New Zealand

$6,822

$6,282 Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$4,104 $6,822 $6,822 $6,822

Bindu Singh

ext 86725

b.singh@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dulcie-Jane Brake

ext 87159

dj.brake@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dale-Cormack Pearson

ext 84409 dc.pearson@auckland.ac.nz

Dr Malcom Johnson

ext 83092 mh.johnson@auckland.ac.nz

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

Kashmira Irani

ext 86549 k.irani@auckland.ac.nz

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,822

Janine Joubert

ext 89717

j.joubert@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,822

Dr Simon Young

ext 88774

pharmacy_postgrad@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Pharmacy Council of New Zealand

$6,822

Bindu Singh

ext 86725

b.singh@auckland.ac.nz

Upendra Wickramarachchi

ext 83058 u.wicks@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,822 $6,822

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822 $6,822

$6,822 Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,822

Heather Seal

ext 85536 audiology@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dulcie-Jane Brake

ext 87159

dj.brake@auckland.ac.nz

$6,227 - $6,822

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

Kashmira Irani

ext 86549 k.irani@auckland.ac.nz

Zara Cupina

ext 82760

Lee-Anne Govender

Must be registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand

$6,227 - $6,822

ext 83059 la.govender@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Nursing Council of New Zealand

$6,227 - $6,822

Dr Simon Young

ext 88774

pharmacy_postgrad@auckland.ac.nz

Must be registered with the Pharmacy Council of New Zealand

$6,227 - $6,822

Bindu Singh

ext 86725

b.singh@auckland.ac.nz

$6,227 - $6,822

Professor Ross McCormick

ext 86748

r.mccormick@auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

Refer to www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz

$5,100

Specialist advisers for each subject

pghealth@auckland.ac.nz

$6,227 - $6,822 $6,227 - $6,822

Sarah Turbott Dr. Peter Carswell

ext 86548 s.turbott@auckland.ac.nz ext 89954 p.carswell@auckland.ac.nz

$6,882 - $13,100

Dr Elizabeth Broadbent

ext 86756

$5,887 - $6,822

j.broadbent@auckland.ac.nz

2010 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 33


220 Points Duration required (full-time study)

Part-time study option1

Start in Semester One

Two

Bachelor of Science (Honours) (BSc(Hons))

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate Diploma in Applied Psychology (PGDipAppPsych)

120

1 year

No

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Psychology (PGDipClinPsych)6

240-360

2-3 years

No

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Forensic Science (PGDipForensic)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Postgraduate Diploma in Science (PGDipSci)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Science (MSc)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Speech Language Therapy Practice (MSLTPrac)

240

2 years

No

Yes

No

Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy)6

360

3 years

No

Yes

No

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Thesis

3-4 years

Yes

Begin at any time

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Postgraduate (and graduate) programmes by faculty

Faculty of Science

Interfaculty degrees and diplomas – Faculty of Science Postgraduate Diploma in Bioscience Enterprise (PGDipBioEnt)

Yes (parttime only)

Postgraduate Diploma in Operations Research (PGDipOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

Master of Bioscience Enterprise (MBioEnt)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

No

Master of Operations Research (MOR)

120

1 year

Yes

Yes

Yes

School of Theology See Faculty of Arts (pp24-25)

1. Part-time study options are generally not available to international students on student visas/permits. International students must be enrolled fulltime to meet the requirements of their student visa/permit. 2. Phone +64 9 373 7599 and the extension number. For Faculty of Education enquiries, phone +64 9 623 8899 and the extension number. 3. Semester Two start may not be available for all subjects/majors. 4. The Postgraduate Diploma in Business is designed for working professionals seeking an in-depth knowledge of their chosen field and function, or for those who want to prepare for a new career direction or start their own business. Six specialisations are available. For more details visit www.gse.auckland.ac.nz 5. Dates for 2011 are: Quarter 1: 10 January - 18 March, Quarter 2: 4 April - 10 June, Quarter 3: 27 June - 2 September, Quarter 4: 19 September - 25 November. 6. Programme is not usually available to international students. 7. Exact cost depends on student’s individual course of study. 8. Available to qualifying students who have completed Parts I, II and III for the Bachelor of Fine Arts. It is not available to students who have already graduated with a BFA. 9. Availability in 2011 subject to Committee on University Academic Programmes approval. Please refer to the faculty website for approval status. *Tuition fees are based on the annual tuition fees for 2010 and fulltime study of 120 points. Students taking fewer than 120 points will pay proportionately lower fees. In all cases fees per point will be charged at the rate set for that subject irrespective of the qualification the course is taken for. Tuition fees are indicative only and the fees for 2011 will be set at the end of 2010 - see www.auckland.ac.nz/fees for updated information. International students should refer to page 41. **Tuition fees will be charged at the respective rate for the subject. TBC = To be confirmed. Note: All students will also pay a building levy and student services fees. As an indication, these fees are $74.40 (building levy) and $468 (student services fees) for students undertaking a full-time load of 120 points in 2010. Students taking fewer than 120 points pay proportionately lower fees.

34 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


221

Postgraduate adviser

Phone2

Specialist advisers for each subject

Estimated annual tuition fees for domestic students NZ$*

Email

Additional information

Refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application may be required by some departments (refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz)

$5,887 - $6,822

Academic Manager/Postgraduate Coordinator

ext 88554 Refer to www.psych.auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application required (refer to www.psych.auckland.ac.nz)

$6,822

Sheryl Robertson or Dr Claire Cartwright

ext 86852 s.robertson@auckland.ac.nz ext 86269 c.cartwright@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application required (refer to www.psych.auckland.ac.nz)

$6,227 - $6,822

Dr Gordon Miskelly

ext 88338 g.miskelly@auckland.ac.nz ext 85860 douglas.elliot@esr.cri.nz

Supplementary application required (refer to www.che.auckland.ac.nz)

$6,227 - $6,822

Dr Douglas Elliot Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application may be required by some departments (refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz)

$5,887 - $6,822

Specialist advisers for each subject

Refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application may be required by some departments (refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz)

$5,887 - $6,822

l.hand@auckland.ac.nz

Supplementary application required (refer to www.psych.auckland.ac.nz)

$6,277 - $6,882

Dr Linda Hand

ext 88735

Sheryl Robertson or Dr Claire Cartwright

ext 86852 s.robertson@auckland.ac.nz ext 86269 c.cartwright@auckland.ac.nz

Specialist advisers for each subject Prof Joerg Kistler

Refer to www.science.auckland.ac.nz ext 88250 j.kistler@auckland.ac.nz

$4,630 - $5,229 $5,100 $6,822

Dr Piaras Kelly

ext 87225

pa.kelly@auckland.ac.nz

$7,098

Prof Joerg Kistler

ext 88250 j.kistler@auckland.ac.nz

$6,822

Dr Piaras Kelly

ext 87225

$7,098

pa.kelly@auckland.ac.nz

“I absolutely enjoy my PhD studies as they give me the unique opportunity to explore the fascinating question: How do bacteria cause disease in humans? This is made even better by working together with a supervisor of world-renown and great co-supervisors. “My research involves studying Streptococcus pyogenes, a bacterium sometimes known as “the flesh-eating bug” that causes common diseases such as strep-throat and some rather nasty conditions. It relies on certain proteins, called virulence factors, to make us ill. I study what these proteins look like on the atomic level and what their working mechanisms are. “The University of Auckland has a good reputation for life sciences, and rightly so. Moreover, working with my supervisor (who is actually pretty famous in his field) allowed me to pursue research that I find particularly interesting.” Christian Linke is studying for a PhD in Biological Sciences and is the recipient of an NZ International Doctoral Research Scholarship (NZIDRS), The University of Auckland Plus – NZIDRS and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Scholarship.

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 35


Deciding what to study

222

We can provide you with a number of printed and online information sources to help you with your decision-making. Once you have an idea of what you'd like to study, make sure you speak to the relevant postgraduate adviser. They will be able to help you decide which programme is most appropriate for you, and may be able to recommend courses or research areas that align with your interests and goals (see pp24-35 for the adviser's contact details for each programme). Additional sources of information • Postgraduate faculty prospectuses provide detailed information about the programmes and services on offer in your faculty. To download or request a prospectus visit www.auckland.ac.nz/ futurepostgraduates. Complete our online future postgraduate enquiry form on the “Help and advice” page and we can send you prospectuses, keep you up-to-date on the latest news and provide personal guidance on your next steps. Alternatively, call 0800 61 62 63 or +64 9 308 2386. • The future postgraduates’ website provides helpful information on how to apply, fees and money matters, life at Auckland and postgraduate events. Visit www.auckland.ac.nz/futurepostgraduates • Faculty websites provide detailed faculty and programme information, as well as faculty prospectuses and handbooks to download (see pp24-35 for website details for each programme). • School of Graduate Studies staff will be happy to help you with general enquiries about postgraduate study and guide you through the application and enrolment process. Call +64 9 373 7599 ext 86899 or drop in to their offices in the ClockTower East Wing. • Auckland International staff will advise international students on options for postgraduate study and eligibility for admission. For more information and contact details visit www.auckland.ac.nz/international

Frequently asked questions What is the difference between a graduate diploma and a postgraduate diploma? A graduate diploma is a coherent programme of courses that allows you to broaden your knowledge in a particular subject area following the completion of an undergraduate degree. These courses may be at undergraduate level, so you can extend your learning in an area other than the original major, or specialisation of your undergraduate studies. By contrast, a postgraduate diploma generally consists of courses that build on the subject(s) you studied at undergraduate level. Postgraduate diplomas are also a pathway into a masters programme and beyond.

How do I find a supervisor for my research project? Staff research interests are usually listed on departmental websites, so you can see who is working in your field. Your department’s postgraduate adviser may also be able to recommend suitable supervisors for you to approach to discuss your project. The Graduate Centre can also provide resources and advice to help you choose your supervisor(s) and negotiate a successful working relationship with them. If you are interested in PhD study, have clarified your research interest, meet the eligibility requirements and have not identified a prospective supervisor, please develop and submit an online Expression of Interest (EOI) and we will assist you with this process (see p40 for information). What if I’ve already completed parts of a qualification elsewhere? You are required to provide information about any academic study you have previously undertaken. Generally we will need to assess any previously completed study as part of your application. Once again, you should talk to the postgraduate adviser in your department. You can also use the New Zealand Qualifications Authority’s online qualification comparison tool to compare qualifications that are 40 credits or above (see www.kiwiquals.govt.nz). Please note that any prior study at another tertiary institution cannot be used as transfer credit for any of The University of Auckland’s postgraduate level programmes. How is the University year structured? The academic year is divided into two semesters. Each semester is 15 weeks long, with 12 teaching weeks, and three weeks for study break and examinations (see p38 for 2010 academic dates). If you are studying at the Graduate School of Enterprise, or completing a Master of International Business Degree, courses will be taught in quarters rather than the standard semesters. If undertaking a sustained research project (such as a PhD thesis), your study schedule may differ from the standard academic year; this will depend on the plan negotiated between you and your supervisor(s).

What should I do if I want to do postgraduate study in a different subject to the one I studied in my undergraduate degree? Talk to the postgraduate adviser in the department you would like to study in. They will be able to recommend possible pathways and will tailor their advice to your individual circumstances. How do I find out about the courses I need to take for my taught postgraduate programme? At postgraduate level, you should always discuss your course choices with your department’s postgraduate adviser prior to enrolling. There may be limitations on courses, or required courses for your programme. In some cases, departmental approval must be given in order for you to enrol, or the department may be responsible for enrolling you directly. Once you’ve been offered a place in a programme, and have accepted the offer, you’ll be provided with more information about how your enrolment will proceed.

“The wealth and breadth of resources available to you through the University is in my experience second-to-none. “I like the fact that this programme gives you freedom in terms of how you intend to go about your research. Unlike my undergraduate courses and papers, objectives, methodologies and structures were given by the lecturer, whereas in this programme you hold the reins.” Sotame Lilo (left), pictured here with his adviser, Nicholas Thompson, is studying for a Master of Theology in Christian Thought and History.

36 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


223

Making your application

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 37


224

Dates to remember Application closing dates

Postgraduate Information Week

It is recommended that you apply by the application closing dates listed below; late applications may be accepted if places are available.

17-21 May 2010 Explore your options for postgraduate study at The University of Auckland during Postgraduate Information Week. Visit your faculty of interest for information sessions and the opportunity to discuss your research or study interests with postgraduate advisers and current students.

If you wish to apply to begin your study in Semester Two 2010, you should check with your faculty to see if there are specific closing dates for the programme you wish to study. Generally, applications for Semester Two entry should be submitted before 4 July 2010, if places are available. Doctoral applications may be submitted at any time of the year (excluding DClinPsy and EdD).

Courses and Careers Day Saturday 28 August 2010 Visit the postgraduate students’ stand for more information about our programmes and to talk to us about your study plans. You can also take part in campus tours and enjoy the food, entertainment and displays.

Closing date for applications for admission in 2011

Academic year 2011*

Semester One admission

Summer School 2011

Master of Creative Writing Doctor of Clinical Psychology

1 October 2010

Lectures begin

Thursday 6 January

Auckland Anniversary Day**

Monday 31 January

Master of Engineering Management

30 October 2010

Waitangi Day

Sunday 6 February

Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Psychology

1 November 2010

Lectures end

Friday 11 February

Examinations

Monday 14 February - Wednesday 16 February

Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Psychology

Summer School ends

Wednesday 16 February

Postgraduate Diploma in Counselling Theory***

Semester One 2011

Postgraduate Diploma in Forensic Science

Semester One begins

Monday 28 February

Postgraduate Diploma in Science in Psychology

Mid-semester/Easter break

Monday 11 April - Tuesday 26 April

Master of Arts in Psychology

ANZAC Day**

Monday 25 April

Master of Audiology

Graduation

Thursday 28 April, Monday 2 May - Friday 6 May

Lectures end

Saturday 4 June

Master of Science in Psychology

Study break/exams

Saturday 4 June - Monday 27 June

Master of Science in Speech Language Therapy Practice

Queen’s Birthday**

Monday 6 June

Semester One ends

Monday 27 June

Inter-semester break

Tuesday 28 June - Saturday 16 July

Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Psychology Postgraduate Diploma in Arts in Psychology

Master of Counselling*** Master of Science in Forensic Science

Postgraduate Diploma in Science in Health Psychology

1 December 2010

Semester Two 2011

Master of Science in Health Psychology

Semester Two begins

Monday 18 July

Postgraduate programmes not otherwise specified 8 December 2010

Mid-semester break

Monday 29 August - Saturday 10 September

Graduation

Tuesday 20 September and Thursday 22 September

Lectures end

Saturday 22 October

Study break/exams

Saturday 22 October - Monday 14 November

Labour Day**

Monday 24 October

Semester Two ends

Monday 14 November

Semester Two admission Bachelor of Music (Honours)*

1 May 2011

Postgraduate Diploma in Music* Master of Business Administration** Master of Music* Postgraduate programmes not otherwise specified*

4 July 2011

International student applications *Subject to places being available. Check with your faculty to see if there are specific closing dates for the programme you wish to study. **Quarter 3 intake. ***Availability in 2011 subject to Committee on University Academic Programmes’ approval. Please refer to the faculty website for approval status.

Postgraduate orientation Orientation for postgraduate students is held at the start of each semester. General Orientation 13-24 February 2011 International Orientation 22-25 February 2011 and 13-17 July 2011 38 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

Semester One 2012 Semester One begins

Monday 27 February 2012

*Start/finish dates vary for some programmes. **Public holiday; University is closed

Postgraduate information sessions We will hold postgraduate information sessions throughout the year where you can find out about the University’s coursework and research programmes, scholarships, professional development and careers, admission and application procedures. For more information visit www.auckland.ac.nz/futurepostgraduates


Admission to postgraduate programmes

225

Admission to postgraduate programmes depends primarily on your previous academic qualifications. In almost all cases, an undergraduate degree with good academic grades in the relevant subject is required for admission to postgraduate study. Some programmes may take into account your previous work experience. The following is a general guideline for entry into different programme types. You will need to check The University of Auckland Calendar for specific information about the regulations relating to your particular programme.

Entry into a bachelors honours degree For a bachelors (honours) degree, you need to complete an appropriate undergraduate degree with an average grade of “B” or higher in the Stage III prerequisite courses at a recognised institution. Some faculties require a higher GPA.

Entry into a postgraduate diploma Entry criteria for a postgraduate diploma will vary according to the subject or faculty in which you intend to complete this qualification. As a general rule, you will have completed a relevant undergraduate degree at a recognised institution with passes in the specified prerequisite courses in your selected subject.

Entry into a masters degree Acceptance into a masters programme is normally at the discretion of the Dean of the faculty. As a general rule however, you will need to have completed a relevant degree such as a bachelors or a bachelors (honours) degree or a postgraduate diploma at a recognised institution and to have obtained a better than average grade point average.

Entry into a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) or doctoral programme Acceptance into a PhD is based on academic merit, but you must also demonstrate an ability to carry out research independently, and possess a high level of critical research skill and theoretical understanding. In general, acceptance is based on a relevant bachelors (honours) degree with first class or second class (division 1) honours, or a masters degree with first class or second class (division 1) honours, or its equivalent at a recognised institution. Direct entry from coursework masters (eg, MBA) is not normally permitted unless a bridging programme is undertaken. Acceptance is also subject to the availability of staff for supervision, and appropriate facilities.

Additional requirements

“I decided to pursue postgraduate studies for the opportunity to gain new skills and a world-class qualification. Having worked on the New Zealand government’s flagship Kiwi saver implementation programme, I understand the importance of interpreting legislation correctly and the influence of the law in everyday management decision making. “I chose to study at The University of Auckland because it is New Zealand’s top university and is known for its helpful staff and administrators. Having previously studied for my Masters at the University’s Faculty of Engineering helped cement the decision. “My qualification will open up new opportunities within my present organisation and also help me communicate better with non-engineering audiences.” Yadeed Lobo is studying for a Master of Legal Studies.

Many programmes in creative fields (such as writing, fine arts, architecture, urban design, music or performing arts) will also require evidence of your creative ability as part of your application (eg, a portfolio or audition). This is called a supplementary application. Check the faculty’s postgraduate prospectus or talk to the postgraduate adviser in the faculty for specific information about what is required.

English language requirements If English is not your first language, you will need to supply evidence of your English language proficiency in addition to your academic credentials. Minimum proficiency requirements at postgraduate level: • IELTS (academic) 6.5 with no band less than 6.0 or • TOEFL (paper-based) 575 (TWE 4.5) or • TOEFL (computer-based) 233 (TWE 4.5) or • TOEFL (internet-based) 90 (written 21) Some faculties and departments require a higher level of English language proficiency. Please check with Auckland International and visit www.auckland.ac.nz/international/englishrequirements

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 39


226

How to apply Applying for a non-doctoral programme If you are new to The University of Auckland If you have not been enrolled at The University of Auckland in previous years, you need to talk to the postgraduate adviser in the relevant department, the relevant faculty students’ centre or contact the Graduate Centre. If you are an international student, you must contact staff at Auckland International. • Some departments/faculties will require you to complete a supplementary application and/or a departmental programme worksheet or form indicating your intended programme of study. Research programmes (such as a masters degree by thesis) may require you to contact an appropriate supervisor for your project. • Apply for admission using the online application form (www.auckland. ac.nz/applynow). This application will be acknowledged by letter, which will also provide a login and password to allow you to check the progress of your application online. The letter will also list the certified documents the University requires to verify your personal details and entrance qualifications. • Once your application for admission has been assessed, the faculty or Auckland International will inform you of their decision. You should contact the relevant postgraduate adviser regarding this process.

• Read the faculty websites for your area of research interest, potential supervisors and any specific requirements. • Complete and submit an online Expression of Interest (EOI) at www. postgrad.auckland.ac.nz/eoi. Before you begin, be sure to have at hand, in electronic format: • Relevant academic transcripts • Statement of Research Intent • CV and/or resume. You will receive an acknowledgement via email; your EOI will then be considered by the appropriate academic staff. • If your EOI is approved, you will be invited to apply for admission to The University of Auckland using the online application form at www.auckland.ac.nz/applynow

Applying for a Graduate School of Enterprise programme For details on how to apply for a Graduate School of Enterprise  programme, and for more information, visit www.gse.auckland.ac.nz

If you are returning to The University of Auckland • Students who are enrolled at The University of Auckland in the semester prior to beginning their postgraduate programme should contact the relevant postgraduate adviser and make their application by making an Add/Change Programme request online. A supplementary application may also be required. • Returning students who have not been enrolled at The University of Auckland in the semester prior to their postgraduate application will need to complete the online application for admission form (www.auckland.ac.nz/applynow). A supplementary application may also be required. • Once your application for admission has been assessed, the faculty will inform you of its decision. Research programmes (such as a masters degree by thesis) may require you to contact an appropriate supervisor for your project. You should contact the relevant postgraduate adviser or relevant faculty students’ centre regarding this process.

Applying for a PhD or named doctoral degree • Decide upon, and clarify as much as possible, your area of research interest or potential research topic. • Read the PhD Statute and Guidelines and ensure you meet the academic eligibility requirements for entry into the PhD programme.   If you are applying for a named doctorate, read the relevant regulations in the University Calendar. You must meet the research requirements and the English language requirements for the programme.

“After completing my Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree in Exercise Physiology, I soon realised that in order to further my career as an exercise scientist I would need a qualification that really stood out on the øinternational stage. The challenge of a PhD appealed to me, and my BSc (Hons) allowed me to enter the programme with relative ease. “In addition to doing my PhD, I am also a coach for the New Zealand Senior and Junior Olympic Weightlifting Team. The physical demands imposed upon Olympic weightlifters push the pre-conceived boundaries regarding the human body’s tolerance to repeated physical stress. For my PhD research I intend to provide further insight into the unique physiological adaptations that occur in response to this form of training and competition.' Adam Storey is studying for a PhD is Exercise Physiology.

40 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus


227

Admission for international students How to apply In addition to the general information on pp35-36, international students requiring assistance with the application process or advice about your eligibility for entry to postgraduate programmes should contact Auckland International. We recommend you start the application process as early as possible so you have sufficient time to apply for your visa. The University has a number of official agents and representatives overseas who can assist you with the application process in person. A list of their contact details is available at www.auckland.ac.nz/overseasrep You can apply online at www.auckland.ac.nz/applynow

Fees information 2011 The table on this page outlines the tuition fees paid by international students in 2010. Fees for 2011 will be set at the end of 2010. Fees are generally adjusted annually to reflect increases in the University’s cost base.

Postgraduate programmes (per subject area)

Estimated annual tuition fee NZ$*

Architecture

$28,920

Arts

$24,600

Arts (science and performance-based courses)

$28,920

Business and Economics

$24,600

Education

$24,600

Engineering

$28,920

Fine Arts

$28,920

Interfaculty programmes

**

Law

$24,600

Medical and Health Sciences

$31,680

Music

$24,600

Performing Arts

$28,920

The University of Auckland charges fees on the basis of your course enrolment rather than by programme. The fees for courses vary from faculty to faculty, and sometimes within a faculty.

Planning

$24,600

In addition to your tuition fees, if you are undertaking a full-time study load in 2011 you will pay approximately $74.40 in building levies and $468 for student services. Part-time students pay a proportion of the building levies and student services fees. As well as your fees, expect to pay about $1,200 per year for books and stationery. Some faculties also have fees for field trips or site visits.

Science

$28,920

Theology (course based)

$21,000

Urban Design

$28,920

Doctoral programmes

Estimated annual tuition fee NZ$*

Doctor of Clinical Psychology - DClinPsy

$28,760

Doctor of Education - EdD

$23,530

Doctor of Fine Arts - DocFA

$28,760

Doctor of Medicine - MD

$28,760

Doctor of Music - DMus

$28,760

Doctor of Musical Arts - DMA

$28,760

Doctor of Philosophy - PhD***

$5,100

*The fees listed in this schedule are per point, include the course and materials fee and are based on enrolment in a standard full-time course load of 120 points per year. Fees will be adjusted on a pro-rata basis where the enrolment is in more or less than a standard full-time load. Some one year programmes offered by the Faculty of Education require the completion of more than 120 points. **Fees for interfaculty programmes, or programmes combining undergraduate and postgraduates courses, or courses selected from more than one listed programme, are calculated by deriving a fee for each course from the programme fees listed in the schedule above. ***New international PhD students will be accorded domestic status for the purposes of tuition fees, subject to residency requirements. A new international PhD student is defined as a foreign student enrolled for the first time after 19 April 2005 in a Doctor of Philosophy programme at a New Zealand university.

For help with your application, assistance with visas and insurance, contact: Auckland International The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 Auckland 1142, New Zealand Phone: +64 9 373 7513 Fax: +64 9 373 7405 Email: int-questions@auckland.ac.nz www.auckland.ac.nz/international

2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 41


228

Glossary Please note that the descriptions below are not intended to be legal definitions. The regulations in The University of Auckland Calendar should also be referred to when interpreting these terms.

Postgraduate: A term used to describe a student who has successfully completed a degree and is studying for a higher qualification. It also describes the courses and qualifications available to these students.

Ad Eundem Statum: A means of admission to the University on the basis of a qualification awarded by a body other than the New Zealand Qualifications Authority or The University of Auckland.

Postgraduate programme: A programme at a higher level than a bachelors degree.

Admission: The process by which a student applies, and is approved, for entry to the University and to a University qualification.

Prerequisite course: A requirement that must be met before commencement of study for a particular course or programme. Prescribed texts: Textbooks which are considered essential to a course.

Alumni: Graduates who have attended the University. Bachelors degree: A first degree. Certificate: A qualification awarded after academic study of a coherent programme of between 60 and 120 points.

Programme: A prescribed set of one or more courses or other work which on satisfactory completion leads to the award of a University of Auckland certificate, diploma or degree. Project: A piece of investigative written work on a topic approved by the relevant Head of Department and supervisor.

Course: The basic component of all academic programmes. A course is normally taught and assessed over one semester. A double-semester course is taught over the consecutive semesters of the same academic year.

Quarter: A 10-week period of instruction for Graduate School of Enterprise students, studying on a part-time basis.

Cross credit: A course which is common to two University of Auckland undergraduate diplomas or bachelors degrees and is credited to both.

Reassigned course: A course satisfactorily completed for one programme which has been transferred to another programme.

Current enrolment: Courses or other work taken by a student in a particular academic year or semester.

Regulation: A rule set down by the University.

Degree: Principal qualification awarded by The University of Auckland, ie, bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees. Diploma: A University qualification generally awarded at graduate or postgraduate level. Direct entry: Entry into a higher level of a subject or later part of a degree without the prerequisites. Dissertation: A written research component of a degree or diploma worth between 30 and 80 points. Doctoral degree: A qualification at an advanced level requiring an original contribution to knowledge. Enrolment: The process by which a student, having gained admission to the University and to a qualification, selects and gains entry to courses and classes. Examination: Formal assessment occurring after the teaching in a course has been completed. Faculty: The generic term used to differentiate each broad area of study and the staff who teach in, research and manage that area. Graduate: A person on whom a degree has been conferred. Honours: Degrees, in some cases completed within prescribed time limits, may be awarded with honours which signify advanced or distinguished study. Masters degree: A degree programme at a higher level than a bachelors degree. Normal full-time study: A student workload that normally consists of 120 points in one year. Point(s): A value assigned to a course or other work to indicate its weighting within The University of Auckland’s certificates, diplomas and degrees.

42 | The University of Auckland - 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus

Research essay: A research-based essay on a topic approved by the relevant Head of Department and supervisor. Research portfolio: A coherent, integrated programme of researchbased work. Research project: A piece of research-based work on a topic approved by the relevant Head of Department, usually worth between 30 and 80 points. Restriction (restricted course): A course in which the learning objectives, content and/or assessment are so similar to a second course that a student cannot be credited with both towards a certificate, diploma or degree. In some cases a restricted course may be taken and credited as Certificate of Proficiency. Refer to the University Calendar for more information. Schedule: University lists of courses, credits or limitations, often in tabular form. Semester: A period of about 15 weeks which includes about 12 teaching weeks and about three weeks for study and examinations. In addition there is a mid-semester break of up to two weeks. Stage: The academic level of study in a subject. Subject: An area of learning which may be provided by a school or a department, or by departments offering related courses. Thesis: A research component of a postgraduate programme having a value of 90 or more points which will have a written component but may also include design, creative or performative elements. Transfer credit: Credit granted towards a University of Auckland qualification from work successfully completed at another tertiary institution. Tutorial: A small group learning session. Undergraduate: A person studying towards a first degree.


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Information for international students The Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students: The University of Auckland has agreed to observe and be bound by the Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students published by the Ministry of Education. Copies of the Code are available on request from this institution or from the New Zealand Ministry of Education website at www.minedu.govt.nz/goto/international

Useful web addresses The University of Auckland homepage www.auckland.ac.nz

The University of Auckland Calendar www.auckland.ac.nz/calendar

Immigration: To complete enrolment international students must have a current student visa or permit. Full details of visa and permit requirements, advice on rights to employment in New Zealand while studying, and reporting requirements are available through the New Zealand Immigration Service, and can be viewed on their website at www.immigration.govt.nz

Academic dates

Eligibility for health services

Information for international students

Most international students are not entitled to publicly funded health services while in New Zealand. If you receive medical treatment during your visit, you may be liable for the full costs of that treatment. Full details on entitlements to publicly funded health services are available through the Ministry of Health and can be viewed on their website at www.moh.govt.nz

www.auckland.ac.nz/international

www.auckland.ac.nz/dates

Information for postgraduate students www.auckland.ac.nz/futurepostgraduates

Finances, scholarships and fees www.auckland.ac.nz/scholarships www.auckland.ac.nz/fees www.auckland.ac.nz/studentloansandallowances

Medical and travel insurance All international students are legally required to have appropriate medical and travel insurance. The University of Auckland offers a scheme that meets these requirements. Enrolment will not be completed until you have provided proof of suitable coverage. You will receive details with your letter of acceptance into the University. For more information, visit www.auckland.ac.nz/ healthandtravelinsurance

University Career Services www.auckland.ac.nz/careers

Postgraduate Students’ Association www.pgsa.org.nz

Doctoral Skills Programme

Costs

www.auckland.ac.nz/doctoralskills

All costs are shown in New Zealand dollars and are expressed inclusive of New Zealand Goods and Services Tax if applicable. Where costs may vary then the lowest, or basic cost, is shown and students must make allowance accordingly if they wish to have more than a basic level of service.

School of Graduate Studies www.postgrad.auckland.ac.nz

Library www.library.auckland.ac.nz/overview

Privacy The University of Auckland undertakes to collect, store, use and disclose your information in accordance with the provisions of the Privacy Act 1993. Further details of how the University handles your information are set out in a brochure available from the ClockTower Call Centre or by phoning 0800 61 62 63.

Student Learning Centre www.auckland.ac.nz/slc

Centre for Academic Development www.auckland.ac.nz/cad

Disclaimer

Māori and Pacific student support

Although every reasonable effort is made to ensure accuracy, the information in this document is provided as a general guide for students and is subject to alteration. All students enrolling at The University of Auckland must consult its official document, the current Calendar of The University of Auckland, to ensure that they are aware of and comply with all regulations, requirements and policies.

www.auckland.ac.nz/maoristudents

Disability Services www.auckland.ac.nz/disabilityservices

Childcare www.auckland.ac.nz/childcare

Health Services www.auckland.ac.nz/healthservices

Apply for postgraduate study www.auckland.ac.nz/applynow

Apply for a PhD (EOI) www.auckland.ac.nz/eoi

Current postgraduate students www.postgrad.auckland.ac.nz

Printed on 100% recycled, elemental chlorine free paper and using soy-based inks. 2011 Postgraduate Prospectus - The University of Auckland | 43


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NEW ZEALAND CITIZENS OR PERMANENT RESIDENTS Contact: Student Information Centre

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS Contact: Auckland International The University of Auckland

The ClockTower, Ground Floor

Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142

22 Princes Street, Auckland 1010

New Zealand

Phone: 0800 61 62 63

Phone: +64 9 373 7513

Txt: 5533

Fax: +64 9 373 7405

Fax: 0800 61 62 64

Email: int-questions@auckland.ac.nz

Email: postgradinfo@auckland.ac.nz

Web: www.auckland.ac.nz/international

Web: www.auckland.ac.nz/ futurepostgraduates

www.auckland.ac.nz


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