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Homework 1 FARES M FATANI (A105F2) .

PROF : FAROQ MOFTY ENG : AHMAD FALATA


French architect who was among the first to use metal construction successfully (1801-1875)

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Henri Labrouste is one of the few nineteenth-century architects who have been lionized consistently as precursors of modern architecture throughout the twentieth century and into our own time. The two magisterial glass-and-iron reading rooms Labrouste built in Paris from the 1840s through the 1860s gave form to the idea of the modern library as a great collective civic space, and his influence was immediate and long lasting on both the development of the modern library and the exploration of few paradigms of space, materials, and luminosity in places of public assembly.

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Labrouste’s architecture pushed the capabilities of materials and building technologies. The sublime reading rooms of the two Parisian libraries, the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (1838–50) and the Bibliothèque nationale (1859–75)​ evoke a drama created by exposed metal frameworks, thin masonry walls, and stunning luminosity.


The Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (1838


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UnitĂŠ d'Habitation Paris. Housing Unit) is the name of a modernist residential housing design principle developed by Le Corbusier, with the collaboration of painter-architect Nadir Afonso. 1947


Abraham Lincoln (1920) is a colossal seated figure of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (1809– 1865) sculpted by Daniel Chester French (1850–1931) and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. It is situated in the Lincoln Memorial (constructed 1914–22), on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., USA, and was unveiled in 1922. Stylistically, the work follows in the Beaux Arts and American Renaissance traditions.


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‫اىَعَبسي ىٌ٘س مبُ ىٌ٘س مبُ ٕ٘ اىَعَبسي ٗاألسزبر األٍشٌنً اىزي اخز ٍنبّخ ثبسصح فً اىقشُ اىعششٌِ‬ ‫ثزصٍََبرٔ اىفزح اىزً مبُ ٌسزخذً ثٖب اىخشسبّخ ٗاىط٘ة ‪ٗ .‬ىذ فً عبً ‪ ً1901‬فً جضٌشح سبسٌْب ثٌ اّزقيذ‬ ‫عبئيزٔ اىى اى٘الٌبد اىَزحذح االٍشٌنٍخ ‪,‬فً عبً ‪ ً1924‬حصو عيى دسجخ اىطشاص اىَعَبسي ٍِ جبٍعخ‬ ‫ثْسٍيفبٍّب ‪ ,‬قضى أّٗه ‪ 20‬سْخ ٍِ ٍَبسسزٔ غبىجًب ثبالشزشاك ٍع ٍْٖذسٍِ ٍعَبسٌٍِّ آخشٌِ‪ ,‬أثْبء‬ ‫اىعششٌٍّْبد ٗ اىثّالثٍٍّْبد عَو مشسّبً رخطٍطًّ ٗ‪ ,‬فٍَب ثعذ‪ ,‬مَصٌَّ سئٍس ىعذّح ششمبد ٍ٘ج٘دح فً‬ ‫فٍالدىفٍب ثٌ عٍِ مأسزبر فِّ اىَعَبس فً جبٍعخ ٌبه ‪ٗ ,‬ربثش فً اعَبىٔ ثبىَعَبسٌٍِ فشاّل ىٌ٘ذ ساٌذ ٍٍٗس‬ ‫فبّذٌشٗٓ ٗىٍنبسث٘صٌٔ‪ٗ ,‬مبُ ٌعزجش ٍِ إٌٔ اىَعَبسٌٍِ فً اٗاخش اىقشُ اىعششٌِ ٗقذ ريقى اىٍَذاىٍخ اىزٕجٍخ‬ ‫ألٌب فً عبً ‪ٗ ً1971‬اىٍَذاىٍخ اىزٕجٍخ ىشٌجب فً عبً‪ٗ ً1972‬قذ أّزخت عض٘ا ىألمبدٌٍَخ األٍشٌنٍخ ىيفُْ٘‬ ‫ٗاىخطبثبد عبً ‪ٗ .ً1971‬ر٘فً فً عبً ‪ ً1974‬عِ عَش ٌْبٕض ‪ 73‬عبً ثعذ سج٘عٔ اىى اى٘الٌبد اىَزحذح‬ ‫ٍِ سحيخ اىى أحَذ آثبد ثبىْٖذ ىضٌبسرٔ ىَجْى قذ صََٔ ْٕبك ‪ .‬أشٖش اعَبىٔ‪Exeter Library at :‬‬ ‫‪Exeter, New Hampshire Kimbell Museum, at Fort Worth, Texas national‬‬ ‫‪Assembly in Dacca, at Dacca, Bangladesh Richards Medical Center, at‬‬ ‫‪Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Yale Center for British Art, at New Haven,‬‬ ‫‪Connecticut‬فيسفزٔ اىَعَبسٌخ‪ :‬اسزغاله عْصشي االضبءح ٗاىٖذٗء فً ر٘فٍش ثٍئخ ٍشٌحخ ىالّسبُ فً‬ ‫ٍشبسٌعٔ اىزً رزنُ٘ ٍ٘اد ثْبئٖب ٍِ اىط٘ة ٗاىخشسبّخ ٗاىشخبً فً ثْبئً اىٍٖنو اىضخٌ ‪ .‬حٍث مبُ ٍِ‬ ‫اىَزأثشٌِ ثفيسفزٔ َّٗط رصٍََٔ اىَعَبسي اىنجٍش ٍبسٌ٘ ث٘رب‬


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The Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, hosts a small but excellent art collection as well as traveling art exhibitions, educational programs and an extensive research library. Its initial artwork came from the private collection of Kay and Velma Kimbell, who also provided funds for a new building to house it. The building was designed by renowned architect Louis I. Kahn and is widely recognized as one of the most significant works of architecture of recent times. It is especially noted for the wash of silvery natural light across its vaulted gallery ceilings.


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Skylights Reflectors spread sunlight across the gallery ceilings. Kahn showed that the curved ceiling shells are supported only at their corners by allowing a thin strip of outside light to enter along the tops of the long gallery walls and a thicker arc of light to enter at the end of each gallery. David Brownlee and David DeLong, authors of Louis I. Kahn: In The Realm of Architecture, declare that "in Fort Worth, Kahn created a skylight system without peer in the history of architecture."[13]:132 Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, says the entry gallery is "one of the most beautiful spaces ever built," with its "astonishing, ethereal, silvercolored light."[5]:355 Carter Wiseman, author of Louis I. Kahn: Beyond Time and Style, said that "the light in the Kimbell gallery assumed an almost ethereal quality, and has been the distinguishing factor in its fame ever since."[4]:222 Creating a natural lighting system that has evoked such acclaim was challenging, and Kahn's office and the lighting designer Richard Kelly investigated over 100 approaches in their search for the proper skylight system. The goal was to illuminate the galleries with indirect natural light while excluding all direct sunlight, which would damage the artwork.[12]:184 Richard Kelly, lighting consultant, determined that a reflecting screen made of perforated anodized aluminum with a specific curve could be used to distribute natural light evenly across the cycloid curve of the ceiling. He hired a computer expert to determine the exact shape of the reflector's curve, making it one of the first architectural elements ever to be designed with computer technology.[4]:221[12]:209 In areas without art, such as the lobby, cafeteria and library, the entire reflector is perforated, making it possible for people standing beneath to glimpse passing clouds. In the gallery spaces, the central part of the reflector, which is directly beneath the sun, is solid, while the remainder is perforated.[5]:353 The concrete surfaces of the ceiling were given a high finish to further assist the reflection of the light.[4]:221 The end result is that the strong Texas sun enters a narrow slot at the top of each vault and is evenly reflected from a curved screen across the entire arc of the polished concrete ceiling, ensuring a beautiful distribution of natural light that had never before been achieved.


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Jean ProuvĂŠ (8 April 1901 - 23 March 1984) was a French metal worker, selftaught architect and designer. His main achievement was transferring manufacturing technology from industry to architecture, without losing aesthetic qualities. His design skills were not limited to one discipline. During his career Jean ProuvĂŠ was involved in architectural design, industrial design, structural design and furniture design.


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The British architect, James Stirling, was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1926. He received his architectural degree from the University of Liverpool School of Architecture in 1950. James Stirling undertook postgraduate study at the School of Town Planning and Regional Research, London, 1950-1952. Early experience was obtained in the firm of Lyons, Israel and Ellis, where James Stirling was Senior Assistant (1950-1956). In 1956, James Stirling entered into a partnership with James Gowan based on a commission for development of private flats at Ham Common, on the outskirts of London. The design of this project was based on James Stirling's close study of Le Corbusier's Jaoul houses in Paris (1954-1956). The firm of James Stirling and James Gowan lasted until 1963. after which James Stirling practiced alone (1964-1970). In 1971, James Stirling formed a partnership with Michael Wilford. The firm is currently James Stirling, Michael Wilford and Associates.


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Although not free of controversy. James Stirling's work has brought him many awards, including the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (1980) and the Pritzker Prize (1981). James Stirling has written extensively and his work has been widely published. This attention has contributed to James Stirling's receiving commissions for a large series of important projects outside of the United Kingdom. A number of James Stirling's projects for unbuilt buildings have also been published, partly because of the high quality of James Stirling's presentation drawings. James Stirling has taught throughout his career, both in the UK (Architectural Association. London. Regent Street Polytechnic, London. Cambridge University School of Architecture) and abroad. James Stirling is the Charles Davenport Visiting Professor at Yale University School of Architecture from 1967, and Guest professor at the Dusseldorf Kunstakademie since 1977.


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Luis Ramiro Barragán Morfín (March 9, 1902 – November 22, 1988) was a Mexican architect. He studied as an engineer in his home town, while undertaking the entirety of additional coursework to obtain the title of architect . Early life Barragán was born in Guadalajara. Educated as an engineer, he graduated from the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros in Guadalajara in 1923. After graduation, he travelled through Spain and France. While in France he became aware of the writings of Ferdinand Bac, a German-French writer, designer and artist who Barragán cited throughout his life. In 1931, he again traveled to France with a long stop-over in New York. In this trip he met Mexican mural painter José Clemente Orozco, architectural magazine editors, and Frederick Kiesler. In France he briefly met Le Corbusier and finally visited the gardens realized by Ferdinand Bac. He practiced architecture in Guadalajara from 1927–1936, and in Mexico City thereafter.


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Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austro-Hungarian architect. He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay Ornament and Crime he repudiated the florid style of theVienna Secession, with the Austrian version of Art Nouveau. In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture.


This article is about the building in Chicago, Illinois. For the Tribune Tower in Oakland, California, see Tribune Tower (Oakland). Tribune Tower The Gothic Revival Tribune Tower in ChicagoGeneral informationTypeOfficeLocation435 N. Michigan Ave. Chicago, USACoordinates41.890426°N 87.62367°WCoordinates: 41.890426°N 87.62367°WConstruction started1923Completed1925HeightTop floor462 feet (141 m)Technical detailsFloor count36Design and constructionArchitectHowells & Hood—John Mead Howells andRaymond HoodChicago Landmark Designated:February 1, 1989The Tribune Tower is a neo-Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is the home of the Chicago Tribune and Tribune Company. WGN Radio (720 kHz) broadcasts from the building, with ground-level studios overlooking nearby Pioneer Court and Michigan Avenue. CNN's Chicago bureau is located in the building. It is listed as a Chicago Landmark and is a contributing property to the Michigan–Wacker Historic District.


HOMEWORK 1