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Resolution Booklet First Balkans Summit, Prishtina 2013 29th august- 1st september


Table of Contents Procedure for the General Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Programme of the General Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Foreign Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Motion for a Resolutin by the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. . . . . . 13 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. . . . . . . . . 18

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Procedure for the General Assembly General rules

Points of Information

The wish to speak is indicated by raising the Committee placard. The authority of the Board is absolute.

These are requests: i) for brief explanations of the meaning of specific words or abbreviations, ii) that some context be provided with regard to references in treaties or other documents/legislation explicitly referred to in the Resolution. Please note that translations are not Points of Information. Points of Information can, in addition to their place in the order of the General Assembly, also be raised during the debate.

Procedure and time settings 1. Presentation of the Motion for a Resolution (the Board member chairing the debates reads out the topic and introduces any Friendly Amendments, a member of the Proposing Committee reads out the Operative Clauses);

Points of Personal Privilege

2. Points of Information (asked for by any Committees and answered to by the Proposing Committee);

These are requests for a Delegate to repeat a point that was inaudible.

3. Defence Speech (maximum duration: 3 minutes);

Points of Order

4. Attack Speech/es (maximum duration: 3 minutes in total);

These can be raised by the Chairperson if a Delegate feels the Board have not properly followed Parliamentary procedure. Ultimately, the authority of the Board is absolute.

5. Open Debate on the Motion for a Resolution (maximum duration: 20 minutes) a) The first point of the Open Debate will be made by the Proposing Committee, in response to the Attack Speech/es; 6. Summation Speech (maximum duration: 3 minutes); 7. Voting procedure – the votes are collected and announced by the Chairpersons; 8. Announcement of the voting results by the Board. Friendly amendments Put forward by the Proposing Committee, these are last-minute modifications aiming at improving the Resolution. Amendments are to be handed to the Board on a specific form (distributed to the Chairpersons) one Resolution in advance – or as early as possible for the first Debate of the day.

Direct Responses Once per Debate, each Committee may use the Direct Response sign. Should a Committee member raise the Committee Placard and the ‘Direct Response’ sign during the Open Debate, he/she will immediately be recognised by the Board and given the floor as soon as the point being made is concluded. A Direct Response can only be used to refer to and discuss the point made directly beforehand. If two or more Direct Responses are requested at once, the Board will decide which Committee to recognise. In this case, the second Direct Response has to refer to the Direct Response made directly before it.

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Defence Speech The Defence Speech is delivered from the podium by one member of the Proposing Committee. It is used to explain the rationale of the overall lines of the Resolution and convince the Plenary that the Resolution is worthy of being adopted. This speech can last a maximum of 3 (three) minutes. Attack Speeches Attack Speeches are delivered from the podium by individual Delegates from a Committee other than that proposing the Resolution at hand. Furthermore, they reflect individual opinions and are used to point out the flaws of the approach taken by the Proposing Committee and should propose alternative solutions. Attack Speeches are often concluded with an appeal to the Plenary not to adopt the Resolution in its present form – however, they can also come to the conclusion that, overall, the Resolution is still worthy of adoption. Time permitting, a second Attack Speech may be allowed, as long as the overall duration does not exceed a maximum of 3 (three) minutes. Summation Speech The Summation Speech is delivered from the podium by one or two members of the Proposing Committee – in the latter case, the microphone can only be passed once. It is used to summarise the Debate, respond to main, selected criticism and to once more explain why the chosen approach is the most sensible. It typically concludes with an appeal to vote in favour of the Resolution. This speech can last a maximum of 3 (three) minutes. Voting procedure Each Delegate is allowed one vote (either in favour, against or abstaining) per Resolution. Being individual, the votes are still collected within Committees by the respective Chairperson, being then announced out loud. Whenever feasible, the results of the voting will be announced straight after their collection; otherwise, they will be announced with a one-Resolution interval.

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Programme of the General Assembly 08:45–09:00 Settling in 09:00–09:30 Revision of the Procedure for the General Assembly 09:30–10:45 Preparation in Committees 10:45–11:00 Coffee-break 11:00–11:15 Settling in

11:15–12:00 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality 12:00–12:45 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs 12:45–13:30 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety

13:30–14:30 Lunch-break

14:30–15:15 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs 15:15–16:00 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Development 16:00–16:45 Motion for a Resolution by the Committee on Foreign Affairs

16:45–17:00 Coffee-break

17:00–17:45 Closing Ceremony

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Motion for a Resolution by the

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Committee on Foreign Affairs

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While the European Union’s enlargement strategy is based on strict accession conditions, rewards fro prospective members are becoming insufficient and discontent is growing in countries such as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, whose accession talks have begun already in 2005, or Serbia and Kosovo, whose long-lasting dispute was only settled on April 19th, 2013. Whilst democratic conditionality must remain an accession criterion, how could the European Union better balance it with sufficient incentives for aspiring countries to remain in the process? Arbnor Zejnullahu (*KS), Art Çunaku (*KS), Blerta Begisholli (*KS), Buena Aziri (*KS), Fjolla Vukshinaj(*KS), Lorina Haziri (*KS), Rinor Arifi (*KS), Shpresa Sekiraqa (*KS), Teodora Cozma (Chairperson, RO)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Taking into account the increasing scepticism toward the European Union (EU), both within and outside its borders, B. Welcomes the European Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)1 as the main aid-providing policy tool enforced by the EU in the Western Balkan countries, C. Deeply regretting the existence of territorial and name disputes amongst the Western Balkan countries, D. Bearing in mind that five Member States of the EU have not yet recognised the independence of Kosovo, E. Noting with satisfaction that the accession criteria are specifically designed for the candidate countries, F. Fully aware of current challenges in the Western Balkans, such as the lack of democracy, inter-ethnic problems, corruption and organised crime, G. Taking note of the ongoing enlargement process which will eventually lead to the accession of Western Balkan countries to the EU, H. Desiring to speed up the EU integration process for the Western Balkan region; The IPA offers financial support to countries engaged in the accession process to the EU for the period of 2007 to 2013. Pre-accession assistance supports the stabilisation and association process of candidate countries and potential candidate countries, whilst respecting their specific features and the processes in which they are engaged.

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1. Recommends the increase of the IPA II budget by 0.3 per cent – from 1.3 to 1.6 per cent – for the receiving countries in the Western Balkans; 2. Supports the organisation of training courses, conferences, workshops, seminars and exchange programmes between EU and Western Balkan countries following the IPA II budget increase;

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3. Endorses the supervision of the law enforcement institutions in the Western Balkans by increasing investments in the region; 4. Encourages administrative cooperation on cross-border issues between the EU and Western Balkan countries; 5. Requests the organisation of European business conferences aimed at increasing economic sustainability in the Western Balkan countries; 6. Encourages further negotiations between Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia with regards to the statehood of the former; 7. Calls upon the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece to engage in new rounds of negotiations with a view to reaching an agreement on the name dispute; 8. Encourages the five EU Member States that have not recognised Kosovo’s statehood to revise their position; 9. Endorses the creation of independent media responsible for informing the general public of the Western Balkans about the EU and the euro area.

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Motion for a Resolution by the

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Committee on Development

prishtina 2013

All over the Balkans, countries are suffering from high unemployment, a significant contraction in GDP rates and experiencing negative growth, all of which ultimately lead to a growing exodus of the populations. With its Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) I due to expire at the end of the year and the IPA II still in draft format, and taking into account the uncertain fate of the euro area, how can the European Union ensure the best aid package for the Balkan region? Arbër Gjoni (*KS), Dren Gërbeshi (*KS), Egzona Ferati (*KS), Ermira Gashi (*KS), Evaristo Vocaj (AL), Lirika Bakija (*KS), Mirishahe Syla (*KS), Ardi Shatri (Chairperson, *KS)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Concerned by the relatively low gross domestic product (GDP)1 of the Western Balkan countries, B. Convinced that the Global Financial Crisis is a major cause of unemployment, poverty and economic instability in the Balkans, C. Recognising the significant influence of the economic performance of the euro area on the Balkan economies, D. Noting with concern the high rate of Balkans–European Union (EU) immigration as a consequence of high unemployment and insufficient educational opportunities, E. Disappointed that their past conflicts continue to be the cause of insufficient cooperation amongst Balkan countries, F. Alarmed by the high levels of corruption and nepotism2 in the region, G. Bearing in mind the lack of job training centres, H. Aware of the existing differences in mentality and traditions between the Balkan countries and the EU Member States3, The combined GDP per capita of all Balkan countries is €58,236 similar to Sweden’s GDP per capita alone, Nepotism can be defined as favouritism granted in politics or business to family members or relatives, regardless of merit. 3 The IPA I (2007–2013) has been actively funding the Western Balkan countries whilst their economies are still in recession. 1 2

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I. Noting with regret the unsatisfactory results of the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) I in the region, despite its budget of €4.122 billion , J. Desiring the IPA II to be more efficient and ambitious than its predecessor1;

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1. Calls upon the European Commission (EC) to add a new category to the IPA II which would grant financial support to independent media in the Balkans; 2. Encourages European Broadcasting Union’s members2 to organise professional training courses for independent media in the region; 3. Recommends that the EC cooperates with anti-corruption agencies in the Western Balkans to tackle corruption and raise awareness of its consequences; 4. Requests that the EC monitors trade agreements in the region and punish their non-implementation through economic sanctions; 5. Urges governments in the Western Balkans to track down organised criminal groups to attract both foreign and local investments, thereby aiming at reducing unemployment; 6. Endorses the EC’s continued provision of scholarships to students from the region to study abroad through the IPA II, whilst introducing a contract which would require students to return to their country of origin after graduating; 7. Hopes for further cooperation between the EC and the Balkan countries regarding education, through measures such as vocational training and educational staff exchange programmes; 8. Expresses its appreciation for events that gather youths of the region, such as the Balkan Summits, as well as exchange programmes; 9. Asks renowned EU universities3 to increase educational opportunities by establishing new branches in the region; 10. Requests more cooperation between the European Central Bank and the central banks of Western Balkan countries, namely by closely monitoring macroeconomic changes (such as inflation) in the euro area. The IPA II (2014–2020) is still in draft format. Such as the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 3 For example, Oxford University, Cambridge University and Maastricht University. 1 2

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Motion for a Resolution by the

1st Balkans summit

Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs

prishtina 2013

The European Union is just about everyone’s largest trading partner, but the Western Balkans are not even in its top-twenty list. As the EU and the United States of America negotiate what will become the world’s largest free-trade agreement, and despite the EU having renewed autonomous trade preferences to all Western Balkans countries until 2015, the risk exists that less and less attention will be paid to the latter. What should be the stance of the Balkan region on the future of the Stabilisation and Association Agreements, especially for the post-2015 period? Art Latifi (*KS), Amos Jakupi (AL), Fillojetë Konjuhu (*KS), Gentiana Halimi (*KS), Rei Ymeraj (AL), Shpetim Shujaku (*KS), Yll Haziri (*KS), Erblin Hoxha (Chairperson, *KS)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Taking into consideration that the Western Balkans’ economies and trade highly depend on European Union (EU) markets and funding, B. Aware of the fact that Western Balkan countries do not use their full production capacity, resulting in a low overall share in EU trade1, C. Noting with deep concern that the quality of products from Western Balkan countries is lower than that of the EU Member States’, which results in low exports of goods to the EU, D. Fully alarmed by the high rates of unemployment and corruption, which result in low production, lack of trust in governments and the overall non-attractiveness of the region, E. Disappointed by the lack of foreign investment and investors in the Western Balkans, which is due to the region’s old infrastructure and inadequate fiscal and monetary policies, F. Having in mind that the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance2 (IPA) I will expire at the end of 2013, The EU is the Western Balkans’ largest trading partner, accounting for two thirds of the region’s total trade. Inversely, the Western Balkan countries’ share of overall EU trade was 1.4 per cent in 2012. 2 The Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) is the means by which the EU supports reforms in the ‘enlargement countries’ with financial and technical help. It was launched in 2007 and, from then and until 2013, has amounted to approximately €11.5 billion. 1

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1. Endorses the IPA II1 as a mean for further development of the Western Balkans countries; 2. Requests that the European Commission signs a prior agreement with the Western Balkan countries within the framework of the IPA II, securing that they will be equal partners in the TTIP2 once they join the EU;

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3. Calls for increased investment in the Western Balkan countries through the further granting of funds allocated to economic sectors that are less developed, as well as by providing those with more professional training; 4. Encourages the governments of the Western Balkans to support emerging companies for a certain period of time, namely the application of lower taxes, subventions and the sharing of professional expertise; 5. Condemns the non-compliance with democratic stability and administrative capacity criteria and contemplates cutting EU funding in candidate countries found to be breaching them; 6. Emphasises the need to improve the economic environment by: i) investing in infrastructures and energy production, ii) encouraging Western Balkan countries to amend their current fiscal law with a view to creating more attractive policies for new investors.

To ensure that assistance to enlargement countries is not interrupted, the new draft “IPA II� regulation will enter into force on January 1st, 2014. 2 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The EU and the United States of America (USA) started talks on February 2013 for a free trade agreement aimed at completely eliminating tariffs and harmonising regulations on a series of goods and services. 1

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Motion for a Resolution by the

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prishtina 2013

Committee on Evironment, Public Health and Food Safety The Balkans are particularly prone to hazards resulting from climate change: heat and cold waves, precipitation and floods, landslides, droughts, forest fires and earthquakes. Despite the launch of initiatives to build the region’s resilience to such hazards, political and public awareness remain low, industries are vulnerable and overall economic growth is unsustainable. In line with its recent Climate Adaptation Strategy, how could the European Union act to strengthen the Balkans’ response to climate change? Akida Mulgeci (AL), Dardana Perteshoni (*KS), Dina Zejnilović (BA), Fitore Dervishi (*KS), Rita Vula (*KS), Rrita Abdyli (*KS), Stojan Stojchevski (MK), Egzon Gashi (Chairperson, *KS)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Guided by the fact that the Balkan countries have no available, updated data about the consequences of climate change, B. Alarmed by the resulting lack of awareness amongst the population and the decision-makers alike, C. Emphasising that changing climatic conditions affect many sectors of the economy, such as forestry, fisheries, livestock and, especially, agriculture – one of the most important sectors or the Balkan economies, D. Taking into account that air pollution, in general and the emission of CO2, in particular worsen climate change and accelerate its impact, E. Noting with deep concern that fossil resources are not a long-term solution, whereas alternative energies have potentially unlimited usage, F. Recognising that interregional cooperation in environmental issues in the Western Balkans could contribute to strengthening the economic and political relations amongst the countries in the region, G. Deeply concerned by the fact that corruption in the Western Balkans has a deterring effect for potential investors;

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1. Supports the Balkan countries in the creation of a regional Climate Change Adaptation Platform (CCAP), aiming at gathering and offering qualitative information about climate change adaptation, modelled after the recent launch by the European Commission of a CCAP for the European Union (EU);

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2. Calls for the Western Balkans CCAP to be supported and promoted through cooperation between governments and the media in an effort to raise awareness of the region’s vulnerability to climate change; 3. Urges the ministries of education in the Balkan countries to add classes and events on environmental topics to the current school curricula; 4. Calls upon the relevant institutions in the region to ease permission granting for non-governmental activities raising awareness of climate change; 5. Strongly supports the institutions of the Balkan countries to:

a) invest in the production of alternative energies,

b) offer rewards to individuals and private entities capitalising on energy efficiency;

6. Encourages the Balkan countries to organise intercultural programmes aimed at fostering interregional cooperation on environmental issues; 7. Endorses the closer monitoring of European environmental funds by local EU delegations, in accordance with anti-corruption laws in the Western Balkan countries.

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Motion for a Resolution by the

1st Balkans summit

Committee on Gender Equality and Women’s Rights

prishtina 2013

Each year, about 1,000 episodes of domestic violence are officially registered in *Kosovo alone, with a recent study showing that this number could be as high as 43 per cent of the population. While women are natural targets anywhere in the world, their situation is inevitably worse in regions where anti-discrimination laws are poorly implemented and enforced. In addition to the European Parliament’s Motion for a Resolution on women’s rights in the Balkan accession countries, how can the European Union further promote gender equality in the region? Adlum Ramadani (*KS), Dorisa Tuku (AL), Fjolla Hoxha (*KS), Hanife Osmani (*KS), Lea Dede (AL), Liridona Veliu (MK), Shadije Dalipi (MK), Valza Sadriu (*KS), Marian Võsumets (Chairperson, EE)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Welcoming that gender equality has been highlighted as one of the Millennium Development Goals 1, B. Approving of the contributions of the European Parliament, namely the creation of the European Convention on Human Rights 2 and of the United Nations, namely the creation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 3, C. Expressing its appreciation of international programmes organised in the Balkan accession countries on discussing women’s rights and gender equality, such as the International Women’s Summit in Kosovo, in 2012, D. Praising the trend of increasing numbers of female students at Balkan universities, which results in reduced segregation between the genders, E. Bearing in mind the stereotypical perceptions of women as the main housekeepers and responsible parents in the Western Balkan countries, where the majority of childcare leaves are taken by women, The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – which range from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 – form a blueprint agreed to by every country in the the world, as well as most leading development institutions. They have galvanised unprecedented efforts to meet the needs of the world’s poorest. 2 The European Convention on Human Rights is the first convention by the Council of Europe aiming at protecting human rights. Its ratification is a prerequisite for joining the Council of Europe. It was adopted in 1950 and entered into force in 1953. 3 Adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, the convention is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination. 1

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F. Disappointed by the small number of women that occupy decision-making positions at all levels of government, G. Noting with regret the lack of reliable regional statistics on gender equality,

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H. Deeply alarmed by the fact that 30 per cent of victims of cross-border human trafficking in the EU are nationals of the Balkans1, most of whom female, I. Noting with deep concern the restricted physical integrity of women in general, and in particular the right to abortion and contraceptive usage, J. Disturbed by the high levels of unemployment amongst women in the Western Balkans, K. Disapproving that men and women in the Balkan accession countries face a significant pay gap, ranging from 11 to 39 per cent, L. Deploring the double discrimination that women from certain social backgrounds – such as Roma women – face in Western Balkan societies, M. Alarmed by the poor implementation of laws which guarantee gender equality in the Balkan accession countries;

1. Emphasises the high importance of women’s equal participation in decision-making at all levels of government as a crucial element to consolidating democracy in the Western Balkan countries; 2. Calls upon the Western Balkan countries to support the participation of more women in decision-making by:

a) encouraging state authorities to draw up action plans in order to enrol a higher number of women,

b) fully implementing legislation stipulating the necessary percentage of women in the various sectors;

3. Affirms systematic collection of gender-specific statistics in order to monitor the progress in the implementation of legislation on women’s rights and gender equality; 4. Urges the governments of the Western Balkan countries to establish a common methodology for collecting and distributing statistical data in cooperation with the relevant EU institutes, such as Eurostat; 5. Proposes to the European Commission and the governments of the Western Balkan countries to foster awareness in order to eliminate gender-based stereotypes and promote a positive image of female role models through media, advertising, educational materials and the internet; 1

The European Parliament’s Motion for a Resolution on women’s rights in the Balkan accession countries.

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6. Recommends that Western Balkan countries improve the access of women to contraception, abortion and reproductive health services; 7. Urges the public sector in the Western Balkans to employ more women with higher education in leadership posts; 8. Demands that the governments of the Western Balkans establish legal frameworks for equal work and pay for both genders, which must comply with agreements such as the Stabilisation and Association Agreement 1; 9. Invites schools in the region to host regular meetings between the parents of girls from socially excluded groups, such as the Roma, and educational staff; 10. Requests that the Human Rights Watch2 send regular delegations to the Western Balkans which would observe and ensure the enforcement of legislation on women’s rights and gender equality; 11. Encourages governments in the region to provide more financial support for single parents in the form of tax incentives and subsidies (i.e., direct financial support); 12. Further demands the establishment of support centres in areas with particularly high rates of women abuse.

The Stabilisation and Association Agreement constitutes the framework of relations between the EU and the Western Balkan countries for implementation of the Stabilisation and Accession Process. The agreements are adapted to the specific situation of each partner country and, whilst establishing a free trade area between the EU and the country concerned, they also identify common political and economic objectives and encourage regional cooperation. In the context of accession to the EU, the agreement serves as the basis for implementation of the accession process. 2 Human Rights Watch is one of the world’s leading independent organisations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights. By focusing international attention where human rights are violated, it gives voice to the oppressed and holds oppressors accountable for their crimes. Their investigations and advocacy build pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse. For more than 30 years, Human Rights Watch has worked to lay the legal and moral groundwork for change and has fought to bring justice and security to people around the world. 1

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Motion for a Resolution by the

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

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Gay pride marches in Skopje and Budva were violently disrupted this July. According to a recent survey, the Open Society Foundation revealed that 53 per cent of Albanians agree that “gays and lesbians should not be free to live life as they wish” and believes homophobia to be equally strong, if not higher, in the rest of the Western Balkans. When most countries in the Balkans aspire to access the European Union, what role can the Union play in advancing the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in the region? Arilda Lleshi (AL), Arlinda Beqiri (*KS), Bonita Salihu (*KS), Jeta Statovci (*KS), Mirjeta Hamdiu (*KS), Sardi Hyska (AL), Ylind Lila (AL), Mathilde Pascal (Chairperson, FR)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Desiring to establish peaceful relations between the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community and the rest of society to break down barriers and facilitate social cohesion, B. Taking into consideration that the high rates of homophobia and transphobia1 in the Balkans have resulted in discriminatory practices, such as exclusion from the labour market, and different forms of violence, C. Taking into account that the lack of widespread information on LGBT rights, due to little interest and taboo phenomena, is the main cause of low public awareness, D. Realising that history and religion strongly influence and shape the collective mentality of societies and attitudes of the Balkan populations regarding LGBT rights, E. Aware that negative social response has obstructed LGBT people from being publicly committed to their cause, F. Noting with regret that the activity of local, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) has been hindered by insufficient safety in a judgemental society, G. Alarmed by the fact that governments do not properly implement existing laws protecting the rights of LGBT people, which:

i) leads to an aggravation of the situation and discontent amongst the LGBT community,

Homophobia is “the fear, unreasonable anger, intolerance or/and hatred toward homosexuality”, while transphobia refers to “prejudice, disgust, fear and/or hatred of transpeople or against variations of gender identity and gender expression” (ILGA-Europe Glossary).

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ii) leaves more room for discriminatory episodes,

H. Taking note of the need for Balkan governments to pass LGBT-friendly legislation in their respective countries,

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I. Heralding Croatia as the prime regional example of LGBT rights advancement – an objective of the Copenhagen criteria1 – on the path to fulfilling the aspiration of joining the European Union (EU);

1. Expresses its hope that the respective ministries of education in the Balkans will revise their curricula and add optional classes and detailed information in textbooks on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2. Invites the media to contribute to the fight against LGBT discrimination, namely by:

a) broadcasting advertisements and regional television programmes to promote LGBT acceptance,

b) publishing informative articles on the topic;

3. Calls for the creation of specialised centres aimed at providing support and guidance to members of the LGBT community; 4. Congratulates local NGOs for their current activities and efforts to increase their influence on Balkan societies with regard to the rights and welfare of LGBT people; 5. Calls upon the governments in the Balkans to guarantee the safety of NGO activities and workplace by, e.g., protecting demonstrations and mobilising police forces in cases of escalating violence; 6. Encourages the EU to facilitate partnerships amongst local NGOs through training programmes, joint campaigns and workshops; 7. Supports the establishment of monitoring bodies under the supervision of national ministries to ensure the implementation of legislation protecting LGBT rights; 8. Recommends that the Balkan governments revise LGBT legislation by:

a) passing new laws to fill gaps regarding, inter alia, the adoption rights of LGBT persons and couples,

b) reforming existing laws which do not explicitly protect LGBT people, are discriminatory or go against the human rights principles; 9. Emphasises the need for cooperation with countries which have already advanced their LGBT legislation. The Copenhagen criteria include political (stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities”) and economic conditions, as well as the acceptance and implementation of the acquis communautaire, which consists of all established EU laws and practices.

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