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FACADE DESIGN 2015

Hogeschool van Amsterdam Architecture Technology

Janfrans van der eerden

Quinto Ferrรกndez, Alejandro CONELLY, JAMES 1


INDEX

page

cover index PRECEDENT STUDY. analyse of historic glass curtain wall nationalgallerie. MIES lever house. Gordon COMPARISION with a modern glass curtain wall MATERIAL report PMMA (Alejandro) Bamboo (James) INSPIRATION PRELIMINARY DESIGN. Sketches Concept Elevation. Appeareance of facade Details. Scale 1:4 Standard horizontal detail (existent pilar) Standard horizontal detail (bamboo mullion) Standard vertical detail Vertical detail ( existent pilar) FINAL DESIGN Elevation. Appearence of facade. Scale 1:50 Vertical section. Scale 1:20 Details. Scale 1:5 Standard horizontal detail Standard vertical detail Door details Window details 3D Details

3,4 4-9 10 11 12,13 14 15,16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29-31

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Alejandro Quinto Aylin Tekin Alejandro Quinto

PRECEDENT STUDY

NEW NATIONAL GALLERY

Connelly James Alejandro Quinto Aylin Tekin

nationalgallerie Ludwig Mies van der Rohe NEWArchitect: NATIONAL GALLERY MIES Location: Berlin

Date: 1962 to 1968 Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe The Neue Berlin Nationalgallerie (New National Gallery) Location: at the Kulturforum is 1968 a museum for modern art in Berlin, Date: 1962 to withs its main focus on the early 20th century. The museum building and its sculpture gardens were The Neue Nationalgallerie (New National Gallery) designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and opened in at the Kulturforum is a museum for modern art in Berlin, 1968. its main focus on the early 20th century. withs The plan of the and Neue is divided The museum building itsNationalgallerie sculpture gardens were into twho distinct stories. The upper story serves as an designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and opened in entrance hall as well as the primary special exhibit gallery. 1968. It is elevated from street leveal and only accesible The plan of the Neue Nationalgallerie is divided by three of steps. into twhoflights distinct stories. The upper story serves as an You have a two-way roof structure welded steel entrance hall as well as the primary specialofexhibit gallery. plates and statically indeterminate 36only degree. It is it’s elevated from street leveal to and accesible The whole Building looks like a roman temple. by three flights of steps. With the glass curtainroof wallstructure you get of a floating You have a two-way welded steel movement. It’sstatically connecting the inside of museum with plates and it’s indeterminate tothe 36 degree. the landscape. ThisBuilding is the way how Mies van der Rohe gets The whole looks like a roman temple. more transparency. The huge wall window cutouts are good to With the glass curtain you get a floating let enough daylight to the inside of the museum. movement. It’s connecting the inside of the museum with The steelframework of how the glass is gets the landscape. This is the way Miescurtain van derwall Rohe non-bearing construction. more transparency. The huge window cutouts are good to ONly the arcade at the outside bearing. The let enough daylight to the inside of theare museum. nationalThe gallery stands apart, it’sglass owncurtain isolation, soisit’s a steelframework ofin the wall very significant building! non-bearing construction. ONly the arcade at the outside are bearing. The national gallery stands apart, in it’s own isolation, so it’s a very significant building!

Ground floor

Ground floor

Basement floor

Basement floor

Elevations

Sections.

FAC ADE FAC DESI FACADE ADE GN 3 DESIGN DESI


PRECEDENT STUDY

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

nationalgallerie MIES

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PRECEDENT STUDY

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

lever house

The Lever House by (SOM) was one of the first glass International style office buildings in the United States. Located in midtown Manhattan, it was originally the American corporate headquarters of the soap company Lever Brothers. Built between 1951-1952, the Lever House extends 24 stories in height right across from Mies van der Rohe’s Seagram Building, and stands as its own perfect glass box.The design of the Lever House offsets the tall office tower from the horizontal base. The horizontal base is lifted off of the ground plane by pilotis except for a small enclosed portion, providing a public plaza underneath and a threshold between the exterior and interior of the building.

One of the most important elements of the Lever House is its curtain wall which is made of blue-green heat-resistant glass and stainless steel. Its design had both an economical and aesthetic purpose. Since it was the headquarters of a soap business, the use of an all-glass facade would make the building easy to clean as well as maintain its glimmer on the skyline. A system was created with a rooftop window-washing gondola that was able to move on tracks to clean theglass. The curtain wall is also completely sealed without operable windows to prevent the passage of dirt from the city into the building, and the heat-resistant glass helped reduce cooling costs.

FACADE DESIGN

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PRECEDENT STUDY

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

lever house The building, although designated a landmark in 1982 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, was in need of a restoration by this time due to water seeping into the building and the breaking of the glass panels. By the mid-1990’s only one percent of the originalglass remained. In 1998 Unilever, the original company of the Lever Brothers, only remained on the top floors of the Lever Building when RFR Holding LLC bought the building. They hired Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill once again to restore the curtain wall with state-of-the-art solutions in modern wall technology while still keeping the building’s original appearance which was all completed by 2001.Winning numerous awards, including the AIA First Honor Award, the AIA National 25 Year Award, and the Architectural League of New York Gold Medal, the Lever House is a New YorkCity landmark that has mesmerized people through the years with its modern style that has yet to fade into the past.

FACADE DESIGN

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PRECEDENT STUDY

lever house The wind force travels from glass panes to mullions to outriggers to the building's structural steel frame.The gravity load in the envelope travels from glass and cinder- block to facade framework to outriggers to the building's structural frame.

air gap

The success of the curtain wall as a sparkling skin depended on a regular use of a cleaning apparatus developed especially for the project. According to a "Fact Sheet" provided by Lever brothers (as of May 1994) it was established that it was more economical to wash the entire building than to wash the windows only in the traditional manner. The cleaning apparatus is stored on the roof. The windows are washed from a motor driven gondola suspended by a 10 1/2 T crane which runs around the parameter of the roof on standard railroad tracks. Vertically, the gondola is lintel steel T guided on nearly invisible flanged stainless shaped tracks mounted on every sixth vertical mullion.

To support the desired image of the thin skin the mullions had to be flush with the glass and the envelope sealed - there are no operable windows in this curtain wall. The practical aspects of a sealed building are reduction in noise level and dust penetration, but the main interest in sealing the building was an aesthetic one.

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

metal flashing

finished ceiling

slots fro drainage and venting

ventilation The curtain wall was built as a "face sealed" system, based on the principal of keeping water out altogether. To control moisture, infiltration and condensation weepholes and flashing were provided at spandrel level. To make the spandrel as water tight as possible small "flaps" were placed over the weepholes in the metal frame. joining materials was a subject of experimentation - the sealant used was polysulphide.The

clips

blind pocket

heat resistant glass

sealant 12 gauge steel 16 gauge

EXT

INT

stainless steel

steel straps setting blocks of EPDM or neoprene

slots for drainage and venting

solid cinder block

About 3" behind the wired glass black cinder-block fire walls were set at the back of an air space. The air pocket was designed to avoid heat build-up in the glass; the walls were built to meet fire codes, as well as to mask floor slabs, radiators and the suspended ceiling with it's mechanical and electrical ducts.

heat resistant wire glass

snap-on cap

The glass conceals the interior structure. Two types of glass panes were chosen. For the transparent areas a light blue green colored glass was picked not only for it's aesthetic, ethereal quality but also for it's heat absorption qualities. To achieve a consistent exterior surface, spandrels beneath the windows were glazed with smaller panes of wire glass to meet city codes.

glazing gasket (EPDM, neoprene or PVC)

FACADE DESIGN 7


PRECEDENT STUDY

lever house

lintel air gap

metal flashing

finished ceiling

slots fro drainage and venting

ventilation clips

blind pocket

heat resistant glass

sealant 12 gauge steel 16 gauge

EXT

INT

stainless steel

steel straps setting blocks of EPDM or neoprene

slots for drainage and venting

solid cinder block

heat resistant wire glass

snap-on cap glazing gasket (EPDM, neoprene or PVC)

FACADE DESIGN

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PRECEDENT STUDY

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

lever house

18 gauge steel

16 gauge stainless steel

steel channels

FACADE DESIGN

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Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

FACADE DESIGN

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MATERIAL report

PMMA PROPERTIES: PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES Density Density Water absorption absorption Water Moisture absorption at equilibrium Moisture absorption equilibrium linear mould mould Shrinkage Shrinkage linear Meltflow flow Melt

ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION applications - Door and window profiles. Outsantding impact, chemical and UV resistance, excellent performance in all weather conditions. - Sound barriers. Optical clarity. - Greenhouses. Light transmissions, good heat insulation. - Facades. It can be combined with colour and light to original ����� designs. UV stability Hoja1 Value Value 1,15 1,15––1,19 1,19kg/m3 kg/m3 0,3 0,3––2% 2% 0,3 0,3––0,33 0,33%% 0,003 0,003––0,0065 0,0065cm/cm cm/cm

Symbol Symbol / / / / / / / / / /

Oneof of the the hardest hardest thermoplastics thermoplastics and One andisisalso alsohighly highlyscratch scratchresistant. resistant.

Value Value 10^14 – 10^15 ·m 10^14––10^16 10^15·m·m 10^14 10^14 – 10^16 2,8 –·m 4 17,7 – 60 kV/mm 2,8 – 4 0,55 17,7 0,03 – 60 –kV/mm 100 1805 0,03– – 0,55 100 – 1805

Value

Página 1

��� ����

1 – 96 % Value 80 – 93 % 1 – 1,49 96 % 80 – 93 % 1,49

- Brittle - Low weatherability - Low heat/flame resistance - Susceptible to moisture absorption

Comparision with other thermoplastics & glass:

ARCHITECTURE WITH PMMA:

Symbol Symbol / / / / / / / / / / / /

THERMAL PROPERTIES Value Symbol CTE, linear 20ºC 60 – 130 µm/m·ºC / THERMAL PROPERTIES Value Symbol Specific Heat Capacity 1,46 – 1,47 J/g·ºC / / CTE, linear 20ºC 60 – 130 µm/m·ºC Thermal conductivity 0,19 – 0,24 W/m·K Specific Heat Capacity 1,46 – 1,47 J/g·ºC / Maximum service temperature , air – 103ºC / Thermal conductivity 0,19 – 41 0,24 W/m·K Melting Point / / Maximum service temperature , air 41 –130ºC 103ºC Heat Deformation Temperature 74 – 103ºC / Melting Point 130ºC / Glass temperature 100 – 105 ºC / Heat Deformation Temperature 74 – 103ºC / Vicat softening point 47 – 117 ºC / Glass temperature 100 – 105 ºC / Vicat softening point 47 – 117 ºC / PMMA is a combustible material, which continues burning even after the flame is removed – the products separated in the process of thermal destruction have an intoxicating effect. ����� ����������� ��������� ������ ������� ��������� ������������������������ ����������� ������������������������ ��������������������������������� ����������� ���� ��� ��������� � OPTICAL PROPERTIES Haze OPTICAL PROPERTIES transmission, visible Haze Refractive Index transmission, visible Refractive Index

CONS

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

How we buy it? Whichever form. We can find PMMA in sheets, tubes, rodes, film cut-to-size, as a cement, multi-skin sheets, corrugated sheets. Commercial brands: Plexiglas®, Vitroflex®, Lucite®, Altuglas®, Oroglas®.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES Value Symbol MECHANICAL Value Symbol Hardness, Rockwell M 63 – 97 / / Hardness, Rockwell M 63 – 97 Tensile strenght 47000 – 79000 kN/m2 / Tensile strenght 47000 – 79000 kN/m2 / Elongation at break 1-30% / Elongation at break 1-30% / Resistance to break 76000 kN/m2 / Resistance to break 76000 kN/m2 / Tensile Modulus 2200 – 3800 N/mm2 E Tensile Modulus 2200 – 3800 N/mm2 E Flexural Modulus 3000 – 3,500 N/mm2 / Flexural Modulus 3000 130000 – 3,500 kN/m2 N/mm2 Compressive strenght / / Compressive strenght 130000 kN/m2 Pissons ratio 0,45 v/ Pissons ratio 0,45 Izod Impact 1,2 – 20 kJ/m2 /v Izod Impact 1,2 – 20 kJ/m2 / One of the plymers that is most resistant to direct sunshine exposure. One of the plymers that is most resistant to direct sunshine exposure.

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES Electrical resistivity Electrical resistivity Surface resistance Surface resistance Dielectric constant Dielectric constant strenght Dielectric Dissipation factor Dielectric strenght Arc resistance Dissipation factor Arc resistance

PROS vs CONS PROS - Easy to bond and connect - Easy to manufacture curved forms - High UV resistance - Recyclable - Hightweight - Good thermal and acoustic insulator

Symbol / Symbol / / / / /

Reiss Headquarters by Squire & Partners - London

Dior building by SANAA - Tokyo

eBo exhibition pavilion, Bologna - Italy (2003)

Illuminated wall made by plexiglas xt Ruds (diameter: 30 mm, lenght 2850mm)

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MATERIAL report

bamboo Bamboo~ Bambuseae ‘Extremely strong wood fibres can resist up to 5kN/cm2 and steel can resist at most 37kN/cm2 whereas the outer fibres of slim bamboo tubes have tensile strengths of up to 40kN/cm2 ‘ Bamboo is also a good choice of material regarding a sustainable approach to design as it grows very quickly. “Bamboo can grow 35 inches within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 0.00003 km/h (a growth of approximately 1 millimeter (or 0.02 inches) every 2 minutes).Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, when being used for building materials.”-

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James Utilisation of bamboo’s strength has existed for hundreds of years as its strength to weight ratio is almost unmatched by other natural materials. Laminated bamboo utilises these properties in and very clever way. Lamination involves dividing up the bamboo fibers and layering them alternatively on multiple axis to create a wood composite that takes full advantage of the natural strength to weight ratio. Below are the characteristics of natural bamboo, the lamination of bamboo can Infinitely increase these characteristics depending on lamination technique and desired qualities.

Source: Wikipedia Accessed 27.03.2015. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo

Bamboos general Distribution: Most timber-producing bamboos are from south Asia Tree Size: Some of the largest bamboos can be up to 50-100 ft (15-30 m) tall, with a 3-6 in (10-20 cm) diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3) to 53 lbs/ft3 (850 kg/m3 Janka Hardness: 1,410 lbf (6,270 N) to 1,610 lbf (7,170 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,020 lbf/in2 (76.0 MPa) to 24,450 lbf/in2 (168.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,610,000 lbf/in2 (18.00 GPa) to 2,900,000 lbf/in2 (20.00 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,990 lbf/in2 (62.0 MPa) to 13,490 lbf/in2 (93.0 MPa) Shrinkage:Diameter: 10-16%, Wall Thickness: 15-17% Figures taken from the wood database www.wood-database.com Accessed 27.03.2015

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MATERIAL CHOICE. Report

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Bamboo

FACADE 13 DESIGN


INSPIRATION

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

FACADE DESIGN

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Sketches

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

FACADE DESIGN 15


PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Sketches

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

FACADE DESIGN 16


PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

CONCEPT

PMMA + bamboo The basic idea of our design of the facade it’s to create a PMMA substructure with some bamboo elements (in those parts in which we need more strenght) and thanks to the PMMA transparency create a visual effect with lights and colours (also colours of PMMA, due to this one can be colourful in manufacturing. In the exterior part of the facade we’ll use a bamboo sticks, placing with different orientations (not vertical at all) and making at this way a plastic visual sensation on the appearance of the facade. Moreover this pieces of bamboo are lighted by the reflect and the transparency of PMMA substructure pieces, which take an ‘technological’ aspect (PMMA + lights) to a ‘natural’ element (bamboo).

FACADE DESIGN

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Facade appearance

FACADE DESIGN

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Standard horizontal detail

Existent pilar (300x300)

Bamboo 25mm (variable)

Double glass

SCALE 1:4

FACADE DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Horizontal section

FACADE DESIGN 20


PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Standard vertical detail

Bamboo 25mm (variable)

5

Styrofoam Concrete slab

300

Suspended ceiling

250

Insulation Structure cladding - space install.

PMMA piece 5mm

screw Ă˜4mm

SCALE 1:4 FACADE DESIGN

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10 thickness

300

PMMA piece

Existent pilar

LED lights

Structure

Substructure

aesthetics - ilumination

Substructure

10

-

Substructure

10 thickness

PMMA piece

PMMA mullion

aesthetics

25 (variable)

Bamboo

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Vertical detail (pilar) PMMA mullion 10mm thickness

LED lights Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Bamboo 25mm (variable)

PMMA piece 5mm

SCALE 1:4

FACADE DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

scale 1:50

Elevation. Appearence of the facade.

FACADE 23 DESIGN


FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Vertical section scale 1:20

(50-70)

25

parquetry

30

concrete floor

50

insulation material

300

concrete slab

250

suspended ceiling

bamboo

-

space (variable)

30

double glass with compressed air

FACADE DESIGN 24


FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Standard vertical section sealant

bamboo (50 - 70 mm diameter)

parquetry (25mm) concrete floor topping (30mm) insulation material concrete slab

PMMA lighted insulation material PMMA piece

suspended ceiling

PMMA ceiling piece double glass with compressed air (30mm)

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

Standard horizontal section PMMA tape

double glass with compressed air (30mm) bamboo (50 - 70 mm diameter)

bamboo mullion 200 x 300

PMMA tape

PMMA frame

screw

sealant

FACADE DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

door scale 1:5

bamboo mullion 200 x 300

PMMA pre-frame

bamboo peace for tolerance double glass with compressed air (30mm)

sealant bamboo door 50 x 800 (mm)

bamboo frame

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

window scale 1:5

bamboo mullion 200 x 300 PMMA frame

screw

bamboo pre-frame

sealant

double glass with compressed air (30mm)

PMMA tape

bamboo pre-tape

bamboo (50 - 70 mm diameter)

FACADE DESIGN 28


FINAL DESIGN

3D details. Explode axonometry

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

FACADE DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

3D details.

FACADE DESIGN 30


FINAL DESIGN

Alejandro Quinto Connelly James

3D details.

FACADE DESIGN 31

Facade Design 015  

Work about the subject Facade Design in Amsterdam March 2015 in architectural technology programme

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