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X ' I E D i E \ TF AILN D SF R O MT X C A V A T I O NI \S L O N D O N : 4

TEXTILES AND CLOTHING c.1lso-c.14S0 IllisabethCro\a4oot, !'rancesPritchardard KayStaniland

Irlotogftph,v b,vEd\çû Bake. Illustrations by Ch.isrinaU.win

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HE BÙ\DEI] II(!\S


@ 1992,2OOlMNcumofLndÛr Al! Nrh^ Rad'nd Eî.Pt I PtaiL d ÙndÙruÉtr l'8rr'don $@ no m(;' thi, $a k m.v br phoboPi.d aotd in J c id bmrdct oubl,shcd, D.rto6€ninPdbLc,d:Pæd in:nvins Ô!bvrnv m'Ù5 *;.d.,=?-d*.d *;,*d, wLôourùe priorP.mn!ôo of th' oPn8hr wnÙ Fid Pùdisncdl9t2 rr.i M.jétYs sntiûnery OItft Nd .dino. 2001 R.Pnntd 2002,20M TÀ. Boyd.Ulr5, vmdb;dg. lsBN 0 3î1,3,!o 4 A Mseum ofhndon lubknion M@m oallndon, rnndon \v'L bndon EC2YtHN org.ùl wûs.utu{odôn The Bovdel ?6

ir $ imprift ôf B.td.ll & Br{er Ld

PO Bd 9, waoabddg.,sufl.ur IPl2 JDÂ UK .nd ôaBotd.U3. Brdù lnc UsÀ no Bd 41026.Ro.hdEnNY r'!604-4126, *wbordeu o.uL

A d$los.

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rdod for ùis 6oôk is â€ili61e Êom ô. Bnlih Libr:rY

Libnrt of Cangrd C&log Grd Ndhen 2001037424 T1; publistiôn i PitEd o! did fÉ' P:p" Printd d Gur BriûiD bY Sr Ednùndsbury!c$ Linitd, But St !in!n&

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E


Contents

ema

.tdtDd"",6,lttttun1û

lzwrunùitullaik

rccbniqu6 us.d ù kilê

.alEr4ù,o,

producrion

aatit tNnùùn rn udt 6 aJut ddlrç ir,z.{rrdr,/h 1ù*jndtùtk stitd.tilk ùbE Lrnl\ - hrà, Matr rith rrl ld&t tùrà. _ykd!,1@h!rc ykùrûh@t,n tubnr ,airi't! -.teft santut - Ât rtsrt lnntùit.:

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Inrroducrionto secondedition

On ot tllc n6t uÀ?ecred grinsÉon ù\€ ieue Mârion. mdenkfl in tne cny or Llndon dudne lhe 1970sdd erly 1930sM tÀ€quantiry or ncdierrl mns Rrri.vtd, rdiculâiiy ab; .i q.bêid" ,h. Fi*, Thmo. TÀ. u-n9;a,n*. rùuB rcmân5 mtrrPsrd in !fsi.6 Eu6rc Ândihe n{.ri:l n * risniÂent ao h. medi.;:l pùiod { ih. d L, arcn \andotânda,.tûe b Haddrl v/all, ft for the Rollm p.riod. R<enr ndâologicâl adviti6 in Londôn haveyjclded norhins @mpdblc m4 dEeaan, th. .onÈm ofrhis bllne rnain * tldant @d:r { wten A fer daelophcns,n rh. ïldy of med.!:l rqriis h:'c ul€n plàe n rhed.od. rhr h* .lrpjedsinc ô. fE(.dinôn wpnnkd.A,zlu ibk neq rclireift bæk hÀ rppar.d on .he n.di.val doti i.dùtq {ÀicÀ njc d€nsive ùs. oainft)ftanon d.riv.d iôE exobrd r*ds r wrll ô Êom do.umms4 rnd vrùt jhs icndon ]tq9) Oô.r cre{h bù fô.utr,1 "" p.n.med silk. o.e r}?. oiii& idddtiê,1hêE:6

DEsROrltRS. rm" p"t, n..'r'tn uùk"ro1,

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PDb:bil 5pr5h iNo 393 pP t0çto1 tr ûou consd@ by ù .minor 6dt. hnolu ro b. ol pKbl.Ircfth onBin pùhrp6from h. rein6 Rgronor dcn P,tr (D66Es 1999,l0!lo.In ddiiion, I@, nr!ft ttrm ishmic SFain, |l1. 6* -gdn a 6 ti. .ounût 01nùuhdft for @rhù dlrinqiv. silk (No 459, PP r07-l2j \Mlclc6 1t92, atr2, Dos61 ard 62). the dâ.. oartc Fve i. BEmenaù.dÉl {hdc tÂeerliN dl| ofrhij qp. h aoud ha âlsûbænqustioft<t due @ th. P6mc .f r gôtd 6ngù{in3 rnrh : Îûrùp-sbpd hoop, !fij.h mor. tihelv b.long:6 ù. t2tn rhù to !h. llr[.n; (Hiniôn1190,6,17). T[e bmk [r found : wid. inrcnrio.n Erd.rùp nông ndêns md *hotûs inrssEd in tÀ. hinôry oadr6, ubù sudÀ anil tnc mrùiat c'iiuÊ of rhc Middlc AgÀ. rt ir 1 8Rn prdre di{ n 6 behq EDuhGhed. iogcrhs krh rh. Én ot ù. Fn;. ; nuta rhe inaorndon r@sibt. rô . ns g6diiôd.

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r/ ab,^ s,in L , " - o n i , ou d " "d e,,6ur v,n.hsrs nldiB7/2. 64G51 "l WIUaY\ÊNS. L w, t992unÈhtbli.h. Sêtdatoî., Batir

p 133.FiC100C:aù tt I ftrd .i4t


Acknowledgements ùÈ book{oul.l

hle bê,Àd rrrr.r rhoùi hckl i(.harûlôsisÈ.Dxr r i i t r \ H r . À t a . d o $ h ù- i t r . , 1 . _ n L 'iun\{f nrd ii.ir brths !ff 'ndê(.ken by {irr ot rn. cuildhal suctê$o. ilr rr,,semr 0f r!ùon, iiicllding H.lo caDiris. sùzr,e Iieenc,r.!r,LMo'lison sinss ândÀ:i s-ring Dirs l]ru a,j,r popii I .! ae ro. Lhrtrr d ê \ r n: d t i i | ? d t r t h . p L i \ L r . ? en n e r ,"er ury ylaF by clvds ljd{ûis or i a* .irit \Jrr(meD6 rnbomiory nrh{.o t, ào 4 mdroricf!o r.àr . $rhu [r v \.u, ôr Llndôi ! r' rw rr.t]|d or 4l vNedff.JorPailer,JêùvD.\i.r.Trt1uIILtr{ lrn s.rnlier I sue $!ok{ (Phoroqd,rjf s"ùû,r aih) cô !fr Pn.hfatdbe4ft Lnd Ir sp,mù Lr,. !m. r,l Ttd!:l). ,rLmiûr (;eor Egar [n...$a R^dcMe]i.l Àhn r.ù , \'/ 'Ùluat Tonr ' rt. md qnrù $ï,rr. .,,: L).1 lrr. dirll LherenudAnncr.ùerLudritôùrn dr F b G s 4 r d c n r, . r j F r a I l l o D l . \ i ^ 1 . Ri\ a,t?r\l \t h,. h\ ,r n\?É.rilrr Li {in\ h lrd ..r c \l1iùry rid his foi D.r { û6. A Hm,(. I Hury | tugiuâ rd \'l J !i ltronr\ Nlor rê ftrr dy! .nrr.F.s r{e doûeby plnelop. t\:jkon trho rwi mâd. D[nv hr]ptut\u{erions wilh I c :rtr(l1othcr.njle\ lrâr alorcscrD..orrsn ot kLnl rhfetrds \:s cùri oui ar rrrêai.id ùorurhl\ Llbontorj b! J!1k B ltf iûd \161 oI ù. lKamljois îpo{+{.Nntio| orooinn rd ù3rrsh xere tu nl( lt L! Har{c 1Eûslâftl) odirsût,rerser virhinrh.lt).û{r m.n ,,r rhe E*j.onm.t .Ij, aiLyot h,idon ù.hâeoLoÂicâlTo! tiud and th. \JsH,m ù rn on Trd liud pn'i&il rht mji inan. Àt

nF@|itr1rks$arijrr

niùngsrqaÈrd.h

1l,c ùrho6 hrr rrù rul Fo,n di$us ra r i d ! r ' I t - n . ! \ h n r r r \ L q d u L f. t 6 . r r r d eI J r , i H r n . r r n . . k U , . r . , ! . - . H{v

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T,rl s fr À,. T u. f -L \,'Lr , rohn P.rJ lviLd a lum /_o7irn.sosjtrl thânksan ôs"d io Saùln \lorncrnis i)' nr,{iu ùi ùedi I r'l kÉiler lioDr.raldiotrs ii lne ridkrtu{ls. Ls \r,D's I'hô $v. côtr\ derabl. hetDrrh uâlydris th. sirkrexlitestr otr '.d (ï,i qjn abr, .'nù's. .nd ^nr. rrùhesiG ,"hoi.n.. ô u .\ n L . , 1 n J ùm d im - ! . , L m ù F ) r d , r r r à e . r r J \ r pi ! , , I lr?.dna .ôR4hrrn l d r . r t 4"fs.\ . t r ( h r ! r ô i 'h..rÛ! m . j -!f i\rh èôis j qntrro|li, ùî. LL ,r

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n'eelosùacùi.5 re sedon d.ririinr\ Itû | ftIr na ,rtq 1,,rlti tl,tt6\ k , ! d u e l t b \h i L t , { L t r E rotr ,,f RorLdûl*È The pulrljt{im of dF rtdcs his beenmâde Nsrble by smb riu( ft. r tr( tirclr Fud thc fa!ùr Rese}.h fnid r,e \rtrsuh or llndôihrbli.xiiôNconnniree.f ri. 51'rFrsh otrd rJ'eltusemr or t. nt,r :ud $e beouc$ôr Jôhn :vet^ur ro djp Lo.dor nt Middl.q a(hâ$lolnll sô., rr JohD\oinson sr\ rrr hFr t,f^on rop(blish an.te oDrhebufron. d L r t r i rh , r . \ i ! m B r . 1 . r + r . . n d \ c


IlS1, F

Conventions Nùmericâlr€fercnces Ihe trrdicdr*ên€rhftùlhottrh€e*e|lt

criêtÛie;

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Baîûd's House(omonly hom àsBa}lr,rd'scÀde) Qudl'Étori.

BC72

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Introduction Àîhaûtqiel inrnisatio's tr di (irr o Il uL dLtriry lh. r9i0s rd 1!3G h.!e nimu ratcdIcs.x,.hiô r rj ,!f16,/iflxnlrr nir qud]l]hôr.!ù!drr objedsfi omni. où iod150 iô !s0j\Fniùtnrt!iDpr.sn! rnl lrro!ides in lùrm onrhtrrr rrarn.{rL.ion, r,eHL rniLrbte rohisorùnsnrê driesriaù \rr! rhog :: ii.c iD.id.s siirr a \{prfe oI rivdsid. rutrbish dlmdi! \nrn h en bc datcdF{ aù!a(l!. ,(l h( {l'irh moi oI rh. dèircc deftibÈd ii rhF

aho Ésùu.dji rrr$ rumbeForrnilÈ bL;,! rc.ùdd rur n,cdind drpûsisTlÈ* rosrs in.lude NovgoFdin Rus a:lio,ill,e rr, Aersen nl oslo in Noroq \\Ti'r Gdmsk'nl opol. i,r Poirnd:!],lt\ers arl l_iib<-ki! rïê{ c{rninli ÀnrF rJnInd Dordr.dr ir 'rric N4henmdi nl PcnhiJiS.orldd hblislied .È!ons am mil .brerorsom.oarlrn Ùnc(iors 0iahLik1963 Feryli 1933:S.hiinbds 1934:Ki.lrbù! rq70; rij.lb.ra rl32: vrik 1983:r.*DiDka & Nùtjt 1360;lidov 19ri2i rnrsarodn r9$) Benne( r9r?).limdespibdiis trlch ol rheevidùr..fc

Soirrces lÈ:1il.s xtrd .rtih rq f( q)n- Nhirh uiil fc o y ii liigl.rd hllt depodcdlarÂ.lyrpoù asuuror.rrlLdrronvi{ûlsxr.ês si.h.s rlod ù)nDm.nbrbnscs \{Lt Ind pan.lDaif h'norirftr( p' Êrntd in.h!(hês.nd d rol lediorr rTlir. ei:ràr trid urirq lnnres sû11 't n'ù ri.lilr req nù nehs or 'r!.a,d, ihc nrrile. theuisents oile rrnsible ùoùf ol \rh.1 \qs 0dlabl.' {lû.oul.l

b. ]jn,dù!ll l

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rqs rlo.n in ,n.die,trrrrrdor lrrisaônrlisiirerrc I r0r ltnnrd r0rirdôr orhê.DisKh rlus.Dorabl!liingnu,qû H,,ll o\hxu, ronhùmingt. \e!.a$rê û\nltoû t!r.{8j, sorthampror (c'n{rool (c,lxJoot 1990)trtrdlnrk ofiLtLonl91r9Ar,hxll ) i.kl..l i1'jlA \rlLlfh ôLnio ûe ffDrral pârcni Drovid4l rh. morc .\L'shr .L,rr,t in{ \ rrur Ilndon dd ri.s. âre.onroleùèdrrl by pie.cs fioD rrmr. ltridr.l.ste rnLJfrnor sire!(.s crorJootr9Jr:Crrer ri HcNLran 11i;trcn)rbd re6ûFttrir13r)A.âresùuord,isÂn{:Illlqrm ri$oJdah.:pdû. i!tùruj,Lgorlltrrreol rexLil$in dd,îd3r !se i,, ri!I..d dunnsthc tab t:rL.û e\c&tio's rhNn.f. ii rdrrrnl FùoDe.Nkllr lari.d oû if É{rÈ drm iancF {rr.( hî,r i5 r,.i,Lgkdeleoled. hxvr

toMr I n{rrrnr En.oleMrc, upto ùoi, been rê.ônled in smaLhrnudn ! tiramrnt dab hidon lexlilesin L\.n riu.prltr rôtri1i ielicr l,eil! lherctofe.ulltr elide!.ê to'n nonhem ruroD. 'l.lrr (nDrl diirn ir reDese x tu11 ùos+ sedionol u bæ soù4t but.n.L.flr.l.s, rlq lorm a vâhd$:r \rh k rôwrc!,r{iors u e rhelâr!.$ sour.! prcs.nd rodaj;, Frrslmd oin'êdier.lLexhlcs in y irt ior ùe oDr)iotr.& cnles and tonbs i:o lLcrdr{irf!sl,t.h ofcnhm ùÈ addedhs dnrion ôfb,.iût .s$.ircd vùrr Àkms. ÉÀqr aI!_ nÈ oirc(ife oI openrs rô'ihc is .01 a trsr ôre lr the Diddl. aa.srml)5 !e.e opùtd ro F{Nid. eviden.cof tr bo(r \ incor@itbjti\n a'ld {he coai.s ôi sâùrs!e.c someùmes raNlârêd [aD onêrôrb ro,nothù li â r.sûlidyqLi(.le( o..ÀqL.lr! des.ribedtemhs rcrnd\rd6an ronbs or ?ddcdro ih.n'. fû erm{ne ùosÊof sr curhbertar D!.h cdhednl (Râdj,..ôNr 195ri,1r]J) or or Ed!îi L\e anlre$or d tfès min$ù Abb{ (Dodlrû 1132,162-5) Euilding n ;s rnd F$ostoi hiv! .ko led rodr dhtur brn.cxDdqr. rLgof ro'rbsoleùri),rê lries Gena+. aùonkat Chn{ crruith.cùG.ho rrônn, rul LrlancÊs diarrôôk0h.e rherein dre rârêuth ..ntur) :Jl.r i jifr tsr Johl Hop. l|l91-3 1961, a inof tr.edocmcùcd rion rlk 19rhùnl 20Ùrlolu.ies. lLmbs in uiltùd ro incnLdc d,os.ofllill ile Blois !.ld rê{riLes


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aid tu iùn,,rtra..s orùirnu;cvi'r threads .irF indi.trte ho!' !.ii \hetu I'cse rtÉ h . l\ hn rjrdLr !r , t Nlên l!

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Dcûl tlY.?dsre iôt rll oloie tvpe 13B) lra '. i lrnnr!. Lr\-nial Ll-P{\le { a i " ô r s i l r | ' a h r n d t u , ê t r . eL \ R t l ) ronn$itiôn deeib vea lirrl!' mchl renaùng in pdri.llarFhotr'lrini ûa !ùib1e Somed--À 3lf. (arlort risli, Al.uder & Binni r8t nry h*e LaktI drft or at .rl deF?d,rid pr Texbler rrôD loûbs {rh 15 rlfr Drov'deâ Le6t ibfred. bêroft bù.ial lrrti4 Dtdi.es ( ùmv rrt or..nain mordânb the Ge ti.trlùl.r dandird adist {hich thos trfù lrbân en*} fÈ .a\e trf soft lltrêads rolf rr rs io' ex.t'pr., r oF .n lre âs*\s.d Alrlioush il '5 ràf. br Ù qnâljB o, *.ol cbn,s pâllenrd {iih t.Ùsvene r4r : or L\e ti rli. iienis btrn ' etun ro ,nclude orrrlÔrxrLv ol diilcrnr ù,1ôrr \nrere ùed\oisoflcdltrl' ùr.iâllrnEft olml,l.sorbisliops pùde irdcs are prcserql ônlv in Da{ (. g ftr Fin6 of sn'ihriÛ do !ûà ge cir .iall! 6 tM r\ 1L!\) vi ùN rn silk dotu excdabd han bûdotr F rl ftu Lrf lri u 'r i\ thrrh- i r!nd. nrsns itr orher reùtrdcd toùi d.ra. dr.n drâl (he Lo s,il crN rhe chùs in riÈ ând iFn s.lrs ;onhùn FimE \lterùls nv,l ar the lrÔùrd b|.unP4rtl}.brêlq'ûs'l''1,s. tn{li\l .nrLru !bn!. LoL c trn!i jl-f ly Êsiis,l!lulv fr !frni\ u ô . , d r \ i m o r i . , . 1 C h i i ct r ! i l l l d m ù re.ue rld! oftbeoriÈinâlhks rho! iexlires ;ûn; r .rôto€mÙ,... , d+' n{urù. sd;re\ :xed;, i b:i this x.rion $o rr-s. mde bon'\jlk'vhcrt\tslrqeso'.dd[aremÙr.often fnslJrd !nl. i ônqPF\e rio \ rhible. lhe ir?son itr ihis dileFn.e h"1s(i v.t ùu I ur-+I mbsirt $}j,i.LL1DLlrù NrnschÈItr ser the.ùn ibtrlilnor rridon\ erFdsiv.as bÈetrder-{tr'jr.d,althùwhiheùtrl ptupeni$ \otrld or th. fibres seûbhges0rÙcuLnvthosedditgto di" lJth i. atrl ohBiol nlnaLn doe\ there .oloù b. ded'ivc aoDer ro .drun À orinn.nse qrtrhnce r0rtheveNsr' viiible on vll ab, ics.rhê tex'ile\ liir unHl! . ù I' dr!. I 1 Ll.n c, pd r.lr c th d!ni! bu 'l hr" . s p È \ d ! ! n lrc liPrii ' edJ . i f h , trcmIl, ùsed +ithin . dàbd frri. Mn!

.ù.ftd i,, ]tî l bû r*-ord\ lnr on! 1r'êbrer riûur ol d,c ki4! bu iÂl tubes dd ot dri"

Preservationof the txtles ù nliln Dotun. r.ril|s ârt enl .it1! pnishâble Onlyi dt sdne , drditionsorI drv dcnJr Ôi

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orn rr4\$!

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t!t,i1.':r,:'!'rr: aùùg ùÈ qic'lfô'Ll ?s!.jnbj:ucs. ur frôri dx^r ' rlfuiu b rrrn,olosr.maiilyheùredre

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hr \,.r r l) I \r ff u,.d ror ;tu ,. fi 'r,L afrrtr tr{! r n,. vrr,bblhii he14nk4Jrltsc]ralc.'.41!i{{] rnpr.\'on ù ( nEe $ere f rr nLrh of ir hoîh b.r,r deposirdari4rrlhesê.ondqrjre.otdre lar cDt!.) dd rrn! dj. rlorkijjôu {ii.h js ûtlr b I fc ,te(rd6 tùer .n,e lxrÊr 's sèmbbLecoûsbrursdr{f ede$qrmti! Lrjinds ? F . in h , f , ï d . ' Ù f q i l q u r i r i n dh r '


i3rhLon ll,.vindùd! )i[qL nu . {ùh .ietd trrd ûoen&rL ù! , N (n!ï { l\è,{grtrd 193s. 2q 3). Danor r rtrlrusiroq diolrfh (lrysôtr Ly!9.fig 2?) a \nr \fi,i) of n,ùF and !tÙ l e d h e ^ ( a l a , k d a:ro , l l [ t i , i i r ) d r h e D r i liû$hoci tûim nom Enllaryl]!irh nxDpcd ,nùks ralr:. rqi. rrr 21.Do:.{9) hi ullL.riru4 âsrmblrlr to,ld lralt conÈ tom û. Gied lr.lalt wrùrobe Thn i'idrù!ûn qr, (.d tr rh. middle'€a's ol rheLrrhùnhrv ioGe i,'rl{ inft.aris qrùi ri!r olttrlkv nort oùsh:ble!ùtds:.qùredro,LrLeNoirh.rôlrl (TDtri r'l?0,1?ril).:'aÈ5rlt'at{s:ra hûùs.holil bû \r'hâtre'ùiÈ rl r!tr,ho's s indispul^b],.. .ùlriJi n{hr oùerp olniori'a adnùcs m'r halt lake( dd trtrdù dr. snÉ .ool Ed!'d lll etrrhmemberol hj! iaû'iltrl.o hadtheir,$l LiLoA sô iI xs s kno( r.re ôr dt!. DeorI .ûriêd ort dftr {ûrk on 1lr Éji s.s Ôrth. G' rât \Iltrdfulr I'Nr.rd nrr rarltd i,' hôu+! e indr c[f .ri\(rsr[1 !r.ially rcnl.deLs4rh.f CÉt $âdtube Lorolle,l ,. mii.omponentr lûr thenaÙ{ .d i:rks Ih{*di&lItdehv .'ûlthccomrllred!.odsdned!u1reorri..\of

onruL:ol.lûh rs rid ÈxLi1!:kr'. oron, lrad beû. tu!)iiomùt (rhi,r 3nons d,r-" J.c rie t d!. ôr r n.sr. hnishd 'irh et Lcâi lli $Li r rf ig bûlisrnlùadriloi,r.lorlLll\nl(,iiÈo, l.l1r. u,I ! jL,llr\ ôi ltaLianlrbric \.Ih btÙ'. (fi!s 36 ds. e, Hûr{r d .rctu pdtr jrjr rll \ûo's rld i . ryDiûL rdsqsùrh!j or{t ,irln.r{nt4dothe,Lrlhê,.0ô.htrlr, in the !ùlià ]làt isa. deoosiL,li D! i, rh. leron,Lqù1F.1f Llr (;,.arli1'dror,r moki i6 hÆdqùrÎùt to Ùre a sit rt !!!ên .ds. ol ûe aiL!. \i,rr^,, Nieùld,iil[ ]ri,nùdam irlded >iùllrf btr! ton.d cdginss !ii! t ù I'ri qk Fro it. llth.litrùr Nor'aùal- r:.s: 1;: 15t) noro.ly rlo rll w ri .. xt rh. ltrrnd, i earnplG bnt no thÈreh1!tbrù,sùece{ed rl,d lmi d'l,nlaft.r souD ùre ûua r hirlhoLd or the hirliP{ rl(,li.(id,,ln\tiL.s Dfr be sorlht in ùt &' 'lbe rt! n n r'rirs rtriti$ ùr the ni ,Prd r

oI .lorhiu. rni I mn,.lN. n.ûr rrlr

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*.drislilios. îr allD,n! li,ln *rlrar qîùld br! be{ n,l,jl.d.drô consid.ftbl!$Fù rid bx': lcasLiqh.ger rres .r drd, x{ildte if r'

rry.i hôli.hold to cloLhi'lome\un ând'È crded is ror.l.r butn lule 0ûi*r abro$ ril.sat irl;, IûxHniôD sùnÉDintr! u'lll lit .etuin\ di\til,ûLd as giiiso, iraùs nF ôt hde L r rf 1lA. .rrrism.n rrt br{r tô hrt Lntdin rjd ^ ofù tine.hùrÈ@r,dorot3pDrarh riùi4rr.qu.nra thcpûiih d srÀidrelsdtr.iliaLl,clJfÙrhûl i. rBed i', thr mÉriùlou\li\' 9.r:13) renû,ryorN)lar.r(,Vtrold1930 d r't rerr rl warilr ho\s-(. erFiall.v trs difr.' lni ln L31j0 rheCl.n$i|dmbt nrsitr spesorukfidrindie(roisn ,u$na!irF nhês in bnbarl sr! ar.l b! lil{jl it hrL )e (mr' .sûblishd in r &ronoofbùrdins silude( s.i diràed lir \ri trr.qrdanonlhe!trdr oi resl d l6igliùidù Sûed û,d bôunkd by st Andr{ts H il. aânû lii. andMdl! Ilill {hL.h todd,p *!dyolânorrrr.rrrn.$rlt ratf lJIh qù. àcqutredb! Edlsi.l lll bo'n rhr eFcÛtrr l't.udoce oi\tûiM r Étrûfnu.aio! r$28. Ill. L7lt9; rbnormaLt hllh Beanrlwro nl Sù John afir' Dnrtinio! ûl derord{ r00 n o. er..ssnt pikes. i, Dysof rlr$1.r2. lis 17) I hÉ nkor th( the wd {rrr r{'1,ùrtrq r.rliLes(hd r.e if b.ne' 'ôb. and thÈ dr.k trt L\c tâi Nde.sats wd qnrLi! thn tlie lat r Silkrnù4' o, suDon r lai. trlihlr mn do\r (lrsor1989.u).ùnli vi.vôrùisns êds.5rrith ritruo,i0l,\a,. AùiLtHill ior inltr$ible thtrrlome ol LlÈn,ln,j'l' ii rh. ( u . ù , r r l r . m . h { û o n F s . t r , . t s o l r h e rroù Bci2 âr,Lm! rr, {r q' {irlr dr do.Lrme lron rtu.(;f.ai\xi.ob! ilsrlrlU ote 1ex1il.s qô'r t|l f.ir. m nrinsunrÈrbLi CreaLrl',Lnl.1ir .â,, .l r tnd .orld b. e\p(Èd âbDlarll irql!ld bl ro l,âv..ûme Itum lrLi\n!.ù orh.F rlni, ddinsi: $ùl.h r.nilù5\ùe,rùrq,l{nl clorhinsmdr)ri!.s D.x' to hne doresô


Chaptcr cont€nt

, r r "p r t . , . j{i !orjA r: ,!rr!,ùr N i h I r h êL P r l r 1 r Lirh u ,,nr d 4,fth.sj! lr:rdrrLer."r danut.s f{n Lhccis, ùI ioùrsln rl 1wit1s{irh liL.sor.rolhinsb. n tri,t,ù.m drerle \rithorr br.kêi tozens. or ( t,eu1tr FdeûÉ. rnN ùe I rtor,,!rr ixùimjr D1râdrr,r tsv drG .b|s Lhm . dorL'a:r.iatril ùh rhê*ùD ,ne..ssinirarini {nLdidùe'.!s rD b. ttr.,rr reqhrcd lûnr rnl ùù trLrncc ôftrs lrooJ irLed drbLiis.{taii q ri r, b. srouj,{trÈ pedsoldr. utju, Doptrla.e loic., !njulh. r!dtPrnt,!n ldi \r.Ltr.TrreeshedLMùe id r ronlid.fe'l rrnr{i!. [.ô'sxsp..6oI $ ll\rkr.{llÀiiLrbl.irrh.r2rtitrtun lùÉv LhcJonoii,srtrtrrydFrei:no.loih,,frirjsryDi !1r.. ô,rr J inxlLif|], liLhe \LôôtnL.$ ir r!'n l'don PrabrltrG\bed$ins r,rn â s, bù Dcr{rft dùdprrrirhnugr jli(.rior itrod.r abk!nDonim ofrhe'!ol dodxù{ jLLhescord D ÈrblLnr Jkqf ryoe! rridei tgrrr ?r) À1,1. hiUdth. llti (o[rryrhcndrÈ'Frdua|!,li!{, i i,r i LxDÙ + r. oI LdDroL,ir|Nnen.!:i

ij rh.

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or Lr1ûflù

nr ùD.ê.n or drn lilDtr e r .hl.af \r rh thc hnish.d!r Ld btrrrhê ûr md.'ials ï Drû nrdùg ûi air Diect or ftdt, A rhlpÈf rr (t t r1 knib ttrù ti,t ùrr.:\n.. ir tîbt4c. lDrs rts {ruipmcl l (rn't'.rurii!,re{hodr m !! t rk li'n..:lrriouh ir nun r)errû trc rl 'nrrd tbat nratrr qr rnn ù our loon1.ds. l lLr er,1mg.btrùeê d.T ib. rh errrùd F{ilc: ,nr.iù o rrenbfeôrfily!:rmn\l,ir ltrel Mr.f e lhcd mf FlnL.d b),rrrèDrù rt duiù{cl{i'n!,bp.onDfch.nsn, û rhd.ri! lrps ù tln .rru ologirxrs.qùerù l.xiik\rnùr rhe rar Lrh rnd.rLs r Lf{(ùiri:i. !,Dnr r.ù\{r{r xsâf.rhô5Èdûii!rr rln rdhii.f lr n]il,l|- |!.

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ttrl tn,/6 eft .rrsid{cd rir{ i Dr rh.{ :iê rhenrs ùnr rrs 114r..lùsih.d À{r l Lhercxiir.shÈÉ.x.cord'q l lhenbst.\ra!. a.rr {irr ir Lhisdivsiùr.L'rh.11! 'lnr Lherrr Tl!âbei.è.rsqdta!

dÈporh n Éeshed tr 0sfromihc lJrh(,D !a Drlrd. rnmyrlji.h .rnûi4 f t,À.Jmc.o nnb trrnlLdd djfr.sucll rnbri.s..oùi berlhblGhediorÈir !osibt.ar p,.sêù rDdÈrinld\rrrroùsùtrr qÈre ir h. L! h-d o. foorFoù rhôf rhd!.n. (,l.dm..hiri rllrr ii ainrr! niLl nÙ.!!hout th. !ù, rF g.r.iJrr knotrl s btuddodr,irùe6e inpfc Healaririn,iq pra ô\irrsir hr Ldrt,trhrid tllr û !res.nris{n pirf on.LodrJi,Lj\t,iJjsh:d ù inporbrefed u, rtrcvâ! Idh \2s cù. lt@ed aril nitch.d rJnrtûr.i tr irimisedturing soiharwde sraN .,nddo! ! loLdrd h.r$lrregei4dtrùnk\$. d^

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,,nÈnFrtrtrt! ,ntu.r

m r r t h rj h , r L .


lùitq 5jonorùê sliûins pheel (P4s) Ns rormsol s'ptd pi{.rnjns indudins oi tr.Æion rhe us of silk thrad. chmen$ .6deposib in bjl Èol tubricsfioû l4rhtthlv ioMs in nolthem from otler London.Tè,.oles North BrâbânL iF h such æ Dordræhl D!oE, dis6 thd su.h immdds had alrcadvbè$n hefôrethe end dI the l3Lbmh!J. The $inÙlÙs s€ds to hâE (me, in Éttdleast, fm a d6ire to imift silk hbrics, dhined with chdses in ftâviq khndosy od L'reftrê!.ed useof the .oDerb,l,nce h ê.dle @ IÏêe clorhsd4€n mineihftrole in.lothins sinæù* @e oftd ,dodii fû ùe liæe of retanen. so 3kikjns is làeir-a@dce Lhatdiry en e6ily b€iddrifed in û.triDudnls ândru!aripr illlllrrûtiôns ôf the Éiiôd Gæ FrondspLeedd FLsrse) The cDble the Mplàitv sdnivins cloths,hffi. oI theÉttêrns b b?mdnt@d in a qv làt v6

a,n Cbthins

util d@nd tit 14thcenturydid a linenildusrv noùishinkndon,whsaspânbÊ ldollinen wES * eslabtsùed(c.nsitl 1933,60). Dû. m diê $rn cdtuR Ù,s @rçPmduæd e mbiiious tree ol ûaperybd orùjs ârh!olog,

only 10 sii{ dib lion lddù æ sdd tios ofmôl in qluriû. Thi€chapl€.is prehcèd virh o inboductjonwhicfi plaæslhe trse ÔJ clorhsin rhemoreseneol coljd of silk jmpofts irto Emlând ii the mêdiel pû od It hâsbÈ oû€ a@dflt thlough die tÛ* of acbâeôlû !i$ in the pust t*! decdes drir rjlk ws not m uusu.l lomod rv @ in lod'{mu'v roMs sùô âs London. lvhile some Diæ6 rele i@ded dd recrded, suchws Lheirvdueând ore$ee, , ssnih@t feÛe of rhêtsDmin xrh' ænris :s€mblàse\ or bxriles frnm Llndon È tie lâ.k'tuo ol snilârity bêlwn the pderned $lk clotid of ihose in the @ûp datingb ùe ]iæsês ind knrtbnc tre inrluded in rhe sond qûrter oJ Lher,Iù cqury, boih wftftced co@und sjlÈ, had sidttv sders.ne dÉ!i!r on mol txlilei a ùê wP15 dè de rftlinÊ of ene kind berore thev rele die $dbed de mdè vholv ton ftol none s{ond hâI of the @;ed. bur a third cbù, a t*jll dflasL whi.h [d deposiiseùt5 thm the inpotuæ 0I es the Droductofr nore dishnt Pdng æntre cetuf .TâFti6Doinlrolhe l4ih in ùe Fû Eâ{. .ræm b hft had a much nûishnus in toM housesat this p€riod,{tile b shorlèr DeriûdoI use. Ibiim silks - @, hined it c ol ml, Fri;oizrty aps, opps ,adrriA, ândsdins-nomthe le r4th @ntulv bv wknrs çm at 6161lor wftn hft bea aI @Tto hæ bændisded ftirly cpidLv.As nù md wmen belde bèiigadopd bv thÉ of theclùLhswre roi oy 1eshddwùinc it sæms hisher $ial st l!s. Feh,â nonwcn âh.ic, is onsuner de tô reiect â slish{v nore *ftu, rlsù includedmd encompNs â tieæ ÉDmânirtue oJtuldd oinzlhâii in addifDn ôrienbtd sieq.Îbê tieæi hNd, âresna]l rd theftd otlh*cloths es ùesDâblv Dutto tutier us..'Itlis might sienit 8reâ1erzfluen e Clothsnâdê fom3rdrztforn dresùbi*t orâ co} dùg innabihts in tùe wle ol $e Blrôk sôâûte cùâob. These re âll ôf simllû pmdud sidF Deâth-but i1wuld be ra"ù b speolat on he a i! æ *mples or sti'rjon od sFêrd useh mediFàl Eûop€ *hich is nol wll iion mrê thân M&d .riY6. o! teniles ffi k mfiotwitunsrc' rd silk lind tlineD such as wo1æd likê one ibre, &H is rhe subjec!oi 65eæt1 chrpd dè Mqidû.d nd îrey indudc hÀrqilk €l' .lôihs {lrH fior trol or si&.lhê tuae oflinù wR Nô rLl4Ùt whd hâs 50 iÙ bffi reûded .hunEedùd dmloped 'luns the middleùg5 È Prdluded tw a depositin r,ndôn diûng to be6re 1450, èxhoush8y deblen zsMeù dùoqh p'eé dttd , b€utitùl dêepr€n wiù here bv dË smâUsiæ oI rhê emple. It È nd ùe (oslr rd hiet'ly priuen dlt, rêrmet û€ ê knûm he diÉræ or eÉcnsiE dt linenindG mùtrasihelroud bbricof14ù+nh4Erulnh br fts in redie'd Etslod: linm Ém \4l]lio, w bllnè md arlsllm, Norlolk E suppliedto enbmideriês.Mv oixhich wre ûâde in trrk shopsi! the CiWd{nc nl63,t; Fn.h 1976,23È tbe coùt in ù; $d md l4tà cotries (clx. 56iSldon Ûà, 1296-14,&iNicor* 1a43,40 bÊidq,FftE ùd hâirneG ,{ad @6 rl5: Surbn 1939,î2), bùi ihe b*t qu,Iiy lmh otlheÈxt leindustrv æiûNrùrthtuch conhnued1ob€ i@rtd tm â6rc2dà€ il had 6med dimeæion to a pMk added â siÆifi@t Not od ùd AdltSNn bêenn ùè Rotw Friod'


,eæam.ê. It ksbylàe 'tuzli9 olan individuâls ùiminss 4d æe*ôiei æ çeI âs by rhe côlôù æd ri.lùes ol rabiic.thar his shtos Mq prodajmed,a bct acknowledsed in 14drùd 15th. entury Mptozry legislâriôn.The b€ids fron Londor.trâl $at ûùy oi the sjmlter vdieri6 Ee prcduæd ondnùous\ ùoqhoû ùe pedod Silk nûgûloop bnids. tor êxmple, de preent in a hr r2d'{enr4 Ditfill md ditrermr at al from those ol rhe lareiÛ ceind Thw clêdly $red esdrial næds, inôludinstâch! eamênGùd *ruins :s puruêdrNiw, and odd nol be ù'!r@d uFon More consituuus bEids. *peiâIy those rrm as Âirdt6 ôr @ not biminss werê mo.e influûed bv lzsù ion Vo/l€É qkùEdm bbkr ktrng :d,pæd her oulrlt t0 imibre sdire dd lahr sùi ànd lrlvet. T.blet-wn bmiù frd r.ndon reted ûesê chùær in a smal nv. :lrhouch nonerc fi^,ttu rhns All rhebradsLtesrbedm ùis chipb wre ptubablymadelocally in ih. cir, usinsimpoftd 3ilk dùead,ùd ths rÀrito !s ôf d'È is indiGEd by tiny knoE,lme ùe ldùih of ùethreâdswhefrhererep md osdhe (l-rs

ùostimediale cômoanimswuld hm seenand âmr{i:rê,1, rù br ftced bd.k rhmush mry enbne' àndby Û'eqoûd hulfoI ùe t4L\(d tury qs clG to dismêding nom n5essi.s

The laBerrdt ôl rhe .haplè. deats*ilh the ù'ùng r,l qhrpinsofsôrmenÉ.Thc Ltorhisetr, qù:lbs md rôloui aF.d to hm its dopinÀbeenâ ænhl preoeupârionoflhe 13tbenns. andprob:b j eùùer HhrFs rôô,@ducin â; e esuce or3!le hÀbeei uivætly ad "hnh (Goddardl!27.20: mnedin suc@diracenturies Evms 1952,10,20),'Itle chases whiôhheone âplrd i! rhe 1{ù cenbfy cdrre upona n$ DrdcùpaùonviLh cut beli*d rohâÉbeo biÉ seredotrby delopnsts in plâb dmour whicl demànded more.lo*lrrù4qpÀd'tedsmen6 lndemeàrrr lras ntuàl benpidly lrâtuG.redto ciùliân6shio!, ùd to be r.neded in tun in remalèfashioos.tncreæinctv asthe Uih æntuIydve.ed it%s ùe @bld;;r mnj@ldins JLr kdions ot . orh io ft doreD ro rhe body rorm $hich b€tre rhê Dreo(udion of thefashiotuble.Tjneaturrim€@ .m;ffi cbrdideh æd comenÈh deried ihii 1; stui,st dt iqu6 oidraihtits^Ê eÆiîedia rrtoriàl rudiês, rhr insibbte vretns or prè $e nnalchâlre. Th€ de asDsdsof mêdiev"l rioushrdwoEncbù5: reiul{ùlctrrrrilinlo clothinsthai haE beenlirdeexploredutit m{ nâllcr shaledDiees to fil lhê hùI)n roM r rn. and â ftâittr oJiûlormrion vibl in êsbblshins like lhe srlier pmdriceGrjI, oJmuree,follMd lhe F.hni€l skjlls oJthe Ftud is lonhominr. bJ drê ls,-ilumr) of usiq up lq o'ee oI Semr hhç b'nd,nsr,hûnss ùd hsûjnG, clôth bv Jiniig qqwes or reclcnslêsqth ùi luch a€ Làcinsùd b!tunins re de*rjbêd ùd arsxrù !{tron€ 'o o eàh a mùresh@ty Frso de the swinq threadsr*d. Wn e this oi Im( ûê newlÀshionbeE!ilincEmFrn urù ddæ m,) à0!èd pmrk lnd 16 app€,iinson Jemàndendu ketulnes us pùl ot irs.ræd or ù :s$eti. lel u'n rhe supûb êËmrteç ot (0nspKuo6onquhpdoi.Despirpihis,4ons ,r4 4r4,.d,o whichhâk .ighdy afiâdd con rhe ,bms ekmFd nom Llndon rerese io sidembleatundon. huch ol the sft.hins Næ onplelc clothes,drough Mmd6 ot tuni6, being cried od ôn *Ûftb€n hès in r\e sme hosemd hoods@ be reonshcbd rôn rh" mêhporkrnd û, nmjbr daÈ Manysubdeûer remnan6.Anodrer as!{tof r\e !o wsêft lns ùe reFàled rr!:ch wuld not otheturê hÀe oI rsores i5 rô bê fomd in theruûns up or bm ibowht of æ conponrb ûf4frdav wr croù b ùêâre decorariEefe6 lhr E bê{ È. in thê trdr centuryjdie skilled,reotd md nrn emplinedby ùe d,$rs foud in bolh l4th{m sbichils of ùê bùtunnohi loi exnDte, or ùên tury lûels â18c72ehich Ære ùsedro ornament 6€rùlLv dppLsdsilk lacings.Evfl m;re strikB crôrÀinsor hoise hrns, a dshcrive elene is rhè u& or dk ubl+{Wn bnid dr d mdmpoôry soriâi stle rhd h echoêdin "ùked rec y on to mw slft edg€s.This is d uld rhepieredlætu* Côthic*iodo\tshorspet'en touch,alrho4h it h!! onfl bffinoFd âsâ ol lne sne yer5 (Cr* & Ne€rg&d lq5!,30 Ênishingmethôdoopûuùe5 trd rt sems likety Lrratit n{v alsohaE bæn ed on olhei edæs. Everysou.è of inJornationIæ ib ôm inheF ærhapsnecUinesùd slefl€le$ omhôles ihis mlda$€^ ând[nibliors dd a inrerDrerâtjôn rennem€nt,whichôdy ùe wârer ed his or her is openro quenjor The tâ.F body oI ltnites


tun r,nLl n *@\ b rhill,is. mJ]avp:i ù smrÙon. Jbôddorhrd.loLhins in meiiM ùd rtuliLi.s3ns euRr d m&nr or Lnpland chÀ,^lird ft hiss l^iLlonlù\b€ênamartr enbc for th<!ÊJon di\d:v ml difturioiut clorlq f"\hiaF fufmorerhzn, thoA ûr veA: hrÉ àtlai kr uuûfr!toryb exprurrÛcn i A rd clortinsol'hê tlM, BilrÙ thr orÙrc iobilily. dtrnq'r a period shich has ofrenbeei dnsideredrooHnob to nent nore Lôina Fse

EC4,

(i) 1


Theexcavations AlanVince Thêiâbh\Jsnben n 'hsmt!,n- wrc lound dunn€ d(hrtuloqiL rl q.ÆLr È conduæd hÊ '{epn 1972rJ tq$. md !ùrEty d,he rron, ù n r e * b r h È h : d ! @a n dc r M s h c . ôr deposiiior.an beÀaslEnèd. rn ro$l inshces lhe dde w reache by us4 r oinbi,ration oJ merr^ls - d,ê *ûeohir seoueme. ar* .idêd dùb ! ,brecE. csf€nâjtycôjn\ind Fr rery,rrrns ddjne rLjodrc.hrmotus),ùd ences ' ne nam lrsunenb are smmeised be ror, r)ur tuiher i.lorrurioi is av,irihh h S.hoûeld1936or in sepddeDtrbticarjons âs1Èr.d 'lhè cddesgib b eæh exùvaûoi bv ihe Mu. (cum of Londonùe uqêd n ùe sdedd C.ù. l@errd Gnconlcmên prebÊnceb rt! tull nameând addre$ oI the sic. Here thêsêcodcs are aûpmdtn i! bnct6 ,ner the ,âne ot L\e sre, {bile L\e No/s ret6 ro ùe niiùbered iGùs BalErd,s tlôuæ, Qu@n \tcrdia

w4, t972 (BC72)

Se€€r

lne edlon olmonty klwn as Bâvnâdr (}$le tool Dlre in rg72{webeer& cher; rq71 L62l) rL!{erdmùeiofrroomqdelruared ro he suih of thc ofiLinul Brvnârds G!ùe hu I bywilliamlùd rorh" q*otûtakr ùous or u'ê cme nme Tqo rùsedæontst;ed;ql dae Ère ciqvâred md rhesêm beretard roâ dotr-çlkri dôck'deadndby TonyDr$n,nd DB from ïldes steer lo 6\e riEr (Dyen 1939,l0). (i) The @nstlucLjonofde dock

qu ol rhedockmde ue ofrn Thenorthêrn rJle rmb. Me'6o . prænding sronekt| fld rhe wsl wal %s rôrhedbyr{lrinxic ùâreaorhrshùrewthii

rrlr dll opied thp{j k d rh( stêrLruoLne orLdwrd ttrd Edvàrd rhêrrroiaou dte o âte l3rh ôr eûlv rilr{nrw drP bd rr thoushi to hâE heenstil .ursi in lhê 1330sor krer(Riqoldlgu,99) AddeindrB30strt340s is onsideFdtobpthrm6ttikèh tor ÛredumD whi.h if,ctud.Li,eÉr:l hud.ed rdils of w; iiaq! 'lnvùJ, h?fue 4ChLn",ctuiùddask q rn h om\jlk cNo13ÂrE lhc moslexôrj. D{e orhe. i6s includca iùmber ofbfton.d àæs ,arrronÉrm.ns iNs12 {,17,r8 6i 6i.b3). d:qgesrNossr ?nJ70) àhtaptrtoih,nrm mc{ wjrh: bbtei.qolcn brid (No1!2) Mstk mê\hh:nrcÀ No\115 r$r. ùLl tl"men6 of fFl'(Nur33r. (ii) The usÊlnd ffllinq ôr dre do.k ^ lay6 olsilt *ithin the d;.k cônbjnedr nodtr dte-\iædÀkhblaae orporG4 :nd a ood{krrrnr iê[on whlh .u8se( ûd ùredùk ms i. uk dùing ùê ùird quark.ofr\e t1ln cenrny.Avad as@DrÆ Ms le.oEred ftoù rhebætdillôrrhe doùk, bebind a stone wrll whi.ri blocled the dùk G n! FilsrmelhiE:ndFlioB@mrto r depo5i[oodù in 0iê ta* qurtu. or the l,th cmtory. Mey hrndredsol rerril6 krê Daclêd inb lhjs du'rp andir hæ pNed to b! ihe rjch6t so!ftê d o4?ni â,-bra!Ls*cMd r rheCR I@tu n.rùdèrhree@Ien hoodsrNô.r7i 2!; 2ai. buhondedslsorsùmeitsNus r59.1?3. 2IG221 ?72,271, n4nènE or hok tt.los23+ (Nos2ab-253), 241)daÊses 5i&wns (Nos32J31). ôilcu6 of Luc.hclerr rù .toths Nos l37J44r pieÉEo bp€sb-r(NorJr2lls).L[t tiig (Nos ?16,31?),hâlf.sitkElrers û,ios 3{9352),dd pùposemde eânss c,{os3ss 390).

rray|Erds HoM,Qum Ec4, 1975 (8c75) MaDr(sirei,

M@iaslFeq

i""#'triï:r;r#i,ii il::gii"m îï*"#*f]"?l:;..:*âjî,ig"-


ï.ttiL\ ad ctdhins liles Es r.lâriËly tioDr co[iD6edponionol a RoûD' rivcnide ]nl $âs recorded{Hill d dr 193o,?). Dûdia tmk Fups des,strâbdG2 CIo ind C15. !,edid,l this wl in rhe ôn both sides of Dla.. (i) c2 D.fiod dd anoq ûe bbisl' dcposicd to the 'fhe .trlicsi 1Irc ilrth orii ro reclâin lmd {erê s! mo1 hriles FoûF or tuds .:me lrmr Onr n i p:brnd fireshed rwilldlcn hom dunDinsbehindthe C2rselrneii (l nlyrh. base plaieol rhismtrfront remained,rhesrperhl loEFLrrd (t'g lLr.Crtuod l$U, Ui l5 in r r ((;3)haviûbeetr reôùil(abonr20yedslâbi È i ) Ù r ru - r à c n f o t u e L l s c h e d s e b ù m a r b.c -lhe !he,lM lprnrnÉ lqth Ùrr<rrlirhnd!ôloh ..1290133s. dare,'r rlio oûsudion ol G2is (Cmwtooi ThÈ l9l,il,112 1.1,no 14.!) bk.n, a lwe rb in rhe {efr br*d o, a pcùr1vbel]wn dmp Ms initiallydesùibedasdari4 rorhel3Ûl prc*nted ehshere in tndor iù lroups or .entus onùe basisolptery rialysis buta reâs .1250 ro 1230.a mrn rnDulh ol â the Inade *$i,cd onhe ûnbry, vhich in.ludesont a Gr .r2s0 âi RromholnPriory.Norfol{, md a re'{t shern\d l.ûdoF6!e wâr., sw*ls llrd ii datcs rir de io.hronologicl dati {,bbi.d iiom the bcsten ùe dd oI the rl} ândihc middleoJL\e nasÈplare. Trk Jrtu'r Finb ro . darelder thm ..1250for the rubbish in this deposir.{, rl'at â Aiôthcr re\tlrnê,t doosir sii!âbd io the depositiondab in the v.ônd halrorthe u$ .qt souLhofL\e ll, wi'i.h appcm to d.F tothe 14ù ruB €e'ns ccûin. ltxriles wre reovetd froln cnlury. J'icldcda silk inseflmp bra dd a M conab in the rdehe.t dudt Th.Y com prÂe bvo rcol le*iilcs, nmely â fine wr$.d hbbvl$e. woùen cloù (cmwlæl 1931l. r$, nosla6,ra4 r,bbv No 39?l ind a 2 2 ûi1l holh worn rmn Zsoin !ûn, silk bRids (Nos 3e8-l0l) a silk ôllndon Eo)È' &sde/crl5, Bâ'îard's meshhatnct (Noilsj). and. silk cloL\,prcbâblv É41 Str€et EC,l, oJs@ish or8in. {oveo in 1.3Rflra.cd oc Scù@|, UppdThMe

(mD81)

Exw io6 in 1981*oosed L\e eùù enl .nsr. bw. oJthe lsikenhry ptup.iy knoM asB.v nads Câ{le Ir wrs Joûndthâr thÈ mtaond (otrrùd i6 adjoiniu çânsvere pd'i â' cn È sion L t\e casde.whi.h hisrial eûes indi .de Nas.oisÙtrcbd by r$0, ariera fire in 1123. Th. a.cabesten ire o1dmd nd sâÙsws brck flled {idr rubbish. includi4 Ftery or les which nist ÀpFred in the sly 151h.entrrv. Fl@ens or sia mol Bliles ruc tuud in dris one (rtse â dlnu tw ddhs i.2.2 $iI *,rin non Seut @n, md rhe ,'lh.f a tulled voo[{ ùLh ZsDunHrP }tn ûd SsPln ftn !:rd dyêdvi0r ndder-ând tuu cloùs n' ùbÙv 2-3 Trig IÆe, ÙDperThmes Sr.eet, EC4,1971(11-74) 'nrimeiii@l

Mbrianr eqrcmc cxavded ar Tris r4e darcsftom .1250 ro .14-10(Milne & Nliliic 1932).hrge a*mblaees orân.rds oJthe 1de]3ù c.mw. ùle 14ihccnhry and mid 151\ cenNry s.r. fcsvcFd but the nmbÛ d G*

i,-,s

i r l .-

(iD Gro

Furihcr rdlamari,' ôl thc lhnes etedront qs reorc$nbd by.he G10rfthre.r, wliidt is bciwccn 13:ttidd dâtd by dendrcchronoL,s'y l-330.Il Nis reDâlrcdoer ldt of i6 le.gn in . 1430but L\e nnds aso.iaGd wilb {hj! rcpat havebeensepmtn rrun ûc fci orL\earklâG Onerexirle.Àpi{c oI tâbbymm sitkcldn, ryaç

(iii) Gr-5

'Ihe

dared foreshôrein lronl ol ùc cl] |mhst by dsdn,.lvoûolos to 13511333çâs mjned Nc' a side area Jûoos and pikri'i sÔmnns dab L\e lordhore lxMcn .1330 ùd a1430 The dùnp aboe dis breshor Nâs ris,ciabd tith a $onê riFr rvnl, Cls T.ftilcs were re cmren Éd'n sdcnl deFsi6 annitr dmps bÈ hiûd Lhc$one wll Ûese indtrdea trlnbcr ol {@llen clothsin bLby w6re, r wd .lot]] pae lerned$ l1 â $dt fi.ed baûdin exrendedr.bby No 4Û4, tuln.nb or a prijn lincn (No 403),a silL bbleleeù bnid (No 4o1), aM a rabbv'

l,6tfix


1t

rdim ûrdbstronshr.hêxdr* Dn'io;cr ù nre

1 6M1ksûeêt,EC2,1976Otrt(76) MapI (site5)

A sûies ùI SæNom

buildirc ws D

.Mred. tq€thêr qdr à tæ nmb6ola$c cÈbd piE Ensin€ in d& troû thê r0ràb rhebh 12ùi eoù,6. .bM ùek % a sqænf ot aÈ' soie buitdins5t!'tin[ Mjtk sEær ir\eff rRod@q & çhoÂetd 1973231_.1, thofietd d,r bincomiûgj Te silÀ 6nftrlooD bêids rNo! 107.4$) {ere ÊMred ram a Diidrêd hv mi l}ry ro ûe ldk tzrh csh4 , r(i oiees oidàin rinenrNo4091ûoma fÛ or: F,nerobe daledbv Fbry ùd : ç, maùixb the seond halj orù€ l3L\ ftni4 or, liûle htcr Amtber ôià r orn,h ùnên (No aB) ùd mc tui{p *;F or;,ool !roh,oi€ {En homkr*d Fn D asix{hed hj[ rNo 4r0)md ebhr n bbby w in.luùng M pirh *tEd8€q 0.!os{r,4],, wre romdr: 6llofâdooèrinèdFdercbêdedioràebht4ù

orerb rsLh.oruDb, I teÀdbuùÀortuæ Urbr \4 û37&$.Cql. CundnanCa Par* sire,Ald("l@bw. EC2, 1965 ErùEdô6

beù

û dF L"[àr or ' dùolshêd

bu,ldfp

adermùbu4 ùd dr€cu,tdhân m

LftÉd h6 0f thê rcbbd out êâ( Er ., rhê Rommldr Dêb.s, wh(h 's datedby mneR ro tàe rir* hàu ol the r2rh 6rL6 . E ;æde;ed 6-on rhe 6ù of rhe vàI I rcbb€r Eo(h to!€ther ûrh .hrrcd fràeneG ot a !r ot hu.kabaùI Jotn rNo{l4l {lù.h É ,lnor.qhiitv iDs Pûblic Clensing Dêpôt, Uppdîhmê.

sùer. EC3(D@s.t ), 1959

Du'nsobsenâdù or, sireon rheelqt sid?oi rhê noulh of ihe \{âlbrook, ner the medie!2]s&et yard ud publi whûf of Dov,!âh, â chy n€r od. prcbibly oJdre lde I rth or ûr] rzh en h! y, md one ù norê subsquer ûmb€. rer


Tùtit . ùntt ctdhitt ments$se reùirdcd l*riles wre reÙ'.rcd fromrtu dificrenldeFsiG.,|heeârli.r {æ a Iore shor. deùoshcha.rcrcrh.d bv a hilh pmporùon ot mponrllilurn rr pnbD lDln t nalri:g) l,Li tnsFh rôd!ô .htr I Ùrt th? lorP$ort had rêMined qM into the eanJ'$$ cqùurv Ths I r-r'iF ricld.d ;bh\ $û p. !Lornùuù n h omoÙ.Ll!rn {hnhi! D.ôbablygoidrârrOo a]' T|e se.oDdd.posit v,. â rubbÈh d!ùD wirhù i ûDb{r revelnênt datedbJ'ic poGry r$.mblaF ro th. mi.tdleor thc 111h(!tury. A !ie.e of â lolf,rlcpaftrned < rÈddh 'rs r(dered I11iuDfonûdelv it has norùecnpssiùI.1o .xâminedristexdle

SEn lÆVuppcrThmes St€êt,nol

l9a1(swAa1)

A ï'all conbolleder.âvdion exro\''l â.lav rivcr bmk, tmù which a lml colldioi oi P.tury .eit4 heanhs âsocirred viù dothwr*i"s bmbâbly tullin!), and a sequerced r2th and l3tirdtùry rewhe menc ad fubbGh dmDs dtins up 100n $rn (ûbry \tre identitieddrirE I Ætchiry briel 'tlre latc l:ïtudtûry watcrÛonts û) 'n'e û,o{ oroducrivedunÉ â( Slrr Inr lay in tont oI r$etnent daredby pôfr.ryro theûiddle or ûe l3rh (d!ry. ^ ldrè seriesoJcoinsand !*cnsws rêco\€red6!m d$e dùDp€shæing ùd ùc wâie io !ùos drc middlel)an ofùe sirevas r{hi,îed d â si1u1epûiod ir ùi as a sincleoæntion. Or coits sûgÂcda deDosition ir; bdwe,.1260 andU79sin.. onlvlareris strcsor the lo.! .fos .oin@ orH.nry lll {eÉ Ioutrd l'iLTirn s vmts include a nunber rhoûhi io hm beentrcdÙcedro .on'nqnÔÉb oI $e n,aivnlôD or $ nron.s i', thc €nba 1270anda ùr bâdscdatiû ro12è or 1âterIrcm â p(s onn) prio'a at'btrlouse (B'jr !Hc. Îênjles re.oÉrtd ton çithin this dumpmm Drj* Jou rabby{rn silks\nh t{ist in ùe mD !dû ôtr1y,so silk bnlds, one Dhini (No 421) ?nd oiê in â silver.bn!:âd.dhblelre3ve (r_o {20) lu!raôûlcoth' Foii ht\ht,l'"ill"ù!n notr,l sor Nm rd 'su ,hr. srr.dNil $iù ûixed sDinnin(.anl a coase soathâLcloih (No

r(' A silk roen h erin damask(l{o ,21) !6 ale sûpp\dilr, .csered fiom one d ûcsc d!mos.but sudran .adv dalei)r tl,c pie.e mùn be dorbtcd ând jr h poinbF rh.t the contar, whi.h fts islabd d thê topoI Lhea q!.'c. rnd lroduced ro other darall. rinds, w.s conbm!

ti) The eÙly rSth{erLlry mterlronls h rheê{rm. soulhrr! .orncr ol the si@lIee s wc'c rccoveredfrcmeirhû si'I. or FoùFdû â rimùerrrydnêf Thosebel'indII. , serfrent .DDearro hle beei dis.ardedal the verv fld d the r41h..ntury or belinniu oI the ltn cntq and me a$ôciabd njlh iiinb.rs d ed bv de ùro.,ironololj b 1394or l.ter Thok i', ndi 'ù dr .ân hc diri.led inio ùof fû'n ihc 10re shorea droselrom th. rddmcnl dunp aboe. re bma,llydd.d by oiis b .1122or liit l!! di.s @re rR..mred dmD. a wool .loih oâftmed $ùh a senesôJ lrÉil mfr hced blnds (No422) I â silk hblef

SealH@*, rotrl lJppdîhmes stret' EC4,197' (SÈ74) Map1 Gilê 9)

]|e excddion of a l0.l îrrcw tenctr, trcvcr n,or. Lhd lù vide. reÉ sl I sqm.e of l}]l and 13Lh{e.rud ijnb.. rt€rnenb llre lld erlje{ rMhrenb whi.h wre dd, l bv dcûdro' dd l1€ir-1192 hd been cbronolos to 1133-1170 rohbedb;]in bcinq reDl..ed,but â ihirn dmD rmhcni rd.i,,êd ùbd o{arerfmDtlll). A datê of u02 1215ws ùbjncd lor ùe r,?Ilneor rr'e larer rimbcru*d in ns con*uctior, md û. re Étnen. dùùp behindns di thmqsh bv a tim' or lâbr herlind dÉh tom vhich â 'lde o11203 wrs obbined Pt dr. rime ol lir dÀtrrv i\e Æ..onsidêrPdhbè muh oo(r4 A\mL4 bv l!1, rôrùrF dn4\ii.c n!od?i - l'hûd\ fiom a l.r!e nmberol de.ôrÀbdjugsior{hich ? qs i@oued,bu(is hc.c orducrior dd. ô11240 dre reuse oI aiv ôl thc ritbtrs is .o siden.e lor empl!d rurtrËfinsLl:bnc.' snow.on5iderI r l ' a r r ' d ù n g o i h e l l o f r csl -h}v l l l i h r . È r { pieLeoJsilkcn cloth 0\o ,126)md pdt or a i'n' aerlooDsill bnid (No.127){ere re.okred tom

EC3,r


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Fs i.,,TrT,iTË t nzetc'stt'

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ffiffi

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wffi,m,qm

ffoï"ffl5*'*''"""t".'*n ;i5"":'J,ti Âi,g$ii-H"iËpr:gd trf;


t nèdierl psiod this @uld ha€ b€o lii'rin ôe !ft.inct ofgoly Trinit Priory,Àd3!ê The ffÙs olltrc pii hm bd {taledby potterrio lhe *ond halr of ùe lath dhry. Om âl pmdùæd6' c ndls oft{o !.ltemed silk dolhs (Nos1f4,45S). hôdjDrobrblywd in hlamic SDaid.

1

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Techniquesusedin textileproduction The âllrljljmæ oladlile depsds uôn tnenw mierùts ed in ib ploducdonmd iheMyrfi{it ks made.fte mt côfrnd fibresrepresoed in rhiswhme {iU b€di$trs€n ildiùdu[y sir.ê tle tehiolôE] æp1iedb thm !tur:lly dê rèloûed spmtelr Præe*s âid tôdls wrq hoftr emdimes Farsleûedfiom oæ q,peor fibre to @ther in lhe ftedidal Friod lhisadapt. abili9 is paniNlarv noriea6ie in ihe dfttôD mmr or hôlld ôlodrs*hich boiiftd wious pro.lses fion o,€ cotun ind61rr'' indudins$ê spimin wbeel (It@oui 1931,7Fi Cho'ley 1937,376).rrom the lâh cmrry, srâturesand gùild re8llârionssmrned 'my ææcb of rhe itrdusliy and æ â r6ùlt nuch cù be lâned .bùut DmdudionmerhodsThee sllnsL no* *i de noi ùûprehensile - ene dæuû4ls hR ben d.slroyèdmd Ifuy debnsoftiis kind wre r*r wind d{m. Wnereiltormtion ôn rextilepmdùdiôn È milable tm lrndon this ûll be usd io ill6b2L p.iirs in Fe6rene b rharæ$rded nr olher to}c, ihoush ir is trot inhded to inply rhât all rhè dlÆted leFiles

Wool wool MS fie chiel w Âbre usedlor Ènils i! m€diehl Enshnd. Iikê aI mhrâi 6bres its q!,iivw nûdùenl:i io the frnish.dtûbricand ùe næe B ùsuu lne mst esxnsiÈ iremin ihe nDliqg of a cloii. sheeprerê m[û nd breedsmt $ bishly fttved âs rhq b€ffe in Lrre13th@t!ry. Therê {eÉ. ntrrthele$. re gionalmriadùs in Erylish wl resuûns nom diferd.es in climrq pæûê îd hGbùdry md tàisisreflededin asi6 of@l.pricê s.hêdù16 datiqsian .1270b 1499(Mmo $73; Munro r97!). Eæh næ.e yields a wieq or rqndesor mol a.mrdiDg io ùc Fd of rÀe sheeptm whichit emæ: rhâr6om L\e shotrldere is thèbD hardbêljyG 8nde,whereaswoolnomtheùrit i@ly ifiar i! $nêÉlly ûNhle. written efts cftin nonashrieq whi.h we mjù sumlien

of@l neee 9s softd inb lhreesÊde. æ.d, mêdim nd loclc or clippi$s (Mllm 1973, L23).Fifty{ne sol kmdæ rêâsued by Mi.h âelRydersho*d thata{ide Ersc dneeæ tæ3 cloL\s ton mdie'd l,ndon (Mer 1931,2!26, hblês 3, 4). FDe wols includetrcwidiii themeiro Ense {N6 6 and13)ed â relârivelyhiq! ærcdbÆ (31)%) of shortw@lswre iddined Êomrie hte l{n*n. tury dê!ô6ir ât acn. orlrer fbre MlJtes by Harry M Àpplqlrd indi€E $at . fs clôds rd â piea offetwre mde ftom thewl ot double @*n shæp(D! 39,7s;Hâny M appleyardlos mIm). ThèÈ *Ûe a nore primitiE ç9è similar to efre oI ùe scodish highlmd ând isl d bfteds,vhich, 1ik€*Id shæp,hâdâ hâi.y oub. ûr æd m udercoar ot 6ne md (&rder 1931 13).Natlral brch ârd Fawok Rre alsolsed ro pat!)m doths, sodines temed {iù dyed trôl dd sftrines riblry undyedGæ P14), ândd'e pndiæ ofkeepinsa fd côldued slRp in a od! nêiliûned by Heny Bét in 1641,us p.rh?psâlreâdy Nêd (Rydd xlel.,{slHl). A Idserwol hding prosÉre is nædêd,hôw. @s, lo Eâinmûe debtud inômalion âb.ut ûe bDesoftle{e usedlor pârtioLr clôihd A leqqthysûies of!toc* hasb be@ried outbefolenæ@tutomêdinb annÈh€dlotthol clod! aùùE L\m re *illNils, wæhins,dye ins, blddins, combins,€Jdjis, b@inE, spi} niûs, winding,lÙpi.s. sizins,waùns, tuûins, Tnesetried a(ordin iô thê w [m oie redù to mL\e.l€dins

or sml rd b divisions

Muchaenmcnthæ mlied arcundthe lenslh ordapreormedi6"r @l andwherhertherew a'y loi8wol suitâblefôr makingmrbds (ê.s. B.ldd 1956rRydd r$l 22, 24. ùn4€€r its preisè ræhnicâlcizdd lneF À .o dùbr diat rusld @i ndins rcd prepeed by cofth. ins, sas pmdn@d L\rclshou! tùe medhBl p€riod.The prue* w cdried oursirft a pznor wolonbs. Th* we m.med md dipæd iîio a pot ol Erêe consieiry ol hufti oliE oil ù


dimâl6! wlricht.1Fd Io lubrietc Lhewol md DrMnt rbe Âbre56om h.Lômrnsdm'sPd llre iM.ombs dlld b! hrldin 'hPhrds (Holfnri $6a, xql. b jn Enslædir es mr u*il tor oie hêren combt b. Jih.rl to m lDrisht @r Gled a combing$rk. An approsialea'nornl oi MnlÆsrÉî!.d (Ùrru{nrii thFcomhu,lÙe \-ord.onb $i. th.n orsJ 'hroqh Ùr. e,i ud ir l,d d.âM ofi aI rhelongnbtuslcavi4ihe shofr noilsto be qcled s.pdûlv l1t {ootws subsqtrmrly vofkcd backon to the {qid oû'Ù md tlÈ prccsrep€ated ud asualicicniqumbit ms reâdyfor spimins (Roù leos,7).lvoolcomb inghadbænpmcilsed1ôr.etrùis in nanv IdLs ol F-qlmd ùd fln ibn combsrc knoM tm Rodxn Bibin ôl'lld 1970,?5r M@ing 1972. 333-t). Ry dr 1âte6th .enùy, ùen lôrn hâd bccn modfied.md cotr'ls ro$d on rml kttrê IPêth bomdwirl denGùd nFr.hÀelrsof i'un àid *t at.'n!nsler'o aharlh or{ood or horn.I@menb ol sinilar{oolsnbs hfle bæn lbud in lÙ md ulb.entury dePsib ii Tlrr rord,York ard bndon, iidicdjns ûât the r.sk €ç not at ùn dt .o ined to ruâl dÈùids {here ùc md cliPû'grmted oonbed {ool {as usuallyplaed (drskd) on â 'lisi,rfld sp!trvih a spindlefittedunn a vhorl ùat h. pcdto 4i!ht the inpld nenimd to tuF r ln rheÉrioLlliïr11,0 lmr !ùdre. se e lârhÊh,medfiom \ed andhada siollet i'r'k b holdLlre\chonin pla.e(Oy.193t,:2,3 );a stindlêoJÙrj,rjÈ ftom: hE l4thaentu)dc puil idrnndonFJhdle nnce ùan 2r4mm(n' riDÈ hiokei) md È maderfôDroniFreus wod aia71.ad rc 27a!. lflhe ydn ws to beEry,1rc a srin.c. mighrwork Hted s!4oniûs d'c spiÈ dlê ii r ùnrtns {ch aaa Ft or @odenbowl Ho{dêa mcdiml pùrta}als indicalerhat ii rus noreLmnonrolawolnûbspinfudirrg. dwiq ourtl'e woôlaid sj$iûr it ldii rhespiF dle rôuch.d the souM. The dirddod ii shich the edn ws siscd d@eûdcdùponwbètherlhe qp;dlr û,q rôftd q'h lhê fishtor <r' h?n!i c.mbrd {dws !,u[\ Z'-i.1.1 n ti. m"dj w:l periodGis l), buttfiâtusedlor ùe *efrco'id br seisbd md sfrer sps (Fq 2) we GeæÊlly,combêdw@lws dy.{l beJore inr. Inis {âblcd sull moùb or lml ro be dEd in â bit\-l, rherebyrquning les caoibl o;iby in equ'ldar indnp'c.eiFins k àl.o mead i,\ât thc rcol6!d lor a leulh ur 1 0 4s

\;1!

.roo a L{rh{rbry

d!ûosit sGre rl


luhiiq@ 6èd in kni, tntudia" nol alwâysMdy rhe eme tinl This enlivened ùe cloths appemNe bur rhe eftud %s norâ sùed in rhe raterdddle as€suhei unifôrmiû ol colou. u. orêGred. lvGted ydn s6 ale ue lor bnids and iùr t le€riês wkre snâI qud{irês olcolouredrms wm neded for ù! erdtrs. AmUrer reasn why m6bds ve.s chÉp€r in ihe lâb mediel æriod us rhddrs did ro! requi.e a mmpricaredsries of fflishinÀ pro.eses b enh ce rheir rdtue. calenddios Oot prcsils) oi lolishùa whiclrincreâed ù; surlle shæn ol mr*ds, er ff æpbon wrind soûcessu8se! rharrh6 procs F@ in imprhcr 6-omùp Itrh rentury (s,l2mântej, 233r.bu rhc hdidonal merhodôf rubbq thc surhce {ith . sliclcbn€ or lre*ed ds heni splrerê,*hich n âle a$oci.led ùr\ lincn,hâd

Cônbinsad cddins endirc æh io he bÉn qried out in thêtuewrkshop - iû 1413, 4!6 Stubbùdof BuryI Ednùndsb€quërhed to sbill chelqr+, a Èn of wlmbs. a .omhinsstoclçâ wheel(,r, rd r pajr ol .ù-ds (Irms 1&50,2-3) - ad ihh hay haE bæn be@usemiy cbùs !Ûe m troma mmb€n 'lne mrp ùd czrdedwenr whæl nùrioned in the vill Ms FKibly lor MdLu yûr inb hùks, b,Jkorbobbins burft.o'ndhàF bpênâ ùinnnq whæLÎe latte. dr€sreal wheelehich rÈ spin: slêr tuûed tudins up, ws mthr iûplmdt inlrodued irto EnÂlândârabouilhewè rine æ lml caldsdd *æ, at6rst esreiâlb asgiftd wiù the !todùdion of wollen yetr lof Lte s€{t Geep 45). It speededu! sliûins brt fie ydn ks noi âsnne or âsM asrhd spunwnn â dtuD

cloo's @ trd med yarn Ere ho.g ûe nost pr*tÈio6 in thê Aûlo.Smn md vikins *irsdoms andLte fitreslpidês de tuuid in ilrèsftsolperei\othuh trkin Enstand, NoMy smdcn ,nd nêmùk Lcnelllrlen 1969,1sH0: Cro\6ot 1933. 457, ,160,4631 hgsLd 1932,33 94irngsd t$3, L:l6r4iGcirer L$4.22-29Hrd r$0. 102,Beodels44q6 193635760) Thê n sitjondid m (hèice obl mund the latêllrh dr rzth ent!rv vh$ hcrilv finishedoloûed clothsklNn assld wri

\cool has a bndscy io lelt dd, mthêr n\o spoili,rgrhetue of tàecloth,ihis prcært ws eplojbd to ad@use by tulliog wllen hbrics ullermIjng iùtiÉ a ffrm bxlure md 6ôfrdÉÉ_ 1]È pmæs ditrsed s1i!nù toû me phæ io anotherbû ii involEi $alde ùê clùth in an alkâ[nedemins e!d1 suchas tuiels eâforor slale huma! ùrine iô ielrrm sleæ md {tiit (Pâtersn Ù56,21s).Atur rjnsid, n5êdoù Nx poundêdhy had, uderioolorrir\Rxdcn hm ûûs rchbd ùy @r !ÔÈ. r'uli.g had b€n comon h the Rùnù Deriod,uhen il Es olrd âried oùt by bripling clonhh ldlr hrbs(Witd 1970,32), hut itws Uûusuâi in nonhemEmæ in $ê fôloNing @itries shm p€flernedctolhs {wen nom luNtrôls,ænhed wol wre .oF sideredlo b. nore desiEble.The bsquer cxûnseâplds io ha€ sorqd no-ihmrds f.om l{y wherethe prc6 mâyn*r hæ diedolt Fûlios nills ùe reordêd in cdbal ùd nù-1hern Iht duing lhe *ond hâlfotthe ù.enhq (Malanim r$6, n7 $). mund Roùm in Nor mandy by 1c47 Gdmrd 1947,lso) md in lnsland by ùe hê lâh cùhny (c.ruew-ds.n I3s4, 139-90).fuljng nills rerè êsbdhned close to lindon d old Ford, sb,6ord, rvùdsmrth, ùfreld lnd the lrHù ot Ste@ry (ShâDe1907,ktd@k H. txlq 37:NjcDomêll 1973,s). but tullinc by hmd or foot 6 pre ferredir.ftin c(llmoditei suchs hâb,æd in !€rlain cloitrprodlciru EBons, Fniùlr! Flbders(6uMn lgla,a36) !ùnins caued cloLSsb shrirk up to âboura

woolhns u*i slorl slâDtewol md dre pre pu6on. ùdho,l ut spitrms, lnd hnkhi4 dd Ieredfom ihr ot ffibd5 Btjore the lah ]3ln @nlury,woolthat*astoo$hônbbe comb€dvâs sômêrinesbeahn vith â bn, 4 æhd {riD ot {ood widrâ 3u1*ins Qdu oui 198r.7Èa: L\e vibFtion oirhis tæl a*d ùe ôbrêsrô*rcte iilo a nutry ms suibbb nr sDiminqad tor nâliry 6lL Ho@i ùis oræes, ttri.h E6 ale usedhr 8laùJir ud obn, o0tyâp!à s to hee ben inhtlued iiro wsrch EmDe : I nte bdùrr czin ns, od 't Ms crdn]g €rher rhr bolins ù,t beome populr iD [bs]ând. ùrds, like wolcombs, Neie Nd in pâis îry *ere wden boùds sered on oie sidesin hathd intô vhicù lrN or mU imtr h@ls wère er. l,cks dimol rere spreâdaùs onecùd,vhich ws heldagaiiis ùe lÀighod ùe olhd c?rdws dIM thmlsh rhêilbres *idr . stroliE froton (BainesF77,31. îis wâsftoêabd sæà hftes bêtôretÀewd vâs reâdytor spimirs.


thniLs a"d L10 ri"t

thin ordrn origim!sizeândro.ombrad ùis ir ne!.nmè $ul to$retchâcloùNhil. iiMs dryins

on3 i@den tcnGrlnùe lnc c10thwasaûched to rhe Drallel brs oI lhe tume bv noù hooks srâcd alory the s.htdg6 a! i'.Àsu.ed jnteds b eislfc the cored amour ol shriitæ, \irc. the \idih oracloth,âtd laterit ls'41', vÀ res ldcd h sûtùte.In t3ih{cûtory rnndon,bnGr lancs ltre rrc'tFniJy in priEte oqddnp. Sir Rôbcn &nylùi, lor euntLP, lmed i renÈ b the pùish ol st sùùÙ\ .Fodd .ânnlsifksûed in thern0s (Cal$lls l 7s)btrt, i', ord..ro minbin quliry cotrbl md 1opremt ôl m.lDndic*, $.li æ iie imdequde dtrl clort. iic Drâoe6 md laio* $ilds vêre qmbd â æriiioniri 1432ro'ôiddingaûj'n eeBâ. b haË or tÈcp a bnier 6hrpe l3D, rdcrbook

âïed howhans .an b. spùn or fel6l, ùd l..h riquestrre doised to côpewiÙ' U'h t;oath.ir lâ&s crimDând.therefore,io produ.ea dùead surfô4rly sro s ôi {"ffns the}r n $^ dicd tho "H combred"rû $ù'lb ;:lJ;q "he.e qNcà shint .!tue Gêêp 7r) Tl. mninqol ;ni'ndlhrr wirlr{oo $s hôqftr forlildenin $he otherbffdÈs orLhe.lotl' indusrry,esl* ciâIv in lh. prcdu.don ol .halons in bndoî -l', .ftretr!ônrplimr!rlÈttÉnlhrdorlr{ IreiÀi trrù. " c.omlrrfeitiry 'hi ùbv mixiû di. hzrroJ.âde dd Dis! *ith Lhatol wôol

Iinen

Tô siE the d,)lh , sofrlinish ir Na h@ or a beaÉ (æ.ch) ùd Mrked over (oftd) sith The earlie{ trtiles known*eft prodrccdtrom (D,rsdmrlL,,,, tue sd in a won$ bæles rlmt libEs. Vary pl 5 J'i.ld suiublefibresb (C.r!ç$ilen l9s7.110). Ûi* a naD ws Lheprinciral bast in orderro 6,bris',!,) ilu (t'l, r h r n : p t u l l d L ê d r ! u ' n ! J à p r r ù t ? r i r ribft us.d in the lextile iùlustv oJ ûediaâl r:uroÉ. The 6bre is obbined nln ùe slên t*tils, lor cxmDle ton Lheearlv 7in{cnnq çhici hâsb b. Ddledùefôre$e seedsre tuÙv (cmx{mt1933,127 {). ihinhDndâtSutunHoo rir Pûe$ins nJudrdedrinq kn'ùsi totui rpm!Ût'qhtrn anànon ulh.ûtury deFsib atHaiùabtr,Ùrù the*oodyor ufLi! *m\ cÉrnmy (H:tlr 19& 12! a,fisç 73,3,1{7) Ho* Doluledri!.' s ad .arsed m u4Lc$ai detch dtunc rhe $ems ro cmb.illle them, b€atis ûe. in Lh. 1aiû medi.kl Friod, it ws usual10 q.!F priroflà4. I \h<ÀFrr (breàiri à ,h. ,l trd çd' Mth se 4 m:rFb ooDi itu'th mr ùe rlothro, .Ftrl. r"LldrdbenththÊe) nfiki,s (*utrhi"grwithJwid.n knileùànd d {iili doubleetrdd m.hl cli6 0iâÉft9 (Esm rrn boàrdroI ( ilr. ribr\ bnmhe b d rd ptcess iâp md ctuÈ or misins i 1979.Ir0). fte .ombiru d'c.kliry) p,ngr roùldbeieldÊ1tr€n\ rinrs Lt onlvir modr Fd eqùd r i ir th< tuq fibes fr thc rùol*,\ô \uflrci.n'\ hishqrdliDiôs,th sri".na (Ba'h rqrT lçr,1r AlÙrulsh tj' na sbnd suchtèabndt O{unn 1e33,3.1) L'-1,iiredonulM{orn} fbrc . r, L\fo'ghod By the r3in ...tury a dislindionsâs nad. É nonheri EuoF nd ws senenùv spun'id' a .lô F L\at trre ltr.û high quâry'obred z rud r Llsl Ùreb 'sn4sofli 4 rromeÀ!vÀ (Liq\54 dvedin Llrepie.e (es. n 2ts)dd chêaperclo0's 'ioF n rrdôn helhhLhmll4irj! such as is mÉn tôm rrn dYed in dre hank 56.Tâb1e9). lhc nabi.l colou ol lircn bIrM (e.g. rji 1937, Fls r. 3À Chorlev nF medls .id and.drorcJo.e.nws oltenbleâclrcdto {hibn it cnhêr beile or dlPr wdiû. ThÈ wâsa slow 350).Ho\ær sômcrcol dyedbeloreweàvi4 *s.lFd aâin in L\epiee (Mudô l9$ 53a). ;dJcdonsidù,bh roin Lonotrhê\lorlr'Lii0ê is l.om abou $t turhhs or Ùiq b.ror the rh'lLtmûtr $betrshh k< àvJiJbhin Ùre Hair 141\.story (nùsk 1973,3'l)brt mos rc.lpcs pmbàbbLrÉimd"d l|ronpd! llr licàlplos It Textil.s wre also producediroln rnc h3in 0l ûtr stre d ùf,eirv tù8re. msalsoromon dhêr 'ùi'n:ls. lho* idediiicd fioû medierzldÈ hr iisph"ri',1 wth J lre,Ed, ùe \lvri gmt ôr rlsd tubbins posiNin L,idon re andâ sp{is p 3l) (aûby âlso qlass 327t *. IJ 1952, {eæcl or {oal lid, @sibly


îèù^iqa

æd ia@Nb tndùiar

silk

nlzmn6 wr€ reeled loælhe., since ùe silk fiom a singleco@n vÀ tooffneb beusd onj& 'fte oM. The âim Pâs rô pndm s loia ûooù ditrerenlslagesol silknduâcture liksis dêmùded3kêdIabou(sblêy1x)6,2l.r2l.As làreâd 6æ 6om nuq drc$ dd kDB but sluhs a lid ftp thesilt flûsl hrd to hefÊêdfrôm Merim6 irned and dris |5rsd Æ ûs€n6r 'IlË ihe s€fr in ls.osUy àbrics (* F,,gs6s,67,6a, rhectroûn ûf lhe silkworû. comns wre heatedi! o LrcÉ bæinol wrer b sofrênihe 70,129),Itvæâs rasilktfi ailÀenble % haded sricin (iâhràl tml; the l@s€n mds vnich (Fis 3) sincêecoG re rood€li.ne b b€tuÈ noabdônùe sùr6c. coLldthenbelnsæd md porkd sâ'ely.SomeBw silk es sised (LhM) the w silk unEreIed(æêlêd)(ciddu 1s7e, roforn a *or8€rwo ùftad, ,lhougù thispr 1316).TwçTesojftêlvÛe in a i! Ilalyii the ce$ hs si.Ùy 'meæsry, md ir erlâin lSth entury, ùê lN ræl (eld4a ,4v) on tDes ôJhea4'trbri6 dd forbnjds, hâimeb ùd ryhichM rhrads @uld be @d€êd sihut [jng6 ull1m sjlk m ddbled dd redoubled hùùsh ud thehishreet@aiu '/ârl uhich G!trr 1966,241-! Dâle 1923,73). rvarerp'reed tituirynills we inroduced1osDæd moreil'o doubled làêoutDûtùy dablingatlssl iùû dre.ds t bèieeledsidehy side,{d it h u! Ur præê$ in Ibt dùins the 13$ cmrry considerêd rhârsimilârnacûin6 wre Éd in (tû 1939,995;*e p l2!) but rhe did not rhemedie€lpeiod Aoo@r1950, ærLI6). The sp.eadinb mrthen tmoe uril tzbi an ! ûF dmad ws 3i@ â wry slishtt*isr by trosjns sjlk had beenræled ôr ùlrM, ry reminins glo ws 6uly boiledoû,altholsh this ws nôr o'enlmentsmd pasinsùlin t5rcqh n *let betorevindids lhe thrad on to the ræ1.The deys donêin ùe Fr tra$ or in the e&b medi. finenesofrherlùeâddep€nded uponhownûry er€l peiod Gæ pp 32.35, l4l). ând ùe sil{ NA mshed in .reù çater dd dried (RooE 1950, 2919iRoorer19662121). At 1nissbse lhe silk 6 usâIr drd, o. bl€ched with sulphûrit it

ryes t ?inq, àsàlÆdy modored, plard z qbl pd in Edile prcdudion Nituhidves trre obllined fion ddq lihmq insæbæd nolu$s but mly a rN ffi ùsedon a mmercial sâle dd noi ol rhe had ro ùe imporredinlo lnslùd Mer rhm,3, wllaq.ransh, sials€d 'n pùri.u làr dys ùoad ûrhr /itdi, L), $hlh @ À blueùe ùd ms ùsedæ a b€selor olt*côlùre, ms in!ôded in usks ift rrdon in dre6rn ol dri€d b,lls of pulp.d lem (Câtus$Tsù 19.44, 36). fiiese ballsh.d lo hê @lErised, noistercd md lelt !o fermentâtftnæmtu6 nd qceedins 5aPCbebre the dye*a @dy lor use(Sâlâtu 1c23,209i Hury 1930.2t?). r pbp€dy pÉ pred. voâd balh cû bê siorêdfô. s€Dl y€rs *idrout deterioûtiû. ad it is notuusual lo 6nd bequeslsof casksoI Mâd Adm de h Pole,â lrndon ftclîsfinonsei bequeatàèd fôr 6sks olit rô hÈ gdddÀushrer Kâùerine in 13s3(cal WilG ,1,3). Suppliesnâinly crè 6om PiciJdy durinsthe L2rhæd r?th cmtorici suppleftir.d


Lait6 ott! Ckthitc in thè lâb lllrh ûd llth.mtuies Dvintsns hm BFh,nr d,c r,v Combie\ (;crmdv, rimbnrv (C!r!ç$ilen 1953iChjlds 1973, aid l@edo. !cnÙn.'Ùr dd lsil thèl+rh liri+r Dufi s rh. otrkh ul l andies/\ B4nrll\ Gdlt thê dri|$ MLh i'L \hrh nisr 0r rhc lc\rPJ

r c d $ r l . l t u 1 2 3a q l )r h i ' M s ;*"b* dur ti ù. nLmes!lreÊ mùçdv!nou*swre ..ihLi5l'.db{!ç

ollh" riler'!0n.kr su 'n}

Madde; iRubir /,dm,, I-) ks dotl'er in' Donùt€!êBbledr.d'd 6F0!ùrnr i\+ow b\ ùedreft\ lLshomderin, i tftE\ FPe ÀiÈnliLr andbr thekl 'l d thÉ- dàdd' h6 $:;r rho*n û itrm ù. ùmr or ilû lindon DyeÉ u irmr Llnli!€sùlJ 'n! rooLsiotÙre LaE\ ftld tl'edra 'l ànrordt'(s!!hJ\r!n i nr hdsb 1,.:oot.d ro therLl&b.hk rhP d!! crn br hrd sne d. I looka t].c orJir' Écnt shâ0esrd lrcs ùiFd Nith a r.sldue -h(h m iiL'c, the\hen.dl umostiuoormàd ddrlLàlcb*t reonld omd+t5itsmI ndÔn daùÀ 6om $r lLrh to ùr llrlr.{Iuires eirrnrd É9r 16€9).Tlrsc re notcolmoi i' lù. deùsib whi.h *ds to o.lnn Lhatdve in! cùâry€drrcmbeingado'redc hndi.ÊJtto a A môrce\Fn\r r<ddlr $o ul bincdbom ùe r*d ooDulûbreÊftd h rs Rftme\uf L\ sil roÙd shnE lr'È mrÙumre msstslomllii \kdiErrer' dvcqas obbinedbv coÙdiiig ine bdlics oJnt n;e Gmrl.s dùn( MavorJuùeshen {àeiregls wrêfcadrt b.hârdr.d,mdbvmâIi4a},dr fron sisi( rlf cÆsûrr vinesaravcrh{ker & \rbures 193r/9.212,2ltl6). It Ms beo Dækod ThisLlv doeso0l 'n Ledhûbas r' r srrrpmq'L ùrærLohm bed'mp.deI iiioLncldd bdur rÉat2thftntu4 br rMoqh nhÀ bR imû ffed on mol ràbricsoI the Romû p.iod its lse M! '/tubÀbhrerLlrrd Lnthc Mêrneranrii r N f t e s d t h t r i n ' ! N u M Ô l ! o ' \l ' \ c d w i L \ iûûè rc kioq rom n'.'i.,n tmp€ bÈ NAi the 5th md nù ccntuies tj'owh i! F .ot 'eù musùdlon:ilktrsle' R{oftl\rtr! roi6 13) 'i 11'14 l:rh{rnùn tn^l:nd (Cr -wù\on irr7lL\ 4.:urhuF p:FhI e\d!I.,I r1c3.Ior Fedù BdnÀdrùuâ torJr.ing'lÙihins'àn 216)Rrhaos Ior inc kia\ ûse(Cl.R,1211-1233.

rte i"Ûodudior ol kenn.s into E llrd car b. nk.l ti l-u$l hdr\ ùl d\_. "hr À. re' n @reLlt LlchJJ r ilnq urj ii 'G.uredÛ 'Ire (Setëj mii re?r, 1ji; 7r). ;,,n dæ6 qNres for rlk jmDotulior or ùe dveâpp6 1o havebtr spain.nd ronugil (ahilds1973.1046).rlthoth eme ruy hm:lso coùe !om Ùôntr Afric md !,!dicrn FÉnce Ir is bc.otirg dide l'd] dye @ryses d fth.eoloF.al leiulcs (h.t kermes surpLrtcd rthfl Duni. dkr oî {ool laùricsin northern Eùsoi ar;id ùe l2ih ccûha Li.lren Dqic dre.r. nd 1..tb{btrrù+ hx.l".n id'n'i r?,1, i dD r,rmn4l {(Mn in nonhen, Iiu'.É be$Pcn ine rn rd l1th csùtrlcs flillor & 1val(o' 1933,15i$hlton 1936.3u0: wJron 1939R,r_Û). includ''s rhrêê chtron i{ills ton nin{snurv l,ndo. 1s84,53,nos13,20.21,tig 6) B' .aF endrd i r4 r _ p + [ À n u R e mÙ k ! ' ù L l r . e ] t n P i r p Ju.nsl'\L'cns.hs.oI bren'lr' lkLl bomÛ. rn4 | tuù 14ù{? L4 d"pu\ir\ in rliin *erN r.À$nrble io condtrd! it Rs no lonsera\ ôoDuldasnhad bed. wriftt soÛfes,nsdhc ies indi.alc that ÙchênsweF i'npon d iito Fnllrtrdbrd* ne n rlt | Ùrtô 15 r !.dÙ'È\ r; ro rr r Ith. |!rrY l\ld'r. rGruF w \n ll]1a3b (h'll, aiÂ, r0?,$d A l]endii DzLOr.$lùlt l'! n o alê d!É\ Llelincd if, im tu mol reiiles ouGidcrral ùeæ rJler ;bre silk indeasd, al ihe llrh .cnha. L\en $c h"+ ii lblv dd. a5sill br de$rited, thedvcshfi ws deredid on threadsretrDfd roû a pat kn,.LlsLkrlorhrLlil':lÈ ùÉhd (p! ir1 l23) hdh ôr {lùrl d c re d! eLlrm'n : IrLeùû nrê .rùd rvn i!.il\Êllo!

dle $À ttÙ

Lr?a.d, /!r,rr U *hnh !ùtr] I h d<d 0n isff o. bDnkLl oE $ur.l b si!È grPen or hf a I ened }iù ma{ld.f to prodrce sha'les oJoraue ,tu1!ôlLli{r ÀrÉndi^).1vrifrln releÉiesiu n àrr b\ (Cùu!\{i \ôn rq44, 3,ch'ld!lq7a loi) iis cultivdion in Ê4li'd {âs DÔbâblv ll(l}sei {trfi.h* iô meei llm. dcmd. for mâlses oi seeù, smdtn mm m hàei os.Jl Llrr)nsiEddi H:lldall$1 5q; lom cd<0rtÆi'ê4

(


Lowredgcolabufunedslee.


û) sixdrld M]l M'r\ tutoû ând!ff !trd! No49. vdrh ofbdd (im udi4 dd€d Èbbvj 3m (B) Nê.k opdj4or, c,rldmdàrd.hiqr, Fdê Moll6 dorhdFd rtd,is ktrh6, r@dtv

nd 4€frrt Nor0.rtu *ûrIdar

@grnsÈ

Bo|nm'dJdeFnld,4bùewdodr''

G4)wûoifl bbb]Wr do$ {in\, Dûn ors'tl chek5No275'H€ill'lll3m c) wd.d bhbjffi.to$ ùin: diid Edêra No BorÀâeiiomr hr rd\{elbryd@st


(B) ci么dl pdthed 没u' fttr bddstrfttrin.rtndcdbbb'v霉 drkbrmwol

No16 eishi


2r

Ld'nioa 6.n il kàile ,ndÆtia^

I"oons chânses in cloth prdùcdon in the medimr periodwre lot conlinedto spimiûs ând nnish. irs. Na loons were inliodu.èd, *hich {eE $êd as trll æ oldei rùdiriônâl loôms,bd ex adly qhm md how ihq cm8 to be acepred rmins mcdin. The cat6t tle of loom krown lrom Erulandis làe erÈtrighred lM vhich, by the 101b.rhuy, had bæn in F L. er a minmim (wi1d1970,6!. Îe @p us preparenby ùeejns a drniûs bordèron a w[ bând loom ânrl ertndins lhe ft leps romd

pess(I'lofmm 1964, ô3-70,15@ 'lle$€ftbe thccloli b€m ofilrelùser loon lènsioninsvis a.hj4edbyVinscl.y oi sloreftitrh{. toFouF of ends,shi.h veft orêtul! spâed a@r by chajning aord aûos theI(Ær€ngeorttuwp. Tneloonusplæ€datJflgle,€zin*avalJor

*erjng so out a latu€l shed ms Iormedbe Rm ùe sù]) ùd lhe soden uprighb of the lôôt. The kÉr {ood io do hef mrt b€iins ûe refr upwds with a pi.beaier ol polished boneand a ssrdôerler of wh.lebone,tud d i6n. Difiêrdt $!€s oI ôlôrhcould be mven on rhistoon butfoulsh€dsilts{ith brokentoænge perns wre croseryrinkedwid, ir ardid rhe late9ù æntury,the leddlebræket on the loôm .Dpem lo hre bed ûodiRed ùd â second nôrôh* âddêdtô it which, @|inmb he shoM, {âbled Lhrshcd sills od lozeE€ pat @ns wid' a poinl repeatto be lroduced nore eâsily(IlâJîès 1975.l6Hi} tie DokkêdalDft ùm). 1nis chaqse is indioted by the ap æddcè oJltùeeshedl()zae bils in hisn s tos gwes ât Bùka,Swdo (Ceijer1933,26),md aho by the idsinetioi of dolblenot hed heddlelnckêls fiom exàvâliois in Ttundheid, Ale appacndyin 6e in Ensl:nd dlrhs dre Anslc$xotr p€liod w6 liie uplisht tebeâm loom{hich waspnbably introducedù1,0Briùin by rhe Roûùs âlrhôushthde È nô dnd Ri dence10.it ovird 1970,7q sæ p r). on 1nisthc

Eé4

UFighr r*ùên

10ûd!s idshr hæ

ombâbhhm bffi !-d âlthoqh d'h is mi dedd

woodenbems, ùe warpbeamâ1ùe topândLhe clotbbeû below,dd the dôlà ws l'mn 6on thê bôhôm ùpNddi in ontu b ùe *rÊ wighbd loom,sothatrhestr.mrked seâl€n (r'g 4l In Drehison ûnes ând in ceûin coun lriec inclùdins$riâ, ir ms 61l1mn ro wâp 3 dmlar ù tobùlarclorhon t\È ç?€ of looD by lmDins ihe Hp mud ù sn tud: ihe cloL\ odd nlen be oFenednd on.e it wâ5rêmôv€d ùom ûe l@û Q{aldl9&1,167-75).thÈ rcsultsi in a shotur pide ùa il a raolvins .loL\ bem ws us€d, fd which dido@ is lâ.kins (Hofblllm 1964,333).Shoil lûon leuths my hde beer bliql, andif $ dorhs{nn the Iù€1h 0f23.75n (26yard9 ffrst menrionedin .or"l pra clâmâriônsd ùe [in cmhny (lridbriy 193?, r0, could not@silyhaveben w@ on i! It is dmicdi tojuds€hd pidelytàislom{as Ed in


modier"l Ermp. sine bryible didoe is a6 sir It h.s b€ensrsgeed, howi thât cert2jr â6]mmelri6l, doublændèd bonè t ôls, whi.h htr bem 6ud d nny English sibq {ere cnmd.iiic orjt (B.sr rc40.227). A wdp couldâle b€tensionedhofiæntaly on a looû. ftere de nàry Mys oI dùins this but wiftn sidmæ sqsgesbthât it B â lôot paaied omteôâlmc€ fsdleloon Lrratbe@ ûore widelydified jn Ktern Elope dlritg the ûh cùlùry lflonimann1964,253-60;C.rue Wlson 1369,li4-5). The hadl6 w.e [nled by pùÙcrsb shâfrswhich could he mi*d md dè presed to op€nshedsh i\e wrp (tig 5) 'fhis

t?e oi lmn ws zlsomadeliom mod but a iew cmponents from i! in.ludins p'iley b1æts, tseadlesmd àèddleloMs, haveh€enidènthed troû uôd sibs in northernmd easLmEdoF (Xmjnskâ & NaI jL l!60, g3 l lhonr!6ôn 1963, 1467i Nybe.s1934,1417i Oye1933,?3 5).The eùli6t of thesecom fi@ ll!\.ot!ry deposir. in Hâithab!, nonn OmanJ, ând Cdânsk, Poland.Thenetbodolbdinsin tlE reftdibred fiDm L\d ua:d on ùpisht b(lm rntud ot a s6viDs swd4 pirt€aler or comb.a leed w nted t dF l(M bet'red tbe hdnes ùd lhe dôù bêr *hich rhêwÉr puùèdtowârdshiù. $lJ. Byurrins Lrredegre to *ftich ihe *rft sæ b€ten, tenlre codd bedded b a clûur,ûd this melhôdot!fi.rning w (sd in the wavins of ûF in ihe late131À md 14ù cmtuies (w p 54 'nÉrædnad atudre.6rcdon,lor ùe Nep ends rele rhrcadedbet*@ melll ræth (d{E) lo en sue t\at tliey Ee Medly s0æed. othêr tDês ôr horihlâl l@n rere âle


ît hniq$ e d in ttti b I ndl.ikn lnlm in medierelEmpq includinsthe dmw 1@m.d.Msk loom, rel€t l@m and low wr! hp6by lood. Thè dÈ*leû 6 m exheûely dmpld nÉôine æd ib-historiGl derdopment roaiN obstre. lnden, {b dmugh {alrs$ of a0ciot Lrdles hæ a .learû rdssiârdiîg of

ihe llm dr8€d. Its keycot)lDnmr w â slB trm of côrdsôr fulrê bâm* vhi.h cdtôllêd the Iining of individuals,rp endssp€ed d.esuld inkels @o$ the Mp (Frs 6) ]{lLh de peson (the dwboy) pulins ælectedoids and ùotàd (rhe {eær) chansinglhe shed md

fisG D@loon $th combqboardùd pulE bor s i! miqhth:ElookÊdii n'ê l1ù .6ùry. rhe dûtrloy is shoMpullingdlords n tne!dê,


-I

d,minc the ft( ân elibofû parenr could be repeaiedaùo\s ilr cloth (Kins 19319!i) Thc n(sdar sizeoI thepâlGmrer.d or mnv eÙLv hnilês slrovs ùallhc iiare h.rn.s vas nt Éitured ld n,anycdtùrics. \4odjridriotrs iF d dedrhr rddiùonofa.unlltf bmrd.ndpùIry boi to heb .dÛo1 L\e paftem m{hmFm (l,a*cr 1987,?lj? 70)bul llHr is lifrlc ùlornÀ lion rboû Lhemù n.di.ml rdords (Monnls

A ÈL.k oJbbl6 ordc fion rmod, dler or hidevb oneryÉ oJsheddinsdsi.e. itr bv rouL i'u $. hblels toflan or bâcL:Wdsd open'ns \q< !re:Ëd m rlE urp (l Ls7) Irh rarlPtw\ usunll aLotrtls-dflm squù. M pi.ftrd qh roûr ioles. aldrowh h.qonrl râbleb wi(h {x !*d The sâq qs tcnsioned.nher dre holevvl througl, îc klnç des.ihed $ tu mrc cbietlyused 1ltr6d.d Jix.d hv nriiis it tom a Doint.nd Sing il b th. r.lr æd a Ior ftaùu bnÉd Nidrhs ol doth bcùcd tst i( ;dst, or by $rebhiry ;*ers iil ror thên {âs e$e amrDr ôr Norkspæe ,lr9\2.r?l l\lrur.rt cdl4}u losE LÉ'{7 !udd{ bikuplc$.p:!erhc Bm'dmJLins.br ùû-r ù'Ûodus ù\alrhe h l.ù r Ê m e 'J4 l < ' û c o u l d iLlutrma[on, cournkr r;iqn.\ llri\led rr thc l nh otrn {r.Ll d hJsl bJ Lhe rd doice es ctsilv bc imtrovi$d. A sl'ddi'4 qreâd.r helpe'l b kcco Nhi.h the Ne of a w $irh a sâI blùL .oupLcd rcqùiremeù1. m.ii vÛe râblcb while rlÉ deDh sDâ.ed rhe rhreadç dtred b.d.r or siord {hich couldb. mad. ronr (c.lliqqwod 1332 pin woti Mncd md ùe brâid *.;d .. b.n. m,1.Ior bm.adiDEDrobablv?


îùiiqÆ

a,n ikturilè bndudir"

lorm,l<instabby.{denùbbonsartiid heddle o. hcddreraùeas stribblcGæ D r41). nre trâDc consÉredol a sries ot piercedslâb throuchwhichâlternal€ endsweroihrêxdedctr

âbùry a shcd and combnhsd 10 bê feabd wh6 rhe hme wâsmi*d or deÈéssd; it.ouùl ciL\erbeu*d onib oM virh rhewrD bnsioned as for llÙler luvins, or fired inb a ùùâll bù loùm suppôfredon rhe lâp Giq s) Àr euta er heddlende ttuû a l3r\ tr eûly tlrh{ento4 depositir Bersd, Nonây, shM rhd€x1]-a(sÀ ol holes 6r the vdp rcrê som.ri'nespjeftd thouÂh ùe cdgeoI Iie Êam. at ù. (opmd bor tomio Nlsl wilh pâ(erniq (rte r$3. æ 30)

Piihârigidl'ê'rdÈmrmighlhâv.


Wooltextiles Stateofpt€€ervation rn *imi.irstuol exblesGômwaredosltd$ls tu tlÉ\ iidmiÂt ûued bj hPdmpcmLli ùô., orore*fllbon hre to be bm< in m'nd^npiio rexùre md danae b colod Orcrall mdrins as ibrcs disinbgnG, pdiculârlv wid' $e Dra*lureoJDâ.kedl:ve^ of clôLhin thè û cb;d .ondiiioN ol a lâEe deFsil- m,les ir dil' ficùh in nmy Gs.s t dd.rminê ùe orisin:l degrccot tuÛinsrd ,rrnshins Diserdtn mdbr bbri.* Sndl fi6 dd come*, perlEpsL'rro{n Èqr ns,lr q'Àlonns. @ sk\onêrdeaol , .loths oficiùL:ppeûnÉ. bû in lau( pics

Fam.e in âll câsesbûl ore prmd âltn b be naddernyen.The tugitiÈ nilurê ofnmv Èsed ofdyeftoû onesee to aorher ble dyes,lcal<?ne dûft burhi in $e soil,od the ptui@ orusins seËl difiereDtdyebâdrsfor one piee ol clorh hâ@,ls codt[.ated ihe L"sulls The uiÉGalv bûwtr aDÉ:tr.e ol e Il@ of tl'e* [ 4nm15 oe n,,i'lc" orrh! wietv oJ'hê .ulôtE {hith nÉt hÀe beq' qud \ i ommit{ de.mpriutr. presenr- enrxin, verûiliôn, crimson,lLoret, ntrûey, ru$€! 8rev, red, yclloq green,ffe (drk ôr rh. lxonc dycing and b\'ê) Ése 'subtle blendiq oI colotravhich tuce't studv 5usF* ur e @or! , à hàtureut lislish ! ori erNn\ ùrilr. llrlr !f,tl uih cnIriêç (Brid

yhere â nised sûfæs is pre*nt onlvin pâtches, r i! harLtb rudc! iI thk L the renrinr or rtrul thelreâves ofth€ cloùs .loth Jùjshiis p ftÀ\6. tr hbr tuniig llril< DUna subided ro {eâ or tu FPrsûe dmng prù Iïi\ pafrc'irLr Jppù6rosnlmç tho@hthe Frm Table1 ir !i[ be kn $ât â veryhigh Mls is bbrr) @a shneon ùe oqa4,lc combd Molora 30 ,r Frtm oi ùe texrLle\ i rn:l @!uôr.ixdren #ôti 'n srdên smdims sho* ffi *hen rhc iibres àDaLamm c]ûdeontyrhesimplenùrec\hûd md Jot hêd .oistucrions. variev is prdided by Lheu* 0r Dmqe û, olôr is do 'nore norieaÙle ^ll difereûLspiming,yùn $icknê$es, od coloû *d eiles de inclùed ro darken{iLrr ârt, bll Dresffiion h damD.seal.dconditio.sFodu.es c6edsdsinsbodrdvedândnatuEiltev 0r b'lM Nool âmorÀwhich æ che.ks rd nôtled pat sftrê sldning in nost Gsescomplètslvobsu' nqùrLnonâl.olourD!.d, FishJsiôtbem ierns, md ân in'PresiÉ râwe d tusÉr* jÊ tr!]isrqùd'cd. bu'ii 1473, stipes liû sÉ.ial wcæ efdts sondines !;;'bk;tury ranlm tstr by M c \{î,i'in! on nftnJ hôm of rheLldla Ihede oJù" llhmc dEposal BC72produreI kry simibr Éqd6 some me. is lonui{llly kry pre.is, îd ihe sienindce or Dndùdcd. to L\oæ foud bêlæ otr piees sc bll in I{bd br * Ior dyelesting (se Appcnd,ix) thFûurk ddiis nchùliisÙErrùJ b ndmA!1 nÙPseitlerlvi" lrc lGht tl'eùnutdifèreir Ms ud!êLl c oth. o6 rpperiry ro hos trre orobrbly Ùrê{hLe or oX$hiF nr Taùle1, bsethd wiLhæorhû hishlv impoùn1 mu.h sûæps qnl. bd dùrg ùe dârker dalinahdôr ihe variationin spiminll dtedions, md rheirâsciation rl ditrerentFriods *iù dir shadès.fiom ncr blæk to p€lêPinkishbr(m mmv.thollh 3le ofrulur,l *hib wol are sâve Iofcnt rravec Similârsoinniûr itr {ârp md wt z/2, S/S - tbmÆ up the L,.tternd a !eâ@ no dve rèadior. some stons reddisllbrôwN dvûd{iL\ M dêr{ere visihlytrôdificre from Iôr e@pL the diâlonalsrd rûe'scs ol a siu, ,ihn.Ftrgrn.!€ù!c,cs'i' nll:1e' àsrfikiil Ddtiùldly whm olnbi'td ùth â baJd{pù, Z{I)ut wûp. wGted lhreâd.MixedsDii.iq reildroh lNo ltt |. ,B) ss idotjricd rr qhere thelibres dll lie in Lh. sme \k3 çspun mcdkql 'he .\rnjF mô$ ker;.i tgtr) dtr(ùon rhei wen.xiv6à rirmèrdorh,pù dr6Lùf. I iccs {ltlld


Ihrêe-shed twils Thèrhrèshed twil n[dê âne vâ!æâmcc i. 0r<Rom:n.! !!Fd brnLri"s orr.,;;F md rhe Nerfô! |rcunacnrr L,rlr.ed,unfld ,not th s wiF

hÀ ofr4 bri

dc{f bld À lisde{l

iù the wF*eighred 1oo'noi thc Md;&rmem inLlG b. wtù, qd, wt,!I 'heeùtyurodu.ùo. uf forr-hêd rwillr u\ .loscty i\*!r?d i( rhr nonh r,qdd19ll1 H itmm r,lir4,r3;5.200_4) Bd lhe Rolms keF ako rrnitir {inr $e rrÈ rar'rcbcm r,um.trioq in Lglptsi \r rèNs

L 1

-ll

ricularlysùitableJo. misins a mp ùd for oitrer rormsofrin\hiu Thêr \!or5/s jrnMsii rhc LUrùh bc rnûca\edE of'h€sprn ngsàæL bù bùy!frhedjm wlt "eviisorhnEhiig preservpdtrd dr ri!{ hâlfofrhe 14$ entN md tne l{ê l,rfi cenrr Droeideimturbh eli dÊnceol the chansêsin ptududioû âr â ùtrcjât n4r ii rlresbnLrrd'çùon of thê llorh Ddtr5h lliêsE d frcro!es p€nitubry cu,.d the rnil wears whi.h ùe, ùeretore.consideredfiFl

rd thc JÀribuùoioJ'hr(gheLirril m àe. once uder ûqù ocupdion, Ior .&Dte in [.slând in Anglrsmn enererjes, nav 6educ t n Romm lesacy(rltd 1970,6s72: cmwaôr 1933rr0+2) 1]rcm dnuedrh or ùe tubudm roomir m8JievzlrncLnd s $ge{ed bj re\ent tudçJrwin.h€+rc,(eèner99Lr.z0qlr rnili s indeedusenb rhe prcsetrlday tor sp{ia[srn lre pro,lrbonnr llrrt€hcd sins,n.(a{l rhmuÂhotr' mnhem LmF imm ùrelfth en tory orwdi unlil by lne t3th cmtoiy rhis had b{ome FhâDs th. nor Drelzlêni Fm rnf lNlhbri!- Ine.v ii i! outoui!,nonhRs Frope hJ\ b{i rû | ùÈd b ihê \preôd,frhe b.adra{)tud hdizonbl lôoû ûânj0sh & Nânlili r!ri0, 107).whichùidencc ind rês ws becominsnore Nidely emrtoyenftor thc u1h Èûtury oi*Jrds (Hoffllmr r9b4.260. crtu\. wil\ôn tqb9,165)ind ùùeê5hedMins \ræ mv4 lor doneslic omuDprion on tredtc roons in inndineiâ (rlollmm r9ô4,201).Rlt iusl as ùe rllershed ùinduu wi\ rl.m:trhpdju thc {{pscLsrrbd brrd. | ù<:dreloumshtrh oDrn@dmort etredikb {horc in sen imbcr or srùr^ Ms usl Fmn rhexth !.iruD rhewlr bcp l! r0* 'G pûputri'yTlk irdr n n rdoomhr dzùngnabgshtrh+Fùur d,ppildksùrduoffi orLHoB r inrx.e?{ Fn !r. ]1'seu,iÈ $r,r .Tdns sc( ro bè prn,lulcd lo.à[,. ;ret 'ràùric\ lù/ r hirh M ûq, t6 rc !*d. rs is ù; pturicc in orhercidos.,.,.md. in .ndnion.rabriB requning thr.. ù?ùdl*, which wr. $!âl e. o.ding ro old pûdice (Holl,!trm 1964,2rjtl),


Tatil5 att ctothi"s w,iliq

indi.atiq rhd rh. three{hed dvill us

\srLqli ft\'i.uc ! t h { ? n L u nd c e l b r E L i l l î ù c È r l È r l ro5ir(..lirÈ ï0) 'hr rmpudon i t idc ofz l is 'LlLli{rdq! i. 33" ùri lh\tl.spre P{ ur'ie iu {he iuin do.k rillins datedb a lew d(:dcs 1de. 1lr qumti(y is mdû 4n Eh.Nhde itr I.iÂon .lôihs vith (his {cæ h.ve at$ onLv be{ rc.oded rro'nd.posi6 ddi4ùp b ri'c mid d1eolù.141h cdru4, alhoush itaPpcdstohavc lndersone a limi(èd foi.l in ùe 16ii centtrv Nh.n ii i\ associabdvith $ne lirhtkiÂht mion oLher clolhs sith {oo1 bei4 .!trrbincd lirh pidue ddinc oI sjlk. ^ simil.r sùch as hbÉ metues frcmorhft to\ns andotrùics in noith whererhe w+lrtr ûê nobblvTh. Nctherlânds. .1325 bindins ahcr omDadiie nrcity oI rhe 1'11\ it 13ù and edlv iiequmcy lin\ ns cont'$s ccnrùv deDosirs(vo s{]omis 1932,162),rhou(h reæ $'cl' asoslotbree hÈ*c De,.ialised orthctexliless aFonp sril1..3rl shcd$iÙs wrc ù. cnd or dre l51r' ..tury iovards d.led ilo ronp.k lv mqLlthsh Ûê .mNè'l fr london J it r norri'!bL< iu \'imù L\' s L d [ ,o f t h el o o m so n s ] i I ' Û r, . \ h ê t N i ù \ vere ùade. î,è us. or Fi.lorced *lvedrs is, ho@ù, â chreterisil. oI mmv or ùc r,ndon cloths (Ii$ 11,U, Tâùle2), rhich susgsb thât $s mun hdo bccn sulj.iûdy rnte ù, r.qurc {rùaihcncd edsês ln su0wn sNldd tlP clolhùE srrn by d! Bock{en Drr, who es orcbÂbivnnlcrcd in the14thÉnrurJ. includcsa ;âdh m?dêrron a 2.1r*i[ whichÈ riooinù (23 & REç nin$ xide (No.k.ft 1935,.l7iNocken ânv, r ûdle .en 1939.7,1),md i', Assisi î,e (died 1253) has by st c|Ie 2 l sill woûi mrn in aloomvidù.rs.ri.n (l)r /.iN) {Flurv l.'nbcrg rsP,8.31,1.43t. nô s7) Borl' *., thcretore,r.rÈ rivelyidrow Ând$pâblc of beits $!ven Ùvur {rlorhs'irh dris rwill bindin! a.c not all âli]{e the majoriryftI into b$ tvp.s cro(hsMrn rnD ômbcd tuol. {hi.j, is usuâllv7.spm.nh litle or no nnisni.s aid cloths$ith mixedqrit nins, Nhen,rhc ,ÂDÛ wrp a sodh aM mn ofren'Ûacn. dl Ùic sspun wn is sr\'ârd Mrnv 'd iJr lâûershN nss rhd My indidc tu1 r aùdih4 ale includeclolhsDdrcrncd{ilh .do; or iêtuc. A sniallmn,bcr oI othêrhvnk

a' c notsocleaû plæflj: ihry indtrdecloi]'s!ith s:Dm varn i bôrh$ ièms d â mis.ellâicoùs n;'D ôrcome cloths mrin\ kôDithc lù r'{h d Bc72 onrlllhe2l$ilsft)n aentiiydeposit r . n d u , l ' ,a r p t u ' c p p . d ' i u ' , $ ! ! n È !i Ll.drs 'hê r sht, lc lhÈ È d.tr lJnmrhc qi\rlÈIVdm\/llUnd0nJihngilmm

bù(oni sùmens,nmy o1*hj.h wre nadc tomlhisNFolo l (\{ ! igsl3l,151,163) 'l1lis

jrr ûour or.tollF js.Àsilv recosniebleNilh h d d o m i l r r n ' i s h r l )r u h a r l ' ù l d c F i v i I ! $@, Jid ': htf \lm\ arf!ê fris $

,nihr

.,,

o!r.id!'

ri

7-'ûi$!ol\nn

rl'a ftsoôd quilrr ihn.srd Jrhoushno$ .dr.dbrc"' {o c DroL',b\u'udll}tur,ùrû or the rivcsmples ânrrsd fo. dy.s rou. sne 0o+ tive Ésuhl one kern.s, rh. ihree odrersmad dcr All rl i{ mnleds ar. simDlediâgonâlsius, wiil'otrtthr loreM rurrn< fnunil0n bré rlr | tum L! 'l i cDostr of thl Lth Ànl rÀ cmtdt.s (ns 1q Cro$Joor$3n. l1!5. no r45i 5È7, .os 2s, 29).A J4 {oÉrdl I}itchdd 193,1. thr.Èshed lrilh hæ ûird spinniis â lcatue il is ako ùideit in a smallnrinb.rol lhe eùlier threeshedlozens ilills, in.ld iûs onenaû Lâb 1lrhr ury I.ndon {rritchârd 1934,fi;_7, t0 29).btrt in orherresp{c in.y are ituiistinsuish


jan zlpm $nrdg.s 1,r ri I Lc\ \!ro y?,n oeblÈl) dyo\r {L(ùt lLghtm kxlir! ûrrfiL.\ Frf rl L[eir.rd4]rh. us. ol otu rrùûoneshfth nrîordni rray oj(L.,n.onk \eLlidees(rios:3.fis|aùdl).Nhft iô hlo odf Far r, N dr,f n(lre.\ercù:ed (Noirr, fi$rcùnLLl rdornDrtd!,i'rtrôr\riDrt.ur rrdr i]ndles De!.nt.lrd drp.xi.r 0.5{qe ,idrrldi.rirorll rldtnrif,ir r eed thes. ùL ùânr ôrr,ù rr!4ls!: !n1r onl! N ofa.trh i d, dr $dl oorsonendaùraedsô rhr nre

xbh rron rrrôs.trkr, ftu, 7.iu lirr otr. Di<-.isNnunô,tr. u!r!{tmrrinohp.rL...f wilhi \nir,lr-r1Lq,r1trtr rr ntrù{É1kirdùitr1.1 red llrqr

(\r 6. rftrr

i\i ADDtcni pc':

Lrrkd \ro,ied dÏFhêd nflls l?om\ovsûod y.r. q!rx,,,rlr tuùilrrrd r{ (htuNilsdrl }& {iù rrùeelhuùlcs{N:hlik 19ril 261).a yis nso N.d ùDdù.Èdrd r.r ri Lr{,I\ylLr.h .x.i1diti5 r cûosk lInrjins!â&\rHik111j0.r!).ûnLmeDrioncdin l i r . t r u n , ! ( \ n r r r L! 9 ù : r n l J 1 $ ù t r iunb{ ùrlclle({esfi.onjdr.cnr..lrvilli $d' i'id,. 'hÈ Dra.ni Di{hl rkradi"goodro br JouDd robf 'ù.4qKiL rrrL,rDe!.m rhc dnLn.p rùr, itrrtrLor(nnms itr fi nti4s tr n j:qDiulonlf oirlôFrêdrrre. Nsroul liaLlrri\ nÈ( rrilLs O,rc.lorlrhrs 1.Liùn,il +lndse (ir\ii'neoIt\odrkù.ôl.trni qrk t\o :. f is fft

or .toLhs Mul

l l L r n u l l D a c o d L ù io I \ û n . d n r N i t L Ê de{Lbom lrdi{. ù! d, i^!ri if rlDdotriri


dicac\ ùd Lhcyvde io longer.oùnon at ihF pcriod,ând a simnr Djdùrc or declineeiPrges irrdre ouour ôrbbbies'oEn trm {o6ed vùn (5{ p,!3).At tle sme dmee$ximcnE {ith nd birdùE for dôrl,s vlrH ton thÊ qDe d vrn iùmâf b ha€ o.ûred, indi.alria that I ;hifr r;k dacc in rhis bmch of the itduûv whi.h ms ablètô dseloD ûs fabics to rned chirilins dcndd andcompdnionwiLhgrcling

.Lv.'

dùrts|l.dNi|]sNoR^.rclnZ9uwm!Ûl


Clodlr st! mired spimitrg Mostthreshed si[s çon l4drcntury de@sib in Lddù ârê M fiôn zspû wp Frn {d 9s!û ldt ,ûn 08 l3). Thê sep @ is .msù ad fne ùd m probablyombed ù€tft spiinins The sæi yh usuàlt 16 L6 r{d rd bcu.e oIi6longr nod on rie reÆe or the dùtn has oftd ne.one wolly md û!n d, obstuingthe ùackof i\ê w. nnere theftont $rr,c€ is,rs rarld rnùr beasumed rhir rhe .ldn ws tuIêd, br the desr& of bnishns th6l s* lldhs wrê sih js Eq diErc'nrb esli. matr.This di6olt is o@unded by dodûd.

No7 s:4 ùd qfr âe (B)No3ffipbft LrNo

bry aidence indietins thar dôùs we oftên rèshm rdhlz) Jrins clê4ins $m€ ôt lh* rloùs rom dÊ!05E ddiq ro rlreJir* hùlIufLhe14thentud àreDafÉrnedwiin ch{ks ând ùip€s Th* d be coloured(t,Ios 7 !,Iig r{r or rexrured by usmpdùêâd5ofd f ffent Æighr, or pb, md by qryins L\e spn di reriôn pânillàrlv in the *elt Nos 10 1r Fia l5r TViIs uith sjmjlar Dzkrnmg hdè be; loundii €JiPr toh deF;E, c*nokbomà rab loth+ntùrt deposirin win.besrer sd hadtq deæsit in Durhd (C|{foot 1990. 175.nôr03, pl qis, fu L]q crcubor 1979.]7 9).It€ olou.m 'hêseert oie&sEs arleas pârdy @rièd oui by usina difermr shâdesoi natuEl broM mol whreas in these l{d ekmples fi on L!trdm the ùseôfdFd fde ap peaisrohee b€ernore usual.Threêshèdsjlls


F没 N. 14r:(.{)we h.c, {rr)


wiù oloured slripes in vrrp or vêft krê âlsd preet al Ndl.tud NânùI1963,26.!). 'fhê lhick yds ed ld paft.n e{c6 re diï. Iermr from rhose{ryen into oilre! tirc€+hed si s phich ofrcnhaE 2 knûbùry{eh làir has be{ u*nly spun(!lsro, ândshich Ms deùE eolelyuedto mdue. wn, naftd innd sùr facèSomeof thêsêclorhsde lmn fromnd€l g.q-blrM mol and noneappcarto hft bêd tuIed, sugs€slinsthat ùey w6e â .heap tyTeof A nunherolih.eshd &ills, *hich apper !) htu bér tuled, haE oloured seledles. I]iis leatùreG more sercrâlly â$ociaGdùrh hbby wees O 43),but il w.s dùly nd reûided ro onelyp€olweaE ârd rhehd thatt5eclothswre tullednay be nore p€dinenr'tw dEn8€s âre simih sih À p,ir of red edse.ords on br(m cloths(Nosl7-I3,'fable 3 ândF€r7A). rne dird h a lilht b11M doth {hich hasLiree cordsof pâiredêndsfôÙtud ty a narow *ip€ or ends thai ùe p€rdyin a ,lùker ùlourcd yarn (No 19, Table3, Fiss r7B and13).Sinsteshuderurkins is fouM on theæ ôlôthsvirh coloued slRnges ùd lhèy RE prcsmably nonoclùome âpârt fôm ùe sehdge. À coloured selÉ{æ ws similûly noGdon â tuIêd threêshedMil hon Nd3trrc4 sheft it 16 a€ned rhdd,e.loL\ ms â lôrêisn iftpôi 0{âi1i11963,264) od\er 2.1 twillsçiifi mixei spinoinsfrcm lrndûn havelM wefryms *ith ,i.kndri.L elvedses (Nos13 15,20,23.24.Table3,FLcsrC ard D) whichâl$ où on silb gl]m nom 7-{pu ydr (!29).In dê Mple wiù a rcinturcededse,nbeseùnd shlf]e eems only lo hdù beù ùsêdo@sioF 2ny,pfth$s.anyia a diftrent{lour€n yûn, returiinsâtur rso ôr rhreêshoborL\c oL\erRfr ropuÙùe h€ry,lor-lÙp otrtercoils oi to eâ!.h ottrêrronEkea sort oJlll* tubûlaredtre(No27, Tablc3 od lis L7E).A similarêfiêôrms soæ ti@s rtudu&d in morc rcgùll slredses by tishtêninstheldngerytft loopsropund,emIftl with ihe shorterrelun oI tho thnd rhôv ôf ùe Nill {.{. Nr 30,T.ble 3 ùd l.ig rD No 1ræoûf â shdiis edsÉis p.e$Ncd onany ol lh* .loL5s,bui pù of a deo!ârivo frirue whi.h ùs ùsedb iinish m ed$ is preent on oncpice(No3l.lrtislringchsnâdebyDlyins 3roup6of threee s roxelbermd th.n qins ren oflhes smurs in r fiaef nnoL

fuh3sdd€4ùc€hcdMnsdùn*d


35

sÙe !Éde fion sils ol ihis 6rs sEdq the grey ad ùroM {ool zspun dNugûout "anr, (nlry.Lmbeis 1933,314-17. 435,nos56ûd 5?).

Clothsm

non Sspu]€m md

'Ûc

remainins2.1Nills dô not fonn I cohereni €rour Slx@p16, all re@red trof 14lh*û ûry delosils,on bêdêkribêd asmêdimÊradê âbics fmn n m s{pun yrns (No160,Fig19). Nonehre beenheojly tulled ândshornandûo T*nly othe. eEnples de all coa* cloths vidr les rhr bn drreâdsper cm in both wp od wtu The edlidt pieæ.lrcm â depositol làe lateDth .dtury ât BIG32,È woû from Sspu ràm ôla sinilrqurity in bôù Nrp ædftn.The 14th{ntory silrs i.cludc 1l ajdr nitd spiF ûidg,sh Zspq andtm 9sp!n. A! leastfour are M lrm trol lhât hâ6a natoÉl brM fldk md motherpmrd ro bedrd fiom nad&i Onc Zsrui @ple hÀspâlredLbreadsin dE h€lit Dôsibly lrom â band runnins aùoss ùe dôù. Anotnei also Zspù dtrowhour, È .oled md 6rikhed,æifÉêd fora b€lt,silh wæl lhËd (No 1s6,$e p153).'Inecoæ snde, md in nûryrhe bck of my rrÛinsor finishins,susgst ddthese clolàs rere dmesti.ally prcduæd. Alprcpri alêIv,tÀèpd.bed o{l olsrFtuci6 ùd lmde ol I C1Ie, which hâÉ ùttn oÉsûÉd as relicq

It 116 bs suctrsted thal by lhè 13tàcdtory !@tioÙy â[ prole$ion.[v.{wen wol âbris trre tuned,rhe oniv ê*plio6 beins nne wr *ds midy prcdued in tolFhed bindiæs (Crus$rlls.n 1960,1&r20q Holih1m I9&, 2ù). Thræ*hed Miùs, as swizls ol m r1ie. technique,p€rhapsreprc*nt 4 incrmediale sbse sole cerr.lnly ha€ b€entuIed ândDrob* bly Lisled ândshôm.bùt ontury it is diûimlt io te[from dres8ivinsÊaen.nb*hd dE orisiaa] sùrhceappeme wùld h:p been.rn lhe ese of ùo* wiù oloûed siiipes and checkqvhilê thelùick*ItnL.e ismlt4 it sæmsùùkelythat rhelrmt}æ subjedd b mytulins. Thethreads on d'e ûont ûe sæth, ûd @etrâIowins lor

srronser.ornrâsin ràeoridnârobE, Eisinsa ndp hld

haE blmêd ùe Els

Ùnesor on

c€âhdthe difie@t qurities of ùe ydns usedin Àpan lrôm its dê.orâtiE valuê,lne loog 1ieoJ the dùeadsin dre dias.nzl ol a tuilt 3i6 qri *emth æd rhicknes, but*idr lhe $rod oltuu inc, ûd ùe demnd ùat .lolh shôuld hft d finÈhed surÊce, rhe eh bulk ol n\e sills cased robe m advmbaeirhe Ûidcninc resurt


?ùiks t'tt cldht"s ta rui $c tullng! où+ t {lLi âddwmù iù eLdi! n Ùre.implc{\eileq rd ft pn" d(rini ol r"illbc(flr uii&r$rrv tm. con' $imiis f ûe D.@rn oI the soavesrs nor b be $cn. ]]p sinplfi€ljon oJtdhnolo!} md iÙeal ro ùdeni'p makds htr hêen 0oinbd oul âs LfoÉ ]tJ ii"s 'o Lhed{rcà* ut rlF 2]si]l tr 'hr riLh ro 15ù enùiA (Nâhlik l9Â'l 'J! 100) The Irdon mderhl is ùnsÈbr {it\ rhis erdid, vhile prdidiry dt teidion ol sd closerdàuncrorlhe DmlÈssional

sills virh 7,spunyan areolwol axl hor manv

Four$lul Nil1s lroû 131\âd rthtdtrùrv 'lture lnDdonâre .I si'nple2 2 dialutxl wems arenoskriu.bùd.rs amoncùem, od Lherên lirlc dùrbt thârtheseMlls kre bdil wÔg on rhe horindn bom, ûhdo dr nrr sbâhs.huns i! trro Fns ofpulls *re setin notion bv folf t.âdlcs. UnIlè 2 I siÛ\ ùere i$liule ditrùenæ beMei 22 Nills arun ihc 131\dd 14tl' ceÈ iùies. r i', all d.posils rheylbrn a stâll Ùui rairlyonsisle propoiion oi lhc ioLnnmber 0l @{ihs (làble r). T.itilcs fiom olher luopem tiwùs shoç thc sde dûc, siih rherùll prc po id or Jourshedl{j[s ô.tiûuinc, vhile 2 I Foûr-shedtwils siùs 8llhlly dcapper dtrlg1P iinr plrce l,l 'I]'e bbby kaves (Kle[bùg 1e7e.36-7;Ïdow 1e3?, The hidory ol Joû3hed sill! is .lcre. esl EunDcâi ùâsi. 2.2 diasrnrl $nL . bâlânce{lreee easilv ]n. Thc pnDortioû o12.2r*i[s h dre1.1rfiandr5 ' nigher prc rd.Dbd (o a\ hmd looû. {âs conrinnoudv Énectiru a latr !ôanivtion cntuies. Derhaps du,id in no.thèri EuroÉ non drc laieIrm ace looln r{ oJ thc wùreiahtd and conrinkd o'\edds cor$ lljlls çith ssrru. thead. Dn,b* ii{:ô'nplcb, ùe rc.od is 1e63, 2e.l) blt aNâhlik blv $md .n â tobtrl.r loomdunn! ih. lâ. atd N sone siteswhi.h hd. producd import2nts DrcRomn Iron Aees i Dmmdk, .500 Bc6om lalerrlrai (I]au 1e30,181-4),{ere conle'nrrmr.v dencehav, iô mah.id DuÙlished sm wiih ralri.s !we. 6on 7-rNi larû in ÙtlEr afcasol S.andinlii. {hdc thedidenc. ollooJn' on Bril6 indictc Èishb â sdi'sbdden loomks .keâdy or Lhceishf 2 2 hdls lmû dlposib i' bndon rhaaùcuDriÀt wE\eislù{ dailne 6om thc Iâb 13thro the early 15i\ cm' in Ne. otr ùis lodn, {ith a sintre rnnsdnetrr {oEn 6!m Zs i !àm (Fia cins 1lÉ ndrâl shed rd thrèercd h.ddles, hlnes ,I but 13are odsc b nedrun trjaht di@ml Mth PrG Z,spunFm rere ft)lloed i" ùc ducêdfion 'ltûe .utùes Hilsdri Rominroviias by ii'd Ni[s {jù mixed(Z/s) rôgs'oo'hI ciriiqbonè \pjrmsariiqrctlot Ds4.r2b [rùd jqio q6 ]!ir nr5 WJd1q77.rl .lm iq t 0rr 2O Il' 5 o ltrn P ror tur rmcd r{ilh Dersi{enin E@lmd ùôlghour the È ûostRonanDeriod(ctu*c@t 1$3, al3_23)md ;a\ ril to beloûd moe lour3hcdtuiÙsol ùe rorhcènùry in Endisi Ms in ludinsGlou€s ter md Lnrlor (Hedses1932,Itl3; Pribhard 193,1. sa 5).Bltfiom ùe 7ih.cnÛry onûrds ûe .onbindion oa 7-{Diûûiig ând .ombed *ôÔl 1973.103-51 seemsio oredonhab (Cro{t cro$ioot 19s1,90r ctuwroot l$7, r?] 2) How' @i ûe Rry lrigh ptupodlon ol ni'tnlikd ôbr.s in L\e excvded E dish nEbrial ùainly Fk20 .etrrdcris, ne.ns dÉr il is nôl fiodAilbsdon âlmw r;siblc to di$i.sûish howùdv ôrthcse

!i.aû!di4nù

sl qis rh! dùad ddrirv


r0) Nt\r lirlrn.ft (.rdlLr rhd.m rredNsind rs\roALèds'lhe\oolis'nairlyJitr.iôn.diLnn rÈtr srD{i,,gr0 rr,è iuortLt&[ r]Lndofih. \r.nî l,isu\qqt,bisd ri! us4a hrr.d *rp âtd rldr !îns ôr roft6ri,'t ri ! lûlyr .rï,d,\ ru( Iq,lor \tFre LlrisLqieol.oloI rxs dy.d r.,l xilh lldd.r *rrirpn,e orlrer\as wbin q Nr,{! r.nrr t\or 3i. 159.Fis :L). lolh ùe looil qrdiû rlorhsrn,i. r !. . !s.. tô liJr lbhionâlte bRoird erm.nF ntrdê frcûr roxi$:r l nriur(fia\rr3,\.r6nrnr!\feoea l,rJDdjfiùerl De.esof 1[e vme *rmml tr ,rrDusl, rrrer\re.i.if,kred noD dÈporisol ditfo .nt dabs ri Bc2 rlr L.n.' ù\ , v d d' ' dn.rrrôinrhêptraiê..r osirAwdd::l$iLl d \j, larqrrilf 1\o:1r2)\rÀ ùJid rorîdrhd

sÂlÈhbunôrp.l!trû.,qtrrr s 1i:) ùrdIr.rhÈ iLoDrrtr$ir lofloqrrrrmi,Lralri.asveLta:lhe liiiis. lh n$ ô!iLLu$d Jofdrs sxrDr.Drr, . so \liile i,os trrrn4l :l? r{ills t.e bdrnr.d nHr\ rr .ldl,i o.'!\ ltù rô?) r:romLG r h1} dÏ.1di .ôi.piri,l rr,e.idr ot rhe\ùp in the ii o of ri I r, : | {Fis\ 2t r.j).I ûetrdroF qùtrirùoirhêr+rh.êùr{ (\r i9 [ir:j:]r llùs 'rrL,i(lorh is (! dl,{\jk inùd Ltrlilrlr16Lh rmur in L.rrLor, po haDsornr! io th. h.k ôJ \rentue rcrnds d rhr eDil01rh.l.lth c.ntor. siJi.ethe! .elrr 1ùrlr D,lk]ns ol M, rcdr \ith dy.tr.ls(Iien'nL!!r98i.!r) lr isorùb.lilÈ {hd this


?.nil6 a,n Cbhins Msual dmimton æd dye resb esblished liûle âbolt d'e age or olous ùsedfor ùese dorlB.T{elve smrles savcrôsiilveresulrswhen t6bd dd the dye ideniiijed es ûadder vitlr Lbræekpiions. In thesea yeld ù blrfi drt. *hi.h côuldnothcidcntiffcd,Rs uscdrd in one 0iecethis d'€ rppe$ b hæebeenbpnyed ær {ed (indisornt.presunablyrcsullitrgi" a shâd.

de!ddpdd{&' 2{Jn!Ùûd4se lds!ùd?'!lr'3Fù5

1G!^0{!dÂ.qd!d}ù!n

ms rhelr ol cloihihâlJoln Pàslo'wasrelf rins b *hen, in sÈpember 1.165, helrcre to hÈ Wlliâù Pàstorboushthis Gpciorryne{orsred (pavis1971,140). shechisalûost[lesilke

SeledgesonwÂbd 2.2sils 6m r,ndon in the l4ti ce'tury âreaI olsi'noleco.slr!.tion rd thq tre not st endheûedapdt non sùetjnes havinÂa edgecord oI pâ;ed û multitte ends (Tabk a). ^n cxccprionÈ a comc cloLhaom a lâte11th.eitury depositv,trichhâsa pled edse .orn andal le.sl eightpairsôreids (Nô166,r'Ls 248),but asrhere* oI thiscloth is notDr*rEd ib mràl1chm.br (]moi be deremined.The ab*r.e or â s6i.s of strs ctrds whi.h b].s rhèsLàinontheeùe ofa $ahed cloù, fêllêd boL'rùe senenl læk o1ônishirisonclolhsorU'is natorcmd ln.likclihoon that Lhryk e lrrm to nrwer $dlhs Àso, by .oft$ ro L\rÉ{hed lçils and lo a iu'nDer ol l,ùbywven clotrs, .o differcûdymlourcd cnds re apFent mons AsEI âslre€nins . selEd8e,orê ol ore* tsills hasa finge oI lesely tlieed ends!'Jo rù, Fls 25).li ,so hasa cordconsisriryol a rho* ol lôrgply mft inrcâds,rnm abNcthc dd orihe web,vith dre end of tl'e cod rln back into d'e ftaE. This cord, raths Ù'ai forminsrdi oi ù patc' n, prcbâblymaks ihe cnd ol Lhepieæ oJ cloL\andw thereiÏe cut o{ rd djs.ârded(d llbr*d

yrn was ale Nd in .oûbinâlion


(Nnon.neÉ for ù I'ant sLdtr.Êh|d dr. $tuc orù{ snùdins dd {lrilf e ieronrnr erler ot rhe dirgorat lik: $rrkl h*r dm*. h lriqe ftêse iLenx {.n njade as Dilrl :roodslsltôtr I9È!.203)ctorhi.s\:s ù Èom bue' bols md tlr..lâtrf (*ruê ôrrhedoih ræ oarru, ùy ùstut ù. hos. bt.rofel]rftd io.ki,,ss bccxD. t uÙbnl! ariit.bte rtdj.udL rd soALedhor h6 b.ù idq{inednod ùrh .rDân i & rn. enl oLthc r3rtj I cr14 *îrlèd rmsr.kenxbroârrorùedôrhiùorth. kri{hLlv qde.s ro C!ûu: rd e TeDoh^. rûd t; lrr .rr I r'hr 01tr l-r LrLn it. $fro 1 0 , ) s h i l e m F r A r i L , l t r r Æ b o u l hnrrboJ' k . n |uftm rd NoBi.h i1r !' mrr ltothjLLs ,n spre oi aremprd pfohibido, oû F lromds Non-ùostcds wn

tr[h lou rd i{illi,r Datre.ied tân.lsoncto \ slvetr {irh I obby ndtr {f.^t lhese rê dis

whouy non Zspm

or il,e loLù.sh.(ùills nô\, D nomZsDtri\rn t r h jh l i , ,n" rrorF rcol d i,,,i.rL. u , L l mn c i ? r ! ! { r ar. aro !y eb!]l)les oI .oa, Âfr I lodb Niù tels lDi 10 n.iit! F m ir borhsr$.B FûLr lrd trilli R&n vhôtty ùo( Sspû !r.n a..

$'ùscrL hrrfi.\ wowr irm rortred {oot haF r!rysbeentrr Fislishsp.. âlirr 1]redeivdion orth. nxûr' arqorh. tunh \ô,Tùtt ull:e. ôr$nr n4d (Àido !ùotr \h, LrrFdej is slref,Iy & r.,r r, .xnv tSrhrenbryd,DosiL a hearity qi{ ll,e erriê$ relert..c s rrr irùt d iirlledrnrirfr drjer â.orse doù ndletqiri \rèerF th.i . i5iDr2q0.B! rhcetrrt! tlrh c.ntury rhend. h&l .lrtadv tr..r 'r$Lerred rô ihê .roil, .lrruiqe honùne oÈle nnnhn, ,h\ aûd T$ills wid) hixe.l snmi'g ayieJr.n .a.r'..onlt.di! LheltoltsLrf larli.mcnr h r . h È sd i [ . ! i f hm \ , j n n s ' o L o r h x f rrrl 15nF rori orAylsl]n.liiiGd n 1irl. trlm dcpôsir!o rlr 11ditrid!lltrl! 15thùdn.ies nLrthcrq(. r jL,rùngrtirsr.ft ror NLr ,/ Nonehasùore ihatr20q s or 1spt.ts E cnr [neD lsakù. 1923.2?1 S(or 1939.?0' fiet û<-es r.!?. tùm hrio. .drrd brûM or I1'ruql,o( rhetJih rùd t5drcùnu i(.5rheDrG lre!$!oraf.,drLrty.ors.lfis2rt. th.\oot \fi.h usrrrrr in.Lud.rhdr tn. rd !),rsc \o oÙ{rh. wornedsb.ins lrud'L 10rionrj.h i) irorr uL rnd sraliiis..nd .xoo,Ld r, ihe doùrriR.orrcd nû0 fte z{pui ,am hN I cort r.nl th.oùshrh. lofL ol Ydmôrh (crG idder 0!in. tr r shûls .0rh c!o 16s.Î'bteo irdt.{es$xr rliir yîn t\ LqLnh qn irr!!. e iNrirbtch.rDcrthaù rrr x:rp Dinocnrst er ot trtrr!.,r1(ltor.d rulLedddF, be.x$. r. lri .{1d1âb0urùFÀ \rôl v{c soDeijD.s med to pniî ùe rlodEi !r,f ro*r The! rrr,À qhred at hunt ïnt r ûiedi{rl r,À.oftGthù .obr.ed sùroesof ditr 1 ù! vidrhs (\o 45, riq ,fe rori.uLny lùked \nh ho!!,lotd tùnjdi ?7Â1.côlo!. efeG &rt aho ùù,r,;rd qil !x' nsol di!(ctrt ih {.rnressesIthÈEÈaddll


F:c26 ùâiæ doù sin nixed sPdiig Eetii2'2sijl'Nôlt€'ion'lâb!nl}

etr6aid mnÉd$ini4

CA)Nô6, (B)No

{hde a much @roer ddk bô{n zspm wlt à 'ghter<oluuredbIrM ljm *À u\eU,lonesiLlê ltn|ro*ible çNnwefr (No4aa,F'e27B,t1cA) rh,i ù€ tbrL btu{i ùr6d' or'@:Iv fùmed Drr or i sbnjns bodÛ sincêthev re not rè ;âFâ 6,rtl'êrd,m lhc ùcboftherlod',buLdre ;iee is (e J@entary to conlirm ùis inbF ;ælaûon. No1.U clodrsof rhis8en?nl STe h@ nixed soinniq Dd rhereis onepiee froma lâre ]4rh{ùrùry depôsitxhde the ,Tn is Z-$un rhtouhout. li hæ bæn sq$slèd li'ai rrv siûihr crdhs ewred lrom 13Lhnd 14tlr{eoûa d@!E rl Kiiù-s L!T r I NMrsÙÈupoû I) f c lr)?7 j7{-7, wJLn mdLe vÀdml Lcrld sh .h Mc rmducedin 1%3.3l 21,: tB ol I où (Hofimm 196,1, 195)6 wll lolæd NoMv and as in sDuin(Chill4s 73, 10,1).iire latur s!rce -"ina nç to cmnent m rhp ûidl.,lEadd'. the irlw dooritK:rhrtwLen nLhenLLrdr.of E 'sbd dotsthc lir3i6q1dn,r t5ih; ia .ldhs *htrh !ill b be msFded br Ùrehn8\

aùlnddto.h{k rhâLitcô'formed sjrh *hrÔrv reldarions âs!ù lensthàid çidth (Sâl,ho 1923 'Ihe odrerJou^hedMills lilà mind spùùins inclùde one rrom . nidl4ii cflrùrv deposit @n frod ombed wdl *iù I much$Itr spu weftNo 443.T{ble 4,f-E 24ô. Trrissas a $Dc or .lôrh norc comon in earliêr enturies Gæ D30. Tlùee otÀersareùedim b coaÉtublics which*Ûe Droùablytu[en, û c alông slrit ora haviiy tullsdv@llo dyedlith madd€.fion m €rly Isihlohrr L!p. Eir cr bE+m A à ror' rumerol rheloollci fuiÙ*hd sere'0 b{o'nc 6oulù 'n thelâkr rsthdd 16ih.€nÙ i6 ir hJ5 b€.n 'G!5hd Lhatthe ( nrhsr" an,l eerb. LiislnFEhedin medi6àl res'Ltjons:s or lon! lbplc mol !tre 22 u'itulledmd @ MiIs Mrb Hofrfrdn qudesdesriprionsd Ûe clôrh tron dftllmls daliÂsro the Bù b 15d1 @rhries lsm ihe nmislr toMs of Brlges rd Hondsôoorê$at sqse$ a b,lmced lourshed


t,ill ir is desoibedasa wæ wirh a }Ùp and. wfr face mâde on a lmm wiL5 ror rê tes (Hoôlrm rgtu. 261-5). Ir is a po$ibitity ôd ene ôflie 22 sillsftom l,ndon mâyhaveheo s@s, md ùis ârsuent È strogthensl by â ind lioD r r&h{cntory Thâhes riFEnk de posil ol â lêadenaûlnasesealJo. a ,Col.hesr Dutlh ç, lhrh i\al'Fd LU:srll p{eorrrs orisin:i clnth (cÈùtrE!:n pûs otrù! Îj5 A J 2.2MllsrFntom oig vde molwln o zsDu u!nr. Sspu re( ùJ 1brhre:d. Ér h n boLLr sr.temsiit âlsolm . reinlorced*lrdaq 4nn !ide, wen ii râbbymæ {nerherthh sv was 4Dicaloflàosc madein ûthêrrMs md ii ê;n;r cotoriês È ù.ertain bui the 6e oI friftd $in niry cùld p@jde m npôtun p'dc h rB

Six-sh€dhrils AsmâllbutErynheijn€Fupnrt!rhnenûry trcrdrsr.inàqir.\hedbinLlrnq(L't'tèsr Ttrry iicrrdêfra!ûef,Eotup b fof !ldh. non rhe deposirar BC72daij.s to the ssond quâderof ure 1,115 cenb}y, od lnrce latercxdfrDles,M from LrroraG l4th.mr4 de6i ât Bc72 d me fi on. hb r4ih or emly rsrhrmiury nù oia stotrclmdêmbe at MLriTd.All mfe srffi f on fne, zspun w^led ym, md are dedy skilted

bntrrandquùtrorùe!ùenNry: (qr DhotosDh,sde r1, (B)veâ€dimam p@re$iorâlDrôdd. A eaù pide fion a astte âtvooAl ORijssl, in lhe lnw C.ùnries, dalinq iô lJbzù: lrihcùljrr is theôrtycunr@rùi effde oI luch à âb c so hr nolrd fiom ûe c,niineit (vùs-c mis1933,35-6) The !}!€ ol mol lsed n' the folr edlid Mples triei In ône.lôù (No {a) n is a rry fine neeeblrÈ Nirhin ihc merino.4e, in $r o$ss Nos,16md 491it i5 in lhe line b mslirn nnse, {hile i. nle fturth 0,Jo,t7) rhe wd has ben identinedæ coning tm â dotrbltroftd shcepsincêk@ hairsâs*dl asline fibrês rê presd Grarryl\4Appleyaflloês om,. Brt aX lnè ,nms shi.e and lhe dias.ni Mte d ûe Æm is Ery didùr. Tllræ ofthe tnsrnenb tre mprnsipd Nos4dr3 f-s23r.àtrhough rhêtr s,e i. rvosnàn tor û'p oEral deskn ot ûe .tôdr to br ddenrined wirh.erbinry, anddslr .d beingdiferentshâdes olpint atrdrêddishbtrn.


I:,nik: atu Ckthttq aI kre apùtrsily Diadd.fnrd. No selveds6 areomscrvtn.butfrùû ùe @dcnft onhe lounl cloth.{hi.h is Ffterndt. llr \r'rm $iù s[ahtlv clo*HpÂ&d rl}cads md beùe reri FoturÊly t{o ÉLhcrlagd pÈes rùr 1r vivedôfdrebeaùrilultdiûr.cd rÀbri. t\o 19.r1s 29. Pl xq) BoL\ shov deat or dre sme rell. .hmn D.tterqûe l@ymr dydl r.ddÈhlink md the wenFssùly uûdycd.Acrc$ the.etue is a I'îd or similarchsons bût rvden lrom i red dishriùk{êfr!?msinilmo(h.mç 11'cbând is ed!Êdù en.ndcd hbby vi{h the{efr passiry md.r md oÈr three .nds, hâr r$er iû â liahr th"bùl (ù o u î l ê , s i r d h r l fi ' l h i l l r n Mh lwLlû m thc loumlh,i Ùe siÙ u@L Fi orL\e reb Boù die ren tl plrplcyarns we dFd rnh na{ld.i 1lrc maimt heistrr pr*flcd ol rhc cloù is oûly {51m, and i is po$ibleth.ttheso64ûe sù'n.lro aside dcn iÈ bdl o, a nionochrcmeNin wæ oI diaônal si[ r.rh{ than thd the wl'dlc làbri. {æ Paturnedvirh Q{d tli.v.ons The |pÈùân.c ol si*shedffi[stom deoosirs of the lalÉ r4rh cenbn is ved dif.rc.t lhe {ee È ùe stra, di4onal 3.3 bvill bri ùe .losely 6cûn $€lt (o.ly sllshdy æriciFied in tho* fabric producedeânier iû iJ'c ccntuI]1 hides ùe didoirl {âlc. giviû ihe rabricsùe


lookofsâlænnrher thû tui[. ex.êd ù4 ulfte sleen, ùe MiIs ûe r*Aiblc. One pieceaù p€æatfirsr!obe o nâEnenbofdon5,onetDe æd oie .oær, joincd ærcs lhe middle No 170,Fis 30).The mæ is, howei continuous, làe 'join' beins a sirsle lhto{ ôJ.2 d\readsin oneshed,wid' the rminsoia sinilâr.ord m in rftFl rho4 fuine' àlongrhêloomlengih 0n mp sidedre!êfr w, Lien*ly bêàknupcMins thewp by a erio oJ5* onihe otherlheeft G loo*r wiù a ftû 1oy:r! mdoofon! 2t.It ens mobâblelh* L\È llfr cordes rhmm, Niih jrs hil tu rwl'ly bæk imo the hindinalo notd ir 6rm, 10Mk $e dd ôI a 1enÂ$of rlolh. nd, Llrerelbre. tàeuemly{@! æa wâsrhebeai} lins oI thê ldonrpirc (se âbft, p 33) oUrer Leenb or a *eftlæèd six6hedsT1 rror ihe r3srs d.pôsrtat ac72 ac coEed with tuFs ot { [ sÙt$Lns ùd pmbàbry bnerlMof ar nÊnic\,Ior71 Fqrso) nrDie!êfrcmMUfÀh ofâ 6ihTa1tr quâli! vin5 â ùrft ro{ârp ùreâd dmsit of,l.51 Th* ltirFepondear fibri.s ae very sinild in app.aru@ 10tç. lvrli Îâced 2 2 lrills from z csbmpôÉ.r lâF udrcnrud deÈsitint ndonL>e037)venljrd 2?M[s dnrinucd to be producedinb tùe 16ltrcmù {hseâs si*shèd t{ils appùmrLydisaprred dûiÀ', the ezrly 15û .entury. The reâûsadon. lhêrefôre,ùd the sne efect could b! obt lned ûLh ls efort in â loù.shed coNlrlction my perhap€a(out for rhe limiled lilè ând disribu ton ofthe& si*shed mrsteds Îtu unusuâl.hûmcterof ùe bindins,ad ùe hriel p€riod ol ùen apptrmca, point lô rhes hish qu.liry so sbds beiis proJu!"d m , spe dalsen cflûc, pdra in Nortolkwh.re mewr ded indusfyE con.eftâred (suron 1939,201). The wft{hMn Ddh hasl€en .ofrrared b sinildbùds on l3rhcntuly HisranoMoresque silk lâbics (Pribh3rd 193t, 30). md thc we]l. 6cd chucler ol lhe lâtd sixshcdtuilh s*ms rler, n heê bd delencd roimiilk ûe r* ,

Tabb) s€âr€s labby mare. as ib old nme linetr weâve, (/r,aôt,rùrg) impùes, næ dw]s bed clos?b dMrtrtn withnà. l],e bidjnshs @puùtu r4'irespmduæd fronetherJdmàlor{Rûbtè

F'l33lwôGÈdbbby'No397,6on.labBù

fbres in tne RoûanDêriôd,dd ib apparedde c[ne in p0stRonm EmF @ bs ùnly d plâioedby rhê dûp mnditois in vhich Imv tsidilês hft b.en pre.c^en. SLldy or mir; âlird brile rmùin5 Éom ,{n Gsdon (êmê bricsôfd,c6rhuLd7'hcenù'c5d'ossaresxtr rd i sLnêrÈæ,srchasKor,an inûeMP Dnrpodiônol bbby {eareq eme csrt'inù of tuol.Itisaopùe " howæi tom otherm.lèiial dI ùe ftn b 10tàcmhri6, sd ftn tard in rhe norrh, ùât rhe êmphasis% sril m sills tor A Jewhbby.wèn clodislrom Llndon dnibn the ruskd yârn ùd sûghdyopo.bxtued, bâl æcedreâe qhich cha@kriÈ manyôJûe ôtr lier tabrics,Fnnd:dy ! fne rcded tromTL74 datineio .12?0 (N0 397,Fe 3r). lese wôred labrks, hNE( ceasedio be Dredùed in N quùtity. The Ery ditrereit aDD;dmceor mdr tâbby.r'lr€ clorhsfromt4th.drq deNjrs genemlt wolens witStu6 of a nâD- should bc conne@dvnh ùe csblishndt of tullins nills. ùd thc prcdudionof clorh*irh a finished Ttu sl,ifr in out trr liôû Nills b ribbies È .è lc.ted very.ltr\' in l4th and lSui{entq h tils lron lbdon. Tabby 0redomimr6 i. ùe tdbles re.@red trcm â lâre14rhor erly t5ll! ceni4 fil of â !ùderobc d Mut76 ând in æ


îûnfua",rclathirg eâdy15Lk 'hry r$4i,ot dmp ai lL7,1.Îre Érceûr.ge ofbbb! !e es ù ihe Bc72Fôup or iexdes nse\ rron ,l$l in the depositùI rherl,{s togftin rneht llth{.ntur dock,illia Asrni lar tend is rre*ri EutuÈ Lr cxmDle, bbùy dominâbsùe lexrile hniis dri'E non dre131h{olôrli q'turics i' îrc Nelhenand\ O'o'stirmis le3, 16, tu 3). the 15dRcnh4 mderi.l rmn L\e nonh Cenmr lù{ùi or Lijbe.* md HTneln afidor 1982,177) and rhoseltun latc m.diMl iieDosirsi. (lslo Lhr, b.r! Dir.0;l0lr lth:\ bën puj Flv rLr mone r< mdiLql llih ilsulàtilnstur Fledish and r'' cn.h tsns .ll asp*6 of p|odùc tion*em to bê dcalt*irh: rhewol. 1ù,1s.diù.n sionsnt dre$iis ôrùc cloth,indcedeFrJ1hiu crcpt L\c acturlltaviig (Iloffrm 19m,2m.û, 26) TIF bindiry s?s aprddllj' nôr.ônsidcrcd ro be or $(.h inooûnce qhs lbè {e.E ir*r Ms ro be ob{ured TabbyweaÉ. rhe \ind!5t .olsbucrion. was lh. .Lùick.d and casie$ tor m|p.f and wvers ro ûod!.e. ,rd the se sd.1.e which resùliedMs nkd for lârcr rinÀh

l,lilkriliry dcposib in l,ndon whi.h we mmùLdùed dlea$ â cÊnbiy eahei Nlired sDinriG a\ tui!ôtrcd b.ir.c. gtus a vcry Jirm cloth. Ffti.ularL! suitâbleror tullns âid ntrishirs of the tsc72 labbies.I11 tll bri six) û llr lroùp ddjng to thc scond qudlÈr ol thc l.uh cfltur!, âid 327i" L\c ssùp oI ùe hG bv !û cenlq âre 2/s !Ir' Dâi'a..âu*d dMaiomiior :ltcr L\c clotbs wère disrded nûkesrhedtreaddens,ryin mo$ pie.esvrirne. Nseûeles, the dotlÈ cai Dcdivnhd mqhly iiio inr. F?dcs: tinc (l3/r3 threids er l(,nm ind over), coaf* {mder 10/10 thFds pd l0m) ând mediun,bdm.tr rincrd coùs.. 1mûû br clothsvith ûixed sriûning,all to'n L\elab udRen(q depsn d 8C72,ar. oaàrir. ridr,4,10 a." mdirm smdc ad onlyssry de oI a coæ s.de (Iig 32) L\csecm be sem ro hâver{eived snr d.Fe ol tullingof JinhhinFthowh mqv oI ùe orhûs

re similartei{nrd Ir i}.1ntrbusc samplcs hkcn æa Fide. moslolthe hndon piê.esm'id havê.ôme liom {hat .:n beacrepledi\ Èillish bn,ldcl,il's n'c dy6 p,cscnt on L\e bndon cloLhs rlso coneslD|d Broâd(lo(h wN.n, d}!d, i,[ed lè.sled and Toulou$,wiih mdderused u.y rrcqrdiy. i.di sho .d in Èndùd wsbythr llth.en(q ore d Âotinlc$ ofrcn,æd bnzilwoodto$ib!r'sùni* iig in ois etrple (No51.*e u 2na) the.omb\ mo$ imrduir.xpofb ibdim.n 'fhe si{N rc!trIâr.d bv {rtute and irs sbndrrds je, eod niddl{.qùalirr,orùc inubusc sæ ouslysuarded(rridbu4 1932,4l). A fonùiâr. Dhsn .c'1âin1yihe Fde ro$ com'noily rsprc soted ûong ihe txiiles nom ll(h{rrlury tindmong.ioruûeùr\ii-lnubue shms thât deposir\j lddôn dn. qualiryor broâdclolh$.s likê in i]'c 15$ cù (1{oltr1933,12È25) rcùds This do.@eii lury sade cloL\s lroû uF .s*nblage .ould .ome ùto LhecâGpry ofle'rlel isun€rhit Pn,bÀbly rhe$le h L4ssorror piccs olEnglish.loù. ârd stillffi to theÉrhnût trc $rp1s onhræ oI r)f siniltr consudion to thc lo\Fr sades ol alordwhich bro.ddoth,d,e q!âliq orscrlei !hen. They re lover j" , l.bby bindi'a lith miaed(z/s) spimiry, desdibèd ^ teasled,on in erù mediflal ue!a: h.il norlriq to do with bolhsidesThe finishing,ho{*i eFaÀ iôi ro olou. ap@ùdy dèpddedupni i6 finishins, includiis dre nùmberol rimesa nâprvrs raised hnr brn \try I'edl, rM on onc$mplc Fhdè {irb leaslesunl sh.ù.d. lour timcs bci4 th. {em stxc ih. Éhcd naohrs di:'pDeùed rhe rde..r b! setr b haÉ apFoximdely12 13/11) dpc.bd deFee for these llxury fabrn: ùFads Ér cd. o'Ê cffolq dcsc.ibed.s red, oloftnm 1361,26t9). This rtuc$s lel ilir {as dy.d $ih nadder;the so oL\cn tosat (a ! . 1 ' ) l ] ' { n â l l . x i b l . a n d c D h a n c c d i b d r a p i r y quâlily.'lhe *DeNe of the fabricus dùenorio rj.h bordcaù .nlou 10rhe {e) *rc dycdlith slighi indiqo(xoad),dr dùkû ône onlyùe skiuedlâbourirNolved,Iûh rl'c ir, mirklerï ncnsc qlmti$ orwo1 .ceded,and the suÈrior inleûsifiedby rhe addirionol bruilrcod n'. .lHsed appemnceorlàû inûliml cldh dueto snde reqlted ro vinxhd the lisous oI rhe lredrnen(FjDdrei r9Âi.rr1)lrhasdebcc.suF [ii\hi',s proc.r*s n sen hèreat a rad, nd ûe dr{ !'rio' of rhes. cloihs I sunl niiddlc scsbd that the u* ol $sdy lrtu lor dyei{ {as qùally corelxi,ls rô manyoJthe piè.estÔn' .nothft impodt inFenientin thr prodLcdoior

B


h nuch !0 *!æt scânebb be æ$gnÈable heredùs L\esx'ælcd trqrend ftere are. nærlhd*i d 1€stnineûedim io ûæ €nde pi*6 or l!ôby{En clôthdrd sith kermes whichnos Ênselrom dùk pulpleùd rêd ro (e.s.Nôs0, bdshrpink Pl2B)Thesix€smDtes orkmesirrd dodr rromlhe taft r,t0rînh4 de!æir&e anertho thG nomtheeater pâ;r or tne cstury. Thê odse$ is r nodièdclorh sih lrermesny€d tfireadsin ùe ven ôoryû,{o 66)dd. theftIore.it@uld nolhm beêntullêdb $e ffe degreeælhe!n!âlt.md.loths, Asnduâlchânee in theprcdudionofûèdim Fade hbbv.tuH clodrsis @idrt Irom lnp Londù nenâ]. ln boûrl4$.dnry deNjts at BCZ ùere is a s.I nûbcr ol labbvwen pie6 wilhy$n ôfr sifrilârspinrd ctu;r in rÀ€ Mp ad w& Cablel), Iiempl6 nôn lhe ftond @ftr of ùe 14th&nhq æmprie iu,t rhrtezlpun 4d rw çqpunkôLlms B, diêlâc 14ùanmrr, drppe(eûlâeeotctorhswn from Zspunydn hadri&o srehrlyrRslùJùrem'sà ûæ nùliæable ;se h tios clothsvilh sspin, nins (20.3x), a rùd 'hi.h s6 to i'aeæ sjÈ nifi'D'is dlt in scleediû.êûhri6 add.ùincides siri â rechnolôEi.âl dè relopmat,tuely æ i.aeæed ùseoJLhesein ûiûgvhe€1, rd addstoourkno{ledÂe orthe@ in whi.à rhewheelme to b€aepLd. 6uild reslâliotrsbid dM in ûE Frid hâI of ths l3ù æntuy in a nlmber oJwidêlydisFed FatuDd tlrns, ircùdjns Aobea (lh1y)aid Spar (G€rMny), omitud drc use ûl làe wrrd odyforspimingveftrù! (Mâhùi r$!" 194,ft 13),dd it c& be intuftd nom oLter s'fti includhc a Flmish *fteÛnr+',s Frs32 S.erdj@s shwinsûs ùÉd ùyûe conpoed ar3ôg,yhich r€Ê6 lo lne !n. dqsiri6 ofobby.wlrq (Lorhs fith ft'ld 3Drrihs qoducedd spituiry 4nnsdyàrn which%s (A)aly romjd!ù Éoh4 b;sfd o $e.imda ùheelsbyindperienedsoinsteru(Bâin* r97. (B)Iù l.ld' roâly fin ûhryba:ai m 3ta 94),rhârthisva,Le theE6enltule innoniern lmp€. It hæalrqdyh€en!ôinkn otth,tdræ ms , Ionglndiriônof ùsincSspunym ld ùê lrùê Mrd (M!no 1933,3!+63).Reler4æs rô wô, andMsqueûly thespiûnins whæl,shich wdd oppcr ftm thê mft entuly oNards hadm builtindesignt ndency tô Mi{ yen in a (Hofûlrm 1964,265-3iMunrc 1933,19dd 27 pârricùlardnecdon,w ùsedto prcduæyâm 3), blt it ffis ùd at first dr [qtish ctoli iÈ *ith a9rvistlo onfom withdrcrequirmùs of du#y had no wk É skilled dùgh rn erry Lhecbû industry.Sspunyûn lhusbrê ês od dre shêdins, ând rhecloth @ *nr abdd, lablhhêd5 Ùrentrm,r pro,r(i uf thespinniu ofr€næ tai æ lbly, b be lùished, By the lâfi wh€êltrd one ùè rê6iii:ne 'ô {heekpuny?rû miry, h(l@, all nas6 ol thê wt couldbe hÀdbm @tume simi]Jyùn wasals usêd6r o')Iied eisildûily in Dngland.Ii is, perhâp6, tàê erD. Thè eoùn in sstu vdn d this


Tabb6$M@9oo\F|@Ûsd6D'd3phbc

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Fi333 Saù di:3@ shtrùs rh. rhrud dùnd o'bbb'do'n5Fo66r@s3Enrooye.bàsed d 104MDles an brt M dê û@ deæsi6 otrh. IrL l,$h dæùlsrh dtuies

p€rio4th.rdorê, reflêd modierslepL'zrds sreatermecbaidio in dr€jndGt,y.Tlle chief adhbsr oIdrcspiuins vh*l 6 lo haeaæ rh€sp.edbyvhich}nm hs pmdu@d, ftÉebt helpincto mætùe dffids of reftre oI b* dlaæI*en lens ûo qui.ld} usd up tars. whelsrun ym ms notastue as$âr shich @uldb€ 3p$ sith â drcpspindleùd it G not sûrDrisiûg, ihùelùq dr.t nowô[ên cloihwn td seu @ bdudrdhæ isol afinemde. TlremdjmM ndbêr ôl wùp md Ri ihrsds perm is 16rd l4 rospdlvelybr no< mn€t iiod njnero[ ûùeadspêrm (F''s33).Funner moÉ,th€dyesMkmês hâêdôtbeenidotined m my ollheDiæ* ofsspmwollen cloL\re.lêd Ior dyts in cônb.âiio bbby.M cloihsrith ûixed spin0ins.out ot l9 Sslu hhrrwn clôdsffpred 1tûnvtd b bedytdwitnmâddd, oe *ilh a yelôvdye ard ûe reminins s€H

s€h€fu€sondoùs lmn in hùly dé, ûù Gw erceplions, .êi.Iôned Gàbl6 6, 7,Fies3a,35), firyhæaedaecordotoliêddl,5ictendsI $93{ Rei ofed srwdgA qlml bbùi8s 'iirr ôfrenÀseriesof râis ol mds befo.€de single tud 3pir,ùs: (A) No 54,(B) Nû 16, (O No{1


fuk?wd43or@làbi€qtætfuss@

FiÉ35 RliiJô@ds€lRdg.onmd hbby*ith latt{horedylsthænhryse]ell bs o( colourei sen€dg6 pre$ritn on cloihs lroû lrdù nisd hop€sLhalme cldifiGiion d ùis âr$ment could bè â(mpted bu! unlor tsatcly, noy orthe selRdgeshæ be€ncut oû e .loÈV that lhe nùmberor ùloûed dds ùd the châmtd ol the clolh is uncerlain.Funhsmor€,the dif6oti6 of ascerbinjnsrhêoiidral .olors æd dic pmr conôrionol rheèds6 hæ

dds of the mainveb heginThis ûrusement restrltd in m edlt stronsetuwh L holdre* brhoots shù Lhedorft Ms sterôheddùina finishins.Someselveds6includeendsor a diJ Ê.ent olor td làe rest of ùe .loth. lvhen roud m hdes td sibs in aftrn Eûbpe, ùloûfed e&nscs hæ bêenonsideredâs a Jmn wæins cenbs i. stn of clothsimported rhe w. Adân Nahliksulgeslèd0rt lhe dif. turenicoloun ad Lrrenmbe6 of oloued threâdsnisht indi.âterhe producerùd ure qualityôftheclorh(lJâhlik1963, 249).Thenum

Mo$.oloûed selvrdgs o'ne from bbbies ùù Z6pù *ù! and S€p$ ren ând mùy of theseùæbeo hcrittulled (e.g.No 195,Pl5ô. The comûnest olou irr selvedgtsis liqht bffi (losibly oricinânywhile.or in somecæs '€lld) @ pink,r€dor drk blrM Oob.bLvâle red) clotiF, Thes cloLhsae ol mdim sâde but the 6hads oI colourod lhe numberoi cnds 'nùeê re wiable fme snde .lolhs troù a lab l,tLhanûy depôsitât BC72ârê tints ol red or ledrurple wû dûner oloued *|ftfur o.ds, nrblâckdd bnu, blt oosbly orig,.,ltdrt pùrpie.Tw ôIrh*ha€ sixdark6rds (Nrsfi. 'fte* 1a{) ad the oLlreronly threc 0{o 135).


.lorhs wL d dl hM beenFofc$ionally ûado, md wiû sû.,i rbsildcrinsrieti/of nûnbeÉoI conls rd coloùrsii is Derhâpsmoreràsonable b sme th.t làey indi.zte a pmdumr rnrel

Frinscs ârè presened ôn tu bbbylsm .loths, six wilh mixedspinniÂssd o.e Sspln rhmwhoui. usuâIy soups of endswe simp! pliediosclE. in srours ôl f(rui si\ ôr e,shr (es. No 210.ris 3â{ md No 2n, l:u 374), but one .bth hâsêddsçhich trrè ùliedin pâiGmd rhên

Fie37rri4êsolW]bbbiEviin nir€d spimi4: (! Nô2!, (B)No63.rhc light{olouredbadhftwttlnzsFn hr*d yam.(c) No20r (À)sd (c) ron a he rlrhienturyde@sir,(B)firn,

Fi.ed ,sajtr âtrdai{ên in ine opposihdire.lion to rormmore@minent bspls (Nô 62,Iis3riB). Tw .loths are pâftned Nith ùùds ol confte iry oros \Be. just âù@ ùe ringe (Nô210, Fis 36,c,andNo ô3,liis 3Ar) md ihis dconlioi hoods.Ior exmpl?, aro depictcdi[ ùmy nmu


$riDt illninâtids wiù shouldû .æês .d€€d Pididlôredbu sednlns6 The lrinsês ùe preffid æ ûonow sps noie ÀDlla to læ kû diçrded sued A blobol àd pisnê^t idsùnëd bvvlRFMèlEs às Frm'li.d clelen Gùians ûs ôlm) 's dso ûresentin the rnd of one doù wit\ a finse iNô 20! Fis 37c) bùt i! d6 nol .pror tÔhft lo.ned p,rt of a pâinteddefu!. Col@ddræ€&ctr P.tteroin! oû wol bbbi6 E cgnnnedto crrars dd slriæs uI tvo disBnd llT6, ehpre srÔd .ff€.ii; s4 dd/r qeô rd a widdhriery of weitbæd b€ndsm!ûl@lins borh coloÛ sd w.E €Érts. ol rhe 6rsl i!€, l,v* from l4th' cmtury depositsdê sde ch(L Ihis brm or prtfl hE r lùns hisfl in ndbsn_Lumpe Mo*dlier':]l@lesÙeMmtdamr tioo rhàt (onrinuesf,nh scorthh pÈid! but in Enplâld b! the 6dr ând 7ih caÛieq such par k;s de ,lsô foundon kbbYstrn doths Oneôeck€d.lothft madepositolrhe sNld dutu ol dre 14ù cotury G part of a bÛthded ;l@. In this reaq the wr! ând I€fr de d' Ii@d in Fu!€ orred (nDdder)zd FhiE (,p ùrêdq DùenN udÉù ;buad ùrelts outlinq ùê checieNo64 Fa $À n !. Îe . ôih is wrn Ètràdbm d the oi.ae. ed hâsb@ft rutbed dd retFd in' sidê.irws Dmb.bb otrlv[sndv lull€din ûr'iù b trêHt ùa Dàftm [om bMmins b]med It orisimly, E mbbricÛddidd 6nN, The other clolhswith checledDttlérnscone tum â d4osiiolllê bb l4rh cdllry ThEvre in M colùÉ, Dtr{ ândntblaLli OneRih â res! lâr liæd cà(h 's a LûêR rcdld wên from Ssoûrùn 0!o 27s,FLsl3B, Fl3Al Theo rd mturned wih lines rd th<rc, 5 â mdNm ;dê Z{aun rcrsted (No 172 F,€ 33C,P 38) iiÀdde. ;E die onlv dresnJffdtEed oo êiher oI dresettr cloth$ n * u*d in difrer€d cm' dFalios fd the two 6los of No t5, bû âP umrlv odv lor the blackoI No 172,uhæ tlÈ ;iil a;oea;ee @ be due k) leal,e€ dûing bunal; s.t nossed(ondiboÉ The bl,c[ 6u]d hâF bem Drcduædbv lnê 6e oiz mntâni such ClotJtsEnened -inl mlôÉd bæds wre The âlie6t lho ptuduienin sinrplelrbby @

reDr?lmÈd here,â rl.$ with nn@ âihâbns bâids orftd andomnFsh.bllM vms (No43o F,s39J,oms flm ù arry BL\{shtrY 'lêPs4 n h (ûse dd includ€Bl@ ft,uns errcri drtidLrlv in the shltiry dlthe wei- Fm14dr imh'n datrli6. there ûe cloùq wrh conms 're ù& alo* h ûin!6 (qe p 49,No 210 Fe 3€À ud No 63,F,s 3æ), md in posible allær dtterns Nôs 202,2U_214).I0 Nô 20, mdder ;æ @in idendnedo! bo1nùsht ùd ddk bM


ùrads ùe nùrù huc @d!ud rrvn uEr oyemsdmr btuh @ot Thi5LfuiÉ ss hr. b'dùn m ene EnÂl<h hh1 lur Ntute h!t$q rlinewt$n re44,36, +71.bul ùs m:s 'ld.appqtr b hdF pr4{ELr rr br]ns ptæ( 6 | on qh a r.mq yeùd brd shôh dn. oo* 4Te or snple cornû etre\L ûe u* oi wrm so wtr vrm 0f diïertd .otour: atrr ù; hù wtr, morù.dâpF&ncÉ. n lhisc;,!o

shzd€5 0l b6n Nobsr oildiorh!hlecG msfs ùsrr brosndnd pinÏ vûns u me or ùéP^kûmeswÀ !*n bdyeûÊ ftfr)rm p''k lru Dô, rnùe m mdr s. Jlkr.uq Fft \ ernsorpinkùd liehrLf(M ùê ombrned-wilha rÂnr btum hF No 54.t-is J{Â pt 6A) Tneç omir r e pqhâps rffplês ot .he bbris dê anrd :\ or miyedmtouB kioM æ.medlss' , !É âso !re.1cd (;btoFe L NosD!r27, ai)


1àril6 o"d Cl1thitz thicknes oJ6heft1t ydn, thich is the rsn ùerenr thelN nùnberofpicks,trdld hP em' .hâsised Lhe mtded efè.L The bùds *eE ùeakn nor€ .loseù duing reavins Lhm ùe edin nainwlrûdoncêallieMrp,whichres' nâiv âq52DicksDd cm.dnt is lÔÛ tines tj'ô "\ densih ol Lbe!€ft i]lrads in the smùd (No 296),but a densit Etio oJbetwen 2t rd 3l is môrê!ç!â1.the.e .d be litde doùbl Inat lhæ æ dre clorhscrled É!ts vlicn wre eren ai mtres in nârdere, BcbÙt ûd nôihern FÊnæ asw1l s in Ensbd dùing ùe bte mjd dl€,ges (e.s Bridbury1932,639iChdev 1937i Hardi@ 1$7. Al, md whi.h hâve beên F rured fromMralions inAnsGdan andDoÉ drecht in Îe Nelherlùds (VoN{]onis 1932, 1s6).liibæk h Gerûn4vGldow 19€0,163-9,fis 19.3),andNo8orcd in Rùsiâ (Nahlik1963,25? 4), æ ml 6 in l,ndoD md York (walton1939Â

Êé39 c.louredheds onaruol ùbbvi.cludins

TabbylJrea!€slvidx

w€ft-fic€dbads îre comones lom oI patbri,rs on l:bby clodsfrôm t4ûEeûtorydeposiFin l,ndôn is Ure wftned bmd @nin *nded laùbvvith làe {ett !ârn passinsùnderud {û tm ends Tnis sEs à dbbedàlpaMG forminEàtônLasrÙû Mù3d tituing thê Èr1ue of thc main we çjdr dre wr! yrn Z.spu dd the Neil S.pun Dr&ils, *ceDt Iù threêeddæ tromthe lzh i4rh .dùry which de zsNn thowhûut ihe min É*a Nos 230.306,3c6).Insdml &e Éttern *€to bâE $e smê slin !s lhe mzin!ÊI1 bùt in sme. wIûê âtleasttrc Fftrn retu wrê Èmoldêd,one ormorEtuê\M,mvbê7^pttr sd tr 6u:I! fner (NosiL'b,120,u, ll2, 23S291.297.29*01 307,300,310,422) None oI ùês doùs À ol a lne lFde *iù more&d 15 Lhrèds Èr cm in Lrrêùr! r man mft C€ner allvtherc ùê betueennin. md 1rûds hd eighr and12picts percû.Tm clodrslith a lowr n'G bû ol ùks hæ a min wfl ota difierentcolour io the qo lNos 125nd ût, ûd ihe $eater

Altirêtier LheE âre 93 eMples oJ lh€ crodrstm London.Most Dreseneoniv pft ol oncbod,b a Ie* h3r M or *n Uùecbaîds rmininû and ùde h m doubithrt tiev come [m clôlhs lnat mre slriled tlNûgho . The mee oJwialions stos d iictcNjng vituosiv oi ihê d ol weaEre. who inlroducedsil' wôÉn!;ftms inb rhebandsalonssidêextended (aùby.Wneresrkdses dê Prc*red tbry de all4 /edoûJ Les No 79, FLU40{ No us Fia al Pl ô8, dd Nu D2,F,s {2) æd thev ofren 'rcludedreùd5orroùêrcul,trr(epNo277,I'l $me clothsaDot to showsisnsoffullins b'n L\isûdy refled thenâtuÉlwoollinesofthe !arn. rthe Dieêsftre tul1edii is orobableuralrhiswds €lq5I'ehte' ihd therùlnent gi4n rophin' lolouren bmadcblnssinc€he,vy tuIiis murd hâF ôb$ur€n Lhcdeliote lines in the b{di whôreup lo nre coloûs trre soneûmesNd Thê kmr r.ê chlrs€n tu shearù1s yener' leG {hich ws â rhtd rhd ot +eùinE un.rripPd stl6 {Mûro 1e33,37),lô!€ùer sirh thè widdce ol ù ieou fo. sheùid a nvdoù in vlich âll nF ury'{irh \nrâl shêâ6 (El6non câruelvilson leftr dared29 AuFst 197t, sns. vqÊ o'rjinèd t0 sFs drd kdling mLl+e4 rhe vucrrd 'hê ùbby lffn itrh(c Nén bmds sothaltne pâtlêrnus nothdmcd Mon h,nd\ fe wlrm fioû wl or ftot w@l andsilk hut L\ereâretu .,ldùs nom ùe crlicr


wp (No 30 F's 404).On ùis rtoth 4d No 79, h()],@ ihr nù rhreadh bôud in bbby ndrsr thm pasinÉær ddûddso dwadsda rim Six lo 12tÀrc6 reft ed in ùes sitk bmdc pr6'lmbry reiectinc llle Eieabr esnse ol the F4 bur[hefts'ntws iftrràeles êrâdjF ând lÙkPd â ns deFture in dôlà dês in norù! ern Euop€ Thp silk bdds ,ppeario hàrebed *niy spæedio !rôdù@ a regùT alforer É! rern.a ftiâtion iddinèd ôr a ctorhre.ftr€d Irom a dêDosirdandst L5eôrsl qua ef or L're r4là æntry in ânftrdm alt.rnales b,nds ôr silk çid' bùds olwol spac€dd inhels oJ23, 30m (VôÉConis 1932,1s6), Othr cloL,rs *hi.h ombine silk and Mol in lhè sme 6sd

F,g.ro Tsbby.rlm wd cro.hsDtued lnh bn& in sili rirsn dr Nots, 'ndudin!dd d (hrored Fh€dqq (BrNo30,bo'h6!m Àd$er d"iis b nresùd qutu ofil1. r4ù entu.i.

deFxitâr Bc?zwherethepanern!Éhis,tw.Dlv ùv€d ofsilk tlo 7b.llg Br. andNo 79,Fis,t0AJ, ùd : Ù0tà0Jsinil4.ppeàtu hacâ silk +ip€ runmg 'n * hd:pMs io br $e dndion 0f the

Clothspannêd liL\ notuchrcrc bandsôl mor coûptrjs 23 *md6 Êoû ùe demsjt dâlingto the sond quftr ot lhe l4lh dit8 (tJos31-100,125-121 dd onelior L5atofûe bÈ l4rh cdrÛr â1Bc72 ({o 277, }1 5B).'Iness bandsEnÂeinsiddrnom llmb:t5mm A ùider hnd oI10nm d a cloth sbiæd a ûi6.m dair blækintn@, sbich @ rMrêd Êôm a dê rjt ol lhe firet hâï or dr 151hcnh[y âtTL74, @ nûr hÆ bm monctunme ôrioin v n]Io 402rsm orùe namÆr bdd, areàfuÀ?d in p,i^ (e€ No 34 ànd a dorh of rht 6e; qià oàiB oJpirl hfds on : lighr brôn grcdd % É(Mred tu a r-3ih+nhry d@sit in Dor dæch1(PtrUI1973,m 10?2,Smdnvons-c mis F€re 61m). A tuidion ws tid @ nonG ..hrone buds êiL5d sinsly o. in Dzireon â tb roed €1md e that soætitus dree cotouGof rrn we ùsedj. ùes clothi onelor the wr, anolàs lù th€ nain kn Dd a ùird 6r nte Dir rêm Æfr (êg. No r2s, Frs 41, pt 6Bj holher ddh h,s r mc{ned@nd llr$ trom tro àlbr o:Ûnt kt r,ru. onenN â lishr brcq mzrch iû thêmloû.fùp t@ ud dreorhera oiikish Êd, ac6 whichtunrwbùds oty€iow Nô Clolhs liL\ bards of s! oloG ofhred sreûr sope tor !âiltmins Mosi of rhe 20 a|l wôr M4plês hft a bùd êdsen eiû â Jrw ûrcq or.(ôMniighle (e€ Nô 107,P 7BJ, bui, ts hft m rlproÙjælj 6s qdth of e&h côlor (es No Ir, Fe 42,ànd ]\lo Ut_ pl ,ll) Te labri6 tre pahrned withp.is ofdm chnûe bands,eachola diferd.oloù N6lO3. û3). A similârdtursi$ ol@lourisis renûored


Tr\:til6 dndcknhing

Fa4lvoolcbinfmtrhbbbyfi0'ft+ùd p#ied{iÛrfub$dsiJ'eihd.dbb|ry'No|,r'

in witted sou.eq môns three E'€d dolns of Dmdmond ql!!dec), brfeiled to the kinE's ,urnâserJ&^1 n ]rir r xt29-30for not(omply ins wtrJr*ùtory Ég .tions on Eidth, És â ctôrh(oLoured,tz, a e/ Fbroed wj0r Min b€ndsol blâ.k od {tic ùd $em ûd red. ud æoûÉ piê.e wiù a crcud drtd oddy in snin ûd patemedeilh twin bods oI red ùd white. dd ar€IMbæd (BuJ€ê195ô134). occâsiônallv,instad orbêins Ùed, o.e of iie tuôI. Ttr *mpl6 *tÈ is tuÙv{rlou€d he !€m iddtinêd hse. Oneis a ctoth{idi a moûled6ound {herê lhe fan *di is blM wor Ntt25, n 6D. fte ôrhf, â clothùn\ n'o Dah refls, on natuEl blrM @l md dF spâædarini.F al]rer@ rd, hæ rwbmds hls or 35'm Nô t5. fl 4B). Ano0g othù col .lodrs, a drk ôftd yrms lsed l.r ùe purplBhùlâLkF d $inctj€. Thê yàrn dltd ihis ùt is otrd rhicler rhs d'ê dher @dn klÈ le,s. Nos299,304,305,310,3n) ard smetinès hasdec4vednûe ùd làê o$er threads,posiblv bæaue û ircn nû{tant ft3 Æd whenLrre wol ws drd (e.g.No u3, Pl9À dd No 309.Pl 114).\{nm dyt te*ed nr! of lh* pnple ds DôEd 10bedrd 'iL5 bôlhmaddered indisdin (Nos236,305,Pt 9B),,Ihoùsh olhereʆn.gÈ riE r6ulB (ê.s No 299),ed Êon rhisit ûry be susced rhat a Yd dltd ùù Lrrêffe ttb ùestufs o a dôù {h'ch is now sLjred a uni Iod dârkbrM dieimllyws r siûilâr shadeoJ orpl? 0\o 424 Èh b'f Yms àl$ àPæù 1o hlw bes esFô.Iy su*tpubLeb dê@yle.s.No

2,Frs19.

In deposilsollhe hb r&ft ænhry, clôth6with

F-442 Tàb|l' slm moldui} pâeded FiL\ à h€ndrtHinlfud€dbbbvmfu.o|ouÉNo11?' frtrnad@$tdadabùes€mdquaÉrofùê 1vêliloopsddre ede ofùe clôrhEh@ 14ihorry û* dle s.lwdee ords hæ duFd. sere u

drose{in iustoneor ts! colouG.B,nds M $lely in e;ftded tâbby ms€ in sidLrr frod 22m lo 39m, {fier6s làûe *hich inclùde2 z sill asÉll âsertend€dbbby rdd tôbebrcadei 29 531m Thê olours æ senenlly d.:nsed in conLEnins l,sht und dùk 0!6 or difiêaùs lidns sith nù'wùfts tu*in! lhe edaes(e.s N6 237,3S4,Pl 3A md B). the sp*ins of the bandsdiffen. Ode dûdr ha M simild bùds, eæh 23lm lide sæmted by 112'm ol min wve (NoUî, motherh6 M bmds ep,nbd bv gold olûain wtr (l.ro29, dd â 0tird has M bnds sch differsfly Fndrcd *FràlÉdby 4m otman sæ 0\b 2aO,Thelatterpieæâl$ indicatesthatbmdswenôl âlwys idenucrlona


55 fjde! ân6 ôf 2'2 sii m ùiL'r a patr.m ftft offne zsDu wuted (Nô 309.s IAJ. A thfd do$ wiù z brd 43Im qde, atsohàsa nrow lineolsilt runniû tlftqh drecobe sin\ deas ôl 2,2 Nill on either side but heft dre ùilt is acentlatd by dr e olâlternatethreds oIM orû6 dd u coffi!.turo w,ft edfts dr Njll INo 3I0, Pl ]rB). Aidner dori vith n€ Dàbrn Æfts h,s lind ôf s t threÀdreslridd lo rhekry ed€€oflàè b€ndwhereit is bomd in *bnded irbby, ùd io eachsidêof the ent e ràrôw{here jrisboundin?2ffÛNo3nr trisnotsrrprising hd bæuced s€ nunber0ls@oLneeded lor the difleftdt oloûs tàùe ee o{ûsiônât niç blcs in L\3 rftrees oithê bæds. Whnen @ pnbâbb be salèlyâsllmd thar m{b4d, wt tromsdEd8r ro*lEdse, rhère ùe d!.lolhs Ehêrerhertun ôily,.hon djç tan(è into ùe clûth, lhe red beim unùnemed NosrI3,29sjNumb€.29rh5,sri6;f rw silk bbds sitr\ ràê silk rhleâd nodE d the b€.[ in b.tfttn. Asthe p'R is iN e s]nal dd ddrioûLtd it is difrcult !o dtue *hâher ner hâE [:wr Dalternwfb ùd dre dhinq F Ûrebàndstrre or dùn€d maÂerqrds, tr ks emdd Tns, frm theêdrjerdeoosLÉo howLhq qre used "lh, âsdemdid. clorhsha@nnow bd{is vitlr silklinesfokins An ind;etiù ofihe coslol djdeidr qu,lilies ùI rhewol intheenae whichisolâditrereit.do'; râyedclôtùsm beEainedfrom dr€ mth ôf Dû io làenâin wb OIc Da,r20. A widerbdd has Lhaceôf 0r€ Orët rvùdrobe. Fr Moh. in a .dt e of snknankêdbyro* ofMot whichit 13321Williu h âùchô boqht l2 nyêd clo$s t re êdsFdwidrsilk Olo 130),ùd mnrher fromsino dê s*ânlùde, , Londo dEær vho hÀ lourbùd! ol sl} :ltermriry qû rhreêôf ws: romeruldtr'M ûd dryôr ortheCiN md @l aNo131).'Iie,iin cbth hæn,rru lin6 or a lurrher 23%clorhsftom a GenoesenddHL silk e&ins â btuu bmd wftha linkjstbm*n AnLûio Bæhe.The chap€* cloths*ith a led æntq aI tnesê]rG mnbastjewith$e @lour cIôùld.ost36s each,thr€Ææn ùd red clûlàs p€û.rnedwitft shiie silk osl 70s.@h, ândrhe Cb is vidl silkandwol bmdsllom ràêtrû mod sp€nsiE kre rhor srfi a rêd Found daosit hæ ûrræ tô frk pftm e€Jrsmd usu dltd in F,in rhilh cat 106a3d.rêr clorh {PRa) âry in Lde 6eâs of 22 twil. tu *prion is â t Lor/330/5 mêmbtre O; ûh itiferencemFnê dak redcloL5shichh6 abùd {wen wholtyin d be à1Ùâiûedsin@lie dôur of silk sFtr ei{tended bbby (lro 2s,I.a r2a. TheotnereiÈ into ùè clothsk wry small.Nô MDles oI cludea clori *here rhesift n\rqd is *Nn in rayedclorhsdyèdin @jn htu b€€nid;tinêd foû blocksof 2.2bill, dividedby b€ndsof ex- mons ûe Loldon tedilês bùt there æ nmv leided bbby,{ith lie didonâlsirf ùe twil re ujtà etuuds drd Eious shâdêsôI red sjtir €rsùs in erh silt blæk 0!o 303,pt uB). ûdd€. (e.g.Nos 92,r0! 112,]23. ?79,236.290.

]àe pannins È enhù@dsirÀ bdds ôf 2.2 ts ù 1?clonlsoos 296-3n,422).Sùdi,rs rhehNillms m æ a h1ækin $e cdre of a btrd wheÉ bythesnplê ApcdrsroriMsinc be dtr(bù orrh€di4onals,à Et{hûd lwil væ producêd(es. No æ3, Pl l0l!. On â lê{ .lolÀs,wherethe t{ill de6 re smnhd frv d6 or ext ndedbbhy, de diâs;is ûe ré FÉd in e&h sebm (e.s.No 30€,fl r2B).tn addiÙùf,, a resEr mishr rodue dtÈMiæ thftâdsofeo difereni@lo!reforthêt*itvhich affiru6red ràêdiâ€lnils (ca. Noæ9,A r0B). Theinsè> ol L'reûftd als ô,tendifferedLr lnet{ill, Zsp6 mr*d rm ks reouenL!Ed re.s Nosr05.309.PlscB,rrAj ùd ;or;eh/ sill (ec N.303 Pl12B,No3r,Onedor]hæ spinpasernins in rhewa4 Oo 300)ud perhâ06 lheM yms wre orisinâllydifferùt otoù3 silk tlftad is .oùbined*iih rcot in bandsin 12cloths.Fiw ollh* de Êonrle deposn ofilre *dnd qlart r ôf die 14lhc6l!ry ârBc72atd sem fofr rhârôlthe ble 141ù century.Thètd.

,qnoihspi* hâsâ Etr

silk ùnetlmkei by


weft palÈbrcm (æFji€l ssFn, e ttks p.t

câtalosue I Selected Tâblry-l|]6

cloths pdêm€d*llh

bmds

wm brcm (neeli!r),7-{pf.9 sù Ê m nieft brM (i@rit), 9sN, l0 licke F m Ibem *€r' <ilk,sold6bllM //çPrY ù d4ded bbby s@Ed

wefid4kblÙ,swÈrdcbFm IàidtrÆft4dd'sLejl,re'ss@.,0pick3pel

br 9ûm ol niii

Fiqùr wci: leddùhùole s@

wêftddkbmn.s$0.rà14'hk8m BeB Ed: ù! soldenbIM selwds:3 edcemrdsmi*hiM z/sPlt :

tiàJd$i$, ras

fidùorbaf,d:ifuoûpleÈ'gfu|ûre3m

rsirh ôIbùds:1hÉ bdds 1sm ljdê o dfl', inhbby3êPmtdbY43m ùd w@:Fqishbllm'z@'l0mdsF'm ÙefrFoishbrm.s@'r0licksp.r.m fumwftbr{ms$i',Dickerd rv4: dak b'1M. zspu, x ods ær.n PbldrMp sift,pld*b'!M, z/splv widnolfiF:tu 0rùry9 tàbùf'vt,@ fâæd brù

do6s patiernêdsith stfr_ iû aterd€d tabhy

Cloths {ith ote patr€rnftii

w{''lshLbnm'74d.9êndsFo ù@ rthr bllM, slpun, tr ptbF.o FJlhwii riRhrblM, ss@.36 pie Fr wldth orbmd: imnpld,

hooFl&'*FmÈdbyamdm!m* Dimdsionà h Prhn, F ?ùDn va: ddkblN (Tsdit),7r@,0 wetu dùkbM eô

$hD palôbnivn (ieFtu), zsDun.116dsar

(ii) h lzûnû,

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s

djffi) @drdbv30nmoli,i"wæ

ùù 5mn

33 Dimssioi. Cùh r0{nn, w rtur

wa rditbrû. z€r, 10dds F cn Ùeft lhhr bmM, s@, x tchp.r.m tum wn r.ndishr@k. ÈEt sdrh ofbed: 3m t3 th'm) wrgpùldshmft'z5s!gl0odsFd w.i!e!Ëshmtr.s.pui,9pkrd Fàten *ft FIlNitb bmm, oæe td,

Fqtr

(iqdE),

s{ui.

dds F I dcksp.!

wÈ dÂ* bôM (mâdder).Sâ)un,r0


57 kh{!ftreddishplrpk'squ w-'dlhofhnd:incmD|d.gsbldja10'h

rv@: drkùlon G@ùE). zspùi, r06dsF wen &rk brM (oqniE), s5pu,3 pick @

wcnrcddishbMg@i']0-rr'ick5È@ s€rEde 3FiÊ tends 0rùio1êÈ)

Ibn m ftfr: liqhrbrM, ssp4.z

pÈksFr vidnolbând:iMmdde'g@.dm,m ,@ Dinolim: o h 90m. w r0tur (0 h 6oojn, w,ry!'!M,

wârp.ùmsn (rDàddù)z,prn,r0a&F.n Û.irnflfuoaddtr,'s!u,3,i.ksEd

B6

zwn,3 qds Fm

Eft ruæish bl@ sstu|26 Dict€

wdrh or&nd:bond.b. F6b, $a 23m 93 Diô*i@'h rson,y?5m w@ btffi (!qdiE), zaû. l0 endsErm wen bffi (rq?ûE), ssM n oicksB m Pd6tr *rft.iir$4 S6ru 22ùks a cn ]irdùofbUd:inùr'lleb,rfuùs,c[m 9aDin6d@:h60m'*130'E

w3ryyellNsh+iM'l{m't06d,ærcm wcrr Èrôfishôlm str. r?Dj.knrcn 9Éd9.dF.Ùdzl'D|ytmÈEnFod' sw, ad dê Êd sd, ztu). @ecord s/zpt odow), @ a'nsz/s'l{v (!:roreds! fti@ dEdF cordsùêdmBrg odlù4ds spr edi. @ps d €ùht wdrh orh€ndrMbalds rrm nide(oneiÈ (@kt)*F*dr, rsmndl€ft

Prtu *.lt pinl&hpûptes@ Mdi\ ofbdd tu t3 0]llm) weir bffi, se@, e-10!ir!s F.h rrftm qei: blbw,94@ 2ùBk. rm 96 Dim63i6r (i)h 25m, y4nmi ûj)h tu, {

wdt dâk brackish.bM (n:dda), s.p@.10

w@:medrùn-b@z4t.3ddsFcm Pàhmwft bllM (tudder).ss@, à Ècr3 wùn ûrb4û inmoDte, gr4r rhanIrm v4:bffi'z@411fldsero weÀbflm,ss@?piclcFo wd.h orband: in.onpkÈ,searr!\r v6brMss@n'3'icksB.m Aktr

qtil brM, *@cæeirrsFq

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ùn

wti: mdshidn

(niddd), s@

10picks

Pâ@rn{cfs O reddisbrûDresmn .,n Frtrish.brcû lnesrbEr. 24!ôtsFcm


lel'il6 ordclnthi,e 116Drm@iods(t h l0û@, w 135m; (ù h{ùm,

ÈbnslhiMrtdi|jsl>Flplê 30ùffiy€llfiiùùiÛû

w.n:bl1m,Seq 10 tr pid'sÉrd Iàtnftn5 O !ik,7xFn tt b'Im,[Éùd(D,*N .90licksFm

w@ pâlemwishh:ffi, z{N, l0-n qds w€ft Fle nisisl}bûr, Èen!iis:

saù, 1È11ùks

o nllo'.Ê!*rltr (ii) red,S<pù :apidsPÛ.t

edd:.24 rhrM bmm (?bnt .16 thN tink (?m) .àrhNbI1Mom)

(it,ssun

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fub:4d'rm'dN

we, led{lshMle, zN,10èt& perd veitleddjAhûfDlcséM'l0pd3Fm Pibn€ns cù È'ddiêh.ptrr.,ssFi c,t ù3h!rt$t,s:@ 20'hlcFrd s.$dæ edcê(ôd d! .lds (2rildl++rM 6da ? blw .ndt, àd md ot3bIrM 6dt mdù ofteds reddishrùie hôndtsr'm (9{ rhffi).

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bdd ldm,

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o 'êd,z3p6 0t dù*bltrm,z@

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10m

l0r tblN dtk btro

by

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sûrffiftddhhrqle 6Ùrmreddi3hpdplê

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w@: br@ zspû. 10e'dsFi.n weli bl@ sstr, r0-ll DickP.rd ftlhÉtu: o bflM,s.pri (ii) r€d,S.Put 424pnk,pff.n

ra Dimdsimahl65m,v35m çll !icl3 pd.t weir ht,9@q P:h*€h: 0 nd,s@u (D b|tm,$si 22pjckFd sêiÆ&.:a âis @re z/sPt (dâikblM),

Fbt,:bltrM'z€N,11ddAFrm woltbllm'sru'11lieFid Bdtrn*.ns O du*bllM,ssun cD b@*@n $idù olbo* ntrûûde. neatr ùù 5m

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ûH r0r'm

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,2 Dim.triôG h 66m, { 12m wtr! blM (ûaddd, Txpq r0 ùds Érm weft bmm (niddd), s{M, t0 oi.ksE cE Èûnwtu: (t dâ* pu4li$+rlm tt3è dE),@rsûn, stu tt bûfGeEidÉ),finftù!ù (i), ssb (p.ntvdêqtd) sêrEd*.3 ds ciùdstM+ry dr; ûsht È@nr 16dn* pu4ridlb|tM (6fn) .l1d'fls bûî (3nn) 16$nm sidjsl'.ùm (hm)

wei|rcddis}5!ffi,s@1opùksFm ra@mÈtts (i) b@s@ (i0 ofdqs@

s.l'trds.:5€dg€ @rdss/zpv P 8nm lridrÀolbânds !s b.n&on6m ad r3û4 boùinenpl4'*pd*dbyss'mdmjn w.i: bI1M, ssû6, l0 picksrm Piûnruns: c) sreybrM,s{m G) cdæoi,s€Dù 2ô!i.k9Ém ï,idrh orbandrr+biffi bùd lûm. simm bhd ltu, ætsdd bysm (7ù!@) or

Aen

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2Û,,.mpu4le

r4 DiiÉsiGr n 2{m, ! 10tu. Bls oi w@ddkbII4zqq9ddsFro weiidakb!@séBD,l0oickst.n Faftm,.tu O btu.g@

(ii) ùiûh,s{ru

{.rr: mid.btrn (mddcr.z-s@, e 6dsF {æ ddàrM

17pùlc@m

rndd'orlàld:immde, el1e rhu zrm

ràhwto:

(nadds),s{r,s-sri.re

0) fid b$h tnaddû),s@ - (j, lurplè (frddd), s4u

widn ofbod: tuomDr.r.fsÈr$ù Èthr3 ri]æûndùllM xb4:iiùbfum'7xru'3.9hùtd weft ddj@ s{@n,7-€ DicksÈrd (ndrat pisfer), Èreroxtfu: û) d,kblm tù ftd GuJds), çsn

r4'idùorbênds ç6nn stud

b 35nmor

F

3m

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l.aile\ordclÔ&i,' xi\ffipurolish+Iac}

Pàem*ds (i) r€d,s6pd (ii)btrn, sâpli

ciD?Gû'rd)

wao|afubllm'zaadl0ddsr.m rl) pinldsh{ê4s6Fr (it lÈùrbt14S{@ vidih ofb4d: i@nde, Âl1e rùd 7m tsûrn:7rûlffipin}ishred 5r rùrN lrghtbrm tunwfts:

Cloûsuith threepa$m ftns w4, bllM (qât€),7- !rn, D dsF @ , reftbffii (qrd€), s4@ ! pi.ksF@ nrh*dl5: ô .Lûrlabbron, sad sam 00 r€ddish.@rPre, (iii) lighiblln,s@(d@d) Mdrh ôIbâ!ds:h ù€nds23mIide s@nd bytr2molnùsR

@ DinflsioE h I& v 35m rraq ds* blim /-'@, 10-lr !t& I wei]d'lhtrm'sl@mnp*F.m Êlhl€À oriqhrb@,s@ (ii)hjdb n sam (iii) Pink.Zem 4344bFm

m

Fr@m:1d'lm li3htbon aiblNnid.btrM

16Ûrr* eddÈhrualê (3ûs) ? Ûffi lghtber (tu), FrrY rôth'N rêddÈùpdrdâ@ùn

7ùrmliqhtbmq ldÙæriqh'ùrM

wa: r]Lt{ifi bltrm, zsFn, d&Frm \l€t Fll@3hblM ç@n,s!*arm Ct red,s@ù 0iùyenNtshb'tm. s+Fn

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sehæd^e?.dsordsz/sFlY

2$!*Ffloùsh5l1M'bbbywm 30ftffiFbbffi 4ûrrrmddkbl'm

3d1lmrnofrsù.blM'bbbyltr te Dimm:img O h tu,

{ ldom; 0t h 3tu,

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wêILbmMssru'9rbFm


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rurwpurci*'r,.k

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4rùrMdùkbtrm '26û@ p4k tbn)

(B) l0tlnsslchrb,om

â2 Dnoelsiùsh lo'nn''65;; \rh4.pinkBhàM ztu.sqdsær.n P:emwk

(ùwilb,ss@ 0, dtrkblr4 s@n cD j€ddrrhflrpk, s4m èr3Di.*stcm wLdrhorband: L\d rom ritr dddd s*r

10ùrm tiqhrbôM 25 Dinasim û)t43ûn, P t7m; c'n35nn. al3'mlhefu'im3æsdbhed1tdq wâD:dÙkblon'zgq9endscid Pbbnwns

Mdù0lbùdsfufu2|mnn.dpkt| uù@spFlishblack

7 d'wsd{kblffi

I

ur bl@sejr (i) p.rlish blek, s@r (iji)Gd,seD

rhlm RldGrrrrdê

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C'!lirinblue ssun

26 Dimdlids: t) h lrhn. r liùnr (it h shn, w t?smr G) h 23m, w33m w@:drkkm tûdds),2€@, r0endsEr we ddk brM (naddd, ssq hsrftns:

û, @plish-bli.lç s@h

s2!ôuFn

326nMlgàrbllm(rIM, 16'hlIMFd(5mt 23,,Dimm$@:lr30m,w{5{m F4Â tiebtùt1m, z@. r0 cddsErd Ùêftl3hIlrm'slM'9ffI\F.n làhd O red rspun G) plrDlsh bhck ssm

co rkhtblIM, s€Dù sehd!ê 3€de.ûds zlpr Ghr bnMr.3 od3 d pft ùprÈd mds (.!ch lord le siûoidêÙshtbl1Mmdmàd'kb|!M

0 pûpùdùt,.k (nrddtr+irdr gorin),sam ûi)tu6'i3hr'tm ûuddtr), ltnè ljii) linrr (nâdds),ssù e9'ictsÉm

Atun:r6rhô rcd(5m) r ùrM tiqhtblrM oml 10i]'l@pÛplish]jâck

I pt.kEpq

ràh:

{dllæ@Dlslrblâck 4?4rh'm I'r8ish.brum 6m) 140rm@!ùshôl,ck 6i!l'

.à ù\M mâaish.bllM (srm) l inn$ rdishbl:ct âz Dnlmsiù3:h l6tnm. Ù em w4 licbrblM. z{M 10endsFô wetr uhr bffi, s.En. r0ocr- ir d È,hÉik _trreI'bim.s+rn (jit ftd,s.N 32-0{pi.bÈ'cm


Lnik:o"dct thitg (6rddù), ss@, l2 picÈ Frd 0i)tukp@le, S€pr 0t r€ddi&\'b@ k@ 0Dbfim,z@

wêft blM PbhEis

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\fridth'tb€!d ntrd4l*,

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fidù olbaDd: incmpkq sêturn\m 201m PÀbo:16thrmrjehlbltm 2l}ffidnkbtrtr 16 rhllmriqltbl1m

Èrh*rds:

O Êd,s6pù ût 6ghtbl@, S*Pm (lit dùkp{dè, $@ ,z!ùbFd s.rÈdge6.de€.ordsZ/sply0ishrbtrM),

':0']ffi|*hLùitrû $'nffidÙkolrole a20ûlres lùhrb..M

wendrkbffi's'9t.99i.ksFcm Fàftmretu (i)liqhtbflm,s€F

0t pûdûr'uâcLs.pù

0DiddblM, zepln

s.l€dse5edgêerd52Æp0,w7 9m widlnôibdd:ii.ûde, s.ùt\a23m InlÈb: e inroKl3htbllm 6ùlmp@lbh.blæk 25 d'rmli3hrbn,m 2 6Im pdDlisl'-bl,.t 2dÙ1MsDlhl}bbc* 20+ d,lmrishrblom wrF brcm (ûuddù), Zspu, 10en& F d

oÛgnlb@s.ru CtdùLbloM,s{r bl@ zau Ci0pale

rôd'lmFleb..M 1$làMligh.blou

rfa

njddiM (middfi€d dF), zsq

w€ll nilbflr Pàitnwe,

ehi

!

(uid6ûted dF), s@a u cùdÂ* ounLshbr@ ssM ti) lichbr@s@ ûù reddisbbffiù sw sô!i.ksFcm

3drffi dtt pùdi3h-ÙlM 30jrc*[ghtbrcm 3?rxlæ r.ddbl|bllM (gdtr) 6ùNlishibllM

3i)thmwr.ddnbb,an (gnn) 3r.hffil3htbrom 3ùllmdakrciùbtim

Clodrsùith 6ù pattem*Êfts B Di'Æim (Dh!5m,w90@ Gt h7tu, ' 3s@ Cd t 55@ w23m va: da* brom (nêcdi€),z@, r0rr dds wendrkb'1m tqâdR), s{u,9-10 pick3


P'rÉmlerB (i)ad (Duddct,ssn tii) dÀk brM, ss@ cv)!@re s{ru (deaFd)

Tabùy.llru.lorùsrirhMtD ùd{doa cont_asring@lom ed s6-6.€d 6ânits

r25 Dinssims (t b e5m,{3,1m; (iùh33m.w ]?|]jl@ddkbllm

rv@: rishrbr(m t@dE), z{@ Èr0 sds verr brâck(dnl

piqfed, s@un.{sÉijc

Eh@m pti: yêldsir.bl1M

(iêÊârE), fiie

serrdsê:2€dF tuds d,l mdq2 pâi6of$ds w.ft ddk brM, s{Fn,3@ke F. cm F,ftrnrvefis: oblM,stu (t bt,ck ss@n tit nd, sspun tl ilM,7_..pu, fiitr dF ti) c16picksel.fr hGnr

4ù\$

brm (it

..r{ùNsbffi

2 ùrusblw' 1'iNsb}.q 2ù@bJlqt) .11!5rrmbff

0)

t) cj)

mdn dbdds: rqj6 ofbds trb h $dê (5 tuJ $p.r&d byônn (1rbsx) ofi,in ftm'3funâinlembdlgiheFjrsoi

r{eÈ ruddish.@Fte (tudde.).zry6 10mds Èktr vll ]4htgo.bl@

ss@;

j2z DheBions o h o5m, v rûrh; ô) tr{sm (i)

1ùmbrou0t

w+mjd.brMzèur,cnd.Èr(n weil'm'db@'r9m.,lrksNln Pauùtrstili (i)b'rM,stu tù purple,s@ cii) rud,$!ù (iv)bffin,z.etr sdrcdes4r0 edre.uni wlomn rlidrh ol&nds tu bdds, (a)33maidc,G) ô cmp|û.4@tdbv90nnofnu]lwaw ÈrÈm:(a slhnmben

wary|igù'b'Imz4û,9e0dsq.d ren âretuÉ iifrs (t fehlblm, ss@ G)r.d,s6pù l0!i.ksûcn hh rtl| y.netuh.blM, sw ?{-26ricks $-'drnôfhând:3lfu ùs lm ?e3Di,n4ims 0)h70iù,{som,udasnân6 w@ib@ishù|ad!7-fu'r9ddsFcn fteo?]êbnm,S{N'llpicksBm fthwns o piDtjshsrM (mÂddtr), {]i)brow,ser (iD bffi,sh btÀk !!0n

.2ù@sbl'M0, {!Ù1Mplqle

Prûn,10ùI4b'lmish.brrk uùi4lishrbftM 3M,piJ'ldshbrcm 1, rllnRlGh'blm


cloths parrdncd rith silk Tabriyffi Ml e€ft.âced bflds in dtend€d ùd clothsniln tso pàlidnwens hç\ùa { &m: (i0b $nn ,a Di'.o,sions:0) Ndp: phÈ5h bI1M (inddol,75w

sro

(nâddû) sql

rGrr

Nch Piùtrlsw' Èk'*€trs:

(i) brcq,sspùi 0ù srk, pldq bioM. z/sort

Clolhswilh thrcc pâtr€mw€Jts i\l4ddkbsq'7^o[ç10o'dsÈ'Ùù dÈnk6

(Dbmi4 7-rpu' (it !;kd, Ln,M (nxddc.). @d{rrl'ù (D (iii) ilk sold.n bmh, z/sPrY

rP Dinssions (i) h 17 {rsmmr (ii) b 160, \kÈ

rishrbI1M, Taruo sc^ds

Ètrùivdis

F.r'

(i) drk b.wr ssPm O mk. glldûlbloq z/sdy

Æ4 Dimssbns (i) l' ssm. \! hû iv4

(ii) ù 4hn'.

ddk rcddhhruqù ('!ad'rcn z sD!i. nl

]v€t dÏk r.ddchJua!! hmddc.). sspu, 11 ro DimdNiom:O h 230nn, v 20rni ô) I'

Iàfttr!wis: (:)lisl'rbrM sspù

tt ui.k. ssFû

(iii) silk sordenb6_r. z/sPrt DrèmEILsi

O ddkbrc{n sru lii) s,lk &klcn bmw z/srrv 4ùdslighrblÆ 4lJÙN:lah'bll]s]

10ùrc* liqhrbron

w4ldÙkbltM'7^pun llten$I]lrs:

(i) irrÙfM.

ssom

[t n*. rddù' bnq, z/çpr!

erRdae { Lds! @rnsz/sply ldlik b&m) ,

11b4:ddkbrM.zspû.r0{dsl{on ftfuidakb.m,sstillFGFqtr


Eemy.ir

odaktùM,s.M ti) nid-bfrn, 26@ tii) rilr,rcldmùurm.z/sdv

Fàftri U(di4

wy debnmbd (NBband

tàbtry.st@ cloihspattemêdvirdwilAcêdhûds ir €der|d€dr.bby dd 2.2 lsill

\yêfrushrb'M, srpu, 12ùk3ûm Pd.mfttu o)riqhrùrM, s{!ji ûi)puelê(naddd),ssu 0ji)red(mddq),ssMj 3lrickFm Fàho:4rh1Nlighrb}lm ,0ùrmlicbrblM 4n!l@lisbrblM

Clôurwithhrc pattdnwelis Ie qsrlè/un' cdlrd

sllinqsims:h6i)'m''fu w:$:dakftJ,zqn'66d9Bcm w<trdùkreds5@. r3Di.rts icrm

3r d,ftrisùrbiom,

, ? siu Pin @rd

lthlm]igt'tblon

ÈlEn@6!)bitM'ç9m

(ii)blâ.L,s{ru 20ilùom rtht bnm

Ètulr

.30!htubm(5Im) 16ûr@ blæk (35m) !2{flÙ1mbon ($m)

.eùmùùom(6smn) uhEblack(3nm) .:l3d',@bI1M

(5ûn)

l nMtkhLblm ê9 Ditudom: {, h 50@ w!s@ cDh 3e4 wa@brM,zfu'106dsær.tr wèlt b@ 9{@ ùj.kêrnid,âfrih nn3 ràrhftrs

Clofnsvitb threeFatternwe(s

t)ùuf t4'dk),

s{h

(Fnv

t p@le (tr@ûE),@tr$ r, (iiDtuk red,7ÂM

i{4:mldblm'z{@'nsdsEd

Aemrds:

udrk@dhLb]rm,ssù

(ir')[Âhr b'lM, 7^0n citruddishbloM.7Æuo e4350dlksEcd MdLbo'bdimûDleb'@E'i$lùm ÈÈn:4ÉftdÛlMùshôrctr 4 ùw riqhiI'sn,2:l siÀ 3 rbfs rddishn@ @idJep.!h*tfi

$ùt 7dj@on,l 4iS ùNslltflBb rêdmd btû: : sin'gdùÂomr

2 ?silr *irh

1ùnstisilbM.2rrd[, & rh!ft æ'tdisùbl@,22 &ilt. Dnnm:imE(Dh tr6ùn,,95mr (i h8sim :-ll0nh; liit h 6ûh, som; 0v)h 70mn.i, w4' rr3htbffi, z.@n, r-12 ods F m

r0.ûd3 Frm (azsszes.se)


l,nik'

si Oriehib(m, s4ù (itftd,7,@ orlishtblM, iiù ùs (i).

Pi@F

Iàb:

3 ùlffi liq{'.bmm 6ùnHrigblb'1m

6â1tu

Pr6)*è6:

(i)biM. s{rutr (ii)Fde, ss@n ûii)reddÊhàrM. 7-@

6 drrR bI1M (sDrt

() (iD

redad rsht brÛm(Ù,2?

6 ûnm riçhlùitrm CO 3 ûrrm rishrbtri O ùtry re4 z{r.

f!@wts:

and Cldhins

!0 nlÆb.m(tu) ôilrrr*brM

(8mm)

.10 qds F.h

o pudlLh$h,line

ti) nidbfft,sem tii) rcd,sem ridù ôrù6nd: tumpkb, seùr!b snn ddb,ft,22

@,

tu

$ilL siaoill

2m nid.bIM, 22 Mrl z di4oMr ?m pùjÈhnl.m, r, '\in,

5m@4lish'bl@2,2sjn'zji4

vtrIdakEddish'bdMz!Û.9endsF wû drk ddish brm. s$û,9 pk @.n tuxrfts, C)lthtbIM,sspù Ctpùdi3l1bh.ft,s:pn (itisùrrr@ ô.er rhd Cù, vidrh orlddi in'mpltr, s*r $ù rtu ÈeE: 3 ùrM lightblrm (i) ôù\ffi@416h'bùù

l rhro* rkhtbt1m (t righibl1Mtjt,22si, 6rD

lrgd (Dh r6m, ,22 Dims:ios: ti r@ùil {,105m; (iù ù 70m. a l{lrou \\ke: dùr bra.kiùàl1M (naddd), zaq r0 vd: dtrLblacld!\'ùlrrru (râddû), sw,9 Fàtcrû{eh (1z!4fineyan Cùs@n tnadderr iidicôdn) \v]dlhÛlbÙds52mùd53ni*@tdÛ'

.16L\llEs€pu@'22sil|ril]'

@inteFr dwfr (s,zs dûsoil,

9{iI@*s9û@ 10Lrrrr* ss@nFn.2/2 rù{

Clotùs Yith four pattern n€ils

waa:midùIM'z{aI0mdsFrcn welenid bô@ ssru, l0-r pe Érd h@rens:obrM,S{r ût Fpnsn-blr.k .ffi ytro. G)nd,s$6 (!, brm,7^@

w4blM.z.!ù,9@dsperd

s€nè4sei 5ederer&z/sdt


nrnjr orhcndçvm ùd 3hû *Fdd P:6r

ôv

ô{l)l@b'tM (D 3lh'm psplisll.bl,.t

]t.''ldldbâ.dlnb'nd!lznnârd2m*ide !mnffipAe'*@bdb9eàÛdnJn

3ùlrM b@n t) 3lhl@b|d zr0ùlkblqljcr,2?Mn, 4rhl1mblw

3 '!j@ b@ o. Ebbyh e r@ prrùsh bktr

û)

1[rmbnM (i) .roùImbllmn\l2leiu

clotùswithôû pafieru\€tu irchdins èi&

3lhlæbl,ck'... 3ibfthtmô

-zDiD*ioihs$twlz'mBiBot

3rffiôtâ.k 6lc|mù]M

wdbiM'''u,ro.ndsFo tu a6 r1)pu4[sh.bh.k9aû,

s,sDimadoEhs5m'wl!âm |ryg+Mh@'iE)zfb''ogdsF

wd se_rlM (d.eijE),stu, edcksF ràhrcrb: opuçùsLàtærr Gûddft+ùldi (jj)Ù3rtrblr4ssD ljii)nid.blM,inê@

ià@..,2

$lk

sdrhbkk.

z{ur

(ltlehr bI1M,ztu (r)?:i& (duFo

** *-f*if* *Èih

2ù)Æ@arsb+tcJ. ,m F422sù.Zdrh6r 4m tisbibl]m,2 ? bi]t,z.d@oDjl

!hlk@dhhbh& 9br3hibiMbdÉd(colÛu !}qr indisd'' 2? Ml!

bhbJ Re

3 ù\'1mrdhh.bJa.k

rlml

r50)'h[3tuben

36nMt&htbrom 1{ ùm

a9!

lehr blwn

3 tJ']@pjDLshblac! l0lh@['hiùr(m ? ûrffirrelrhùtdi hbby 'ft

3,6D'nftid'hl|0m'!25dn wa:ùI.ftd'z{M9sdsffiÔ ùetukæd z@,qoick;lm tu@ obloe.bu ûi,!4rnb bÈd! çmb .utbù4 ç6Ftr (r)blM, Zrsù

b@

.b*Esindi{imtl',jeill,

3 ù16 qidô'@, ?' Mû! 3rhlfttjgùtùIW

ti.hr bmq ftd,tid

6 rhlrm purl5b-ùtxk ûm [enr bmM ùd ] ft4 2 2 r!û,

*' *'* {B,'#rffi;ffi ,,iî#tr"," qùp:reddj9hpEplèhdde|'Mllsd5 w.fr redd!5hr!,-pk(tuddù) stu.

rànm'.f.

tr d

oortish.Èhckssm

c,j)Ieddishbm,s.jM GtbrcM.s3ru (i)sitk,7_/srrv

",,-"',*,.fl#*-


bnil6 ard C|ùthihs Clothsvirh live pattemÈIts i.cludins silk ,drosDu4li$blæk 3lhfussirk'22lvinzni4onal 2 ùnÉ !ûdish bla.k lrdftssrddhh'Purple ,ùffsFq,Èh.bùtk 3 ilTo$ dr( r/2 sil

hûFoRrb

Ol sbt brst. sspui 0ùpurpLsfbLrk. sr*

vm,

lj!)drkied TapuD (ilùghr brM. itur d'"' (i),

siaonir

(vxik 7-lsDry .30t.ksFqi

26 ùrru's ljgl't bnn (i) 7mn al'cant $ffi reddd liqht ùsn tv). , , tnill' zni4oml 3ffnÙq22$i[S'dj4onâl

b']]u (ivl2, .vi[, eiæ.J ?6 ùturs light brm (i) 3 nlsE liÂhtb@tr (t

,Ûn1mpu4lisb'bhck.bbbywn

vefr riqbrù.M, sspu. f pùks F m (pMly dë4ed) lii)luDre,sld i ùù3hlbt{fimFm.ÀDun

ra àtds F cm wtr dârkbrw' (qâd\t),7,sF wlt ddk bl]ru 6egIi€), stN. 1, ùilks Fr.r' (i)righrbiNr ssFr turri{.j]s (iirdrk bl1m, çsPtrD (o!û4lhhàr?ck, !lB! vdn (1v)rd. *@n

(v)sirk, z/sÊ!

dP liqhibltm, ? 2 $n!,2 di4omr

c.r2ùrlmrio'bIlM(3m) a dr.os Puiiish blâckcnn) .?4 thrm drk bffi (5m) 6 rhr{m p@lishblâc*(rtu) .r4ùûGliqlrtbtr,W (5nn)

rhrM lùhl b'1M (6no) ô ùrN prpÙsb bblk Ctrt 4r4lhn,Gddkbon(tui) .,

{ rlmes pu.phhblâ.k(2nm) . 12L\trligùt btm (,nr)


I ûù â noûled t! wool bbb''ltfu.lod' perûpmducdbyu5iafudloGd pfrqi'Nu''nhÀàiein'otd*h€dee n\M ôr dD iisi'i Hei3nr!5m (!) woordod, drr aEdd€dFnemed adFi^ ord|Nid'$ngê ndn 'tr

I

No%'lthsâreinftGds€rÈdæ3ùM

I

Borhecion a dePsild,raro

rhe:mnd

I

,|

I


I L\) Rqivoord.ù pÂncnrqj$idr

(B)rrlr rdh Èbmld srn ai


@r

ii eoded hbby (r0 No

(B) No 3e4\|,id$ olbhd ?nm


69

Tapestry Tap€slryis r hhniqæ whereby,rhee€fr,ftrds re noi dr|1M comdêÊlyams ùe loomburùe inFodu{edrotu.sùdtspâBçithEioustnb dd mlous rs requnedby ùe d6iF. Tne sù ! hus mdeu hiddd in rhe6r5h€d hbric (r.sdric* i924, !. Fou lditè hod ràe tdê l4lkmbry delosil arBC72b@ lhe rmins ,rJ pânehsM itr this rw 0{os 312-3ti),3ll ârê trn À!m molj the Ærp beinsR.!y sr*ed yùn. tu hê derem mrouredrctrvffis. êi1hù z ,pun r s\0ù, rd doubteDesiiF the nq. meoErr *È d bee bpt*ies Àiè{ addirjûnâl feJûe\ (ù be obeftd, rLtudi4 ù\e ueêof bur dûæolmro@d @s in rhêûnestot L'rsm (No 314),ad â côGiftnt use of unlinkedstib Itê u* of doubleJJrû 'n rrSeftfi m , pLird wr Pùp % ror un(ômd ilrnc bBÈis væninFrmrh.nrmsh ed B@idia; roms duri4 L,rehre l4rh (dùfy BydoublingrhêÆa ym, h spsd *fti' uhkh â bFsùy hs wn olld be infted ofrên bothshgtê ùd Fjred mye6 oaur ona piêe si(e thb ks a màc olmhàùins rfie tue ud db|lnq deùib of the rmposjuon, dch a! a o€Eons haii lo be depi.bd wiù sær sùbtlêry.Trl* (hturi+ tic m6yale hàE læû bàturesof bÉ*ies do dKed d E4lând in rhêL3rhmd r4rh enb;< which ft, ft preenr, oly ltnoM tum dæu dùb. Ordinan6 of tm gwnins bpcæ slkns rn hin d.(ræd rùr ontyg.od sol

Fg.3T?Ftyeqwiùtrilr'}eds|ib

hpesÈi6, æd in 1370rhis m e\Lûdsd 1oâll ioms.r trpesÈyMlr rheudd'doat priqo lllt rnÊN wd Æs not to be mikd vnh s.âikh mol r€onsiû1931,60 ad 7lJ h E êvid;t tlat bese rêsùi4ios M brd siroustv qnce h 1374&rhdne Dù.hMmd w iouà sùfty or wMg , 6peùy c.sFr rsàI hanElns)virh a hd {ârp, m*:d 01àtrol Rm, ather hN d rmcn unê r bc ( 'qr ùd lxe o*r 6, tnere nft ôrd€redt hê bûnt âtdroushin ûùse* it qs :sred t}'d lhe judefle4r shoutdiôi hr (Riley1363,37rO. eEcuLd ']}prsby inhhjn€s wrê ts@tù m l,ndon tnruwhoui ùe l4rh mtud. with tr:lthv .ir bn, lrlloûns rhe leàd ir b, ùe rord;d whrchùdoild àuoppoturie! rorrh€iafttr dF plry of Exies ri ù17 Fnqrd 11@jd f30 b nrmâs de Hebenhrrh.: lrndon mitur, ior â @r hans'ns Ffryina ùe kiù ùd arts. wtuh Ms huns ii wâùniids Ha[ on iesli!"]s such ar chri@ and Eer rsbDtebn ra6 3.{{), ud whr tem U, Kinc of F rce, ns m mied .omuh rhe Cny s a Ferer ôf w in rJo'.6ê *æts trr€ hhsvjrh bpÉi?s d@i.r ,09 baûe *dê! Cnotun 1973.55r.AnôDq nmberof lap€*i6 Mêd byrsâbslaorFtr;e eite of Ed*Ùd lL ù her de*i r rrçq wF , t€nkù (bench(M' depi.riûsthe Nàriuù ùd M 'fu,ryi4: of thehhrdy of thè]lffâlvûsê 'Kjry r97,16j). B.F de ctde. à mituni ;nrr wddly cbûôm vtrlr , telF London:bæd %rdrcbe bd ho!*hold, ds h:d a nunbs of bpe€ûy b€nks includins oe decûâbd widr lfie ms of Englmd whih co* 20s.,n l2B{-5 rcuseppi1920,30) h h ior *cinêd wheren or ùe t.p€fies we nDde thùe sê jndi; dms, ho!@, rhri taFsfy wvi@ rc atrêàdv L€n ed?bùshedin Loidor duiE $e Blrr.b:. ùry Richffd d. lerkju, Abbd olwetun6 qho diedin t?46,lejlw rzF[.ymini rhih ftre d*ib€d in rûh. ùd l7rùanùs reords 6 dEebk6r ùrsins in drs €bbq choir Inobrsn rgu.r,24-30;Biûki fmrhorus) one (ktâiû shoc€dsqe tromùe ê oJtuqild rhe ffier wnd nàd DM : 8reat p,h 01the âbb€yaûd pho* shrim rfift us â Dtrê or D[ srim€e, trd rhe oftr rhe tiG of ahri{ The choi@ofsr EdMrd às, qlbred slsls thârthe (uù6 rere wên loolly. âlrhnuabdreycolld


Irl'!4 trml EÉdr, No312,[d r bi. 16 c;M d.md Tne{@ isr\oM horLôiblv æ ft r h hw fr rDùrdbm bs vied, (À scal€te Ræùns imdy lhât lhde reE lâ!€ûY wæ v.rkjng in lÆdù durhs the r3rh rd 14rùcsûie€ (CôÉin r$3, 60)but db , nàx numkr ot ù* aniss nÈy hft spèi€ij!:d in nûurÀliF uees *nich @ùld bÆ dêMdcd a ;sidm6le €md or 6m ùd shll to w Th€ tu bpicer E notappliedoolyto wm sno poduæd tatEûies in ùe modernens

StiD.i Dd Dlrit hbn6 wnich6uld be painr€d d ùbroidied *ft âl$ ûong lh€i. pro{l.uclsi al diês ldlils re.e Eesùnublv*frâ.€d dd yd. Thc, tn addifDnto nainh Ed rurd dany msgtrdcdr trpsli6 fhich belùnsênb nbd6. Dule of Cloucst i d 8re lift or his d,setr in Il97, çft êishrlie$ ol blacÏ trpb w Do{dæd ûdr whiteæ 1,ii,r@ /2 làrit d, rùiffi Mitnùea,* ht'w M @ilh&* loh! Holc 1397,239).hrisid doMents oI ùe ble riù dd edv rlih cmùies snDl6iç rhe dkâncûo tlre by rderinE tô lhFe diferênt srcuos of bpiæi ldtsÆ SdEiDi,, tu Ntm


71 ^bi,PJ fld lrti$iæ

ûs. (Weib€l Edl ol Arùndêlvùo died in 1392.]liG bæsry h.d red msesùd lie amôriâl teeinss of the Bêquests ôIbp€fjes ùe indudedir n\e witk âr ard hÀ s onâ blueerund ûnomsi r93, ôIlnndonersduing û1èl4rh.rnha. wnfle orè cis de$dptids ee GÉIy hcking, pids No notiG m he madeout anôqg dre æ wilh bir& ûd minais æ lrl as ihN @ vated liêB oJ r!!€stry, âllhowfi oullines of b@ins amori,l or pseudmmoizl deiæs ûoti d€ prffid d sme 6-,€nent! al the slch âs tuuiÈljs we mmg thF owed in point{here theolomchznsed (Frssia-{6). As the 1380s(Câlwills I. 249,262, $. md rhe tsq@louÉ olFrmlld hæ bænned€d ior m be æ6èd nd b hæ be€npâùredclorhs, thesinplerarmorialmd bird pânehi it is Fob+ Tâ!ê6biêsvin figùEltE oûposilions w rho dê ûai rhe smâI tr€neft d€iE tom hot Fse$ed by lhe mft âmièits Lhusin r?61 bpeslli.s ofihb 6!ê. By mntnst t2 b r5 shades $ilim BEn!MF, arùbei bequdhed rôhis of coloû appâ to fiæ bm $êd fôr Llresd ôr en a dder Oâruins) depj.tjna Kû Rchâi .ô.oo.âL[Dse bpefies omisioned ùv t uis, sd Iredù of1rcy (cal \r1lls rr, 40-4!. Mem, Dr dlnjou jn 1376and ûffrv€d today ir shilê â bprfy idendnedæ b€ing â Londd ,cngt6, nonh.wslFruce (GndrÈl g2a, {. {3)prcducttrl d 14116'd{]m i' ùe vill of dre d, l,,ze

Flg.rs vôol bpdy. No313,nm à hè l4lh 6bry-d@iL fte @ is sb{mhtrizôir.lly.


SelectedcâtalogueIl rr2 Dimenids (i)ù r50m, v l5omû ci) h weÊ wr. d:rrtbrâckjsl1 bsh (nùrarpic. nn'Ù. z/4srLv, 4.ndsFrm rft lrwr, ftddish-bwn (nâdds),sspûn otwol mid.!rM, S€N

3r3 Dimosions:{!) h 170m v l50m; CDh 105m. v la]Imr fi0 h 29m, w 4ftm Fhrp:@1, nid blM,7-lsply,5 6d.p.rd (trddft),s@, wenw!rid+ffi

sL Din*ioos(Dh3tm,y5s@C'lhzu'nm, a 40'mi oiDh ?0f,m.'35nnr Cr),ùu,È 99mr (!, h aùn,'s3nn z .olt weswl,l'3n'b!nd.bn4 weft oEdl,ftjdbdqzar G)wûL di}jsh bllm, z{uo cio wor. dtrk pu4È,finq rh4 o. cD 0e)wl, Frdish.bM, $pu

wrp wol nidôtla z/soly, s mdsFrm w€ir (twor,nidn!1m,sau (]t wo| lddbt"blrru, scPu Gt wol @rdishbtu@ sw

lig46 w@rLæl'ie8 c$ No314,@ No315, fi_om âlaç rltlE.nory dépôniÎtu wr, & 3ùM

Xniting Tm €tuù!6 ôI tnitêd trundts sæ lound withinûÈ late14dEmb.y depositd Bc72æd tuùr n"3ndls wre remred tum l,lLhm tuy wlbrfrmt dep.sit!à1FRE73andBIG32. Th* ae mong L'redlie* Mplès oI wl knitinstuud ù noiihe.nEftDê dd de of6n. sideEùLinterested iûportrre. Oneilen O.Io316,fl 13,c)MsisE orM smn FÀsrdl! wked lrôm red (n.ddûnyëd) te ply yùn in æ effi scling.ditcù. Thde ft âÈ prdinaieb 2 srit-I6 md ,l Ns pd tu this

bmêd â sfr ed iatle 6ùricsd, âIhowh slighqynEftediiftudle û bûiâl in tbe sil, it doestui âpped ùr bâk ben hê.rly tuIêd d !o hæ ùada napbruhed upontheoft.surhce.It âEùldlile a ùndhEi cdld næeæfrôn ôr sls ftùer thânnm a piæe oI headw. *ftæ6 inglôLeêDor rhenin bdme us!.Iin

Theswd sûp or{Esnen6No nD ae

I

!

a


ârs mrked in 6loctine.slitchÊon a h{l)t, yan nowslrined â Ery darlç âlnEt ùlack.hùê. nre kiiuins is asainænly cdied out, bd is â lirUe nde conrpactùrh3-.! ntcies ind4 sIW@ m. one ['@dr hæ $e I@ins oi â.r{n edq! afi8 +1AJ,whiLnM tàF 6-â€neûtsshd shapin€by iiaeÀec dd dûea*e of sùElE rFa 4781.Tnerûeæiu ùd dÊùesns de mt ùned outin làEr@ld mannr6!,1jn mod ern kniuinspitrms, bui emshd hàDhrzrdlv nne dP!reæ r@. ,or iisbe reâda kB (or m.rêr.k2bs k2,k2 bg, k5,k2rô€,k3,k2 rof, k3.k2ros.k2rândpmb,btyrure)l

F-'g4TFr4|mBorknini4'No Ùû €tury t4) Grin d?e rdê 14.18)dehr d shaDinÀ !€re I r

The kn,dirsdoesnol tmk ar ùoûh n hs hen helviytuùedorLtu,hedbftr; n,o.f coohi lu e mdy ôt rhesnivi4 tothrntud kn'uedops Frh rheslFoinrMdq.e hN @, it È po$ible rotâd làd dr€* jiâftd ftrê orisim[v : dosèfin ns ep ôr. 56tardenr! hd mons rderknincdirm!as rhêrr€q rDd


L#i16arÀCLùans tne.dæsê in ôw 23acmplGhedbykniljna frc stncn6togeihe.Row6 h Laitt€din,ydn ôI d&kercololr but bs 6ilêd tô delet rh. pree dce ôfdlrsûlfs oneiths ofthekn;tlinEydc, at ldde ofthesèh{D}ûns mùshæbd d}td, hlrRtE, sinæùalrd6 ol th. frbresshm thrt neith.r sreyorhroM {ol 'Ite isndral Io!rth LEmol lniilim No ,133)is similir ad 3 lm p€r in quâliqrôNo316linlr? sûtches tuslbæicbrm ofhead@dns (Fis!3). cspsoI sinilârnm hæ t€a dc&tê{in oùer to-lh ErDàn rMs, hr .trdènD,T il4lhrntuy d@sit in StDdit Fmæ annmùlgel, 339,fn $ ddIma l5t])dturyde@sitin li'be.k GtI,u, &! 2-.q. nris M d n4v C.nhlow 1956, Erypn lislrdmof hadMwhÈb seroro

A nunbù ol dMtêrhtics âre@md to aI fdr of $ee klitl€d iMq llmelJ ùe tpe or yùn, whirhh Ù8ldypÙêdrrm M s{p!n yErna LLre G orç(kinhiikh, 4d rh€âbraa of [Ù. ing,lÀfieln€rtheywrè knifiedin lhe mud d' rct be dderminedtrd theh i:âsmsl:lr condilion bu! tron dreaidme oIknjdedsoods ço Lndon dadnsiù drebb 151\dd 16ùm.

Lft bêd ln !Êêlor$rcliæ@mgL\ê!€aMt

Aparli@ eps, otherlnitted itens mrn in nedie!"] Eqqlândwê slfts. SomèweE ifr lorr€d tnio Eiglod or lbliæ salèrs The Soùthmplù PortB.ot ror1,!59{0indudêsan s6 liL*is usedlor ùe ùild sl.clid€lbh ql. xd.'. 6r preserved gârmenr. dry p6 x Delrêslo4sy ûrÀ11 aç4nm1is lùired olvtich (No 4æ, FE 49). It is workedfim M Sslun r95! ?'), brt thegl@esmre ewpÈ (Ruddæk Ibliæ sinæ soôdsw o(.n wrsbd rzms whjcnâreEry lishtlv plied,litn 5 not iewit sdlchesûd 4 ffi p€. cm.'Inirv4jsht t1M or plckedupbysdleysin dlet@Comlri* a Dr, lorEnslmdfulifrcoliy, slms çÛe môûsrhe ihis ileû miE inclu{iiG @r ôf d edÆ od in tw 13ùd a tuF ibm sielêd ôutin â sLtuteoI14A@scdbùs dê shâpins,oned6æ b€rû€ b.iqe *lred sd wkiry æm6i9 inb â nuch ftorê hshid.bL form ol headwd

û47,z


75 lhê inrpo,{ of erlain forêkn $ods in der rô pr@t ompeddù wirh EnEtisJ}madewes (srrri8 ol ùe Rèln4 3 Ed.Iv c {r. tr lD be surmisd. i\ùd.rq rhjr llo€s $e. nke ;Dc beia hidêd in lstheù Ensl,nd q;. KùrjnE % a ,kj[ rhd !Æd on ùtoqh . dm!fthbon ed ptrriel dTû'sÈ, rd ,E on8ùs htr mt sôrÙ ba hc?d wirh)nv qei

russ ùd ralhmÊiogs woot, md soméùinal hiiE, suchassod, bêàEràndÈbbiL&e L\eonh tibres rh4 6lL disfaLrit, 4d in Me rerid; or d'e s 4 includins cen!"t Asia teli6 qujlt d 6 € mèÆ3or srrdsrhruq iL Wlr€tr ûm4êd Llt ù b$ne brinle, breitq uû môree6ily làewren fabric,æd bMùs oa$ir rh€ 6'ashùb $at smiæ tré ônen snill s(É*. rt Eptubàbtsisnin@rLhâr rhrsùs4n ùêrby b:dequêLy rel dirs rh€,ne,ianæ r d hdùg in EErn EmF @incdes wjrh r rormêrrybel,l in ftrydiv tifê. de.ùnêin rheusêoI mdnnss ad mn6 mrle So@ eishr irds olirlt wre ræMed ton 'n a onê medle LdDioue *ioM a hàhhin l!ù{entq depositsâr8C72.Thos Dieæsfrôft din!'. îG w ùe hethodsedlor â sk drine rhemiddlêofthemûry@ in côtoùiùd ond; t! ùe rodr(hhry rNEred nrm Yodi nvJbn ton blt ehæ kll souqh or*ftd i932,5+:Wâtbn XrmA 341+r. burtuLrfg indj. bern idsriied 6 nàde lrôn sh€epsthd h:F root qù @s hr oûêr dre* eæsories madein t!58 ibres oLmedim b oæ rhict e*. sne m! rrpe or netdle oiÙns @re @ omm m ûrârbrcwqnd all Drcbàblvudved In dê enLnshd, 'n @ntsaç,hr Md€, ro9rndDaur pre.ùè ho fibrês Ære probàbtv 6ùtiês*t1ùe ifie cnn cdiinued 10flou.ishin hândor sh.d Érher thr , tj@ed, oluckrd b, ùd;hN s, remoterurai 165 inro the 201h(ên@ (xord 0rne.hri.rl ddase dueb rhetutrnukns pro l,nd 196!2fi, $ rIà Bythe15ù dd r6lh æn. R* Inrry M AppLêyùdp€É omnr. Mo* or hri6 rhe d or kniuine h:d difrised wi,letv&d te remins re slri6, ene tusiblv ûn ôfi soûedri4ol $k â bediyernêdin rhe4e ns anddiserdedinnuli0sobjæ6 ol'iù.Tw vntêdffiples ùrrh€ærjod IlE tnidine 6 whar m piG q,ro133,Fq 50)dil hæ rdrins of m @urd k 5 à dmPÈic prcducrtor @riql èrkd cui êdÉ6, çhlh lould hæ beù Dârtora R ad qiq dlv liD siæ L âshion Tnê hr brim, oi 6 susseqcdàs ù itrèmtnE tur r_liet Èff kûuine p,[ern rÀ pubtishedin siniLr pires ol rheBth rd l4rh enùis frd N trd presmùry berùre rhd dâb ùe Asrlerdh, roostr lininss (vdsromÀ t982, meû,odsnfqhrpiq qre oikd onqjxtn (Rur 1937,239-.11). Chd36 ii shâpew,jd dep4d rn $e trqsnenE ôl dtlhot ,? t tom L\e tare upnnùe rHù4 skinsor eùe of drê knirt^ xthrenûry depositr BC72 rh. ryr or @l À Ihe eknples rrm xrhrnûry rndd ùe bo IÛe wied In À nûbbctr tidsùt4 oûcùr, b"enên@y io indid rhe5l:1l ollhe skil n rhê Jm hrE ûe hd om6 hnn à doubleoæd mjddlcàe4. dre rop€lTonêd $itrh6 tlwn io <heç, {idr natùil e4-brom Êbr6 No 313 iorih Eurcoed loierq or rhe Ê@€i6 then FissD Fner rcol Êbrs in l,\rë oiRs ofsoÉ ems rrhpftd by ùn. R.earùhr6t besunon fertqe dyêdred dd 4d in de aç rh< rdlov, ûe raÈr e€l3têd knin€d irem Dv. hoffi dydfl tudder qe iddûlred æ û€nL some helpb rh@ moreLehton rhr ùlÈr bhâs d tràsnab ôl ddk red md yrùd fêLw toud thh Lê.hniq!ê asa Eroupbut il i3 oærtdn vherfid rh4 *re orisinàtt mmbii€d io form à pàfter;d letr r nero de âr$ tu pie6 of a htt whnh ke Felt tude lior a omùimtid of wot ând ûr fibfts includinErhelujr olsto€tor @sd wtrm incor Tie mduhdrê or ÊtL rhàris rhenùnq rô ponlins filr r hair lÀe propôdionshaF r be cê'herd ônÉr qth moistueùd hd ;dr ÈretuÙyjudftd, o ûd the 6oner ûùe etadh pn$ue 4d 6iaion, kr prdrce a $ti<l non- rcol Êbe holdrosdhêrdr Âr (Brkeu lwen tabric,h6 ber oadiæd tôi l@ æF 1979,10r.2).Tlrê resutt hde sooù is êûetu, tne ntr hris 16hlfi qind andhFftooiouârjd* n:dr hbrêssivins: odjeble shcen!o the reti it suilâblefor : pidê dse of dressaRffns The felt lndusùy r rhe mèdievzlpsiod hÀ md doûjng, includins hrts, bæls dæs d r<êtrd scmâtknbon,bulrhereis lifltedoubr sherLhs,às trrÙ 6lor tumjshrsc, Fnitulàrtv rhri hrr @ videty Ed If h,6 h.m àrt€* ùê


Tdik.rdckthi,s l3L\ cmûtry. Clild rclnlariôns ol the l{ù md êdy 15thcenrùrl con.s.i.s the tuliry oI hâs by haNl in l,ûdon (liley 1363,4025,553 9) sus. se* dBt sme hds trre mâdefromfclt sinc Lbe inrhe ùiliftes acctrEbl' û,.osss menriôned desùibe thosebdirionzly ueJ ii lehnaldns ln addirion.hâlsderi!1edi. manyllHusdiùt iL llminadons,pânioLrly thop mrn by pir€rini ùe in sqhs shich duld easilyhde beenpG Fclt hab beoûe an iEm ôrbshionahlêdrê$ by thê niddle oI rhê l4th cènlùry li'ey wrc trêouenuybôûahlir. thc qal householdmd Fnwrd lll, Ior *dple, is r.uded tô havehâd three lelt hab tifrned wiu' gildcd butons æd siù ti6 made6r him (l,reto' 1930,35). A lelr indust-!'nlst hm exidêd,theÉIoie. to support ùÈ dênând. Mâry ffil1ed beâE hals oi dre late 14th cntry such 6 ihc merchùts 'Ilrundash bder hd' in Châuæls Itr Cu'dùr41alÀ (crv1ry1975.9,line272)wereprobably nade lrd a conbindion oI wôl bd bèdef lur asMs ùê pÉ.ricè in nôre rcmr tim6.lelt hab *ere ii,p.tud Êom Sp.ii od Flanders(Childs ùeyalso.pp€ar 1973.l,|1:RrddocLrg5!7D),b td haÉ bæi lrdlcd loclly in l,ndon dd rhh is a subjedihat {ould reDayturthcr rsemh.

Frc50 ofcub ûJmolfelr,No133,fioma depsit

6s2).


Goathairtextiles Utle aN'enliôn hâsbd Êim tolne ôle ofgoals h the{mmy olnedi@l Englond. Theer} of dôhâsro€is Lahowr, bedmiry to rev€:l @idetrcliat is notêæilyôbiâinâhle 6m wien soûæs Goalskin, hom as@rdwin,wassome timêsùsêdfd slrcesmrn in Iadon dùiqg the Ith io l3d' centuri6 (GrN & NÈêdâârdxlss. 4,1:Prircbrdl9cr,22) md itlppeareahotohâve bemm'mon 6r shoes nadeonùê Coitinentar rhe he p€riodovanteinse1934,29, ns t5) wme ùer€ È, onsid@bletrishtof documn lÀy didqæ lo showthât ordùâjn}A ùnponed inioEnslând fmspain inrhel3drsd eelv l4rh cstoriês (ChildsÉ7qm.{,136-7). lhetsitjon is Is cltr6r L'rellth ùd l2ûr@ntlriêsùd lôél suppù6 ruy hâæ ofi*d n iniriâl

rcsul6,*hich 6 ât frrstbêmi€b}ù lô. d Éry

Processinggoaûâir

îre neûois dpue$ins md sginnins!ftthâir Mre not neæsily the we as L5o* used6r voôj,3incêùê fibr6 ft mtalikein didr sheeD's *de fortuion, æd goaiiaii whi.h læks crimp, doesnoi cùnstosen'âas e.sityas{oL No i'Ior diotr onlhh subjet âppea6!o hâE hêù 1ôùd in English@ords oI rhemediB:l periodmd e oie hâ6b M roêùtusàphic studis nT dues A studyuderblen on nle spirning ofgoaràair Uan*A modr€rinponat goalpioduclCôÈ rô. rhenm,É.tùre of tentsin $tia il tne 1960s r*!dden: sb'm t]l,t vhile Boûike Æ rftrled lhât lo ens!reit rêmainswârer.epele4 rurkjns h Gernâiy durinÂthe 740sIÉ st a the hair sasnotwshed atâry sLse be6r€ w& .loal of silk ûikd û15 g.at hair to Dùiel, insr injead rhe mw libr6 wre clemedby 0rù BishoDôf WùcÀe{û, Dd blmkeL nâdetrd lonFd bealinsor drelloor oI a wr*shop (Hald r$l ur2l), lt hâsbed sustrsted by liadina ll!€dEi. to HEerberL Abùot oI Mônlftù. murllJrlfi 39, 931.Evidenæ viù witere thathân ûâJ 6u,Iy hm hecnspr {Budny193,1, tom Lddon poinl8rôthêusèoJmme diles hio ydn ût\ a spinnirshæh Biier ths wiù â mde lron smrhairbetue{ rlÈ 1Ih {nd 17th dô! spindlcfitud uiù â whorl (Nordlandl!61, cùtuiês md, âlhoughthisvohmeh o.t coF 12!-7;SchjolbeE1934,33).This hoôkMs nÉde cernedwithrdlil6 tom theyàÉ 115{) b r{5o, eidrûùoù a sinslepifre ofmod, boneor nelll, d'êothspieæsshN ùat diisfA lor a nw type or rrom t{o oidês Lsbed bsdner to tum a ol prodlctnorws it to besupeRdedrûrman] fts (Nordlmd196l,fus 73 5).A tuhled sd of oldies. uûlile g.abkin,ihe surplyolàân did hân }A ûched to the hookd ms vbich ws notdèpod ôndreslâlshFr oJdirâls. Hai.is mnliDuouslyturned wjù de hùd ùhile iIÉ shedqa&nly ùyÊuls in thesorins,ùe coæ oL\erhmd dr* ûul shds of le6ùre. haiF ûfnheoulêrM pmding thesùedding of An âltêrnâriÉ netlrcd of spiming so.thâir ùê flnewôl ôI rheudemd (Rder 1966, 293, Nd bday by Bedouinsms ii $e NeârEâd îs 2). It ii therebre.po$iblcrô côIêctthêdI- ômhines$e eof aspindleùù rouingrherân rermt 'es of hair sepdârev,md acærdingly a8drst 0te thish whilesêded.A larsih orh,jr is lnq need nôtbeinhiEled whenlDde inûù daM o'rt nom a 'm, {hich is held in $e let clolh,'Ihi3 chmcbri{ic of soâlhajrapletrs b hând,dd mled as:id $e !\ish vinh die righr hæ bed âTbned in L\emakinsd ùe .lorhs had astiespindle is t{isted in a clôck{iædiræ desdibedhere,4llde w6 frm thicl<tup1y tion sidr ils tip reslins on lhe !.omd. The spun yen wbichÀ coftred .hiellyof kap hans.t lhrud is rhensmd ioud ûE sh,Jtorthe soiÈ is miiceùle.hoffi, L5âtwhmthesccloursde dle b€lowrh€ *tron *trich is m.de fd M snde in dambic cmditionsthehoirelDè then ctuspiecs of wd, althowh rhis methodG eâle 0âtbr6 md a nÀs ofwoùier fibfts oftm slN, it is rell suiledto spiniins hân


rdhs

6tudoû3h6bb

i€etun€drdbdd

s!ôd'dq

(qs'!@UÙ

\.BsFf$mf[tdgeFq\d].*!dsrs1

1rr de€re ol lvii gi6 to rhê yarn usedin ine soâL\âjrcloihsnomnedievd bndon {asnot sreat,andto stopd'ê yrntum u{inding æd as â stdutheniru meGure lhe hdr w6 usl,Iy plicd Nith S b'jsG Dd d. This resdted in à lrlrly coa* Lrlead,.2-4Im in dimere. All the doins ùsledheredc {@n rom pli3d}?ûs and lith one mÈplio. rhsy de 7-jlied lion so grvisbd yârB (tible 3).TheereDtion is. rie!€ (No ing) non a depositwhich {tatesto the lâh Éd'.thfy']tisoneolùelde$mo4ùe s,adEi! clolhs iûcludedherc md could,there lore, mdk â .broNlogr..l diference. Exce tions in Beryen,NoMy. horeèi yielded 90 e@ples or tlr rormd lpa md 7e dmrpls of ùe l.hr vhi.l, wre senc'zrly{wcn fiom iincr

ândbderprepâredyûri (Schjolbcrs 1934, 32J). this, it ws ?rsned,coLd rènd a ditrerene in lie doùs liom lrndon re onsi*nt in hav insahbbybindinsodfie outorde13eFmples 43r.433. CNos Fesm Ddtofâ simplesèlvèdse 436,439,1.15. lable 3,Fig 534)- a highpmp. tionn/agDlpoflcxti]esoneclodjdsohasa

*ri* oI looFedcndslûûi.s a frinse,30'nDin lqih (lig t3B).rufiher didùe âùourthesize olrhesclotlEones foû âonDlêreloofrwidth, ora simildfabric,*hich \æ .coercd ton m earlyl7lhsnniry depositb?sldcù. thâms at S.udrsdk.I is A()m Cl2*ir, wide{d nedy2minl.neih (oneùd isin ùn1pleb). Lon

t


F'e53 conniirddrr,No&r ton midl!rh..+ try L dotr (a)ddairofrdr dd srqdsr.rBl

râlrdc$weÉ wm in reldi@lyndruw{iddE by oneÉGon o' a simpletâme ôr loom,*hich wâs Dtobablypsid@ed verricalr

Useofgoalhaht€rtil€s -lrre

side distribulion of bxrile of rhG rr ùrcùshoû ionhem EumlE haseûerscd liôû lerule d$mblæls te.È S.hrolbt s 19R4.Âc $dltui A$ $) Î$ 4; lrequedly prusrt ir wdû[.od dêljosilsasthesc exmples lron r3th md llrhremury rindon dcmonsHe,rd thlrek r slruu Fs'b' '\, rldr rhe r orh Es u5eJ,! r ruct@im lrærirl Iù hêrôùadi$, in a siùilâr My to (wse ednal nl,t9).Îiis vas not,how {Hoffinûn l9ô4,36,1-5, er the o'ù rnf d,eLôth N!mem!\n-dc mdn rûe romd in: elTêlined Ditin l!tuloo dding to die lâlc llrh or eely lâh .dû4

(Pritchard193,1,,17, s9), sherê they ry haE tulfilled . pùriculr tun.1io, vhich G as y.t ui. krM. Otbef clorhsoJ iis twc hæo heenre ordcd Êom nveFdês in lùd. swden. which ae dabd to the secondhâI of ore lllh.êotw (Ijndslrùm 1976,234), whêretheyipFrb hd; beetruÈd as oen or shtuuù, dd Lhù are somêriûesprest in snÉs ddi4 fi omur! llh to 14thcenruricsir F,ûldd. îcse iiclude r bur irl tson tlre CâthedËlsree!, winche{d, md m o$cr in a iône coffin at Sr ludmt Ch!!.h. Orôrd (Croffoot lgqr.176) 'ûis seemsto re necra biasbwids ûomiic sitessd hâssiven ri* b ùe su$srion ûù Lle cloth.oL'ld fiare beù @d Jo. hairhirrs. lvÉpDins rhe deadin Iri*hiG Ès nd mnnnedto ûû {s rd clerics, JohnAlte Bûylle. a LondonreaEi lbr emdè, lilled in 1352th.l his body shouldbc buried in this wy (i.e.ir dlidb) (c:l ]{llls I. (jô4). À dûth oI a similr reigh1 and {eâve Rd for wÉp!i4 a !or!.c bûêd at sr M4! Priùd, lïedord.!6 'JenhhdassdolEthpdh,nsoàr hâir (cârter & Henshll 1057.102 3).The Ide isor, v ùÉê ha ryle,inildr rosur:I.d rpel soolLoLlay rd incluùes niturilbrcrrotorêd nbres. Hence,mol û.y somcrincslwe b*n substitutodlor *Mùrn md Dinb to ùorhe. rê gion,l ditrerencein oisin Io! sofre ol rhe


Linentextiles Thè q!âiilty orlino toniles lEm mhaælogical depositsin Londonis disppoinrùgly sn ll hÈ GE or s6êÉlly ûntavounhlelo.al sil @rdi tions A numbe. of chæed pie.es wre depGit ar Alddrewered lion â uth{ùtry ûùbury in $e cit (No 414),4d alhough lhe fibres ha€ nt b&r Dositicly iddtfed 6 nd, dr hct that ùê ùrdds hft ûtæn€d their tormvheDburnt sugges Lhatthry mre a €se  b'shly conrbù$ râblefrbre andnol wol "trich{09 sd 413)we iblê. oùer ftàlnmb (Nos preserRd *ithin l"r€6 oI æs d.lins t the scond hr]f or ihe 13thcmtn y md rhe ldê uù cslury ai MLK76,md ftese snps wre pmbè blr æd âs snilary loFls ùd lflârory papei 6i.1iôÉ Io. whichmorsândsnippeeof rcollen cloth wre als. enployed(Greisl$r, 23D.Anothêrpise orlinen,wbichwasrecoÉrêdfôt an èârlylslh{ntuly wacrF@l r*hent dumpat TI-74,È Ddlly co.tedin a bla.k subsl:nce,poss ibly pilclt, vhich ênabledthe clôrhto suflire in dop brial mnditions(No403). Ail but oneoJthep clod'sre simil in wm, terè ûid quâlity,hwins ùeenwn in a bal mced tabbybindinl,Iron Zspû yarn (table I, rls 5,!).ftey mayhavebæn blêâched,but this

h

q(m)

wp/Ntr

qd!/wù

has nd hæa confirm€d malrdcally md uF bleâchedflæn .loth ws,Le ridêly u*d. rind oI thh mediumsrade musthâE h€enEry com mon dd udfleâr, bedlino heâderius ùd âprônswodd onenhtu bæn mde tôû it

Sef-patternedlresi€s Onlythc ld sal burnrl!ænenlsofi6 r litUe irsishrinb thevidenùlseolef.p.nernedlind tabricsâvâilablê in ûêdierâltnndônIôr G âs

bblecldhs, naplins, tuÈ, Td pillM oêG. ]ne doLhapp€rs to be â typeoJhmkâbactlidr trûp flMb ononehce{nd wennoalsonlhe oùer (rns56).a hbric whichretuins ro tàisdâJpo!û lar lor rMh bûÉ ol ib âbiliryroibsôrb mois tue. No sinilI cloL'rsdarinsro ih€ 12Lhcentny IÉF bed h.ed, ,]lnough jt À poss]bledd Dielts àrerrosftd in cutnonu lreâsuriesfor


FjÊ55vÛûdrft,hgiheiruderdjlhè,.M 6Ê n, Rniùnt ûats4tu, MsBaÀ]! 1,is3)

Iles6cbtedh@tdahEkabækddh'

srratt€rred lins h6 a lds Elrop€i hisrorr. ]ne tlftud ors Badrild(died.630)in cfielles, mrlhernFnnce,hasbdds ôll&.kô,ct bode. iis amin wh ofhbbyçirÀalæp€i pilebutùis tucdsidêredio b€a nu.h olds drtà (l:pft 193t,10r)-1, 6p 2r. rrmênk @sêned Âm Anslcsxon buijûts inctùde h€ûingùone. Ioæru€atrdm*ne sills, eme @bôly ie ports!otheBperh:psnadeùylie se reaEre whoD'oduenilneft)u shedrurs1èds(cmr6ot $4, {22,124,439-41Cmsfôotlônndnins A). Dd, clothin a hùo.onb mæ ws reffied lrcma l0th.drny dêposir inYdk (wâtt n 1930, 3t3,fu 6,pl)â./a).Simjlarùd môrêelâbodê pâtbro5h:r b€€nÉ(ùde'l frùm!rus onrhe comùe , p€niùhny 'n the re'ntory of Ùe Almaûniin ùe.€nbai md $uttêrn Rhinèlmd l5l-dl Hudi 19&,207-û Adde. Gilndt 1930, Jorlbsm 1936.35q BenderJ,rssff 1$7, 2 4; Bênde..torsensen 193qû{ âg 263),a rÈ gon ûra1hâs romainêd fmdsiofib l ghq!âliB'

An indi€tiônof thê Eiêty oI sefrerned eèæ pmdmd in Londd i! drelaterniddlê *hich wre aqÊsisDreidedbysùndresdations witundoMin1456'so$èrerk,tædi* noude, snale kno{ês, theyn6 rn wrk, 'elrylètte6 dd idûæk hod6 withdrechap. , ekn6 tre flong the i,Tê iLmjsed(ùNitt 193J,?067). Nap€ryæd trels of 'Ià.is *uk ae ale speiliedshNins lhâtby rhêniddlê ôI dr r-5ôcûtûy ùe llne signifi€dquâliq6tex tw Elher thd plæ ôl o.iqin.TlEe is littie doùb! rh€r€1ore, thar iI lind ws nôre tult .êÉr*nbd i' lhe anhâæloÊiâl rercrd a sreaternumbêrof Dâtrêûêdclôrls wuld t€ loûd lo incræseour utrdersi.ldinsof ùis

Ijûishing Àlrhoùehexmples ol linfl clothsee æ 66 tunievzl deposibi! bndoq û impldùlas* ciabd *idr dr€ tnishtns ândlaundrins ôi linen Llratis rell reprMted is làe linm sooL'rei or ,lnis slendèr, mâdenoû sl$. ws Nd ro LD pÀ1a gt6 b lin€n,a pqe$ that *6 repeâted zJ6 ùe hbri. ws wshed æ wll aswhenit ms n4, fld lor Èr$ins sam. Thê bsk ôIlâu{ieF iirrlidd\Ès ndiGisniffai in rediell Etrslnd, 6r cleâ4 detuly pressed,vhite linû w rÈ Frded 6 a sLlrls symbolûd ma4vhùshôûs wre prepared10p.y lo. lhe snices of a hu drs whoE uealu Dâidâmâly. llâb€ûasire olEdwrd Il, in exmdq employtd$! lMdres s (l|1tùa) duins l3llrZ or vhm ùê, Jom, laudeEd tÈ quæn's Mpe-y dd the ôdF, Madda red nr ûe liren ofrhe Qud! ChaD.l (Blæ*lq & HeIfuh r94 93 9,103-9).


Silktextiles oNniiuing ùE nedt\al period .lrhoughunsu. ccsstulalemp6 mayha\t beenmâde10eshblsh in Lherei$ of Edwd nr (Dale1982.{, 312)may nor ha€ bee. an Èoldei examDle. The couno fron abroâdrM acofdirsly shirb in inbfE tionalreulnns $..{. as imrdtrr is ( hd'$ ! j,, b* in determiniû Nhd {N âqiliblè.

Silk in Roman Britain and Anelo'SaxonEngland nre .rlie$ e$mple oi â silt lâbû hos! 6am hry s ùhÈnrhècoùty wâsdder Ronann e. It is â *omeric rrill dmast lrom rheraÉ oI ? coph.gusembelished{ith Dio'ùs.c fis!res ùd p{ren shells.al Holboroqh. Ke o{ild l9ùt, 2,16).îc cloth,dcsribcd by dæsicrl \ribF as ùlrlatu or ,.co!trr orirs.hcckcr.d appcdance, nm*s âs ore ,i

r edlje! ùGmil

\iù{s *!q,

in mncm rùop.. A NellknNn productof râin

(rD 30r). whi!.r' siNlaral ihal a Àù of ri. cloL\ !:s enrilllii 1oi tininû diily \â$ dN keçoJ50daa;,,i\icelheelnieo|aweavel ir dah silk (wild1e61, 265).o.ly oncothcrsilk .bù is knoM ton Ro'nanBrihii, a lLghsriglt, LmFùe red Die.etron a 1lh{errury rir arCol. .li.shi a iosû which dr.n rrkcd closc to Lordoi i" i,.rorùcê sèF Gxmrred)sil( i\cors eredlikelyt,l,ae rôDicrom chi,r (wi1d1e*1 ?0),Fsibry asthc res!lt orbalesôt dôdrbeingùsêdÀ cutr.n.r' lry meRt'ads rrun rhe Fr Ea{ F.vi'l(r(. ror rl,is pmdnc ws obhined 6om Aftl Stein\ eKrNr rionsâtthe@ison toM olt ulmon$erou{eol ol sik doù d.liru ro dF 2nd .e ûJ us round insùibed in ChinesechmadeA ù {e,shing 708.75a Cro^) and po$csins a nluc or li18

noncba uDib (stcin192137ir-1). The disintegrailondd.ollâpse ol ùe lùmm eene âalededl,)l! diratr! ùdwdks or ùJ)pll ad, altholqh cerûin ronnodities lron lùds bordêringL\c Meditemnee rea.,ied $e petty mirddringrheSrhindljlh.emri!!.Iideed, ùe moi elaborâlely innished ra\ts in re( rlre Cortlneit hck silk fabrics,ules thê sùips or goklbroradin!rrùD!om,{isl,ead{ll"$es o,nd har .omc fiom silk braids(Croxjoot& H.{kès 1967.5D Neitlisr dr. TÀp1ovbrro{ buirl in uu*i!3hl6hn{ÙrrtsùiiHù]sljipbsiâr in Sufo[(riù ù!n sDeûâtulârrdains olrnateÉ i, werû yieldd my lr@enrs oI silk clolh or odr ol ân enbroider.voi linên. tuùnd inside â meulÉlic boxin r childs @ve d l\nl!,M (n .bry, Kcnr{croxJoot1933,112),is L\e hst ar.h æolodcd @idemeftr L\epr.s.n.c ofsilk in 7ln renluryEqla(L r Friod wri,d w.iinr nNr.cs indi.ab a i'rllx oi si[{ doth. on. rcen lor rhe increNed volme oI silk rab.i$ n.àhiùÂ Fr"glandws ihc spr.adorch is limily, vhnh bd o inDrovÈd.ormûicatiois with Romewtrre suppliesoI silli dorh!e.e pleÈ drari" De(uadi"t lil{ii, Kns or tdù,1,,rle, NorthLnbrû (rillj-63:). b &ce/ the Chi{iao (shenE"Pricere55,113), rvhichit.:n beasured Richpatons $ere ale inspned10donnt to dre chùdr ùe cosrlje$oJrîndy soods AlNin oi lulbmci.s inrenloven rh told lhd Os{ald. r.nc orNoinmbi? (ô33-ri41), 1orrr D.esenled .hûn li.s hc hâd tomdd (DodFll 11j82, 12e). 111edenùd lor cilk clod' {trs nor.howwer .or ônedro ecclsidlcal Èrnras aid br .636 ^ldhclm. a wc* $xon churchnun, derribed ',ed slees (Dod* [ 1932.r{5r (]v.trcm.k.,


Despirerhe* do.û@ery releren.e, rhe nmbù ôf e y medi@.Isilk bfles DresFed in DûclandÈ vqry smaù'his my be duein pafr ro rhe pi âÊr ol the Mkinas.Normds &d pG iesbnl4atoÈ. 10oùrbreaksoI tire, and 1ô rhè neltjns dom orEoldUr-"id Iôr bù1ùonThe be* knoh âre ùose a$o.ided qih rnc reiicsoI I cuthbd præed in Dùhm c.riiêd.rt, which spa ihe 71hto.dy 12ri .emxris fld include nâg'nenlsor at La$ l0 dife.ent fabrics,in dd| tionto mbroidûtès andbnids Theyùe to datcl ipple,ienF lb] un\ on.(bnêd oRe dàûi! tob(rôtu{nêbieerentu4 ârurôKho uù^a Enred.loLh romd mùn! I lâre7ih oredtv 3rh @ilury ner,Morkels h6d coniâi ins oiher .ontircnbl ic6i from Tare6.ll lhorpc, tj. colnshife(ctu\loot forrh.on ins B). Ii vie{ oI Ùresparseqrùliir ofsjlk dorhr ore stud in EngraNddtns ro rtr. 3ù Gntw. ir is curiousto findlhalDiecs oJN! silk dorhson$ê conrincnrhaè ar rimë b4i ctaimedæ ^,!lG S:xôn.Aoù are by hGiori.alhdirion ase.irirld willt 3rh{enh!-y nig[sh nÈsioiarics. *nl ro .onrfr pâgânâreasot nold'ern Drope one doù. reputedroh'c b6r uÉd lo wâ!ih. reli.s ofst Llbwin (died.770) ard nG in Lh. M!$èum Hel caiharijn{onvè , ure.rit depi.ls Lheffg ::, ure or a sq6t mn in ro$c's wiib inrùrnedfeet md otrttunèd hmds beeer t\! hâlfssrio&d treê. bat-lkcn with bl,tr$m ud rotde (Iic 17. v*ff|935lnrPrJdPmm$lrlLr'lliFeJd bmm otra fadedyeltoNù h rornd is oridted lo{ârds the senÆdsc in rheù.nner oJnry eùtv clôll$Qnng1331,96 ?),ândFrhaps*asprrota bordcrrcæaicdalois sIJoù sidesot rhectodr.ri is a loo*lJ' wH 1.2$pfr râ.gd .omFud sin siûr a mainv@ oJsilsle mds,æpt*here rhe hFen. 3-i0m'. (rrurun Hd câdÉrirnsonrir. êids wereo(Giônâll! eicred dotrbleor den in 11'co 'er clorh,pd ofile soùlled.er, orsl Hdiidis aod si Rcli'di\ lho weresi$ers ùd abbeses supposedly .orsrnlcd by st willibmrd àtrI s Bonibce resDe.lirch. rorms oncorthere6ùes ot in. .hrch oJI cdhoine ai lt?asêik, IÈlsiun The cloth, ako &wô jn a r.lj !€fr hccd conrrlund({i11,hâsâpâtrernmvcn in o[€ srei on . r.ndish prole mud .om pos.d ôf n)E ot cùc1s ii dre .enrc or rhi.h a klng is enthronedholdiis I s.epre or crcs, ind 's âcompmjed by rbe insc.ipriôn.vq. in rm lin.s ofcapiuls oÈ 53itsùdny1984,75 €, fiÂ2, pr

L R!d.y & lwddle 1934,72 ol nI; Bu.tnv & Tftddle 1935,367-70. DlsLl Ll-Vlbt Boû.roùs arectudc 6rhrive Die.ls ofa sh. dardor desis dd cxecuriontù bcloç thal DG dLcedin inp..iÀl Blanrine $lrkshops îcy silured mâtryhmdreds orniles apd. l.he Lèl> wii dô'h.wi'hiE iik Jif r lJctje My JDDrc .iàbr,rwin,prc.ro[qcâuad b! lhe useof tusrrir dyes .td orienbl iisldive paturn.câr be idenrifiedùrh a Fotrp ôrrex{jtesclâsjfied âs


ffi I

Ë

Asia\as indeed the sotrr.eol ùry silk .lorlis rc.ordcd 6om eanr-nediMl Eu.opeirrludiq (shcphcrd1e31, 107,1lÈ20),rhe aidai'ÎIl nrk rdcri!( t) â villa. i.ar Rukhmvhichis i.sùibed on oneof dre cloihs.T]iee {ere p* drc.d in workshols ù Slgdja (ûdlerl u,b.khbr). c.ftâr ^siâ.a rcmob spordoseto â pdh ol rhe Silk Road,{hkh therebyproùdedâ rcure oI cornNnl.a{i{n 'irh i}. kn c.tual

(CrtrrcerTa)lor lorb oûe lrom dris (lioi le3e4 311-2).md so {oo ca.li.* Ffr.rr.d silk cloth presded lron l,idm (Prit.hdd 1e34.71). By .onûær ùe D0sjlk will' jls l in' ii$rjpliÔ| {À Drobab|y p.odn.edin NeslernDurope(Dudry& T{eddiê 1935,370), bui ir is extemelyunlikelyù( the eôrkshor *as sitûabdiDhdâ.d


35 Il'e eslâblishmqr ot â bishopricin bndon 6TmD 004mlld haft tuded Àinsor dk tu ntqhjnssb ùe cilyi chmhe\ nd n pârli|utù io s hul s C.lhedrâj.No rêfêrù$s io 'tu srlv Mples haEbeen tn ed,but by the êdiy roi; Mtlry. wh€. thc tM s dûê oi@wtdion iod shinêdbact{b çitàin LheCiLyqtk. rhercis doù. menbrysidencê lof silkenÈsrneds iû ihe rilt ot Tho'lrd, Bi+op i l,ndm ano{lleùr%2. 152)Hêàp@drlr b{uhri whirêud a !êtLN ch?sublewhd he uibd ràvi? 'n noiàrr; tbty duiosrhe ni$ haltoltlc lorh .iohfy.,fter ù€ are lràsneû ôf silk clor\. lieaé wr rê @red duriaq lhe esdi@ oI a loth.mtld buildinsùd sequmæofpitsâtMijt sbæ! hrÀ; {est of ùe cny, in 1976,bd @Dprisêsit ihs (Prit hùd l9&.59 1j3).Ftu tre flârrcæi oF sistins ôI a@ t bbr.mm cloths*irh 7_sid.,.J urD !n ud ltn yrn lackinsânyâppre.iaùte tuist a labùrvren nbbon ûrdc Ddilv trôn Fès. sirk and a 1.2lrftfacêd comFu;d Mjn *nh tne endsorbôth ûrè mir wD âid hinâùq wrD lacki.s in twi$tandvir5 !€ft lifeads of!ed-, vtub æd br!e.'Ihe prcducûoncdres lbr rh* clolhs orc nôr linitd iù ore coulry. The nr$ $!, neilherof whi.h âorr€ab hee becndyed, we Frtups w(M in slal uôd mrlshob *iihir ùe Byrùrine c@te. Thc ribbon.whù muld als hm heenrchtirely cheariù prcduce sinæthe yrn is noLhishly orocs*d. È difielr to asiF, ùut mar bar be€n}(mn sonewhêrê fther eas hecu* oI làe âbsùc orr{isr in ihe wfp. Mêùwhile rhepârbrneddoù roshicft d\e ribb.n ws slit!.hedB pmbaùtyùe proiuctofa mrkshoDin enbalÀsia thê orhd M sllk irêm\ pr,.srcd ttum10th{e ûy l,ndon ârc ùd ora pliêdrurd:nd bÉidvhichkro ùobabi mou rârùed rocly tm inpodei rhrad flrc5etu, domsulvikh ltom t nd4i e@has'* rheLons dhl]nes trr {hich silk omlditiês wr Êa qûendyhsponed ândrûeal lnâtsilk !A eil àblêin em<qurûlryn Fnsljsh toMs durjmûe ItL ,shry ou'er t,sns, nobbv Yurk md \rh.h6bi reiiroto. rhE inpRrnôn b ùa hæ3âleyieldêdâsmâ numbrofDarerned d pl8insilk hbics lrom lolh- and ndrailû dF posls (\{âlbn rgasa,360-6rrcrowloot1990,473 4). It is, howi onlyvhen the lofrbs ofprel{as o. rhc noùiljh?ae openedùat Dduernedclolhs æer m erêâbr mmbtrs! in aaordâncê *irh mlenak pre*rud ii ùeasuries.nd shrin6.

Neii\6 souEe,therelæ,prdidesa ftI rsrcs e atiù orthen$t olsùt5incieutârioûrdcrd

lhq @mDlemênt êacholh6 More làm one qpe d todn % @lorcd for eejm dreeJ]y \ilt shrfr supptiêdb !triqtaùI. Tnt d,?$loom,knM b h:F brm m usebv !hê 3rddtury0, N6dre aost co@1d ioi.i(s p a). ciosêly assciared wiL\ this loôn in the period B $e kn-âc€n ofr 4r!.tudi&d æud Nill p.publy Lrsn Js tr tr ntNh àploitcd thê lllfuUs quâljryors' k ! atltrbæ by ftâtins à smooh Etô*J srrhre ur toæ ùr n,Èb.fteerlje rffdes h# onlyone;ù cndin propinion roe.h àindi4 €nd By ûê tab 3jn rd eâny$ir cenûriesihê uscof dùubte(or rEircd) min endsb{ùe a omon latue of clolàs mukctured wilhin Byhtium, rie su. pêrb trarih ùd Ooan silk. vhich Ms æMted ro r]]e \hnne ol st cuthbtG po$jb[, tr ldne Mdslân ii 931,or by rnm Ldnund d g4.t uDb a ennryafte.itwnads, ùeirs jusjde ôrn;w (Ilân4d xrs6.57:Hiffins 1939.336ffipr6 7i GnueFlùlor r$94. 34! Grft.Tavtor 1949C.is5, 162 1l Thi\ .h:nse ha; bR; ât. ùibuted to tie irhdu.rim of â ridû loon, dê Elop€d io û.oduæ h€eier ùd mre luùimr mult.oloued .lûLhs (Muthssius193{,l,to as nv silk be@c hæ Milâhle in tàÈrest, od lo thê e orttro nllen lor làe ur! i6bâd ofoily oneiwhichetubleddrerensiononttE main}ft and binding @p to bê âdj6bd s.!ftretr  m.in ':r! oTpanedcndsuas nor.hôwer lhe plerogarircof thê Byarine Mdd æd mbe in cnb2l Aia âisoprcdùcedtrnsed oDourd twillsvirft drischmreri$ic lrom àl leâs tiie 3th .ùtnr (SheDherd 1$! n9 24. Sieninor dit rddces ii ùe lrtner in {hi.h rhe lb *s reared. t{isêd bd dyed,in addirion6 srtidc qualti6, n@r1helos, help b dislineish rÀe Dtodd or.olres in Àsia and Mêdibnnêrn lands,al$olsb $ndin6 no læal pcculiâriri6 @ asyet bede&.bd ro hêleidenrifyrhe{here abouborronuh.tùe Indei, widêtvdisærcd wrkshops in Islric countriè frquellii camê undÈ rhr.onûo of , sinslêrukr @siry Fr rsns robe opipd ùd à$imibredvirhn a sr cs cmon bm sire we Fometric ând fgured MjI dm6ki whN &auty depended uoon{brlêpâurdefiê.6olodnsdnslishr4d duuù$5 nrheriha à brilliinrùlêneofmto6


nrq,ljle rdt Ll.ed compoùd Nills, {erc a 1âte clâsicâl inh..itdc md it aFa.s both trrt' Iom i,, ihe san,ec.nûes, si,,ceertaii snal Eeoû'.ti. ralld.s d. ù,nfron n, Ùolhlyres ol chn (aihneddiûr97s,153) ttdn $iu dmsks md sn{-" Ioud rheirmy 10chioa,whefedr.! $uc imirûd on 1001100ns,but vhirc rhc wrr facedco'nporndsil remaiied 0opllar in rhe w!,llill dafra*swturniured indimirishine numb.reby Lhc3th .cnhq md did not retun io sidesprcad hsû until $e rne rth ceitur] ehctr lIry wr. i'nponùdriù'n oir l:ar Fi{ a(lhe rimeolrhÈPrx Monsolici (*e p 99) Àioil'd rn,dclolù.îo{rudionreFesenred tou eârly.nèdidâl silk hdcs in t almd is {hewelûpatemedrabby,olvhich a dâlnati. pre scncd amo.a thc f.rics of I cdr,be4 sas nàde (lilanaso 1956,1.1+505iCnnserT.ylor D39Â 303-10).The rw welrarerned lahbiesùsedin lbe drlnatic har Fomebic paftrns rorniedby ine parem wn beinsboud by æry siilh {arD end (nmâFn 1e56,s0.r) Th. !!Ne j\ rech. iiolly le$ aaomDlishedrhù drâryloom\wen clo(hsirtl us prcbrblyprcdù.ld ona hoûont, loom$hich had an cftr M.p rolrq a md côi ftnins presel{bd etrds(ûery si{h endin rbis i',shtr.N),,{11 rries oirauenrsricks(Joqhe& 'lnvenier r!73,32). silk wen-paturncdhbbics, like mmy dmsks, rendedio benono.tuon,ê À lûi and mofc .ôn'prcx, qrp! ôf efrpâlicnred bbby is iicùded a'noislhe ftxtiles iad l,ndon

i_1,!.of la'npas,which is @hiic.llji ard stl ilic.Iy .l{Mly r.l.Gd lo i',ci*d ùills. hm ùe6 re.oered non a silt in lrndon (No459). Anorhervarieryol onpoud rùl prcdù.edat

BytheUm.cnhancwl'Fsofmonochm'.c -nû{ wcr. ompôuid ssd?s kftMi rday æ lmpN whi.h dohd IromrtæG expcrimcnr ing !iù dif{enl bindi4s on ihe drsloom ,li thc urc pcriod,s tlDcsôf co,nporndiwilr ùf sr ro cir.ulab iD.hding a lnuD knownas'in. i*ill\ rroù'ùe vry tharthe parerna@eaA ci 10bè dlfrÉd on the surâce oJthc doih.-nris eïecr *âs â..hised by heins M wfr ydN ol a sijniraiô,âro,ûdsimil,4ldou.,hicùrhsrlhey ch.ited Dositiorlroû ùe tue to tberftÆ side of rheclorhcau\en bÊak 10appearoudùi.s a

Sourtes of supply in the 12ih to 14th centffies

br beenidenhriln fto,n mông lhe rs 10rhmd ]r0i{cnt!fy bitjlcs ûcn ded fron Enllish 0ù tex6 .lrho$h nûe0us exmdcs mùr in rombs,Leastries md insideboo!.wcs on the Lnntj.cnt butancady.xmpl.ôf,srrtrlived

or pmtôiim.sk iiom rhearremnce of rhecon !a$is le{uB of rhe Èreft ard rùe somd. $ese silksrere ale pmdûed in mono.hromc ùÈnls oI ùe oI thesèlroto ù'nEk .,ldhs itre rddered Éom rhe romb oI Ed{rd rhe Con fti$r (di.d 101j6){hd it m opcred iû lvcsr minsÈrabbeyii 16€sdùringprerùâriois torthe .ôrôùiion ôrJx,n.s Ir (Dbdçe[ ]9s2,r6D. Thq de Dr*tud loii.y in the Vidona md Albefr Mu*m md alihowh $e Ê@rent re kry snal d,e parcrn cn b. rroNrrctcd (l is se) ilm si'nilarpiteried doùs recNred Irm rhe gra{s oI ùËry lllh- anl r21h{dùry cermm Fbkbs includingPoF Clcmc tl (dicd10,17) (MûIerthri$cn*n $60, 6H, fiss 31s), Àrh bishop^r.ôld I ol lii.r (dn{ llÂi) (K.ddri.k 1925,.I2. t2. no1023i$".kds r$7. 65,694),md PhitiDol svâbia (died1203)olùlte.chrisensm d ,r €72, fiss 151213).frcm thh di*ilrûjon it .m be i"iÈiied djt d\êseteÈilessere orignrdl djplûnalictitrs. ard ir l'.s ùeei arsxedthârl{iq ldqrd Éretud his m a roronalioncin Êom r Byârine empdtr in $r3 (ciseær 1s32,e0)

ryzntjtr'n {as a rooMed cdte oi silk {eâviqc i. d,.ea yrnslivrl Deriod butib imponm.eas â euR ol supplyro Eqlând diminishcdMn beror ùc br of conùnimplê in 120,1. sivillg My b in. prcdtr.LsôrIsr,,nic spaiù Act{ih ua! rernedçnh vh.t irrees to be a Fn or hq. {i(Flikê bnds, whi.h !âs rdovefed liom r dè positi, r,ndon daûûsio.133È40,j5 rhrddrji pâftmêd hbri. calal@ed hereIf whi.h a lJy ,niùr rigi,, ci,, ù^\ibly be rB'ed (No 139), âlhoqh a sorcc in sprin n o.d4s nofc The Ilrh md l3rh ceniùies*erc ndken by an inûcrsins u$ of,ncbl L\roâirin sirk..r,{hs olrei ùis Nâsu$d rs r brocadinsrhreadroemphæis.


ilii:ffiH{lijffiff.tiâ$iË'

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1ùita a"d Cttthi"E luloselibn .ôr. È amory thosc pr.s.ned lNo 1,!0);it c ptub.blv sDmishh oricin Spâin r:s ilmoi €naidy 1l!, Énlû.riôtr sr'nr tu moil'cr SDc of ldt hced conDoùd beill ioùd in â lar. l3dk nbri_vr,ndon deposit (No3es).This is â ljshl{ll{.Iôil' ol a iyp. whichms popularin mnh e$ Dutupe.irolsh olt the131\.cntu4,sobâbly b{ause ilva\.om ùLraliely cr,ea!.Thc âtr,o!ûrofsilk lrd in thcsc cloL\sMs rcducedby en1lioylÂqâ n.ii wp of siîsle âL\cr thm dotrblerhrea.t,vhile rl,e eit tlod wè l! qil'ûtrcd b .Ncr rhre bindiq .nds nthe. lnù ju$ $o FuitherDore.tic dyestuffs bnden io he 1ss ligbr liB{. lerlq^ I( uv rlr dy.bârh.ônbimd \rakc solutionsol dyeor rhe silk yûn ws dippedfto then lor a shonerhe The quantilyor silk t.rùli s r.tulii.a wsbrn Eu.opcfrom c.niEl ASLLrppeùs ro IrE dimitr GhêdanerdF 10thc.nhn y, ptubablyb{ruse oI rEs. Sode dorhs fo'n wsr .ênh1 Asi: nd daringro ûe 12$ md l3rlr erruries h^c, rlyr sûies i. ûonheri !ûope O{ùlle.Chisten*n 7È7i$rd{dl 1933-4, l3É4: wjl(k{'s 1937, 1989,175.!,!). tinties in invenloriess{s$st rh.t

a sma[ftnib.f orpatu' ncdràbric rom the Ifti dle El$ çlre ale tobeseêni', Etrgldd, andâIe{ texlilesrhich kre Fi,rbly Fnlùrd in rofk shoosi. lrm hrrc b.cn idùtiircd mory lie.es 13ti3 (fiq 60) eRo Elrlsra). The c.!sdes, whi.h begm in rhe lâre lxh cemury and o! Ynied rhe oloorùif tor silks toom mdy dilGk souaes ro be l.iNDo,red 10halaul rd sôni. Di.c.s cs b. .ônsido cd asthc spoils ofur ûthe.har ieùs ofmm'eriat cntc{rise. SupDlies ol.lolhs lrom fLdhered dô ûi q{i!r tô havcfcsumcdund ih. s..ond quaier oI thè 13tl' ceitury wh.tr hde roùtts stethins lrom rl,e iudirenNrL t, rhc 14llor s* s.fc ,c op.ûcd duing the roLtrs oI lhe NloÂqol.otr qùei (L.pcz 1952,?:). A Chinesei$i[ dmâsk frÙù , dqn\ii b l.ndm datiq to ihc scÙnd quder ol rhe rJd' .eù!ry h repre*Mriv. of thÈ rensr:l oI ronrad No 133). $'.ihm aid.û.c indiotcs thât cloths{oven in l'eii.eWe]v]]ltrbleinL.ndonbyd].middleo| the13Ù, cedùryOau rq69,5l7),'hil. by rh. carl! 14th .cnhq bqlish relerd.Ès ro


39 kccbese cb is brqe incr6inslv ùm rrôh .enE* in lrajy aI eishroârkrnedctodrs m monplace. PûMde, onlàe deù in filff.)1$e rmpÀ ree rl*red ian a ldÉ lrh.rm'rv QuænDowcei Lldy Mâ@et seond çire oI depocjrn r,ndor wrê prcbabtyDrcducedi; Edqrd I, Fees ofl/ahee dorh kre l:jd uûôn Ibly 0{os33æ!a) trd rhsrcma;rhrsnq he. body, beciûni4 Mth rtru d Mdborù;tr smupkhni.itù ask ts 5i]ùsbcal[, None;? WilbhLe, ûd indæina tô si:ùhên. s*fl dr; be pabmr *em ro be ideûbcàt ro tho* re lJtr. hr bodyws @û@6' y et&êd ro r€* ln @rdedbêIôremd lhe, addb the âdæ ol dad ùp ( huch ol theFnùÉ lvima London(SllDtaon esnples An lblid ehe lDbabty ats àc la16, 33?). O@sionrly pâtt 16 on ctoris a! ctub,br rheplains'lk Ltolhqin sù wâE Nos bibuled1oLù@ re deribed in dûcùnênhÀ,tr 345 344),dd the h€T{itÀEIFE (Nos3{9-3?). thesetud io ùe of a lâb. r,ltlrcdlùrr date.À ùhhh æne 6!m dêoôsibof lhe sm€ lâb rù0Eddy d @.]hmb h lvtuinsf abha céntuy d,ie, This is nearlyloo yeæ altersiin lakenin 13€€ti6ba ft madeÉon sriæd ctôù ;r dd €lv€l æ 6d rmrded fromEnst,id eirhpr Frd of Llu of eiou€ olù, &iil in$bêLl in witt6 dæunsts or in rlr iùrn ol r\e mûd \it\ 'tiuûs1e6 (bôt"o o&i dêLûa wt ..). mkiil lor Engliqhhb'o'dery. ùd I tren{. pivn td b6 0r the dillerdr milieu fon rhch rft e.G ^ 4ncu!,arnd di6t:hbit iMtu\ ùê abbE by Sinon Ljrghàm !hô nn i nod dêdbnihselmat AyêltoFish{otmeddjn tine.wæArchb shoporCrErbuwandvhodrcd dm6k 0.Jo336),*hi.h muld dalerd the 15b,1 in 1376(Iigg 1390.203-9 229,252 261)ra clorh mtry,  aloiner dôù dDr .ù be 6 ràich resûbhq ihis desaiorionis mrn bv Sr ftaiiân.Ii ap!€ars the.eror.,û-omûe clajmed ardDætc lohn in the Dnrcer rehbtc. Noflkh. rÉi.h E cui reord ihâl IâIm ùbiics oustedSDmish ms p,jnled ai a simjlar peiod in the taiet4rh doùs ir Ûr tu8 i+ mùkd by rie r4ù ænnn. entury (AMdêr & Bnski 1937,5lfÈr7. nû rùhne thl3 mpre$Lùû d be rêiilôfted 7ll). ln addidon,a kshenr reinrd b i!, pâiêd sràkr p.{isiôn ôm win n soreq rhê"iih d; RôÙolr,|03ed srH byHenryIv rorherhroel ot denceof lhe kies iiemslB otrm a n6h Ndinstùn, Fas rude ol clodr ol sotd of rjce p€6peu€ ôn tre subjedæd brin$ the clortrs ùth aqgersof suld ùd mh,nlpls 6mirh 1307. r70),md : F{frent madetom r snitr'dzrd In rÀedesùirtions ofnle silk ctortrsrhâtfoln d. l'\âM tue,L d,? t.,ùûwL plajn, tabblvMn cloûs de disdssrd bebre à. tu-w n^n8 &ods *Eed lrôm Pleshviasrle.E;ù in p€ftrned dotÀsod satn kæ de desibed 1397d tlle do*û61of Îmæ ôt woodnock. Dulc ol G ouæqû O'nor & ç toh! Hooêtb97 2q6)Irê* de{npùun\indi!àhrhe;of Êoll tirerd jn dorls prcdftd n r!ru. Fotrdrfi. Tabby-sor/en clorfis ænlry .esu.rions, hôlffi, shM L\ara codsj. demblefùE€ oI pl,in ûd pâhded sjlla wre Plâjn, bbby.M hbrics de ntre 6lmd @r orerea|9 0nns & xiq 1933,66_70. hm p€tternedônesm@ tÀesjtk t xrilesdolceallàycirteG dLondôn âsEtt æ L\s cmM r.bd ftm t ndon.'fhêy æ muntered ù od nôblêsbought lI:lim clork. lncs wie sitls in the Ciç fm ihe 10thenbn onozJns tudc up into turn shins\ 4d dodrins dd ùÏe ùd,dêspit thêir smltjû ùI brdin( ihe !s obûmdbipods, rle bbrirstr/e h.ded down oEidmbu 'n q€ht due ro differtrss in in: hm,mê æoeEûonro moùE Ttu! r 1305. @uit or ùe }!rn ùd L\e w ùât ir rc Drc Edirh $ho wÀ ê l,ndon bre rùd widôvô. ce*\ed.ln conù_d b other cloihs desdihêi h Rôbert1ePaûei &quealhedroher ni{e a maf oùsbrùme a t ae nmber or bbbiesrebjn one ûes cofr (ùr.tiz) ôf silt pred dM ùr en. of theirhb slwd8r\ sussêsrinsihd û4 sæ trê willr a clorholvenice (û/ ûtÀ I rs ô. notalwF ws in *ide {jdlhs. ThÈ is b .ôfre It b nd mrir rheuE t4th entuB ù:t mfterned sle ær'f rûed by rêli( reils dtuc b rtu medj rlodF ol llilian ()l@ re hounFnd hn dc d p€riod prêftd (d6i.sriat lbudù posib in Lddon, aln\olsh nâry orùe Dtzinsilks rims d dr clnûnent in sm or vhich ùe hâde ftom làre i3ù 4,1 âly l4rà @nhd dems6 rom cô@leE loomfidths rhùs rnn chûr whih mre on n usedÀ tniûgsma ie;m€ cnlàedralmd rhêÀnbeyol$n4ùrice in ssiftr


1$L;k aad ctathi"! l.ùd re 1\o labbywren silksônly310m, (12t. Lns)aM 1uh]ù û5ninj 'ltere is nser (!.hûddiq 1978rùs ?9.193) ùcle$ \ ritctr cliden e for {ider hbic i" iibbv lmve Tdrebs produceditr Florcnft bdwer 1352md I r29.rô' dmrDle, werêrequnedro be l /. bÉc.ir lidè (.1095m) wirh!,'rl'. sclEdges (Monrtrs1933.3ô). *hil. in h(. rhe maug r4lâdor\ or 1i170sliLr(labdthâl brord rirdâs \hdid he n ler$ 2 bncia tid. (]]rrnm) Ki4

nrîy th.erdsin onesysem$ j,' ih. orhe.,o{'il 1othe useoI liner va.n as \t[ .s clo$r spaced rnred\ in om qstù. Nùmber320 hâs 5?/24 dycadsoer.m md r"o 321hâs58 r;0/33threads pef cn.]lre itrm.r n r shÙtsilk Nin raD a.d trft yrrs ol diÏÈrentcolou6, thc mor. closlv stu ê lihr.ad,lr n! liarûculouFll (Fi{ 621 rrrb t,,Lutrù,tui!fte i\ \Libl. tù i - r. but ic{s hiled ro idendly ù. ûcscnce ol 3!'v

shd silk fÀb.ics$hich .ôùbin{i !ùD lnl fffr of diderènrcôlous lere ûd iN in the l1tr' .eo tun mn llr tud dû mo$ silk ym \ns dvdl beùr. it lzs !0m encouroed1l'i5ivD. or pal \.uqac+rdlhlr/drrd EmmÂc RDoLln.llli. Tàbbies s1lm iom y.m lâd{ntg d lu^!ô ,hn. rfttrêl Ia',gled. {as shotsi& lâÏek O..hc[ l$?, r4l $ andrvbne(hn j\ plÀusibleit is nore Fobab e Tta' . ae orb nru silk laùLi(s orIin ûpe lroù which one Næ rnalrlr dôrli hada con0ô!trdw€lt s(rdùrc as itr thc City ol ftdievâldeN\iG .dly 13th labr xrliân kring 'eB,ldiôtrs iDdicde(lçis & daÙry ro rl,c liom a deFsit r{,!dcd .eitur rid thr dl{,ltro 6omderusir\orLhL Kne 1tr33.74) Vcdisil Daen'cd fâbi,s dni' hd. a m o md wefrolâ slish(lydirucnr tint âtd rrllh 4i!ry ft!èr[Ê.rrie!!À$Ù\rt]' ' (.0 y.ni {eLdt 0:lnm it is.ot âl$"âyscenii" vhdhcr it qs bc.ause of â similÂr saqr rnd \th $ey ra'r rrôn r diferent di€ bd.ri orvhdh.' it in diam.ten Æd r$ r behmcd bindiu (:6/34 (\o sâsd.libeûte: in vieNoflhe hjrh dcgrcc01tech rhreads|rr crl) vith . sLsht! optn rexttr. nicalskjl prtrale ii ù. silk indu$r.vdrelâkr n r2l;,FsôI.rtrppe$nol!,1,{v! b..ndved. hm nolicÈ lDre ljk.ly lvool Lbrics $tre also snncÛm.s a, c ditr rcn( .nd Tht lâler Diercs ahlyi,ôrc th.eaitsi', ôm sy$emthatrrlLoorh.. r o l e n q ù J q l p s l l r " r ' r l i f f m h l e r t { l t (h; .loth r wover lhtuùlhôut fion . si'niltr np !n llÙeJloLoucd lLorh\Gct P:l) H d (No per cm 140), o: r ûic luhu' lialriren{d,{ quli$ of silk yrn andhâs,lLl3: thftids slcc as esla ial\ L\âl{hich hasnotbccnthro{n, g'vesr h?ve nDDnxln{.rv whil. the olher so t,hrr $o{n sùlqre.ld!'rl r la, ilm Ll n e i u h Ps { u f r l . J Ù t . d n d' h ? n L s Pn t rrbrn: !it';' t a.h s.ouDÀ .ho di$ussed


Fle63silkdoÙr5rytr'otz$hEdqnyh t7. rtun j rak r4'h{erq de@sr.r}q hrE bem

ûon ârâb14ndtury de@siL 4 rùsr No320,

Geeriq ûa ld r deuitofihe*@). s.atet1

muchsubdù elGd dd ràis led to lhê bm 'chânsdble betnsâDplied to shottâtu ùd s. Tabl's m nun Ztristeal Mrp ram ùd qæûym lftkbgapprEciabt€ rqid Mô* ofdrebbby.wn s rs incndcdhûê hm rlapyrn *hi.h GZsistedandâkft@ ùar llck ev eDràrllte r*isr {F,6 $ ùd er Thrremtuur6!m htêr3Lhffntrydr@s ùd 46rDm drenh4 d€@silsAl ùê tEhMiqhr r,bri6 u,uàlv uiLhs sfsh(v sërtr iumbe;ôf êndsperm thu piclT,âid slrm he . no.e 00ente*u e um otls. Tle wùFytrn isefls, axyfinêrlhù ùe *dr, ô(,@ ôI $s rq{ û! inb ii. SemlænollhesetedilêsD.eft ûdeof làèir slEdg€s Clàhlet0).AII æ srslrhded rilà atleætoneed!êoid. Nrs roù edgecod

s î

F{64

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r1É65 sirk ddh !!v!

?-lsiicd w4 rm

tùn a lâc ù'h{qiury dcpcil iL\r do r, oob ùe srûbsii rheÈrL. !ftlc u, aB)ddail or s\dge


È usuall! a na(,N widrh of Fa- .losd! spa.ql ends.o.côioiallv \ith â ùr ,i erds in bês?rn (. No4r?).S.merinêsa selldg. hasa w\ud .od or morc ofr.tr â slkne of.ords usd i) riioaflent (No!lr?3323,raùltr0.Fsrj5,n l{{ n,. h(d ^re mo.e conùôi on eldhs i . .:'nd ii dF lde l4rh c.tury j" r,ndon, trû. .l Dr.sil,lfe nmber of Fklilesn bo nirl lo DtoÉ lnatthh hâ! r,y \jriJrr.e elher ior $. daLeo, p1a.êôrm.nrûcù .. 11r (.ldhstronr1,ts 13d' aùl r1lh{tnrù,1i In on dcposirsme. trserlhele$, di*iirkhable lromdrûsêii ur in FDsrrrddums die 10rhmd uth .. ihtr e\ yhnh rHe fi.qfdrr ,, te inroheâddre$esltr.s are noi rs fiie N rh. 1rr.r nrlli, qtt hbics a hav. I iùi)Rrd selvedses f.de 6on 3 s.ri$ d 1x edènds,Nhi.h olt! nnnberaamd 10ùLns (l4urrksius1$2lr lr? ô r}it hÀd re,ç1.ijilrjl: s i n e e n , 1 , hq. r M ',iF 'Inrc.ih{ Èmdiieddirûld h $(urr ûLrn\ Drôvùlrr lak beend!êd \rirh thc i',rcr dyekcnnês.rhreeyith mÀlrl(r trrlnLins oncvhth {n5 .ornliinedwirli a lello\r d!T. xtrd M {ith ùridentjti.d d!.N"rÀ. oneDolsiblyI ti dn siyiry â bluishDuDlèdF and th. dlLer r red drr r:ighiF{ neatriversdrs, ùtrtÉ-c0 ôf rnescâre n.iièd thc Fld.nnnrwo whichin silk ralrli.s i\ dler indiGiir ofr vedctoih.rj.qii, nre dis.oloEnônrharll$e {*û1es hNp unir gone in û soir,eùqh of th. ôrilinl ri is pr.s.mdi,F,uden4'derod'en.obuA lvo or the .lorhs dyrd {ith r.nres eDer 10h$! l,û{ ùLle pùlish ùarve dhcr n â .loler shâdc of,..1 ih. hù. ofr1leûnd pi.cen Fsseâsy rodrcrn,i,,.bdn16probxblyârlrk{ljnl 1tc .roirN dsr wilh mâdderrlI shol \?rianoN tn .orourinlensiçmngiDsft1fl knndojed (No3]u. PrlA) Lodrk ùi,nsôi lnljk.prr.nùl\jl$d thÈ ln I ûr, \omc ot rhcs pt.in ctodF m), liôe beenpK. d!r.l {r{i! * Kin( 1933.i5) \lo$..lodr of rhisryÉfornd iû irrirjj !aha\€be.nusù]æ lirirls or frcincsro {..11$ rrb lrrusrhesirkhcing:rôi btrro,lnes I (!os:r2 31,6{.67.iX 159.figr l3- 8). U?. l Ù ) i b r n o n e \ l a LL{À ! o, 1 r , r I r E r d ! l ! s aNoolqf ia i33r rà mtnk r:!o7! fhr3irdd a nec! openiq (No50.pt 28) ae â[ ot rhis6E asâ.erlo ri,,i,,gs colered h '1{\ of niLchiq oios 35,136.FiL\ t5t 152) th. ùtou. or th.n.

srlk lâ.ingr ùd li.i.!s n ({sineûd! gor|et rcLro{d!re brlMmd iri!iioubinlird,j }ûe dyed nro .uDrki n\Lt]l rieldcd i,À!di!e re srlrscJos33,67)CorlemloD'1;NïDbrjesxnd {ardrobcac.oûi\ ini.de did \m comnhr enhrsilkfal.r.$'.hâsbnrônor rzi:r.b.rliih \er dyedI sirrilx'.ôtrr b Lh.t{ ordregu. trrrr. hn'nesoir.otunrinr.,htr ni ôùûd r vu ri r, , J L.tuncÊ iis nÛon,À 'uk i, hn dù$lâl1D 1397\r.s o.r or trl'(,1, ' insl N(h{hibta,rirji Nhirh\ksullÉiid :its.sd OilLon& stjohn Hots 1119?. 3011 làbbies srre

lrod 7-rnisted y:ù

t:id,r \i k labbG iioù Lde11th{.ùu.r drDos{s r L.ndoi x,1 q,trû, lroirqnrh{isâtl/_jDrl T1r.rrr htr\I hm5 ûii Li r.ù..tôrhrtr Norf oJthc sitk yânL4l pers.o hN b.o dlrr rrL( rhis rcmrjN ro bc L Ê ê nt r b L l l ltr!.hûrr rtJ td!tr [ ir L,erie! J3 a ô0 ods tonl i2 a,il 52 Di.h Fr cD alrl'oLd,Ù'eoDdù.$ ol rhc ktr lji\ fd,yd thêrhrÈrdstobrn.ht)Frherinrs; SeltdgG dû.o ese'rd ôr slo Dirccs I Ldt, ir e rhda. lerÈcd b! a lrjer oI pân.d eids 2ô orirr tr a {idrb ôr ii Jrmr on om ddr .t 70 lars iù . ùixh { rllm otr rhê rlher \!lri.h ;i5 i,tddr Lii lr irJ r rri | \ujr rBhhr.


d!tu! lor ùei try rr heel rils sinrr nr! sc.rp: rntr',À (aso !t rir.r'r Ulr i! 1$) A rlil nùrLeian sirtril. lirhll\ rilkd z rim yrn i: rsociatcd {ith a r .liquaq ôr di. viqrtr xrrry ir

,';ai'

(:thft ddingL9;8 ùiiûlentory01l31; 3lr!11.no :94) llrn rhlh rhnh \rorr trùn b\::us.I l ïneir obrnitr.d nom â lt.ieii,ioLlLM (àtd,,rrr) ronnon ir rhè

lcùje. leie rr) lik! rhov disù:3i hù.. siflihr liclrii.isht \tiÈinbal{n.dkbb! biidinssha\rlr.ùd.nri lridls.liù,.ddiisrl/3.r91 19/ r90 9L.io:lrii lî?.??r)., rlr* Dflùleorelhnhprrser!.s ns(onDLtte |(Dradth oftlilrnn' (ln Dt orln lr@ r0r[ ùtri rtùrcnl4 depoitsin Dublir iH{.kdr rgd; LtL:oiLrh? r93s1;6)bùrD.rt

Tabby-wovencloths with seli'pattemed bânds llrl...frh|jÂh.{NlJjinn\]lLLil]bjt.dl

h.èdllnds l&ri ri({i!d ! llii+rif >oa\rèar LlÈiere\ r,rle rlreeriù],. r {id."oi. llaùed ùj!!u (li5 ôi lis. r2ll p.obrblr h t beenrtleted ar t

optssl. .id

n\r!ùLhÈlorû.-fh!m n ier is&!tn J.oil rer nr! yâm \jLh â slighrzrrij ahil. thc $mp shLsir I oiê iteF rN, rrlr ûrrûrly r rrtr{rr,,fn,r, o,rl* tr | rrror.nh4 ir rn! n,âI.!ùùanspafenirGùqunrijû!lhrnonc rarh ! lirks.{ùm\r, r,rlerrrenrsedn!âg{ nrt l nnLnin lhÈtrk Ponl:il]fi.:dth{.j!cli

n,r similrriq ol |bcr rdllc

!rs.{i

d

d'.v


Selecledcalaloguc111


rirsLk 5Lû1tr r o! i {a $,hxî

3Lrtrlss (i0n0) qi

(t.

(i)

1ÙjFI\ Ndl (iù (jùoùpldd

i\iIL

(i)silk.slsri z si.liû

pilks a! ûr

( i)sil. nrahrz rÈnL. or*r dft (i). r1ùrù{s i1nùin xh I i rr dro\s 16i n)Èd, ni ,rùû$ldr

(ij (ùùrqùrr

Tabby-mvm cloih with band in l.:l twill sriÉd silkrlolhsbeùk i',.c.\irsly NNIÎ ii îÈy n.ted nomrrrôN pinstiplsin âxerm! ingcolous 1ovidcbï,d\ùk fln,lljlhâri'ials rtrd kti. or Naskhisùipt inco.po.dins ùe1.1 dtr,"adrM :r m,ry assixdiffercnrroLo,ùsol silk yirr.1l,e luûr(r ',trh.n ril,,iG D.xtrtthat in sprin rnrc.r r hre nnmber{tre \rowi. rhe chfÀtin kius issnd dec.ees Drol'ililrjrgll'sr M.y 1951.108) Uiry $rip.d ùat rials rde rnickcloths$!ver i', fotrEorf(l rvlll. bù rl' h r pi...\ w.f. alsôDro.luc.d and th.sc havelith !o!d d{erioûrn i ks src.PstuÙ) Onefr?gmen( of r rlri! \ilk .ldl, \jll' riùs ùtrrderD\iliilnidôdThemarvc*inahbby rii,ntiu r,b ftre,r r) r d, Nhilcdrbmd 23mr deeD. È roûposed oiîhree q?frn..d Nill s! $cs No\tr in }hite si1[rlreâd (F{ij!r.Prr{B)T}o dh.r nrirt'\ aliùnab.ltrith thr $iLlcdr(tredonesbnLthèn.hùâûerjs !i rcnrD oliq rùrhedeùy oIrhr qtlr rlre si"

rh(r r, f. boihûesea e?s11relikeliriN,lisih, *ov.tr ii mhl drmd o. a celulo* Îbi!, troll bly Jlax.h!. ù, trlt rnaùvcposibiliry is thd rhe nodânlryd r),iy ihc rlYt1dn'âyhâv.rmÈ cncd n,. qrn and mrde il nore nÉ.epribl. rô nelallj. or .,'lûn d n . Dr pmbxbl. orvinsto irs ruftpositio. riù {hile sill .rtrl rhis arsFs tr!trir{ L\ê trscol lineû ùreâd, rhich xns rre siùilÂr chns pils ed ii tre6lfipr oiirD iÈ r1trdc::iacen stipes or hrÊ a seer rrnd sjùf rlii\ ( {iûtr vâ, tr..p.trtly p odu..d usingani.on moldmLvhn h is iororiolrror.trùsing silk iibÈs b disinleFâc,ir i\ i,!se{e,l1l4 rl( dj"ira yajï .ôuld ha\r b..i F ccnsiLk Iloria.râl baidr xover i!' 1 3 $ill $s e a Ie* rne or nraryligl'N id'r \ilk fl{,il'! ii rh.l{tlr .cntury. althoLqhie! in dhedr.l rlGur:es rs so.iabd {iL\ fehc rm be doselv d{{l dud. pad or r r[qud! .oFr ir rheabbeyor sr Nlâuito. Swihndd t is ol alJmn {li(nl blk Fle seen. whn!, red rùd !ello{, emnd ins ro â vidrn oI30Im or ? red rdti! g(Nùl (:iliùrl'lj,'s r$?li le5, Do rd)). In additon, andveshent .'nou thÈùedievaltuûishincs ItumlheÀ{trieùirhe,CdrÈ* i. I d6!,N. i" â Nl,ibchiL,.ssilldmækLiû.d{ithaviolersiÙ{ ljatened ùirh Nill brids in whire,pâlc' d anl !r.à: trmthersilk linin! ha\ i sq,e(e ollhitr


(IlÀtr bluexnd.ed$dlbandsoiâsreenFomd rà1!o: 1i ùnE (.1ûùr)vliirf n6sky 1933.\,, 2i, 31 nos 73,123 fi! 2t) A tudFr.lolh, vhich\:s u{d iô .dg{,I irner:l Éll lrotr' rhis rhuch ûi Cdâ.sk hrs a grc.n hbby FnuM Datunrd siih wt'ire,@teb1F, red fld r,.[ov rraids 5jm yide mltn i'r I 3 v*È chr*u, rwil (r\tunnoùsky1933,v. 16.no D hg 25). As Jor f@.n6 ffotrr i.wù ercavarions,â pi{e vas rc.overed i!ù â deFsir in txb..k Weft-oaûer'nedtâbby p,ovciomly ,r{ed 10 ùe 15û rntory ûtdoN prcseftd r$7 r94 fig ?). ln c*!npl. in the Twor;@renb oralishNeish( silk do$ worr jl libry ol cmrcfbfy cathed.il is Étho dit fo .nûy .oloucd \iic," il hâsâ broM, $ùne atrd mft @ndn.d rbrr! wre tomd b dre nI oI a c.spit d.ling ro the *cond harfdf 1l,e11lhceF fed band23m lide in 1.3mfr{hA n,i rslil of I y,ll{,} L,l,by@ud (Robinen& tlrquh:trr t9ir1, !i',\ ! I\kes Place Ine dôir .ppeârs 10havc onexrp x ûo mi! uÈ rinni.e ù. gfôlid 131,no r0d). ^ chdel.ri\ri. oI these ctoùs rd ùc od,er ,eldrh (rs 70,7r). nr, Lrrih rlhnh m bê n,ore e.silv dG.c'ncd 6.0ù rrr. cxâtrur.swhi.h ha\t norbeenbuied ii dre soil. ordi. u ri 0oaNare ine$ âf md ir is mrenan {helhèr thepicc. {âs r'ôv.r q, I d.iNtoomor oi n {he subileshot?ppcafù.. of rr,e naù \tave i oom{nn ,nulriplêpân4n tuds. ftc d.!.t,4r Qfted by usiq a mainwfr olâ sùghdrdifiùcnr mentor clotl's iirh rlLi\ ryle ol Neav.hasblen 'll'e t?ccd tom l.re .I.$icrl anbquitr/rôrl n {lier:l in0od.nce of such srip.d sjlk rlorh " ri: liv.. p.fio,r (nan4ân 1s56,,rsi ej.torlrhê nuld tu{ be ovenooked.ûen drou{h only on. nierrgri),butflrn iidi(ilyotdi(ere typêsof r:gmcnt hxs b..n r.ùl{,ed trom rhe r.Îdôtr lerrâftrned taùbies in theftr.12ù.'d t3rlr Êxcmtions, siice .lolhs of thÈ chrad.r ùy c.ntùri.\ rù5 rcl beeneffinêd ir .dv depth h,y a:le{ras â desiF somc irf dre disrindnr ikrÈ the smalLsolc Ft n,, wl,idr ronsisb or â horizonhl sbiFd voor dô is inût in searr qrlre ctussi,rfined*ith nnr bæDFs, hasâ rt: abùdmcc in r4th.ertor! deposih in rh. cir) (smp52$3) SùirrdsilkLbris Mr. ôiipi used Fat oDb20inn,it, widrhandheishr nE yùn is mt of, consislentlyhigh qualiry.rd {{qsionâlly asldnas Ior sculrclothiN as$( ll ,a nnmenN ilrre me shbs in rhl aroùid *!l simila' mfr in no.Lhen r,ùop. and Jor Jùnishi.F or patumcd bbrri.s. jrnniiu dorhs bro.rded ii ricurarrybedhùsjiss 'nrs hdginss e. onqr sold Lhreadlirh in$iptjois in]\râbj(.,Lavebeen de$ribed âsrùrnin inRntorics,Dfcnmàblr rrùn diribûled ro Mrl{shops ii Sp.in (Nockcrt & (Dilloi john i]anr n D( onùe siù{libres & sr Hope1897,54). nr râJrfud rrofl' ldon ùùc lorescnesastrvalurbleFintcrtollraisô,n,,,r rh.n 5t lql rabri$ ftrùa[r- lookcdlikê

Select€dcatâlo!.ueV

Selected câtalosue IV

\ilrt

lr sirk.rrdllriEu\.rcr\ibhnù":2 (it srk mtr! il ÈLil!. û, isibr! nin. d dnsd

ftdûRù b ûc ni(r)


Fç7ÙNcfr'FemÈd,h!ryNl$'.oidj'

3.1 twill damask T{o ôafrds or r Nill dmasL cloL\ paftmed 'irii smâll,styÙsedreonies (Ês 7)A), werc rc cdned nm $e derr,sitât Bc72 daliqq r0 the s(ond qua.br of thc 14th.enrry. Thc dorn be los to a \t ordmask {hich s,lved in chiûa

dtrnq L'rel3t\ ærbir, lreed bdù in hhnique atd sqle lrom ils dàadGl miecedèntsooishe {: Tienùef 1932, 22!. Unlikc eû[er trrefn dmaslq the$ $iù damasksare or mbâlm.ed kÆ {ith a clo*ly st .@ lmdu.i1rg a slossv trrp n6 ùd J ihn kêr mo e widèI \Ë.cd scfr {htrhaifsàdulllùo}r'rncùÉs$hae'he{d predonirates (Fig i',iB). ]Ïere is no apldetrl cousisenq ir tlre clornsas b {h.u'cr the sdrr or dres€n ares foi,n thc Eturni on$e r,ndon cloù 0r. wp hce ol rhe sill Joms Ù'è!rôù.d. A1 leâ$ 16 ol rhæ .1,)ùs ârc knæ! lron


miihern [uroo. {),k . ;] .eddishDurlle ciÙ1Dnr re.ned sih .roud rrells {nùlj,i;q in;or bli$. vâ, ode inro a dtrlùari. ior th. Hôlv Româi Empcror rnr is Fseftd ii dri \il'lii? lhdrrd'nef \rn à ! q r \ T(Èrn! r er ,7 g lj :2q h^ Jl) nth! s kre $ed Iorchnrblcs. alb. çoinls md rcliou aryl)iqs r.hu.h.s rid.dhed.rh h Fnrt;d. msociariôish.@beenI sosnii.d one iomênv S\redcnPohnd.(ir,,oy. fte Ndherl.nds ard ii sr jforn\ chtrf.h cdwfrlr, Hliijre Belgim oiry M oth.r .xmlil\ u iLhEngljsh dôNlùre.tr an ô4iyN nrrle ilm a butcol


linna atd Ctaulrg i!' ,tA !ur.d damrsk md is ed'broldêfcd Qdr?m, Niln hemktir\hieldsdjliayi"( rl,, rm.,,r cli ,n âM lrybornc (chrishe1938. 16! jonghe & Tâ!!ri ier 1932.216,230,lâble 31. bb.li"k.d$th Th.sctumsenablert,edphny 1\'jlliâù dc clL'ton. a boyhood.oùprlioi ôr ljd\rddIlI. ]onaiedlL iradelal,orrein 13:19Î,e o1he4j,ùqiortcd iDtothc ba.k or m orph.y embtuiderèd h â sqle {hkh .d bc iidedb.1330to 1350(ling 196316.rc r0r).i\ alr n làdedb,,rr ùlo!f, rd È prft.û.d \ith so'2s of iloNers,lrobâbly !€oiiês Borhpie.es dFreloÉ, p,alide .oroùora1ile evideù. rôrrli. Dreyr.. ol sû.h .loth iD[neland duins thèar!

vhile t'c dri rrùr {lii.h tl,. rrllo{ dlc N6 .nmctd mnuins unideûrifiedÀl th. yfl 3F o.vs io hak ben dyedalikel1trrrr l!ùdq' fhere are ho\rdr4 sôr,. rnmplrs oi rhev damsks \Ntr lr oD Ml atrl r, tr yam of con ta$ins.olorG!hich throvù dre0aft.n inofc

silk in lrth îe !reseo(. ri srl' atr .xotic 'l.l'c.{abhsh ..rtu'a lindon is norsùprhiig dnDirein Air ùi odlyl, {l i) û,en ôfthp r oDr::ol roubslith thr l.ar lj.n rheH{rr!!(,iùad. a voFe duing the13ùrÈin,î bùtrl$ inspned for ofienùl dÉs. orir..s as ihoM by ttu *otir buri.l robes of pmductior or th. cliÊrând! della s.rla. rhe oltnord oI rleûr Èvidercelrom Cl'iu fd ih. o teej) Irr i'npa.t ol re .lodr in rhc 131\.enhq .omèstom rhetonb or (diedL3re)(\'lqi! gi whodiedin 1213. mqd .o0hd xith the eis \r.s 16; imrked in Hu.ng Sheng,â 17rnld Eùgla althôlsh ir noressedLheDolrlar in4i She!a the dnùghr.rôrthc slDc'aisr ofro,.ign (Ftrkiên) Provin.e,ând tâd. in Ouâùhou.ILiiâû iie {iJe ola ninor nenbe. or{hc ;ipùjâl rrmily orhry satiisl Loroùa.v châriq in his book n.Àn&sr,ndr Nlrelerirs'rarrqr dqD.i!l' b.sof B{.âûs. orhcr high shhs she\rs bûièd in l.! (coodridÊe ùh slyle{:th a conipLt. wrùobe oI cloLiesnnd ( orNrb râM ànl .rolh or boolt):D.{hil.drtounmenthel.li', hoùseholdilfls. Âù't rl. t mnnousÉficû or 196ij.l$6 silk goodsNcrc till damsl$ in.hdiig oie 1É. Cheâpsidein l3Jl Fldw,l lll âtd l,h .ou'tic, s trned wiù psni.s md aother rirh brancl'esol s.,t dr.s.d ir thc :Sle ol'lLturs .l 4d rM plm r,los,n (Fujiàt sh.q riomsun 1s82,pls ift!,litor Îotuffit 1bîati lsz$ntt 1!28.t\2) A,,m dr ?ùÀ.I u,r'j,nolrii( clothorxn,{sirn o.iÂitr,hrd b.cn boushrlù rhè Crett ll'rdtube The Fterns oJ rhe damasl{svirl, riihj(, bnds àùdlcaqs or di. oricnt cloud rro[s md or se€61osrsions belo.erhis ndr (lvllr s asotud nowÈ^ a folla!€ iiêquendydÈposed l0Êg ]1rl m2) ïnl ir h rFciti.d rlso in some lLtlr{cntury liils rd in\orories in.ludins ûe in d À'mretical mamer orer a ljvjd ùrniîn pmdrcd {iI ol !'|rl]d le ityilourde lr{I,x. r l.trdon r,xriLs in ljurcpe in the Ltè r]lh ûtr| ld edly l4rh .erturies lhe Fonies rpresented on ùfuy, !l,o bdtraih.d a snall Nlts roltred ine r.n ton lqrile hùe a. uù.âliilc M\- our Nith clolh ol I ds ù l,is dtrtrghbisson Anbnine. in 13tl (Câlwills Il.63r) sjl|iJlrâtrlr',on tlns li'r oJ .u.llns leavesn Jorû of on'ân'entihrt Flas occsio'sb thc otsDLng der È ol rhe1,1th..r lor mmy .enrùies in rhe Fù De6hbd (Rawr relJ. 8:l:i) aM $hich MS u{d âsdeo tur.v Tar* prir..s fding r the !e!c'! donjG ioN orrrtr \'lors,l onlii'r rri .,wF to !ûoJÉ Etion on{ide ntge ofaneraG, indùdrs ùehl s,ll as ti to sxin suopofrin I bni rù drivethe vrDelùkes $rk,læque$!ft md rDrcelair, r\ '|he coloLtrsùl oùt or Pâl.sÙe lnese Nlotrgola',l,nssdl,is e!,L,tukl.rd aM \N.n Mics. thc orienlâlclothsale displaya difer.m pâletre lere rerenïd n rh jt,aihl, courtby [dvrd I in 13lxr md 1303. md br l]d{trrd n i'r 1307 Èomthoseproducedù lenen' Hifu! rrd rhr clean!dH Ji tnnâùc riiÈof dnk,b.quoGc,otrgeandFeenlerè{o (Irorn$rinr91t 11L14t. h e .Lno$ asan inpoùnt ùnhenceon $e ùL- 'iissjtn\ In,!i.l.d aî oDFtunû tu siÙt.loths puijculrlr rlio$ pmdûcdin Iromrhe Lr l]l! ù b,. ex.hatrc.d âs:dN alon! ouing oI lexliles. rirn porrclâin.\hid, is rl!, orûntrr.d b LnF lùlian .itics ftom the serondqudlèr ùf the ljth lhhhotrs.hokhord,clJthctdq (\\Ihirebotrsê clorhdesis, Dy, nsE iidi.dd dr. Drcscnccor {M dle{ufir ôi rl'. iwill dânxk fioD l,ndo( a Fd dlt rtrd r rtllow ore îF fêd dysk mâddcr

1 . 29


Sr[(tcd citi ôSr" \'I

1.2 ùeft'fâced compomd twi s lh dn..1.2wtr, fa(L(ro4ound nyillsù.h{led in ùis $ud! Fi! IDorLùdùosirvli D! h Lhr 1{rrrùrfr!. Tro pdicfn.d û.res {rf. rc .rvertdtom â.l.Nriiuf 'rÉ seroirLquâlrrôr |re r1lhrenrùryrùd. DtlLin ribi ir iôf a ltqr^{ of.133Èu00 Anthr.e.torhslirp I nuin q2.D .nrru]]GdsiLkrlnud tiri!î3) r,ùdtrcù$th{

Tht old.{nfiob.U!xpicc. oarcûc,tvjrha pair ôr I nr\ (l.Jor39. fis 711 ajrtj- prt of dr rêpei(isDesrnrdn,ôsir!ireourlineotabnl. rsnrrL! adoltorâ omm inp.otit.!irti iL\n,r


Lanaa ror in'@ btside ir Fromthis it m be d.d!c.d d,at oâi;s ôr facingÙids, more inan eom in heiûht lee {ovcn in hôrianbl os âcmssûe cloth.Thc oncitd coloùs ordre silk v$ns hM iâdedburdi. bird'sFûiry br4$ rehins a !rye ôromk.and: Fe? rYc loe hid en'ntlê.iL e]; rd ro. a: .o lrr rnund

wFn rrun silkaodrl[1 rhreÀrN! !0,lion ! dê

cktht s

ând bn ledhen ar. les dinincl bu| inc bnd is cledlv Dcrcheditr a sitri',! posilion It G not kno; wheine.lhe bi|ds Rre en.losedwilhin a i me or romd.l. tor alL\oqh tl,e{ xtre.0'n nôn Lhcrvere noi univ.rul Gee lor êmlte chxftÊlre l9ll.339.no Ar crmÂd & lÆ1987.21È17,no Mld3) seneei', _ I"de bnd Ddefm Nerè@ru1I in dF 10into eelv il(h ùniuies aûdthev o(ur iû mmv dit lerentbDesot bindin!. trsmples bourd in ftl! iwil nlludêdlrs< urih. ot turd lomeounLl eap[ illL. ;rh as thor !rt*rud m l]firêr diredrâI. Alsbiâ, anl rlic shrcudorst Germai'i


r Àuere. f'ue (Kcndri.k 1$:5.3 -9) {ii.h \o . D[ssi]nired i. Blari m ro.sifrsnrihe Gcn.tri snpùo. ul his urr. fans ot I.(c aarj,Lg bndsrHe ako .omor otrso i,h dorhs , ih. Lrl , 7P 1 L\hrp êrl llii \lû..u. ]q,l]\ b? arribrtd ir sdlt. trê ortlinatsouR. rJ 1lr L.idor ù@rcnr È rlntt.rofcLmccûir. T|e oLherpfiùkd pic.. w,s orqnxllr tr norLluôûrddh ot silver(Noll0. fll5]\) r,c m.brrrrie inrhi.h rln ldlerû *àr {orenu: !! {l r\ a onrinm$ *dl throùshôûirLeleb xDd nrrll 4Ê+ ul br- t I \ d 1 r i d P i i , ti 5 t h r : r : r n \ . n ? f t b r r i r u Dr.r dc vi\inc ùndêrfilnih.arior nu\sir ot ù,e surltLreor ih. rhn?d |r Xff nro$ rhat dr. n,ekl is jlve4.9ur! purc{irh.,2{ roDp.f:id n r \ r i , \ , f 3 t Lt tr d d r r r r I .fl

.nd \una ! {,e rcl dependpûon mclrcdbLrl lion1\'mDÉm$thotriLv{r%s.otÛnJhon aùrs le\riles r'ôFi ii the rcd I mte\ om a BrzaûtitrcetrhIr {. bù n âp1Fr6romctirr.s 10havebêei usèdbr ]\nb k 4t^ in ûc tzdl c.Dtur-,od rLsoin !.{h esûb[nr.d],^j,rr .eù.s in lù1y !h.n {r{Lards of p.odudo; €n{ ronsidcÉbl!lÏcr.lllrrr1. ros t2.1,1.13. 19 2i 19.3{)Tlrelld sùoùpdrrn oith. ddh shols hLmir iiJl!.n. t1 is remùÀ.en( ot rùco decoLtion...i\d n ri.r âfil oeLxtwrk lam rhcoârâ.r{nAbdâiÈnmri t ir Madjid aLZânn. soûhem spxin.yhi(.1,\ns buir ii 9llj af.l wA irnuemed bySyri.nmodckatilli{.Ijcr 19ô pl Tr;sni ûi 19i6.!o 136)Siinilars!-lÈcd

of nûla0ior\ ù, ron.hmDiê s.frites and .11r, pdrû ned!i[{s {o!.r b BJ,arLiùmâs$elt .s in rr?r !r.L!Ll n!nfttr rn o(.eù Èind'errh.trri.ùLyl2rhcq{uies ( re u r,irh hasdisiûelrd{L in rtr. !,jl 1:1rÈsu r.()s r(,r,19,1.197.199:SheDhcrd lel.r.arkc1913 Ésr ihat$..ôn 16 a.ellulôsê nDrep.obrbty r9;1.75),bûnreorianrDtq!lo,stntd;d otr rrneDor hê,.D T\a oth.r Etrt n, vens kr. Gàl For N ù{ I Gerùld*i"s fÈ.lutuov.rândf ir rll. {.ro1r,one, pênr.!'soici,rallJoùlte ù'dei.èpoinhroantslanj.$o'lshoDorddins ioûredthco.nd trùr. nrH{1ù. ôùtinrdrtr tr rl'e r2rh or ernj' r3lh rcnbri!\ i';l l;tubâblv \ver É(ùn 11rÈsilk ya Ni tu rhemrj,r 'th. \îr aùr r,i n'g $dp h exkeml! lir, d ihird 1? {frra..d lDDoLmdhilt h ù b.ks ùv rppr.ciabr rr { oig 75) mrfit'ied s!'p ôr dolh ihatxDfia( h halt orry â ùÉrr rmr oLù pxfrù i ir Fesedtd, b!Èi urd À a lmler (No 336.rt 7û) llr. lroD rlii.h il .d, Leeinutud drarrhe.cEr { 15 i,ooLhsûn eotrhectoth.rn\,,1roInhâvir! Fcaiê.hù 5nmirh.i4hi{ breâdùrî.on al,ighd,D\ilyoI$tftihr.ad\.hemtth \j'ntt; si\rsor lylÈed palnenèsplr..l otr.,rtx^t rF Ditrreri.ls\rr. oq,rlar asFomd hbf .s Jorem olhercDcrosd wirlLr ciraùlârrânrstroDr \rhi.h loidq iD Eilland udil t|r mn! I xh entur), sD,ourùêfoirleûd.il: ^ \({d p1âdmd} n mÂ. 13rrr1LlHeisDô.denrro.r\ dirod o. i t u ! , c c r m d . $ i n i h È d !s. .L.in r!r.41 N!,r!+.rLù.tju rt' .tô âbbniùnennd{h.nel,{{solpradrcrjri robl uft or sirv.r!,ggensrhd ir È DIjk.Lyrô lj N( bnr*ovûrbelordr.r2Ll'oî(!v.âldrôllri rltr li(r ,'. nùrniq Fnites mr rnr a raLa bixsj dotlx of sirkJ .fe rerorn.d in ùu.h o Li.r i venrofiês.ii.ludin! r rr{ à,ùir.drs Nbi.h ,1.oâr\ sifc oI rlodr ôr sjtvrr q,w.tr i, r\hrj. SDrinthat k . ûNnled ro t,oppCregory j! (3r7-31,1) (ntr\ry5-f.3)ivrrjl.,r jd1[r$drtrs casir!in,rqr,stltrlhrcadiste$oncnm.dnrql n\trtr Die.dLhat told rhrradsih.rr,jF\ i Spâin rh{e NN no s.rtri,reshodq. orrl,cnrerât dc spitcI sù.alqr lirrrraninc or'a&n 11]l;7.27),

SclcctedcâtâlosueVII


Tdtit. ttd ctrthixP .46 DlncnsioE (L)h rhml { rirhni (i) 1'noi ! 65m sl ro û) âid rGd orkDl

$ii:

(i) silk.io ri5ibtr ù$ riiJsilk.ooûibh $*r. Ân{ Ù'4 O ûi) sirEr dÊ, ss sed n0d a<tr! d a

1.3 $reft-faced @mpoûnd tivilt Onedelicar.silk tirsueis {ovetritra disiinc(nt 13 comFmd ril (llô 393 Fis ?t) wklcsprced siûglc min mD , tds atu the .lour is lishl wejshtt ritr' c rhile the $n vÀ rm@'r tdn rs to mke t the wèn yrl in \'rh a Di'rf sliehdynufy. rir snall pie&s or L\e dorh have b..n sritch.d ro*rhft ûth silk rhnd whidr n sirÊle nL\er ihm djed (s. pl52) to Jorn {hat ùqn,lJ imd'.Fh rhÊa'Il !rcp\"iu rd D o u " hl l.r r o r a i i s l ù À . n ! l . r l l . l c d q r n d ws iinishedlirh 1!o bbLb that{ere siver qur rerûtrrs ^.ros oneoI Lhefivc silk smD nns a hoiz.nùl baid boud i. raùbrwhichus.s â D.f bm wenola ddkù onngcbrovi hle (Fs ?78). l.ilrc ihc pâ.rcololred çefl nsedtû il'. r.* ol rheclolh,dre omnsÈli,*i yarnFlt â ne$tivc rsulr $l$ i.dcd i)r dyes.A p..ultu Iedùre ol ùc bmd G thâlthe bbby Neavej\ boundb! L\e threâdsoiihe mah {rr rs $tl1asby rhoseorthe biNli',s rtrp (fiq 73).ApanFon thebândlliid' mry beD.û oJâsling boirlcr di. doth dæsnol apFrto Ùedl.rn.d but Ihisnai' siniplyFn{( dr. smallsizeol rhefrâsnenrs. I ighMish doÙÈ N!.tr in a simild 1.3Mfr 6Éd oûùind sill, havebeenr$ordflt rroi rionson ùe c.nlindr (l.]|rcE l9?7, nos15,2l;

Lârcr3d,{edq FlÊ761îÈlknedr.,!d|i,(i

.ùr. irù

deosili i.{) pi.cs dùe ddh

rl, (B) dûil .l rabbrrrcEi hd

{de

I

t


It hA ben rB,ed rllr dôrlx orùis tyJÈ${. F'durd i', soain (:ihtrÈddi',s l97s 2ti5) a(l that ths shde si', â'ilies silh a djrrii.rje. rrt or .loû câlledldDm ,ù d,ra in ftiiiÈ! docù roi\ (r).s.sL.rs.i,r $3e,2I, n] l0) i,r, r"rs . .ltrsi.al llin len itr {' .âr or .on. dÉ ing the nqli,lal Fiod it *Js.ùrliêd to lish boncs.:nd thè relemt ol rlie lorl {âs dd rr I lld L uf'li- Jr' lr rlrcrnrh! P0r trn.,l Fn l \nk rK ,! 1.6* r')) \ ' "?n studyoI doÙ^ ri arGb suseis rhât I sl} ciâl ro ôftli:Dloomorc{iùout shâlsu\trliit theirDrodrdjo! rd i( aD.*\ rhâiÀsimilI loon My tj e ùilr..d ther 13 Nilh âs \ell (r)lxrosicEda/1ur9.220 21.lnro) Clôdrol risLr i\ rronlùl h rngLmdIroi' d'e GilbenFoliol. hn qudnl ôrtlr lrlh.errirJ RishopoI Loùlon (died ll33) !i( rsô oi.ccs .rdâ nedvirlr rrifrtns rosirhul's cdhednl iô be i,"-d i"b ^h"ds 6p*,* s-F-" ris?. 49t, ard it rcnaDedi'Ltr! d.od ro.lntiÈJ uril l3?0 {vonms 1$r9 29! ]l'e p.:I oI [s loouh, iS in Dlgland hovekr qltrrÀ i, [xv. qùrtrr or thc L3threitula bper in ùe *o lKiD! r!63.21) rid dehilsDi iÀ !sÈ Àrd &n ùl iion cod,oll\ t/rh!'Iniôd ln! bc glimpsed dorhsboLqhl rrur r'drD dc tsminslor 26s sd sJt uscd to m&e .id Pmbcùishvaioùs r'( menls in.lùdiq ? dù!n,h. an,ic., nole. ùmirles ofi\ aîd o,phrtys. ând ahô ror Û'e ii r2,!i of$%les bô'n.roJahd 1ortumrd,l'fince (CLR,121!1251,l?3). Ar )rlh pi... oJthc clolh bowhr notr' ih. eDc ldmr dè D.!iÀ â L.ndon .lraFr {ho olh sll)plicd silk Lexlilera,d !.s. nenbtôlleùylILcon l{s.shilcarmspe.ined Gerddletsasil lhin.ddiDs 19i3,nùs31.156a,l56b 219-r'li nunll|r,fdôùspmha*dto rV.kas193L,?s73.û!s3.a,Ïtr7.11{181,nos4.1250.oiuaNs lcLR,Ul-r2tr. r$,!,236).1i* 15; Ceuhrïa d ar 1983,tros 17 13) {hilc in dcs lrom EJrdin' ând:iotÈh exo\t'ois sho{ Eiislxndthùe is . *al bas mde lron | (ldl' ôr 1lùlrlr!{ordothofarhtaspfeadbeyo rNd rhis 9!e, $hich is âMrlrd rô â l.to ddins to cir.lls A dnvsri4 Drrh ilrmM Nrv in {h! prcseRld i" xÈsûinier medisd u{ dil1li atddc.sgde ard r..ôt'td betrrefl n! aM 1168, .l!fi'E buildinswo.k in 1932is mde rroo a .lôrli ^bbry lùlAM 245t) aI $e clorl's hu Î|]Ji'o* q p.f.m ! md 1310lij oI disla Ftcmed rilh swnr, Jl.r.d. Lnmd lri inislv t3 ro Ij m ! l, ùliq onls D.' .m. nndt.ûy havea zrliqond Dlelo\trql ùjl.s on a lâlli.ÈDate d sromd tig 49),r iltr.fi4 rrom oràrdPùkins1910.161, ro the v.le of the sill s on (lre t!ùt. Inrdon The rol,\tr! ùscdrô' t6.m de D.lered, feùi of moLherddli wiù pân: 01.ddo*.d bn,L oi r loTo,gepdÈûed lroùM \ùe irxL !!t!oN {hib md bn'e ard lmny âpper ro hit .xcmbd in at Kirk Close,turdr (M hesiusl9s?,11i; 7l no li rddition rhe exrqi. tded 29 rlo*ly w,{t I 3 ltn tuccd&mp.md Nins bndor \!D!s inâi xril bandsxtre sotr'tues i lrodu.cd in | .ùnt6dng bnidingrs $ell i\ ir thedn ostrlol rh. k(ered I lkl lru.hùrhe


ihnrl qrmG. ol rhe l3rh rnrù4 iidi.des thar iiiil rd ruDâ!trlleû tbks itrdrerllh .etr rh's hbri.s {.f. rôr :5 hMr\reriq as Dan} luô GualLrin omdfùù \l,ii.rv)ry r-etlo\]. oneprclc ctortr has reen d,nofe ûdy pu.!Le. rroe. d io M ,r!ql w rh I slkulish pupl., ii,n tar rôdie hnèd lirian ourpl.oradkuirj !,ssn. jrs ? Strian sourc for ihat È(i.nlr. enmpl. Sclcctedcâtâlosle\4li (s.hnNldiù 1973, r3r turJ3].Eylheendofùe 11t1,.êù!ry . more olortul aæ. ôr lâr{!r t.ldl's\N bdns $où in *?$eri IùoDè.pin 3s !{neosiDs {t h r0.ùù Nieur (t L rsnr } cipalLv siciryaM spâù drr(4rrLl'real \]asin 6i'o tiit h1t0nm$r:0ùùùriY)l'1fDn !ôdtr.êd to hirhlishl ddails or dr. oâr.,rs. be.sls. rJf ' j( LLld!rlreheâdsmdreerorbndr:id ,nslerd or bcins add.d Àr ùrbn, lrcry | ler the .lorhvâs$ôFn \lo.o.koûehb.i$ nornhc r!\Â, .urjNqr (, bc rrud(ed. esÉ.iallyôr Itutr! rombinârions of$?rês couldliè usd ior lrDpxs crori ^ ru) orDù{rhtuft siltrclorhs dring to aronddthe ltÈ nth .cnru,r hxv. a 1ùr ir( ;, tr I 2 $iLl oi â labb! Fourd {es l!tr| r9iirr ?9:i(hmedditrg1973,nos1r 1r{.ri3)o ûel.lj nei: ( ) iûd (ii)sirk. ù rririt lÈù. eLdiû ermDles Nerc ofrênrôer rih I llossy rtfr rxcd Fibn' bonlr h ir$r- m a ùbdh s?rl} (iit 5iù.noriibr. ùisr otuir! Lo{n râ.edûhbr lrûLùd. I strlc vhiclr is sôn.rj'n.s !É!ù5: \!n (d. i ) r't (iii) k!a't\ niled tliNlei âle' Nhd âpp.rn rô hfle teer rh.nrdinzrr:rin r.n fôrdi (rdrL(xiu t9rj0. 1245) IlorûFr !!en \rnhinrhisor iicuLrrûD. ôrl.ùD,s,i uide qriely ol ditre'dÎ{îithc or Iâmpâs ç€âves doLh&uld bc prodl.cd d.o.ùliù qû rlr rhirkie$es oI ùc difrlrfi çrD ùd \ex !ûns I1i\ uûrû1ù vlkre h the \'liddle or ri.ar Ean dr.lfoDonidioi,ùj,,, ùrs r, bifttingendsdd dFir spa.int. Àr pFynt no.rDpr.r orih. dôrri triqùehad.êùi,,ry {!r,.d ii anl lorkshoJ b! 4r,crr 10 be pfesemd rrtr.r , ro L ùiua. Nr hishty âcrompljshed L4lmd bui ,qr.atr ôùâsioù[! ùe edincd clothsâ$ociaicddh thc myaL{orkslioDsorrh. Éon witer re.ods ftns . {hirc silk. clotlrF. tsLlvidsiû rnn (e3?1055).m b. dr{r by dren tr nr d {irl' lnd< ml rees iD 'lMdet (aÂ!?, iDq]iLaiôN(sl,.Dhù.I19:i15]j:(;'rhe rlj6rl. rtto ltart ùbrabnù otuEtu aritta d n,tùitr6 26) Iî È ùobable dr.Î tlF dorh .onstrction lzs nJ d'iara,rr6) eæ mrde i,tô . .hiinbl! 10' rrom rlre {d i cndedlor ùe \eâviq ol silk Bi\tiq, Lr tlrior u0ii rmc ii $btlv dplôit ddrluslcqûlirJ orilr lr31/5). .rd \N .Jrprendy$i1litr uscn.rrly ùô fibre rI 'r'hj5 cotrrtr$iit rr'. oûen wilh th.l oI rhe !a5 a.r,i{td l,y l,rir4lg rtienLin ,nlrniory .oDir.d ir 1215(sr*n^! siq\of !nN(r vrp to thc surhc. ofth. clollr.i,rsbÀdon.di,r ir con.sred ûrhil ilf DaFritrrtrs{as dre È.r Lù!4ilyof uv isâlsoâleâtrneofth..rrh{ ii.. qùri {ffr rh d ù,nrxuNr re]lr\. ûr ri! i tu. lype oI doth in a laD,pasùt^r .i.aetr ,l rnùl duciu r sro,ù rcn.Ihi.h inte acedùth thc LlDnonc\o 1ss.Frg:7e-!1) r'hÀ*6rt.oe.ed in riD. bn.r.d rrd!ùrrr5râD,irr 1iIot? €spù drtd Ùr'i6 .srù.ired poter to th. sc.ord liâr or {eri f,.ed cotr,pôrndsirh aid nvill drnstts ,i 1rr rnh enrq- fte pn \:s sirùded ii nre i,' 6dF dùrl En{r, .crL,b silk \taviry .eÈ pFdnds orHôrr'lri,,irr Priofy (ruù{r{l i| n0r1). om of rhê richÈl e.de\ir{iùL loudÂtionsn


\\?

Wfl

'RB3

B;s4 ÈË

kd,\tr

\\:e1 Fip 7e (ô !'d (!) crod' pdrûcd \irh inr.rûiq

rioD(c) mrk rheened dùe cJs@r

'oi'adaosili4d{iqioreKû'rhd6'ùe

lnndoù and.tron the fiie 'tu]lrr of the cloth, ùere cm belilledoubrrhd rlier*lile hd toF Dicù bccn u*d Jora vctuut. Indccd,it is bc buriedi,,ve5lnenL\nàd. rrod sl'nilrrdô0x Dt ùe dde olprodu.lionolûre lrndon tedle.an be Drrowed doM 1o(helaletu o. Drh ænlury n'c kaf is il m$ud tDc oflampas,hÀing 3 p.rern ii â sùùiàcen trbby ona wfr hced 1 2 l$illsomd (Fis 3lA).I is jd a mtr'sersiùle

lâæ hB ùe ap dotrblewâP dd Lbcrftrs nedârè ol an ûràllerncd I 2 L{iÙ,n.iin.r dic min wp or L\e Ftern ùdt beiagvisible Cig 8ln). In orderb pmdu.! ihis elled rwoFomd w{s ôrideiiLâl !.lorr md $ickncs {crc uscd The û.in ur!, {hich G .omposedof p6tcd ends,comesto ùe surfâceonrlrejtuii or0tedùlh lbrming a p?fic.n in outlinc. $e pafrernrtll bound by the main wp :ie cnerses on ure surr{e âlorytl'e li'rè diihe Dâtcn'bri ir is sorinc

w


:tl

H9

c

GT

tharir È bx' fry !Èilt.1 x1 r1utrr(r nr€iindion Tlle.lolh:!{rrnisromFsdorinrcs.crin( ù.rer, endr oûe $ ,uûdiq an .i:rhtpoified nuJi. lctun. {rri.h cri bêrê&r lirher 's//r., o. ùafuk 0i5i"s) rif r,'&ù tre oGr poinlsùt the sh od tht rùuinins spac.sr. irJlnd NiLhlyrrsed pL o,trmcnr (fis 7s) Th! sub .q drll. |Èren,ii{ di tr.io m lcxlitehA beer dirJri.inred b! ùs lo.tr iùd shin.d Àjl

peamncc, buriirn,ùùlèlyils $perb $o.kmDd,io .âr bc q{nedâlcd lroù odref crôihsoi linirir $GÈnn eot\ilrllcsitr DiJrkishshir.mtrùreof Rcrguil.fri(o{r\orNhidr?rep'esrnrdindrc lùnrtse\rèrbe Àluseun or s.hlôssah,trldh bu!. Benin Gfrsirs r9r3, r. fis t:j.t.) orhe. prescm.l i" h Colcsinrn. santr \lx! ia. lr lâ NNdr' (Nlaldotrâdo 19i3.pl52),Q!dlirbnli.


I ù

rig 31 Deùid!.Morddh\oi5e

û\) ûùtr.


I.rcr tuxoùy. ùe chtrrch or sr srvniD!, rqs inle' 'td wctri',s r ve$ùÈnl nud.- fioD a l!l.sd(hl. rhe bre' r$! boù mÈi u ilh I rey 0,e exLnùner Bmbêrs paroi on r.rimm gnNùr (Pn5B:NlûhesilLs (Nocken& |{nd\rll l*l; rri. aM i,, Ars{s rofrh.onii"s) rhe Abbe!ol sl t o!, fonqN. .t ' cdhrhal. F,nn.e.{hde ûc nmrd rf Iiishop trir rtn | (\-o s3/N/,133Amâ \rtrdr.çilr DeÊ I-Lqer(dl.d 11r1r) À r.lhr {.rorr,1/ rlrisryJr rùrm). rjambcq adrr.d,ar.(;(rùùry. }here (shephed 196?309È9 ir l3: shcphc'n r$7J. 0re darrndirin \dri.h RÈho0ofo ll tdicd 111]1;) .0).\$ù 'rrf DdleirNrre no'idend.âr b drat nzs buii.d {i\ ùidf ror rhe ..lorh(\lùller otrd'e.lùlh6omlnrdoD,ih. ùrirs rtrrir ror. chrisLrs.n1960.Fls1111 1r),B'.riicnr,sr l if edroseûnùhrM ù'lorhrnrtuhùdÉn wr'creAahbishop (tid lirJir) imrdi,,a âù niJ o. n4ftrnt elentnis Tlr.+ rL Bùz.lis/Aleh.ù!l {rod D.[erns,ombin.d $iirr rlr u! r,rKrlif tsrcrs. enabredr. .lôrrr to be dribured to an strbd.Dûèminsd.$n $ oudir. b.ldir r, a


ehool o|inci*d rryillsù$y ôrshich apæd t ' hee beû pnrducsdin Sdiâ. 1000(Mùlerahris ten*n, l9rj0.5H1) ]àl,Tel{eshdiâûng fnm an eighrFùted slaroD be$en. 6r {]]mDle, it tl'e yellN irciscdsil Nd lbrlhe buial cna$ble dr SlBem.rd(dicd 5a)atxânlèt,Cerrmy(lrse iq 1913, L fig sgb)andin rheclorhton r..don îc lcftdng, Dùnculdly dÉr in a bandruntring .mss thc sle* of olto lll d,lmati., beârs. clo* re*nblflæ b tiat on the sâiled'lioF tudel silLlion lhe ronrbo19 BêrnânlC.lvô, as{en.s l. Bhhopof\'lch, Câhlôni{(dicd12,13), thatônihe imidion B&hd.1dsilkrmmEUF de osa in Soria0rovince,SD:in (Sùe0henl19s7, pls ,!8, ,1C).loth orr'e* cloLhsRÉ aLno$@r hirly prduced in Islmic Spâinwr'ne it was ndêrihe flie ofùeAlnmeids in thennt h,IoJ Thc oidmLÈ slg8es, Llre.elore,thal llrc clorhlomd ai DukesPlæoms ùc pmductoI â leadi',gworkshopope.rtins h S0ainin ùe rl|h dd edLt 12$ centuies All exm G ro asc ciabd wiù nchly endoMd calesia{iol .{ùs and flie i'fcren.e ru$ Ùe that the cbùs ftre Tlt doior ùtrld pe. lrifls tro'n ri.h benelâctoro.

Gn (rhÈ nDslqm,ii .nds to o0cbùdi( qO, Cq) no , (B)dsbjlof{or scal.5:r

haDshee beenthe kins or qûeenin rhe câs of HolyTririly Friôry,vtu.h mi.@ned .lo* rovaL omNtions rhroushoùtihe Îrsl halaôr ûre l2L\ qêre ænba ùd LÉorKn! \tcphcnsthiJdrcn b!nçLlirtl!.hnhrHolaefr1971 l) Tonand L\e dde of L\e sn dom itrU&a ii may be as smed rhd rho .loû, ns pr*nled t L\e priory aîcr thc lire 01Ù, vl]ich d6toyêd rlÉ .l'urch and mon ofrhe.ûvnruil Ùuildings,as w[ æ nuch ofthe re$ ofihe cis (Hoù4 le7l, 3). strnivins sæ.iûeis oi silk clolh in l.nÉs {êm no;dre fiisi haÏ ôf rnc 13rhc.nt4 indi .are rhârrh bb6y on hbby biiditrg *âs populâr thmwhouL nâny gtnemlions Epnples sith trnsùsh âsciatiois iûdudc â ch.sÛle rd d,lôadc rrom mo( d,e buial rbes of H!Ùcrl $/âltei ArùbÈhoD of clttcrbùry, sho dicd in u05. B.lh nâierials ùc a monæhone yeû& Énered sirh ros ofmedâlionsenclo\its Dâln orbids. rd *ere f(trricny enlivcrcdvirh â brc càdin! ùcâd ol silt Ib.t has sinceknishen rMdtèsius 19324.3l 2). As wiUrthc cloih Êom r,ndon dessiùed,lwe , h1mi. Sp.inw prob {bly rhc$un oI rh* fm tertils.lhese silken ûbri.s aDârt 12ù md l3llNntû.y cloths ù lânÉs weâÉare$arcc Êon tediel trnslâd, bùt d,is Ë prcbrbLyan ac.idenroI sriql nihcr ùan a ù!e reildion or rg lrriod. Evidm.! lrom the Grrlrneit shos ûd ùe hbby on kbby ro b. potûlr in 1mpæ coûslruûo. onrinùèd'nre iinrcnce or Euope ù1o the lllh enbry. 'i silks rrom lmn and lbe F.r I:i. ho{*i


dtrs,Àd the otrtDut.a lrnls wtrns virh a ÂnD'rdboudin*dptc.dsjn or q(in,md by thecid d r. [rlr cenrùrydre trihe Dtuducrioi rabbyotr r.bby iampas4r,er s ro ha@ .e.sd 'lh!r rr. pi(les oi rh!$ ctorhsNov.n in lmpâs \nh â ubb! @d.' r u, I lâbby sround from rn,,lo, a[ ot $ùich .onc ftom tan, ùd] .eùry dcposiis(N05337-33e)ïry de !rû h{rr thÉÊ ùain endsto ôtr. bi inc end aM hr! iir\ f(. r,mdnq,l\torrb, E.nd\ pef!n rhesôdm ryrqriFhIê\iryt? nri oi\ excepro..rsiomlly nl'.n oinakes hâvp ocùr.d b q(e.ingiic wrD â.d thc ù.1\ ûe pair.d 0rB 82).^ lx'".r nrir Ned rorrpou.h has pâr, d ,nan ends,'hi.h q!ùtd aprer (o hav. ued mor. .ô'tr(tr' 10jL'dgeby rhe numb$ or exmphs n'l de pr.s.'!t d loday (e* lierzel l9li1, ios.12-70).btri$h smdc mâvbc ', \te,i ing.llr rug. oro,rù emploledo; rher.ndon (Il'rlrs\*s [Diited.onlyon. DrFrn qtft b.irs usedroconrrd! wilh a darkercolourcdFotrid o; €rh of tlF rtacc pic..r lra.es oi.olô!rin! arc Dncred on ùe cbrh ù*d ro' â Jjûdr; rhepd or pùpre lround. ^ r.r.ùi nl'd! or L\ê rea,]} riotrs nlerniry silk \Énin! j,r t.uan. ryh r ùeiÊ dra!î !p i,, 13r-6and 1331h6 id.itiJi.d rexdlesoi rherJJÈtrscdrofù Frch as?,,,dâ dr 3" 2 ri tk d'. (Kns & xiq $$.!. 69) Îe orherMo clolhs {r. Dmbal,l!rlso Ei.ri,Às ol .,,kh,r,Ior ùe rsnn in.ludcd À n.!c or dil lèrenrEighriârdLidesotc1od, T}r; hb.ts re eencnllJ'relètrrd ro as tar,mr o' tmô.â' \Fiidy compir.din r3Rcof ks)êi6 in \ir$ nirÈrd Abbly. for exmpl.. iù(.l es rhræ darnradcs ôrlhjre râm.a panenEdlnh aninhls r-"[DiiaùnoruI]oN.f {r,,n ..dbùr,rsdD h&t ),f.a jh  d ha,ti h61 @ * $n. 2 1) I hc Ftcnr o, rhel,ndon.loths dè l.s casy -lroddermiie rhanthcn icchtricâtdhu.brisii.s m d re{rips hm been.utacrorsrlx widrhor dre.loth il. rln il,nd.whi.h*as.ut L'sih wi*, hasbeennir.hed insid. or I Tlie ndrowsi pic.c shô!\ Fn o1ailùfaretis {ithin â .in dar bmê surtoud.d br- srùll lenvesâid flo$rn (lic 32).fte loldedpie.ê rlso âpJIa^ 10have? sûu:c.j. parcD oI lo1i4e 0;i! s:) ^ tnr. @ruf ÛrêrTêmmth.. ôrt ùk spre+nrd

Fissl


Figa4

1aJ Poull' dud. iiom ' sirk hnDr

ddl,is5l[Mhdt

sNei

ndLr (D lJ.om霉ud么ndd,!


i"aviiri a r\yorcighlFLDlcdsb( edsd Nùha r. siid oi inalLsqrr.s \rilr,iDlr,eheyâsons sF,1yroilrowêÂiiFrùi.eii \rh b.Nh ù, bnd, i qn âtrrr j,, n\sse i,r atLe'nâieh.xrgois vcni. Der,loler{ktir de vi.e\, ok oI Lozen$strM nre ùlher or \brd

rrf.r r.ù,nrl,i betoreOriqnJdF nnillste ol n'e nû$g tr4Dr.Dh. h.wt v r orly onr oI lh-. Dr[crr:ùn brtu[vr..oi{.ucrd t]iis oài.,f . {hi.lr h }q1D j,Lrello! or trnft om hded pitrkishl]Ûrrt! lromd, Jro\trs *iLrr I t..r!11ûi \ârklri or DsèriioÀnbi. rè@mspa,dv uftd..r u, ciirrr \ e c\o 310. morifcndos.drih:û the $a' È i r.ôDlrrn .](d Fig$).1hch.isrirôiîherèDedGtnrDmaM ill. .dylnNDo rrts 'adlringin dtreediÉdions {i.rth.30on, nLn mâkesiixn eftfeûety.r 'lure smâudant Drnèris ol rhc d!. lliii nrjr^ o,oreremdkâbrcis dF snal rrta of t]r. Éfr.ri ,..an dn lj,! dlerns \liù LalPs I'i .nirnats iD'.rrrionturllraryeelmseorûrÊsrôûid.Tnè n4' ..ross rh. crotr'{h.ri 0!e !.hla' hb cloL\{:s d!ù\ Élabdy ch.q, aùl rl,i\ iqnes rfared \ere irJrr.mêd Ly chincs Do.l.t\ :ior srired lrom rhepar.ni À rei.Jo.red b! th. rlriÈî. 136)lr'e t.daredcni4rlpt of lype or dvc$lif trs..I ff rln. n,ri,, rn p hon. ot iiiàrdlr thc$ p,nenedLbri'srr.D.. bd qr'\sîtr ir rheoLl,eryrN hr\r teed dye1.*.d) !h .li ha\ i l,Dp\ binling riù â ûbby 1lr.tu on I iabby b( | id, dir ql r\ a I drenDL@1e lrrirei sorrces rroodrndmrd.idoa.lù!,r,re j<inrbroid.nd iùnlè ùd thn wukl h bLo, orch:l.the $dh ùe afmsoi Rran.heot Nau ' . (131!r3t3) Dn,k 4ven roa s.nùs ôfi.rreûs inddins,tddl" (cha,ùanfI|r. rs!!ii0 fâ1ke1913ti. n! 381; rda," r. a R r( rr,u yhi|h â'r md\€ io (j9.76,iii r) iNdre\ jndi. rlr shôrpsofrhÈIlediremncantltR.ri(rrs!! Kùs & Kns 1938. .rjl)!rr I .ckqrd loptrlârirt in sitk ôeiry in hlrr l3riri ûl r3e0 orifr\ret 1e76i 13.) i lllLl! riom th. .ârly l,rrh ..dury rrtrû,gh Lheer ptrilJd ditrt ieitl! .oincidesr ilh di. .lar. or 'l,e reliriyorafror.ùi.eriÈr.hmt!hoxpFr. ll 1!o r r(lm lircft ntLhoqh by dF rrri0s mnn! r.i,ri..rû,d r( orme'dâtly :n r tu@tln! rftces rlnrd aù.xd! hav lturn ,r ,id.iarhioned b ùe Llunr lk)k 1lrlirj,2r:l :l) L,iiilllyonhil 11'esaDclâi.]Jrh{ûiû rlçositi'r t.M!, i viyid puple r ri( bur exposuc b tiahi ri,ûD.{r yi.krùl f, idri!À orji!e tunD{irl!?tr sjlk .lorlÈ ! rRd irs .orôû i, rad, lery r4idly aM ir w\, {iù D.nerns boud i. hrrbyo , i {rrt(i $iLl lr,e,.rd I oli.ù .or'bined lith ôdrû d\\. n,lrl. F{D(. ore n â irip .û norr I stLlrds. d.r anri jlo torr]ddc (rôôrer19ô6. t: t3). Ilpr,À.rro$dunoorh.'dlei,,rru?\del<"led l$si ôtr. rirgneû hrs rrtts orsrirdringni)ù,! sùds ofp+Lllo Æùic chmd.i sY.n auÈ rrir il rD! l,rt beù usodb.iÔF il \.s dis u r âD r ioriroirLirnhb'i$dui'rsrhel.lrhrcn .ùded oio 3111.1rr. Fr.mrr I ll)r]\ ùi gener r!4 li h \fi.r .iDr I q r . r t K | ' ' ! r d r ù r \ . \ L L ,\ r o ' 4 i ! n 0 i L xDD'oxiriitrrj l5 p;ed nrin endsio Ls siill! Énofth.Ddtûri!{ or ln,nic rcftilesdrele1 bindii'sr!l!!!.rmmd rsd âgof.r irllr$iLl Lersarrrtrûsûiinbmdsorxsprioaan\{del T1,elam is Zt\iied lof dF nùi'r rnrp whilc rlDr og.t. or,nLrtsnrhâsâ ù.e ùlik ÈLtn.rc or or drc bindi4 tra'? n i rli\Led otâsiomuy lrtd\ ohmg. iDsbâdôr rorDn,! ro11s (sc. minak.s .ri be obsÈ^edin drc .ùii,,a ,i Lr Fr$ 60dd i9) \o rr.tiânèxmotcsaDDùrr,l,f nÉi,Ls,is vi(lr one.Lirc, of fôlr eids somc ::socixtrdwirrLrrnlm bindius nht.ri hæ a lines occu. jng i xr.xd ôrj$r r& (fi! 33ts) bLr râbbylro'nd rqlr or .rtr u drr d er id rhm deft1r û.sê ùro^ \lorld not hxv. dù td 'lr o dleoJdr. lldi ..ùtry. rhhoL!h |r. (ïi r'oi 'ln toul| 4Demnceol rh..lôrhsllrèse drno for darn,r j! rj,Dndi cee. for p!tr,nDtÈ. \id$rù 19r1r7. r91 ir) I othsdo.ment.d in od'er .olllclions nrôv tra ù r!ùrlD orJùr. Dranyrlorh \!iù tcft.r..t 1..ollsh,m vcryliv.ly odirls s[i.h ftr.altr ril, ù[iiù:ûilllshndrdsin dr.silkMôjrs D I dho'àol.nriulr,r idntrn..s ahi,c\e. ù^try'NienidlyÙ'rrplicdtlth ltcian âtr,rsû{cn N trtr1âr{?n Dropern lhc dodx ar. itrr.,,tri,I{ n! iri|â]l! pr on. extunple. r'hi.h --s r,â.lf iDh r fLNùbL tof rnùhfr!asnoF of rhèÈ[eDs aDD.xi s b li Nl t \Jrieûkifth. cdrFr ton.dcdlilJtl).lrÀ a


pântberlirh. monke!.h.ined L i6bæk leqrns tom rheedgeolâ vtull *hib bndsny rMds il, which is pushedby a 'noikey or dsârf iû â hat rhile mdhs tr'orkq ileaks {ie ear of lhe elè phant ùhich G holding a teatherin i6 mouth (Mmosl(y 19J1,I, m 12,ils 16,rr Santagelo rs6a,30,fis 13).DcspircLhcclâbombpaftrn or thh .lorh,ls symetriol Lyout or â 0oi'nrepeat harnes r*mbles rhal of ùê lnndon clôrh,al ihoushLhcchasubl.hbric hasM dificr.nt rom ftbric, nr in lalsuûd Mu*um (@ !ùe Balli. coast),Gerllny, hastu {musofpseudoÆrbi. letreing, oneinbd{ined win a nonley holdiog ldoÂmd'eotj'erjdûsiûcdgilhaji.mbcst $ith a bnd perchedoni6 runp Oalke1913,II,fig 433i Ro@r 1950,2927).This Éttem has i fiisht reFat nrhe. tiù a point reFat md demnùes dr. enornous.âpa.i9 irr vriery jdprêyàiledind'elhljîsjlkçeditrgjndùdJy


I

B


(4) No 309,aidd' olbed t@


't


),

i l û i f f r l k l l t h â n d p ] r l y l 5 r h . r f u r i e sl h n n cDrrrrasc..r bj- a r!o! nùd! or sitkdcsip ir Ibl' tr(hn oe.iod.oæ hcdr.n df!i(r.r ior qïù, e. sieed x turù3d ii ù:l îo runY I s, l \., kdrf ôraoùrqcN 6 i,, cetua\iLh I leâ$60mN deigûsr rer b. nlo v.r s (ivôùis ].lreDLherr. oDcloilFtr.iltN| ù, Ll,cL. ffre e]mprcsjùd d's.ribPdir thèi.m untof prr.rni,,({xl. ronriDlry r}q halr 1arydrê p!trE O{è lDns..rm{ sbir slio}\ d, t !i I ttr{edl,i trùtrcdsid.s?]spù.rFd ùdcr I hd \nh kmdrd ri(-nirg!.rrr r o$irh tr{trd plDie (Nosn fis rrri).simila.f.aiki s ân ryrj .,Jor'rDys[imsiù]pxrcnspfôdu.ed i ll.ly inrh.$condhx[ôrrh 1]rh(iùo {!t matr!oI theseclodF r?F vovûi ir . lirnh Lrmoæbind ii{}irl,rvrÈùrd2.1r$il1sûuDd (.s rrssr: ,cnorhefdôdrrof itrnrtd. . rirnsLb oficur. dioçsa \rir.s \in,of!r4s rnd ù..dcerôr


B

mcmde.ng tilobc lems on a bdcd .ed or pur ple sromd (No 3,!2,Frs $) rllc dispoùrionor th r.ys eiâùlesU'epàiierûlo bc .dryrdl wiil' th.t ôn . châsuble Iron rhe Mùidkhhe, Gddsk, md on srlû lr@enb in rheVidoria rioiâhnus!ù Nlrdb,Àrg, a.d Dtuiches Ter dlmusum. rùefeld OlmnNky 1931.l. no 4ô, firqsri3,61{ilckens $$ 22,no2e ria7i r.rrr 193,I.323 5,m1()l)ftispaturn.onskborÀliotr wi0ri pecocklàil.hi.hjdsabirdj'rir\cLeia prn of \iç, or hutr s lre, G aturhed to the ùonby a .ard md six li.t châjnmd on onewins illg b..lnftds a1lheIionhwerins âbove(l.-rs39) A vaiÂdonol rhisparrern,âlsorcm on â bârF Found oJtilob. lcmi hasx simila. lion clasÈ


11€90silkÙ1o|]r,No!3Êoma

lon*necùedùid with . smalle.bnddos dhmd (Èrm 1927,69,no 55;Weibel19s2,r35.no 1931 let?êl 193,1,3?6-7,no 101).llese cioths lu, uimtly pturned ùlh slded membnie ûlè threàdr€ :ûibdêd o Jn tlûid qorkshopprcb àbly bud in Iûo dd @mLine ùomd rhe sdond ud thnd quadds oJôe 14rhcdury. 'Ine nylidic sinntriqJ ofthe I4 on Diecesw. sesl. it us ale producedùêrq or âtdy r* ûe pattemm behced to rhe hmd ofa desls.q ol thê smê ehoôL thê âbsnce or nêbl dyead in rhe l,ndon clodrindictes dEr il hs not one ôt rhemrc dp€nsiFEdeties ofàar?s,f'a (ltiry& Kng 1933,6S.70)hlt it âoDe* ûat u16 â desknws a spcciâlcommision,slmilarxllerN 1Èê adâpbdto ditrcrat gFdes ol cloih dner th4 beinsex.lusiw k) onet!ê. A bunh exmDle - moLheroffdl pre seG oiry thê enhr Ddion of ib patten (No 343,Frg90).Aptæt motifisûdkcd by h,b dner ynn idenricâlspikyùriines sutgesinsilÉit@ An inBlory of 6bmb in weslninslêr Abbey,which ws blen in ]3Pnod ùerê6re veryclosein datelo wI{ ùe tûbrie {erc ihroM

outasrubbishintleEstwaterÈâtr,3hô*dEr clothssilh 6n.ifL Fturns E e not m unusual sisht in the nêhFlis in the lâ* quær or ihe 14$ cùtory. Clolhsolsold p*1efled wiih lions châinedb bolshs (&ai,a rèu/i .l mrs ae @ errdit), soldn cûnês shding on btu.ùesvhich ihe birdsholdin ifieirbeaksvili, oùêr æinâls srzing mderts {bar1t6a!ri, s.lù tbdjo danths nn6 i, tusttitrtbanbû d atiit tA'iis subdnwibw ise iha),p?i'soi de Iornêd bnds in qGdr:ns16 inbrspeRd Nin (jlrMs æd goldenfish (trd,ii lrjbôlô6 Ànis inîa qunn sllis @i. .! tiribb ûfti. ittér. dÀ), nyiu Ialconsvith lifilê liônsiillinc in bè r'eûthû lkk ti6* drnnb8 d tonis kûibc vd?rtôa irbrttul, md soldensl q lied by lheir lecks to reês, 6landinsin linb bôah (îig'B darntk calnits it ttuiel;: an a/h68 dl


i

wviigenÛsItÈâppni,rlel}'10rmvjde and *i6 io 2.1l*jll sirr , 7:iiâsoml (No 3!,1, Fig 91).lh. silk endsâre r{ned .nd .onsisl ol. pâlecolôurcdyrn perhapsoriqinrly Fllôv or whlt . ,rd d'. dgc G .cinfo.cd {ith tu plicd cordsoI â .elluloci. nbre nmber ol edge.o s iç si$ifi.â nofei{iac .cguldiors sFcilicd rhc uscofu siryle linen.orti in lmpaÈmven silks in l3c,liin l3sz $is r*s cha.rd roândimumort*ôliÉtrcôdsodil'h conrinucdto bt a requnemenlinb ùe *.ord half ot thê lsdr .cnbir (À{omb 133s,3e0). This doesûo!'ncâi ùâi ih. sbense considcrcn i" here Ms d i{m . norennne .loûr wi 13s2or sonerimelarerburir Gâ DosiÙiliry.Orher sclvcdglsreordcd on lampasllmn silk cloths dâri['r L the ]41\ ùd etrly lsth mntuics trsuâIy hne èilhèr t@ or 0Îec liùeù cofds rollol"d lry silk cndsolâdifferentcoloûtothetuin Neb(es. ]]eEa re4 nôs32,93,10o lj Momas 1939.40) ùul a lcw âlkilk $lrds6 ako oau' (ljdcl 1934,no 90).It is rot Do$ibleto re.onsud ihe prsise rhmcrer ot rhèreavè froù 0'e selv.dJre. dùoush ir.s b. dcdued thatthe&toud *âvè tr2swrÈtaced 2 1 Nill asthe nindingol ùe sl Edle andol nrelYùtrM vcâvcôDlblian la'npas

SelecledcatâlogueI r'5eDinqsio6: nhe .'@sû, rar{ o h snm, (ii)b û5mm,\ 4hmi 1iL)h v 135nrur u5nm. N rh4 (i) ù snid,, { snù,. sù

boui'lhàbb]'olr1,rùd'ai4od l:4ÉlMjoG'omDairofiÉitro'dstocad'

[ad'aLatr!]li{uturdcù5i'i (,\)tûi, (!) lcNIn!'{o.cDùb*nbr!cd(co'rs"cbâdl,

/4dra). mju{

Mâitrwrq silk stois /. eis Fned 2iJFirs

a Lw ô.dms li$d jtr p itrrù

Î,e dû.rcrer ol rheselredgeshossthatit {oo

Plncmqtft silk no\isibre$isi. muchiinû


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Satin Lnlû, {lQôsirs SdiÈ&\o silksl'rn qrkâ. 'ûc ù cloth us. hoùder oI tlt larerllh rtrtûir lakr rnd the !?{ intoduc.d ùLo Eilltrid no 'rh. quaner ol lhe l3rlr e'lury frdi.n datcd exdqie kiô{tr 6.r ihÈ routy n . bhe $tin whi.h \r.s usd lof I sd ol embn) ertrl {s! men6nradcl,'rl,oi12i0ând1291ol{hichonlt kioxi as rhe Clme À cut doM rhi!,tle .hastrblc, isprsend (Ch i I1033.m{,1Kne

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fttr nrk, ÙLnk{ dLd, g.oùd v.n no

lly thè l.tÊ ]ldi orq,- grme.ls i,rdudiit doùb1e6, rui.s. hrN\ i\ a nôDcs.utfrom llir v.n rashionxbL.x &s xlso us.d ror ir nishinss.lnchdins . Nhons ri d l,edhusi!!\ âs NellNtor!idl(5iidsÀncG,\.cordiur0{ti! t n rc.ords the olou6 hvotrr.d in [ngland 6 tl,h pùiod {tre Nhile.blâù. l,l'î. flL ,ralt md seH, Il kklir,or. thc clolh r{s IrÈqleiÙ cn lirened wirh ei,broidcry exedred i s,lll or si1ve.s1tthÉi(j. or F*,Iû.d {ith sinu motils in aold loJ làintd dèrùrâ.ion$?s $nebres .prlied trstr.h.aper nlLen'arir Tlr k m 'loublc :mpleinl39r.lêisht.llsordonbleredsd;,wd $pplied 6r nre ûJi.À . or. doublcft md rh! dc.v.s or a Éliok 0r'.vlie!393,160) rilo'eùne rlrcesindi. ùâr ùis wa\!,i i !i'l(i.loth bùt a rl,i.kef nùl hfâvi.r om xovcn b! td .ahêr thm wftn (lùoler le662r?iKing& l<ingrq33,

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)crecrencat;togurÀ 315Dinmsi.N (ùh rrnù.{L6fu;0)

ThGdensiEh lô\ar rlm is .tr$oh4

io{âiliy\

rrkur. or voie oi n\êqrins!:s {irh.edrine d}?drrnûa xDal.st,DoÈpùkvrrjr ùnû:n o! rrLoqsl}{hire flEds.6'rL tridr rlrnh consnb ùf â !rie\ or Bned ends(iDr.rjiryd q orgmûDsotôror triL\atro..âsionrLsjnsl! Ji! ois) similrroth.(oithcnrairleb(U16Al l]1epinkrarI v!\ dltd indF rhrerdnirh Dxt. def trnih drè yr. fo' ill. sehtdec $old har b..' lcrarflt sepraÈly in coùror rilh pa. reûredcroùsof rheÈrjod.nrÀcotorcd{rii ;s a sodNùn.tivetur ns uscorpined ends I rparre nor ..ira(1erisli ot hervierconrtsmd {e4e ùd orirssrd,is bord.. (Nô3{ô.Fig93) this bordo ms fol{ledinvÀdr io lorm a h.m aM \ns. def.rore.h de.6onr!i1$:llRrr:ç!\ed*rr d.ûiDlc[es rne driny us or ilk, ût jc nrjs andmoth.rû tnr,ir{ olsrin (NIo315Fia1533)

h r$no.

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34 Dife6 ùF (ù b r5n n,\ L!nù4 ij L5hh l srhù !ùd pGfs Qr! a' br ûe ftE€5 \r'raE: *d qr . ilq(henon or 3. sdiûamr {l[p: sjù. tuk (ikdds), *rcry zsnl 4 eni sil[ pùk (oaid.r). doisibh r{jtr 30


Dma\ks bolid in vii' \tr. â lât' d@lÔp'nenr s nh ùr\ qP ! irr !Ê ir r bcq r.t! olanld.Onamrins nrl! frfrd L!.1,0!.drÙlt{n F$DL Sodnn lthl blJ

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hbl(\ n!l r^!à. nuir $-s rb\ 'ruriu ùÈ r4h cnrurv !om'l a " q '1 1 " t . o . - t u ' i n o (lroo$r 1950291718) Iouo$i'{ mprÔlemeds "

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latiL\ û"ti ctdhi"E od.r dr dcsce oJki8hr thrculhutr tjuropc es4uireor Âen11emm dadaskbsme socommon (ùù ôT cenih cxccpriont n'c si oqtnin sufu\ Gbtuts orùe Real'r,3 rq !fidndamr.r\b furi.nbPtr.ed .h.ly fi_om\ril1et sôNes Suli.e it b tu hcre thr :t rhc endol rhê l4rh cntn rhe cloth ws u$'âllr ôn!_wrn in roFl.irles Xichdd Il, ror .umDle hâd a doùblerol blâ.k dmask ùd a lnrs rohe,i sr&i d:ft\k 'ndJer'r' hÀ J I r4!r dcuut Ln139! (Biillù 111r. rifr.c 10).$hil. hÈ mcle. îDmâq DukcofClorceste4 oned as{,{n md coat(cloke)orbbck dmæk ar rli. iim ol his dis@e in 1397{)illdû & st John HùÈ l3s?,30a).Ihes. rc.ords nd on! iidicab bùi ùe hish sbius placedondamaskjnùe 13903, âlsohinLit a maue lor dark *,nbrc colors Bv .onMi, sorurtrler hadsarindt.sk becme bv 1lÈ 1460sthat Ëdwdd Iv loôad i1s{ear by dy

Ed.lv c.t). âner@ot $ar va\ d',âny isnorcd in L\efr.e ol potrfil mafkctrorces.

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Mixedcloths \or all nrdi4d rrtilù $r' oitde elcty ftô'n otu ryÈ.o nbre\àfiôur.ombinatioDs ofrh. ji!e prncipal firrr.i $!o . silk. tlÀ, he,no.nd .or Lon drbr.d. ridr r s.ôriiir(tdoùsbb. oir.J.dr) 1r'econsmieru'ùndûarrlr!ùr a!.\! hrebee.pcs.krr r'hesoitro.diriôicDÀ l i,{ in r,ndotr ùtrt indccd rtr! ù( ti,rùed Lo hrltsilk!.1û!utriorhers*ithiDL'nihbrcNùll

HaE silkreli€1s !el!û È pmdRrl l,! rrring dr crh wla dc. I senesor rodsso ùd x Loôfidrt(,. qnirh a $or. N, r,e dn'dL' r .r ihe .lolh n . ùtr rl aboverhelonndrtion.trl{ Fouid rl.m (Ti( 95).Ih rFâûùrt a..orned b dr rjr( lnb rhe .roth ib ruxû ri rcxrre x Dâv bê len mctrt ir rhe irnn ol loops o. F rly .ù l.n /ô cui ro atr &r I'elshl (sohdcùr pilÈ),o..ur rô dirrlrs{ heLshb (pir. dL) lBùnhâm 1elj0. 103) vo edldvdi {here onLvor I ôrilr lite s tiJred oltr mdi \Fre ?lso madê rùt rLbn s virti

f

lariotrsùù,r,irdionsotpilêsurhâstrDcutvùidtrl Dir.andvùidrd.Èdi I lt. ar lirs ont),pltrii. sold ( ù !i e !tl*r aFr610 han b..tr ùr{rr?c{ùed in lat rrh ( , ûùry Eùrop.rj !i[i leavii{ cùj rÈs, .hielty i. urLvandsoai,LTùe eanie* .eter .rù t, iN usci" Frshnd rzs i'r r2i3 rhen \ r i n ? h .I r u \ r i t u ..\d ôPrn!rvrù!ldl /it"t { ftlnJ codof i0Ô\.(Lysons1311 30s).Il!th.nji.rdt(.d (ur rnd ffii.ious ch0thman j5 Hulei xs hnTs a .owfler n*de 6oD rNel (;iùsDoi 1920.3Lir$. ft À Dôsiblt llLerelo'e.rhartrrfirn !.1r1 w.\Ned intrrsliidlo.turii.hiq\i,rt,el diii rorcLodriiÂritrihj\prùpos rhêctorhdjd r,{ .equù.iô be shrpcd,sodrarùre oI rheer Én*î ûùirirr tr?s r%{êd soon aJicBztrli hosêverrshrciri mâitl frur velverb.s:i robÈ Diledin 1195!aq\ûrnls in \ ràrt\ a:rir,l',1 indudestr .hNublc of bt!. R.lvq (spdroN siin psotr133i.52l ir.). \'hi.l, ùu{ hm b..n mr d nyrheed) 14di.lntrLry vctvcr sa\ r,longe'â 1rc connnûliryrlrhotrghir rêdr.ineddo.isiv. Modledlddi rnl { rvtrsù{rer ned{iL\ ûirls aùl{.h--kssome ôr{hi.hinclud..ltrrlil rltr;d. LèaLnro arù Î .( &ù1, dd diG ddtlopm.nt a..or s Olonnâs193665:Ilomas 19119.2s7 3) Dapile th. outpuiot rrer\irylr, .onplex D.r rro{r vel[6 llij !tl!a6 cùln d I steable nLrkct in rlrrnrdùy bndoi ùIù! of ih.n rH r probibt! halfr lk I h1À. \.li.h ù!âN rh{ dlL} r,al r Neii ol liiFi or hdrp côr.,{t1l bê N{hrh.silkpil, u,d \rerero.stqrq{l! chupc' b n*nùr.nrè md buy.hm Nï{les ot so|nl cut rù wrrr ' <-orfed f.omih. 1rr.r{'ljrr i!!a deoosit aiRc?2*f ltlrothisryp.rr.hhAr bb ù 4au'd {irh ù' e! Dair .rd\ h enrh oile endmd tlnt !j(.ksroeâdrIod Ttie in!z':Dh âtrisÉd sillt th| s lk orrll. rjle \"d is wirhoû s $ {(l (}F linù *di is z rvir.d rlr uei(ts tri!.loscr $aùl ;, {rretr"rp dDi ii rhc N.jl. one rroih. rorèMmpLc. hrs rj rÉj! erds oerctrr


Tutilê a".t ctdhiaq abLyorchnCro 3s1).I1is ml kdùsr lncthcr thè Dile$?s dvd riih a simila dyeluf of {lr.iher â ;rcr.lilhtns dlt rns ùscdlnehrrerj\Nhaps the norê prcbâble\iu r.c.,t ..*d.h i o dvesonnqù El bniles is slrowiirl L\âichenrer dycsmre olen usedrorthedrea,ls in a.loÛ L\al .on.laled llv,ùbA l93lJ 105). "Fre

linen and wool union clorhs

!ia96saipdha[{i]keùeÇNo3''hnÂht

r 2,! DicksÉ. m aNo3,19,Pl l6E), wliilc m otherhÀ d6 nuin erù rd.[ andonly19picks Fige6).Alùrher.hmcrerÈri.is B m No 351, di. hcisht ol dre Dilevhi.h is &r'n ôn Lhcpie& rhatk ihe be$ D;$d.d (No3a9. ver@s ukd asthe srôu.d hb.ic Jorlrnglish embroideri.si. thc 1.uh.entuo haÉ 3 i'on.r ùlc t\m this. Ilôùseholdrcl)unis, horlfti indicabdEt velvel rttrihhiûs and !.rmds riih a lors pil. çcrc mon( L\oseDuchaed lof thc rryrl.0ur6 oI f ,a; ùl Rullndr in the latel38trsmd Ilens (Nlomrs 1986.70) rd rheywn: [obablv bsh ionablein E4laid âi this period.s wÙ 'ni. rou. pi(es ol \€ivd bom ùe llidor .* cMlioN aÈÉr rohavebc.i otrcubvhi.h n€r. nndùinni,s, Âxl il drn ùsd ù)nrk. Douches Rs only {hen dreyxtr mrn llÈrlbarc rhd thn.. wrc diswded. f$ô r.dz4lâr l)Èces \tre n'ad. into smallb4s finished!iù ùbld uolrn edles (Nos 31e and 3s0) aîd it È this dsing whirh l,âs b..n rcsFnsible for prekn" ii! rh. bas sin e the cûnose ôbr" v.Ii has mrnLlrdhùreriled leavingthc rclret in r very \eÂLrNd dât llrc othd Diecês$ûe cul ù1o I 352) l)Y. bsb nr.oN lri|s (\:0s 35r dio!.d ihar llre silk lrD uscdJorthe m,n wrp a lichenpn@le.For! oi or clothqs dyed "jth

Mixedclothsorwo1 andver.hblc iibrc âre less wI tno{n rrm mcdiùâl D.slùd âhhoqh vdiotrs 'âm.d doihs hm heeni,!a' 'bd asbe tonÈii! b drjsclAs. Chiclamonstheseâre nrc madewilh I lj,! t kin;i. *hi.h m.c suDDosedlv or .oton wâm md â wefi nnn rmD .ithc. sood qlaliû mol or !ôôl .hppis ldom as llocks l. :31 2) some ol (he\e labri.s aP{rtk 11151 Ere sùi!€d: 16ellso1Ïfler' ?d/nrt boq'tlitrÔr the ho$ehold ol Rorc de Clarêin 1235{li m! 2s.2d.Fr e[ (Ctrikppi 1920.,12) ll1c bc(ù q!âliry ûebine trD{ havcbccnQrn aid hrd veari.s sinc Quftn Istrbêllâ.*ne ol Edwin ll. nad n r\otk trcT\ it lrnù .nta,1,1e linqt) (Blâcldq & HennaN.n 1971,1439), rd nory ùtr,Âoodsbequedhedtô Richarnde Prt'{otr b! +rêr coffrù in 1341/2wr. tÎdcvn covsreb tcâl$i[5 ],45:l) lne* irens.où1dhaF Ùeq' madcfom conDld.loomNidrhsit.l trr. prcbâ blv ofrcn used i'icnliâiscrbly A .lorkr rd Itis loiûale dÉ(ihe re',aits olthrcc pi{es ol lnlxedilol aùl ?lincn.co@risi{ so dilleFnt olrs orcloth.re pres.ned mou rlr $ôûp oJ Fiilês Fom Lhe hn. BC?).]h.r, arc volrt h a bbby bindins{nl halt onesv$en ol $read\ onii4. h! or rhe Diefts (llos 353.35,1,fie 971\)ha\F a vcry ell 9srm $o!l.n rùn (oidcndy ine wei). {hi.h rtlains rhe shapeoI llk mâ!. $ith rh. cle.r im prsior ofrh missineFno threads,indnûru rhatLho Ftre Dtudu.edin a brlmce,l k âvc$'ilh a siflilar pmponionor'dr to {r1t thFnds (È10 ihreadsler .D in the NdD and3 9 ùrends t( .m it the leld Thc soft rexû,(' .f rlrcs. doths {oûld haÉ mdl. 0r.m suilâble lor russ or 'lhe

orhû pi(e (No]s5) ako aoFaA 1oho? had a varD ûâd. fmm ceÙulo* fibfe pleseBdl h rhcfo,m olbritle. bl:rken{l 1l'(!ds .m$ins


.ohry dep6ir5{a) b'roed vs\r No 354,(B) rrr\rt,ùù by.o{rtrl1o No\ n53md 35r,ûe ltrlyr Dsam zspun andclothis $cfrn..d widi â frio orr:rp ro\rcfr rrù.adsrmgiis fromI I ro r:45 (J dr{rs s I c,, ;i 1rr uD a u-13 thtuadsF cm in th! {efr) (rig s7ts). l1r s !'.fr:

Iacedhhic is pâhdned widrhorizôtrbrùrids ùt ,.d ànl r-.Ir". rh. r-(ùùwyld beirs \tishltrfiier h di.freLer t he characte.ol thn pic.. str* gst that il roo.could hle beenuscdÀ r rus


Narrowwares n,êinritrhdueolbtuidsyasnniqdâ .nu tblet'wor,'€n bmids if tr!,li,lii niô1,. l)omih ougùtNæ.onsi do rbLe.nnd turkshoos ftre .slrlislfd Mder dr paùonqeolrnecounûnl chufr, \r,{c t Ll} fte lerhniqueoI hl,lel \eoj,Ls vas palird ir oi( riir..s ir.orpo':tiDsconly melalthÉrd I.:nslaM d 1.x$ rs hr bâck d thè Itun Ase .ould be.oturi$ioned I lndon hadprobâblybè QIûFh.ll l9t0 1s0)àrd dr recovef! ol â bone .ome $e mân centreoIll'e irn^]ry i ja.slùnl lablel pieRrd wilh [orr h.l.s rtuin À d.posit ir by rhc lar. 12tho, 13thcennLry,Iorh4Ê quûr liDdoDdati.sto theserondhdionhe lsic.ntù4 lD (Mùsêùmor r,ndon, Oelanmenl oI tld,ù ùier ol silft add n'êtn threadùtr nnponedb mftl ùe denr{1s ,'r .t'ltroidù.^. Dary or {hom rcndcdin the Ci$. Bnidntrklu ws steet.lLt\83â..ro931)sh@:nDtd'cskms clo*ly Àsôciatd $Lh dnbtuiderybul develoDed alreadykno{n nry eanyi,, (he cjr!5lii\i.4. $bôl and lir.r thr.ad E.e u:ed 6r bnids in irdeperde"lly rnl maiDcdchrily the prtsi\t oI urrÉi. $ho mt eârlyAnglcsao' rrghd, bû patem b'!câd odJ'nâde dregoûdsbùLlrequdLly hnlle,l !!r i4roum be.ried ui wirhôrliû 6brsihâii po$ibly hom horshils. \rs ide ined otr çool djes dr silk ihf.Àd, d.xlinc dtc.tly lith 6rtis merchmt {D.le 1932/132? 9) btrMsrrôD dr. sBts ol chieftànsât F-lelir a(i tsrâidsIrm d,e l,rdoD c\.Âri,n\ râlliniô so*rno j,, sc{ NùNÀyt).dckam1924/s2?: roùrÂmuDrcd.ao, i{d by hov rheyrtre h.iie M?gnusDJa.300) ûnl nay llossiblyha\€ beet abl!Îrcve( rir!êrloop.d plâitedmd hbby used lor sinil{ decodion or biiid\ ierd i" p(lIps or thc tth cenhry d edly sÉFs Imn. The fi.i (hre ',clhql\ e'â1,1.bodi tld ândtubulabmidsto beprcd(ed aud. ùeis Snâpe.SdJ.t[! (Cû1.loo.roûhcon'itrsc) lklal in ùeJomrolnd cul d.iF lna,ld roil.!a' u\.d b Épre*ied hêfe silk drread Ns prelered sinreiG sear Daù41{r.rAin a''d .lasti.iq madc b'r.Àd. pàd.rnsotr{ool bnids ât'l:Lplo!Bùtu{ (ctu\Jùorr9$. {?5 6.iis 336)md rord--orà[or it ûc nms adaprablebut Norsled!ùi .nd li"ei li.ntish on ftrea]sÔUs.dAs3funne'nÉngtheni.gJnea' Mmen's hanbnjt j,' 61ha.dûry 'l]t sùe the sjlkrlnc lN $ully pli.d âD.lthcn F:!.s (c ronfootê HaNkes19rj7) lrùtr1h ii ùsd doubLe or in rups ol rhreÈi iùuF of rires. inp.ned sjlk thrutrdtoù LhemiddleoI rhe Trlr l, mi.ls b..ô'nins ceù'ry led 10\in lùler $ovJi'Lhis d'esêprmes.s lonniry pân oI Lheroûne lrsls dÈleloDn'ent urderl,ùerbr lillwûm.nândth.i' apo'ûn.cs. highly d.snrbh in tiûglmd \lekl thÉd !.s moreipûritalr !*d lrut it $?s rcofpoLted as a supplenerlâry!r11c', !L,ri i,' rheld urd. Jlal{riri\ orÂol.l,ôi sihr, mN b.i.g spnrlr sÉtd roùd â.ore of silk or nd, o' bothIrI.n.lvsisi di.atestlDttlism.blissiller niorc .xc.priotully, romd a coreof hoAetjl rian (YeR(l"r& tuùl.ll. 31 7;). \ùih a very mino. nnbunl ol .oDer tû sil.l.d silrù ôr rilv.f.d corFr rlloy) Iû one inemce lne an ol ùbler \e.{iu aûiiûl trhLghlft1ol æcomplÈhftni in Enelm.t orer rlie (oûse or 0\ô 4:0) dre stip ol pfeciols nebl $?s {aùd rcmd a .ore ol siLk,or 1l'eoll'cr (xo 3s6)!rôb* bl! rô!nd Àcû c ot liDcn(hr.ad ihich hastullèd bnids r{n to thÈ .nbûiderêd $ol. and nLnide rhic[ kre .ornLjssiored l] Qkq, h dre dve^ide .nvitrnnieni wheÉ I lâr-bù'ed 'nre nreLrl navhrr beq,{{ii, {l A lilr.r l€ftô a b dr srùin. or si cmrbdr. sub{'ab or aDLml$t (menbnne) b( rhh G qFlÙ ùs{trd u'..n,in Àioùcr rablerNovenbraid cJo 41Ù lroùâùtyb! rirs/frrÉr\ùD, Ærilaqi,trqÀu' in girJ (tsanirombe195rj.r3). Lnesebraidsin grDrrlk on\ one !_pêol nbre is lsed throqh .lude piê.es p,hfned {iû brds, hons dd aldrrna !,.rxs (.n,wrùn r$1r, :7 f,1i:Gù{iror


1956.,13ir $). lhjdj xppêmrohN beers,ovqr ro rr<-on .tred d.sigtr\ rarhù rh.n ji..ty jm. ,rùqnd h i \P.kf rc'irtuu r95h rit, iiôDr'nlon (n lllll. *t morclouoNti(e I d.urri r t r û n r t ru d r ! . r { t r i t \ \ t J q , r t s o , r i e + r . | \ 4 i I L + L m n 6 . l , ûr h . , ! . ! r l n i l , i . . k i m - d , i r , , s N n r m u ,i beii(,tchi | 'h. Ài5h 'r\s or ûê 'nèûl dr. dl. the Br! oJiib, È Nd, ihc.orôuArherrn {s dy.d.lheroDdenrof ûreDanern xDd Le\idnr ol ù. b'âidriMs;fis ro'D or rtavLrt rrt ind,y reyallidies s.ùr ro hâlt puBu{rns a ptr{iûe Ll.r o. tdi.d tjl1) a dâùc!Èr ot H.rry II, js 'tptrÈri to har mâdea {ôh trl,rchis ùrer{olQ } di hemnr q,hh iL ll 'd.m\p:h.i I he.m.r 4. . q i,Ao\rrr,r r,{,.: I rhr nr +ftdir rhrrir,rr!d. :m ts, tu. cii rILr tl' i3l. Tl. ridùo. was.onlind byrrerdeserdrnr.Ft(lrfr.?ç tl., whonrrild rd{anl i ùd s!*hi solal,in leùng duriu her lis illn.s D rlr âtrru,ii oi l2e0(Pa^ons1e77. r2).Nôbrslonn onrhrd myariytri rleâdis bnnh bd rheoûin{ of th.se rNûcmb sa\ recligibte comDùqt qilh rh, d Nn\ rnl komcn *hose [Le[hood .r.Fndtd A sill th'râdrrem{i4 mr! haq.been a ûbter

s q

b rd sJ

rli

.ft,1 6i

L Lh? llon d i

roth-rn 1 budu j \t I s!.ù lrlrlhdù 1 q 3 1i j.. p l t \ L . ' r t r cê r t j r + i , r l t u g t r r r r N . i ii i r r p c i r h o h '4 ' ! h j ! r . t r \ , i j r i . L hr Lb.iq

L È n b n i dh r ; b .

f.lfredd,Lrli

t ù b ê i ê u n d h : l n r h - 1 3 r r rÈ n t u . ù n ! t r { , .,\? thrcd \r.trv L i r i i . n r É p r n ? mô r A r e n r q -ifê otrhrt' r!i, , .! c. iu th! r4d . ol Lhe rrrad ai dris po trr. I D.acù.e rhû son dtmes nraN borhidps ùe io b. yer A si, l[ brÀtd bro..ded \nh crosis ii sibù{ilr rlread,n I oJsrler nlk. vis ùsedro edq. atr { btui rud drr.d sirk meslrhùn.t ll,irh $?! *c.mr. I ll - cdûBL ahcs Nidoirlntrvum \trkmbcd lHr,û Llr È r1 , 2u30 I tF t4\ 'hr i dun Lnjt *i1rd û1. vnre pupose dthoqh rc sùr.h holes a.e apptrientarorq dl'e edse h. [rr D Lnble.

ron 1lk ù trrienkfthr Gdrsk rc riinilarl!broùd.d d ùeRâlsrilh lrdui.l lrôe (\raùo! s[r 1933. \. l; io:$ ft, Rq) n êvr f.t- d! | r,.r- h !dlLr Lrn tunes !lr.r rh stuûùl \tâ! $a l.ii !rih. ^!

s sinarLtuidI.ùileredr.ù | tai.1]rr.

Fad..

h

I'

- r , ù L ^ r h !! r t r \ À m r m,rrbi, ,r

h ldt rvn, d.

u.r !

h?

g'ordMa\!cx..piar rrreedseirh.,.rlrbrG .rûng ùy.d i etunE md orty nross b.ieflv on bù

. !i.rh4

e.$ir8lrkl

!d!

hdê ùa'it'!rtr<d 'u' Lhey\re.c a ùr\rbsic frb;e D.njji


A rabteL\den bnr nÉd i, slytingùe h?ir is wnio r plaibdhriroic.c(No142, !ig 99).llr rrere oriqina[! dâched to n d inbmk

lnc

beanb md ornmenrs ol pr{ious mdl ro be siitied, dner ùân riveled on io sitk (NMon 1e80,36).JMllcd hxnbandsor rilds canbc sc.n ii mùri l{th.eitrry dê|)idiois or rashjoiable ldies In the lllos lilec \rere lonr !i{h venicd pla[sh.]dinpla.cbcsidcbothchccks,anditws lirbler{den girdles &uld be hiqh\ deco* tiveâs{tl1as vefy sûaq md ilenble. À{mye1âb Brore. in.hdi s rh. sù..Ued sMnl beh ol rhe I.LlnG Don Femândode la G a (lied U75) rll the hbleb {erè rhreadèdrnroq$ Iod holes

li.ed slaves ûrher rhù hding . ritht ùd a woq s e md, i'Éreador being rDpliedro aÈ

work (côùez r\{oroo 1946.22. io f4. !h 135. 13ôClllin 1956ùlli Finledin l!,71.331-2no6l fiF 36l!,1. ^nothc' sconcticÀlly'at ncd si. dleÂariished*.ih fitiiÊs i" silveraid siher gilt, wl,ichÈ rcw h tlf Ndira|lr!*rtr, ofDeD. mark.n somctimcscbimcd to halr bclong.dto Efir orPonctriâ (dird 115e)vho bc.atu lins

There are roû pntr'ples ûôn l4th.eitury de losils ir lrynrq, âd rlo frotr,delosi(siialing ro

mrk in thc lateuth cenba (lùgerlin 19713ri?, no 126 iÈ,109).A beli I om the irer:] arhidÈ

metl threadsin& è..h eletent À romNsedol â :rredef nmber ol stmds doùbledæd ttuad

Ë

b

q


ion,b.f srrho n (dird*r9) j,rl.ol.do ûth.d âl de Èhri.lr {ilh ùidelokftl casr[s. rhe * . ù f c J \i t ?L À t ! . ivr0r i ruhq. futldr'l r. ,i lu d, li...nl.L L,i,Èz Àton4 teb û 140jamÉr.ro 193! 37) Thrc. orrlLesilt bbkr$îrr Lftid: lroin t4ih d r s . o n d i n r ô l , t l ,F . b p Ê ndi q r t A d b l2,mrkuld haÉ beenopm|'ùÈ tor elh{ moio.rirurt cto 450 lia '0ûp, dd rtie dh.; \rr .r 4.rtu urvu.ôr01ii r! rû! ne 'rlnh rntrd rô | (No,151, tiiÉ 1û]|) Lrled snlles q.n trrde fmh ffaii r- lr bul LoôLcL^ltrur rdd:rûnq ôA Ùj'eposrip.'scir'd'iLhnsblrkl. i(1,{l bùnôrrr"u i renJr\ n, tr.Lrh,hnsurnu È l L s i N ù i 7 r r 1 )À o r t È r h o t r r . L , r n d po'?r! lme 1,ldEentury rlllosir .oûbin.s soF sÈd rhr.adsùùh a saù mord d \i[< drarled h p'adf! | n'ûr Èren (No l!1. rrjqr02r. orry

r@sùi (a) \o !3, û! Nor1, (a) \o 4j

rù6?j ù i 'fr ri- uùà.n!r r\ r !tr rÈ n'xD\ r0rrcnnort,rùibededu.pd hÎn,N Ld'L\ ùr: [, u( u. I'rh ùl labl..r'orln nrrf lcdhrx ftr, ; sô rornnon in m d eql EtrroJÉ r\ l, . tronj rh!

{1. iÙù â Lb l,rh+dury eFsj', 9d; LL


Fkro3

slk ùbld lqq

gidl! \hi!h \s pn-

dâ6nglolLc619l'a[olihcrfthentqSù]c5l

only themr$edyrn apÉaA to hm bes drrd, a r.d wefrconh$iry {nn ùe ned blackhue of rheedgls .nd in rhe.edhl stipe wherethe silk mds were ùEÂded throqh fou. holes md Tw lâùld.!ùe! gidles lrun l50raulury dÈ tssi6 in r,ndon. onepre*md Nithù a .opp.. aÛoy$rp endro *hnh ii ws orjginrly ivebd lNo 423.FiE10n)md tle ôrier beântrgIn esol three riÈt holes,!tub.bly .lso lrùr â slmDùd (No,10,t, Fs 10,1), rde, a ôæge in slyle,lorùey paneriiis Ï'G châite is also@idetrtiion' vh! âl soures, Ircm {hidr ir cin Ùe \ær thar r$men bcs to wr eider girdl.s aboveL\c Mtoml wisdine in sùbduednonoctuomcmlous whÈh ten soù.es rèiiJor.e this i@re$ion, espêd.nr rhe galure ol A@â81rFsed in 1.163 du iq the r.ignofEdwrdlv'which'tl.Ntotoncs wmuhr like ro vehq or to s.dn bnnched (Sd luresoI (heReahn.3Fid IV c.5).By analysiq rhe bElds it .an b. *cn Lhat\ercE krc rblc ro (.l led$ or \tiuU6is {ln'. ltlvel .rd sriù dmnskjmt ash erlid rentuies theyhd simu. 1âredsmnb. ]lis d*lopmenr is iûusbaredflen belG.ùytree ùble!ruEn !irdles fromrheCoÈ linenr one a endh tum L\c tomb or Frin.c

Figlo4sikbbÈll],EgidtrNo44,.fut',dc

sidsnondoràndoltoMrlâtesb(diedË6€) in Rnrini,IlalyO\il l97l Flury-Ilmùeq 1933,15ç 7,471iigs9571;l,no2,1)md mothcrsupposedly Etrbd . orll'c.oâiiolt;f.d:

(I,iit.rlh 1e71,

3t-3, no r74) borhol {hi.h âre Dârernèdwitl' bandsoJ.ut pilek1É andgoldloopson a t,bl+ nanisdres Natioialmuseum,Nlrenb{g, simù laressti. damask(}ils in 19?1.1lÈ21. io


'llrc.e

ar xlsr na.n 1uhtrlârLrtdtrco h ids ol \rl'i.h live arP silk ul ht uoôbd ban r{Ùi{cnlundeposiL.blnnd,n (TâbleI) l r r d ù Ê r t u m nh l d \ i i d r r l r f r r , ' 'd Ftut\ . l r r r . p , + , 1l r r c r h ' l r t ' bf'il ru rn

r t sù i

Iiero5 trulir bbL!".ri brid5.($ sirk,No

r' ?5! r oh+^!dftu ibrll\lihi' Ddltrn.d rirh ahenirjr's g.onts or ddk rrd

i a r t r oi û t , l 1 , " , s N o r r qF i q x r  r t r d l ù : B r l h s i l t u b u L f rà d . L r f ' ' ! r " i r l to lii tr1chole Lrbl.6 \ùi.h $tre 1ltr.ad.d i'r an hâll fuûE loj trîr( id.li|,Ll di'ttiot i!iv.]

|rh.r.hù*âseonh.xrh nre{ûr:FrlLrids

!ùfe $ris rhêbÉefl, aÎdle. ùrakitrg Lbi,r

o

F

.iir tuhiqù.,

È Ld ri,lI

b\(o,br,. , r!!tr!b-. nb-rit uu l :mallff ..,n.,tr,êrhnni c lrlrtf\i 'ildhr rrtrrh itrc r râ1 ro I ti otish.hder dll(rl I Àr$$ 12eI h ; \ a , ,f l , n h , e . r k L L u ( db \ u . n { . l r t l r t . ô r i q f , l i r t u ? n i

Ùr-, .: 1{niil "ll'r l h . e û h L l t r r r i d . \ Ê r up ù i r s i n r \ ê r

-0..C

*

.qh

L!id!ln

.iil,t

ii

r:ri,,r m.dê60r u( suchsilkênbrairl c "1' I .ro'efd ItunLih. late]1th{eùry do.k i.ill àt n L T L \ " , ' l r . f u r 0 r * . ' \ ô l l c L , l l q i T! l A m lrbqplbH) ,l l

nlL u,l

Lfu ir

,.,.i..",.,,,

brl I r u) ii.ruLris

f i.l,d\i 'ir rlf !l hrr d [tL!ts thi.l!1h{ L.ouse dF cdee\ tf ihc Iintr.r \{c lili.lt to lrr Th.s Lôu.h mJd, iùtr!i tr,irr I' i' hnihduiLtrl0 i hh jrtr.:drd rhnilh M hotcs GiÉ 8,Lnt A l( athcr oou.h in llk ( ollc.lions oithe diasiiN NlNrm;lrnùdôn (Il()l.ac. m?0?32) bY(tr tæ( ws inis!,,d \ith iù$ No LÔurhore dyeâded rl,l.F ând this .dgirr aho hèlped ro


holdin plr. a n orvsiI(tuins rood i6 op€n ins.A sinilâredgnrssoduced{irh tw lùlcb is Fesenen or . rrrgm.nbry silk Fuch û.de iiom a loos.lv lffù welihed con4oùd l{ill ândhereâ 4 6mr widrhol clôrl,{is ltsrly toldcd inyrds 10pnrnh â 6.mcr cdsc (!ig 7')

Selectedcatâlo$e XII:

rz

Dd.rsiûN I 3r3mo (lD3 tr4rutrs). v im Iincn'mitl3mnlsptks) z/sdy wdg s lk mô.bmw (ilrdiû

sg106Ro4mEbdnÂdaÙbu]qbb|.+vom

wefr:silk, nidùon tqF:

(nqaù!!), /-/spl!. ), 23

e iù. hol! ùblL6, lrtiiâblJ

bbl(6sruù!di

s ândz

ntuni. rh. Tme

r.r2 D mûsio6 0) r 150nn v 1riûn, (i) rsrn !10nn (i) is*qbaphcdbii4Èe arir


1i4: jrk coLù)bnN (rÉùù,r/spL! nur Jk qi d4hnu z/!,1r.lri pilksDû. n rF!ùDûD!u5l/ù]Nlo\ii.ù{ùe

\ilq'i5lli

J,rkgddqùÈ^

li.g

d u tuLr (:r t!tr

Pi. n \dr sins tu tNn tigs

lagui & Piir.h{d 1e{. !q ru)

ri4

sirr 61. brorl7/!i!

drqdmmr!

!.i //çrrf

/. rn5 i,Ê{d\

lro {.b

r, r ioF,: (LLi) r tuùn. \' s.nrr (t hr\ di i llL ua![(!g lI4lsLkr[ùùhr'!{!Z/!pr]' li ! k I Dknhh,{! z,/tr! t ''(rI)

gtriiouldYgitDl/'ùjù!IafedR'

N rrù'i

is1 rû nD

\10 () ù'nql.,ld k b olr rlspl!

ÉibedgÈrhnlrne.rhkùn"ilLsilkiùic dùqrroD hù\ui!{rsi!q'

/ luGh

\'4:sjrr.ûLds[holn([pù!)'Zlsr,l) ftn jik rcddnhhnn! trFda) l/splt,ri 'Ni

!qark). z/s

( | ur o, ulb side)K a lDûrrÉly q*l!!tgj{)nfu/LÙislorci(ri'

gnt )

draded d!e' ! qùtùN

ihn

beds


rntÀigirq]qùùùlus'/.1Ûl5iorfdds

tbkr2}r4n@pM&@defto$qP|ylil

ûs mi 1LF4'& Prirdù'd r99r 6g3r)

Iingerloop braids \Ere rl$ Bnidsude by ûe nBdoop merhod exampleslive bed r*o@red Jtun lrndon de posi6olûe larel2rh 10eanyËù (rilurie\ fl,ble i2) l w orihcs {c' c uscdto edgeknoftd mesh h.irneÈ Nos 399aid 115,Iigs 9 121),md r olhera\âpurrslri"s(Nô$e.Fis31^) oth.^ couldhm beenusd lorlâ!ènins clorhinsGeeLi 1ô1) ]Lc techniqùesrequned threads 10 be looFd ùro...rd iû oi.l.r i. slipôrr drcti4 !s. !ùile d the oppositedd the tkemh were ât bchedioâtuedpoinlAmirimtrrnotlhreel,!p\ vâs.s.ntial \ithanscnDmbùolloopsbei4 dùed or the fiiteG or onehandad usuallym oddnmber onrhedher Àr.nlir's b rl'. tr'âr! ncr in ûich thc loopsRrt mmipul@.L eilherr flat ôr r tubtr1ârbÉid could be mde (Fs 10i SÉise. 1931,12È42) Irôr i'or. iiâû s.i.r loops ÀssondpeÉonms ftqùed sin eir*.sù'lprù. ii.âl to us dreihmbs io.hookingrheloopslrom le4tth de nèededdr. heb of ù assitut to bmspod the shed 10 (he oDosire s 1)I1l'e lÔÔ$I.]iÀnplc'omllndmshoqlhûitqsrct ùNu.l ro hrve at least$r peopl. {orklns d ee$er ândas nraryr\ lhiee $u'ld lidrlld ne.sâry ib' a 2llloop b.:id rtcmÉd 6om the l.re ùth{eûûry dôck iilill at Bc7? (Fq l03c). l.i s or I0 or non luôt,s'nâd. by tNo lf,ool. hxdthc advaDtqeIhd rhêyrould be dividedi o so bils alons pd oI their lsgth (Fs l03B), vl'lfh {l,ld r, ili.t v.ratilit} asptrn. stinss tsRids mlde û1h le*r loops $mennes had plaibd bils (e.g.No 365)and n is probable(hal menlary!'ouch No 393)h aiotherestr'plê Àflat,rlloopbm .t00nni',leq]l,,,i(lLi5 rr.scNd .onDlcb. wiqhs a mere0 3r tiq l03A) It can.thereirfr. bt dhnnred ùat â1leasl 3Ji,ch bnid\.u'l,l l,c ù*,le rrun û..m.. ôl nlk (m oLmce Éprt*nlins thêusu.l nè.sûÈ by whi.h silk L\Éâd Ms sold) By conts( rhe

G-,.,

D

";,,

G


.

.'.}..; -:ê

dalûbqrùcd,\o1ù.

(B) dr

No 370, (c) b.did oad! iron ,0


lexn llo^ (D?Le112332) Voi oI lhe inserloop dYoe axft rûn on. ùin$n{orored r:g nrd (Norils).illredosnh{lA,'rbn,Mr no dyeshùlshae been!ondvel! idenrii,ed.Hos. oef, ùeâds oI No h€s Joniry âlrernaring rlich hrs No looF ordùk broM silk aid tlyee loopsol a pder lokletrùturî ô:o uB) FiueF lôopbrids usingsilkthr.adsof thrccandibrr difûert .010!6 re knoMi ftô'n cathêdrulûe] su.ie\.{hererr,evoiû,in, drrsrj,{.ll)reri. quary bqi and threadsol amther color Erc

Plaited brdids Plailing {as andhc. mci.ûi and \id.sorcad in then dinensionsnndeldicit. md th4 $He eqdl qui.k b ptudka As Nirn iiqerloop Lheû,.hho,ahin somere!,ors tod.ybobbins are ried (o erch elemenl10imDron rhe tension xM .llthm of inb.la.ing (Hald 1e80,?1(É2). Sq!ùe bnids n'adêlion' .ight eleùeù rê tle o,on (dùûr rraile,lLfink ftoo ,,edin rnndon,r!here rheyo.crr in deFsib of rh. rir!\ aM 1,rdr.entuies (rable13,riic roe),rd a bnid ccnturyd.posit(\o 4r, lig110 ).^thaione


silL brid rpFa.: t, hnr brrr reL| ranr dr Éds orùtrr rhânom.ûlor (Nû l;il rnl rs v(rôÉ)du.i,L(.,r.{r I i (i,iarûr).Lrn difr,,or .olous helÈd rlk ùrtrls LobÈnûriûLhaLir

r l f t â d ( N o . ' 7 1 r . F i ! l l 0 E r) L. F. l c f ud i . D { 1 . û[ of h!. 6IGDLy fltr.adsvh.h \ouk] û1m

TabbyworFn braids sLlk ribbons in rtrblrv *t3vù 3ppùi $ Liqalish

xi$iir 1u!i

i d'lh) lrù il,.r di û,.xDo.ù

ùril rhel.rÈ1.11t' &ùry. \rrrêrn'ermêseiê.

?Ll! i!Êtr lrom rtrldv ru DrnL kJr wr ('ftLlile 1 { ) .l h . . a r l ù i b b o t r s x ! . m l $ o ! . r i . n p l L c d thro$ silk iJFterd !r.se Gr.lesDm.d) silk \ns rotrtrrotr :ùnl Ùr vaqr mi/in rtfr yrr s.rfr Di.s lr3ii ss s lhsindur.stutthc

frL'|'ao6r{m'


I:eniL^andCkthits dd hæ $itch liolesfld hces ol ssj,'s dlcad alory eachsidè (Nôs 331 335);so otheis ùe silbhcd io L\ewi$ oDdillls ofbubmd s1es6 (No216.Ii81{-4,No219)!md rorl'er1oU'c.dÂc ol a learherÈ,u.h (No333,fis [t0). Indeed,tlre trs. of thÈ bEid asa bi.dins in the lâreuin csr lury app.rs to ffik rhebegi 'j"gôlashifr&ny

Garters B) ine Kond qErer orùe 111h.dtory Âd^ hid baôDc a strllicicntlyconspioous itetr' or mle dre$ robesadrGcdin cond4orary ârl. Ai edr r{ù{en(ury e'nbrôidcrcdo@hrry sho{s mc or chisfs ll4qennù6 Etriis a crtr (chrÂrie 1913,no 72i Kry l9d3 33. no 53) and mmy trmpl$ r. dcpictl iû ihe z!rf, ,\dl,a .132t35 (rt 112).shordy âneNrds 8aftn b{me enshrinedin poDllâfimdnation by ltu .reâriônôr drc Ordcr ol the Gdler, sone time behveen1347and 13!9 (Ni.olæ 1&16,12430) I! calier p€riodsdidondly mrnrl or.ross saders. $.h Àsihos. d.pided in rhe Bayeux ]àFsby. vere popularsincerheyenabledlæse leg cmrnlqs 10be held nir y i" plrc. Narrcs leùqtls ol .lod! NUaUybetveù 75m and

Firll

ràbb.lGi.ibboN:

ribbonshar diferent plæesororisin, rhetr[er oÈs p€rhapsoning lrom s.all vorkshopssih ded i'i ilc lflln or ccûfti Asû lhe lâreroies bcinglo.âIy producedin r,ldon nrm inponed ùreâd. Asùn olherlrl)e! orbrud, sonhd Fû us e'neii'nes ùs.d ir$cad ol silk ùd oreuoven rom siryle Zs!u, rcAbd yrn $hich was lôùrd in alâie11(h{en(ùrydepsi! h, like mostor the sjlk ribbônsor simila date ûÈfr.ed (No 33i. F,E ù1C). No ùlou eIIe6 re viiÙle sh..eas sin'ilar \il* ribbo's eithcd b F$ ûptrLsshos ihât mmy r€re mde silh nùlii{ol Someol the riblDùs ç.fc Lsed to bind dt cdÂcsho kqq.hs de JoldeddoM ùe æ.lft

.:'r


1mlm çide æd sqer:Iy !l]m Êon wr*d !ûn in tous]red broten dltmn Mil1,ùm bæn idernlici as gmG6 and ùe kîown tom moy norih Euopû sdlerenb indudins lûn{dhry bndon (hitchad 193.{,63-9,pl ûrD). îêy in longsdipsmd o'd appedto hâE beenwr .ur in t\, t Dtuvidea û.t lli$ pair sone ol the*, hoM, mayhaÉ ben usêdâs les bân. d,s6 nLhcrrfim æ Eftn, æd their ùdL\ H 13Im ro becon!2$edsjlh the nrnwrsftn, 23mh *ide. fom l4lh{entuly Lodon D6pite the obvioùsinrersl blm in lhe coloù md.ut oI ho$ in the uth md l-3ù æntiei *ùiô is ap pârst llom mousaipt illuminâdonqlitûe is klrlM rbout whâtteis, if ùy, rere srn âr

L\isli,re.Then FpLJaily in the14thcmhq,lile Lhd in dre eater canlinEim period,coincided wiù â sholledrs of Dens t!trics.Otuo slit in ùe Irod ùp L qist heisht 0{efron r$0, 4), rh* eùsed rheleg to be displârd more@minendy th4 it hadbo for sne @nÛfi.s. It is lil<ù th.t wner ale wre Elners which reminêd cdæaled bênearhthêir tullldrÊlh toni6. lbe exc iion of Lhc bmb ol a Me. dii'€im princs, po$idy ape arrecmde, who €s buried .565 70 in li'e dne'lral of I Dmis, lruæ, ræâled rhâr she Næ lâid out ffiins lind hôs *ûen bdN boù hees sirh bdner crcssdrinÂsaroished siil silEr buctles ûd shnpods (Frârcel.nord & neury


1ibil6 o^d cttrhiry

"-'lb

,a ar, li"a,nu-**"

,rr,n""u,

e pu poseudr erb6 fec@eredtron . hn rh{.trùtr}dqr\iii. rrDdor enrbteus 1o ,lèr.iriir itrtr. Dr{i*ly hor'lh{ xtr madcai rliis Jkrio A lory urp {N serup on a nartô{ bandlooD ltc bcd pr.s.N.d ôr dr. L on ed.r h:r ?s crds rrÉiged in . s.rud.e ol raurtur {nr\. rs rrl[* emk, lltree red ends(\o 388.fig n3).lodrù orth. blr.k cMs s.n. drc' .d ûtuùsh ûc hcddlêsorn,e boû in Dairs \ hjd, n n,rcd j,, i nniaer sâner wilh x mo'î clJli. nl $Ihen ùrning .onncnc.d dr. w.ft Èsed bnrkrrds md loNfds arôr! one sel !rds..butotrûr.odr.rsid.ofin.wnexhded roud r rôd ôr.ord l.yo lhe \Eb so thxi a rri's ft\ ùeded After the Jù11 lensth or the gnnù rzs lÈmn. th. pi€c arFa6 b hâ4 ùeen Lft on ùc loo'n ând lhe {eh !ùn, which rc nij,r''l dhdul r, rl,ela{ !i.d. Nxsdarncdro ù!l Iro in the wp dn..non or di. cxbtrdd lools Lothe lidrn desi'cd fnf dF salloD. 'Ine sam. r.4in of ùud *d\ ùwd i,r rlÉ nexl sGl lor by rye6ritchiIrll ok alge ol th. conDlct.d \rallor I rhetrrepeaùq rhep,!..rs lÏeviouslv dcsc.ibcd(Fia 115)n. si.rih tri,i ltqrl' oI rhe $trllops €ry iot orly noù sder to gtrr bû al!, h rhevme Die.e,shoNiryùar itmsdoN by q. \ùthout ounijng th. iltr.âirs l'lr]qr rhe sdb vrs ùorn die $6lsht klveùe muld usu ârlr hâ{ ri{ lraeql d rl,e ropandrhed{oErivê

vâIops below C.loû efe.6 xhirh arc p' c$Dt o. ,l ùræ smlers rse ùeaied by sroùp1n! rorether a scrics ot ditrcr.nr.ôlùrcd erds (o rom nûros sipes whichtrortd hm run ho.i 7.ihny n^nd rhe leg Neither ùe tuing ôr nnishinsedgeis presrcd on thcs. l.ndod sar lersândsoii È norknoM shêrhertheyhid eLLb o,atcii i.a.s. rris in.u,od of!(kiu gr rersNâs Itrboriousùrd rine onsmiry Gns.qu.nry. it rffre rolmon in rârercenturiesro ,n.ke rM gahcrs at on.. by wâlins a lids loompi<^.e {hhh sæ .ur in hill lencrhvisc and ù.n rota[gftB{crcpufp.e,nid(a ]nrirrsoI clorh wfe sorednes r{yded as sdB. firnpl4 rrm the lde l4rh cmrùry in.lude l ùie.e ol smib (No 3:t6,Fia ?6) m.l ù,*ibly sme knoGd flved$s fr@' wold ûbriG nc cs.nrjar quÂrilyLr?l 0resepi{es is ûatilcy

SelectedcatalosueY\IIi :43 DirèNioùs:r.rûùr

v rb

(hdudq al

wiD (' wd. rd ( nâddû), spd (ii)wrr. h,.k l iaddû), z!u!

! t?


n!h: {qi. d

(nlLddd, rsÈu ,0 21 piûs pq

I

(i, Qd bb!( s sDû'

l;" Je, Ditulsio\

rsnn

w r'ûù (ùdldiDs sithps

( iJ!!or. [Ld!k,7_ nNi. x] râùspù !n

Hairnets Hli.d\

}e.e âisô mi(l! in r.r.lô, aro,nin Q)âle r$2/,1, 331) fnr ermrpl.s ôrho&d m.sh hâirù\ halr bæi re csrr.d 6.û, er.r\?dons ir dr cily: on. froù a râre 1llhrentury d.jmsir rq! Irom deÈsils ùd a snxn 6.apn{{ fromrhe lâie t4rh ce.tu,r Tnl orl mi.mr \- if Ùr,L "nr h.,u€se.F tL: I q\?lkdtl\ rld atlle Limroril,uônLiù 'Ilis ..!ords liih vi!!d *idenc shit ii shos lr,aLhân .h rih I smallknôd.d Deshdeclincd in lmjrnmiry duins dre ]4rL .enûry Àsr.'nxte ha6Llleschria.dr, @e moFof dreh.E al 0,ouh neh ôiiei.ontinrcd to bc wD ove ,hr back of rlù Lead tsy cond$. rh.tr haim.À 'tr ftrp4rnr h.

i

h4

hÈ! \Û!!tuÉ h.d 3lr'u

r I

l4

iE

Éa. to hav. ùrsilcd oi a 'uh larlei sturnj.f mesh iô ùhi.h j$tls ..tr1,1 oore easù! be ri\mrimtion oa il,e lou hâtnêts, \lhich a..

ncn6TFi.âllqDdlebeddr4sj]trludlicâhâj. mr.L?G.30 (âlrc a ûdd!ry oirjaruie b;Dsr..


Tç c

rnùrydeGi' a'rdea!.1L.os dhdl.d nenr (A .oiDrê pÈ.e,{âre 11 lR) dcdr. sùrc

i:

\oi

{nd!'ally similLi providcsæ in.ticdj{r 'i rn. meùodby{bi.h rheyvd. pmdu..d (fis D7) À seies of l{DDssrs madelioù â lighdypled dou' blc ilr.ad Rovsorknodedmesli*re rh.r c.c aÈd{ith rheâidoll rdtu*.ctiDAneedle lhich, ad rojudle t n Mmdes tresered Fom1,11h.


trllyol .oprer a[oy Tfie* neêdles,{hir h nry in lefgù Irom lornm ro lr7m, lere nÉdÊfmn

il

d,n the silk rhre.d .o l be wù,1 on ro the led e \try easiLyOis l]3). Sheerbend kno6 rin.n.s ofihe ùrêd \ffyirt ftôùi ô,e hanûer10 âtrôil,èroi$ng-uD.rio er Loe'$e ansen sizeoi mesh.a urll nusuing $trk, pcûaps a ii..iôd.y j,,Dcl,!âr{;,sLyldi (s,clurry1930 11) On the lsth centuryhânnettiner thrrd $s


Flgl21silkm6hharedNola5'ududiadcbl

dadDst)첫esloiquerqorrr,cr4Ll'(,1u! q첫 {r oic!!,{Jr I 1. (B)d청il sd.3!

l{)


!{d r.trr|l lnn 15nN Dl Lhem.sh û (hi.h r,. rl'e nmbo or kmh n:s i nrtar{l u .* ird Lrtr.irùnrrcno (fjl 1r9i À:i'nila' f.} lufc C 4ri.ù ur i rr{nr4 e\ùlaredÈon i llth{.ù!r} derntri1 i.An,i.irn OiDlau . I$1i9.rlir) ri Ll'i!nsgds dlr ir Mr . rri Lr .oiù1on pn|h.c lh. nôn rù\tde hnirDer \]io}s Lhxrrqâi mde ii dreroundandtlntrlr ù.{r{rs:l'.{r rlifk \risb} B1sitsani ol fôlr rltrlrds LhnLshth.loi(lûF.{ me ûd (Figl:1).1ncdpposib eid {i1h!hoû.r LooFr?! bnid oi rh! trrobndon r[irtr.c çr trt thn rrFtrr \ûrse ed â tirsên@rLrûi hrs b.cn I rrhcd r iirrscrr\ lirl!wiD!Ll' eadltiis120) Hoqdtr â kiônd Deih hrimû lion rrr. lidr dsr3rlkl dqrrntF i o tcsp *ùi.ri isD e Nn,embds h?sI trtrûoylrÈen sili hbht çovùi rrra.rbfô.r.I {irrL.n^*riJisillt'.silr trêrd. iit l,Pdilurd thr edg. (HDF l1rlrlllÈr ûl :l)&r)nr n.slLLrlhishdrnerinrùcDitre|gis xnh a chequ..cd pâtû i ( n)sses eùrùelÙshed dx'n.d ir sfe,qrDd lhiLesilk u xDFa,r il,dr rttr..,r,{r nDtcb![ed silkùeshhtrn'etr\ùc somcritrlcs trs.dartrn rûrnlaruLfrrDiu.hmùÉ 'lr,n n o,r o I rkiry hù!!$ $:s ti\ Do d'eùFrrronr!tdùq.i"tr{ jr'iri orrernl lenod AGc,mm paifiiit ddld.u!0 sirorFa wDrxtr {ak d rrj ù qtr sr i ro! rjlm {hLdr a rr s ter{ored ûv!:: r97l ul. hs t) Slr çrks d rl,cDelrilhanredlerl,ùishrhaùl bùtuh{ thanbqiinirg{irhrnli\of roq^rnt\orkiqj rdrrô!trdrhererni.rtsesin\ ih.xdlnr\

l\

fl]ç!tte{ÈdùùàÙddiÙlrZ]spL\iÈ

SelecledcâtâlogLre XIV

li[goLdÙ]Ùruutr!]orvl,!)silktvi(q

lrei

sLkr/srLr preFidm b.ôs


Sewingtechniquesandtailoring Lndem!$ûry oImùr in the itrn' or litcntue Creful ormindion ol rhe iexiils lre$flcd or.htuniclestuds b bc iudsedlith caûion,Iu[ I om medidal r,ndon reEâh a much !ae.Èr raire ol ùidence fôr sc{ing le.htiqls ùæ È (hdilh thry ae ol Do{ertul imas a dehils n h .oiblns m elemsn ,f rd or inbDreÈd imediatcly obvious.Furthernore,a rdt imbcr hct. BurhN do s. tôdayide iry iheseclemùts .d bc assiated Éqrc.Ls or dre r4th.enbJr rùn iGms or.lôthinF vith a cerbin deFee ot or jtrds. Lhebiis of a chrcnidei !tubibly Àvcry .ôrridcû.e. YeLthe vêryhd rhd rliâ ôreffheLn- .ônsmtiE chuch',ai. vchcmcndydbckfla somevhi'n ôr trshion whi.h he niÂhl himselr iù nâjûil' ol rhe* reriilcs rcprestt diuded senturly .(lopt L\mqh lmiliariry aM the de sùûx ltun mn clothinss4erâl or mnv v.rs o1dat Lherine ordepositioù,nB]tcs suchd ex êrGc ot idùdlior,oi hardo,6 od ucedain, andii Gro bc hoDedrhatmor lishl ùill bc shcd re.ordsreldine rothe ',a*ina orFrmenc .r the on the ideidtr.âtion 01{,nc of dr. sdits 6 a dne mon or{iii.h ccnte trÈr the GreaiWd ôb" ot th" Lml'.h roJn hu!\.hii lr!ar. dned resJi ôrihis publi.{ioi Bi lcnc.u ! ô u a r c o r L l ' l ' r u l D s n s o t J o r l t s. i l l ' " rôr thr pre+^t.omÈ!!p!nn's mdtd liùeù. itrs, th.eads br.ids, liinges, et lffm Filc co@\ or hêdmM lromrlt 6r drâpèc, merc.n æd silùrcûu in lindon,làe dorlriiscrâmed in S.andiMùâ,Irotr'l! ont subsequen(tcah.nt ol eûe of thê NooÙfl , ich remis or 16ih{enttrv .lôùing frnqdeils. dodE md linaû! rhe di*iburion of rhe5.Âoods Ar and tom more rrcni Eropem exGvârions drây ol 10the roel bnoA andlnnôlfen vho tude tl'e is ùe ôùe the oinc' c ol the $le sLnivllg nrdi$al embôid.ry. mo{ esD€ciauJ' clolhin( u,d srch oth.r l*rile iteNs3s btd ?nd ûesotrp dtibubd b Éislish 'nrufacrùe (r,rai momhqinsi hof* ftppeA adlrùûsûngseai aM tlæs rd baDc* rorih. ki4r andhh turnly a,uJ,i,r!n), nlch ol {hich it b.limd to h†(Xi.s 19€3, 5) u riimds (slailmil1973 9d ad 1939).I'rrôr or lnndon be *orked in the .ity -n'ev pnbmidcriesdenonMte ihe hisli lè!.1ôr m:bui Jbout ! prn.- d',1m a. or màÈnrl\ stitchinsskilh {hi|h exieed!id. ry sid. { n the {lù!h ù<w d( {,Ls ! Mde tr lÊ urêtuÙtù' Eiloriu needsj', Àiujor on,trb.ion llke medi sô.iabd {iL\ stiving t:ales like ùon: cF av.ted in r.ndon md Q' h.lp to .nend our (nnren0.riry iluniùijôns md *trlDtres kno{ledse irtrl trîdcBtudiû of {hat re no{ snâI bm! st.ps orcloLh. hrve beer ùmh u*d in the $trdv or med'{ir odr.r Grd lvaùùt. a..ounb deùil the eF (Cùinsron 1952i E€ns & CminAor d:cs .lâitr,cd by the 1âilo6md âmoùeB itr bù( aor 19s0! :ior r$6), !fl\è\ nenld l$t $52: jh-\. ô.ùj e€ r eFÉl,sed imFe$ii ôr rddiiion.l reqlisibs ed laÙou.m$s lllc laher Lilq dc pardo,hny lalùabl.lir. the i.Iornatior ùal .lothn{drhetrm. Ùro fft\Fvidcth"dd whiLh rhe,a.ù prnde aboutL\ê tine laken !, ùrâk. ormnhdion aûdswiu hhniqrcs FF srch cnain cdmûs, the nurbe. ,'r s' k pcoplein Iâb 20ù cerruo cres us h drc liNlârlvi theùruarnmes imryèscan.etuinly helr,t, gùi.lc us b daliiss volFd md, or ftn,ocGsiors, 'lhus {e m *e {hal ted ând ol in. worldorce ior rhe rexrile5cxcact d in Loidon. siden.e voner ofren$lrted doûlskl. cach oL\ei rhe whi.h i' tun is.otrobonted by rlF dâÛûgni NomenHeivitr lom. q4qes (abourhd, thm liom the sde $bs or æsociared anetuds d.'cê tlicir mle coûerptrb h is cler rnât thc rotrDlcd wiL\ dendræhrciolosy (ûÈri's .lotliis or the ich i'KflFtrr.d n'any r.line dâting). menaaùdsûbd.1i6 ollinish $1rich'night not be rou in ùè.lothins oI ûe 1es amk r'{!.É $itr one or $o er.i' b:/ drss histori.ns, le$ tions (Ctddtrrd1927iEvaN r9s2:Nston 1930). ùeles, rhe i.Jonniûd' ihat sc on sther abour


5tu1rrqbnùiaÆ

a,t tathùt!

rr.

mliJ!hns

&rû'n gâ' mrl\ iû ihê r1ù cùnur!:

lhese f..ods

alb.ir Iq xn ê\{rem.tv sedrhv a rud lr oI jtffim}Ô; {rri.h isrrh.r dnecd!r.rn.nito r!,eds ùtdr .rùlded rs\(ileso' rlrri(niltmi..le su.liir G .s us. o, ( o{. \lXere uprooridrc. {hcnrotu r.r nc+

i i amrd

hÈfl'!

Èru.!{jq

inrr ri, tur drrrhi, câ ù{F.s dlFml\ trùde or rh. iFnedr rrsertrdvÎf. nm'. 't(si $trdrùI ih.Dj n,t\ nid.ir..Ihirh is ùriatrô Ltrehiio4,ol dr rl--.loDfunt or nnj,r! md iailoriE nitG. ha! r rt {L 10bc d?nookd .r ,irsctrfpdin ih. ù! ni rn!ùf.rtunn

Sewingthreads rrs hr ar È |lro{,

rhc s.ç a! thr.ùl in q.ki,l

Ilndotr ûost\ or d udernnined v.ld,rbte hbr.L,rieFdrobeJt4rh.s.ocûrnrsê:;sNr h!rÉ. {dl} whcreonêrùht.xor( ro frrd rj,i! in..hi,{ {eq No 22r.Ii! 16,1And ts N,, 24rj.Ha r70 a No 2{9,I is t32A).Elss{rre . trh ,a \iF. rL, à n ! t i , i . u f t o t c . G + N o r . h . F q r n5 d2 ,), 1 pfôoùrtnôrrtrebotubtêroa$unrrluLinnjo{ r,p cr ur \hi,Lrolie efô!r6 0f ill. lllh ren rurr rLo\ rtitrrljûetrdnfad uasN.d e\hsiv.n brltqr ôsv,Lshopsn{,ptyi'rsrherouii{jlir ddr,ins r oùrr [{ite iLcnxNatu,zt\lj,Len thr.iij \rf nsd r.tr soli 4 tiDeûddjûjs rd sù.hoùcr doûr,(icireDDis tonr\ 'r,teridhÊ da?lkins ir q2snhoNrt lorqùiltiûsb.d.ô!,a !b andrLdfess$ sr!. mril)G linenùibnri dÊ,r of thc 13ihïrl tlrh rên{urysnrs irj ..nr{y (s.h!41e& xtirllt.FchrÈÈ,Èen lxj3 fl, 301;7,û^ 112 l{l 141i, 15!7 lris) ri sril4rraùt (!rhnr.rd;,L 19i3. / 9. nôsr0i! 10ir)lrù r'lielh.r drn Lech i 4r ,l:yed a silT iri ùDl.oh n l:Jj(lînlis lei c.ndtr ne tùol rrelLd sùppljedio dr. (;ed \firdtobc ir rrr 1330s.\rberleùr2;ùd?std DertbrMumc noto,,lri.dir.,,ùlhi.knc$es.bûxtioi, rqf .iJ d rolor^ tn!dnfâll merjrlj{b.nrtu. Lrndotr ù ftA of toù qoni likp ihe "ho

nt,! n I L\,.;nt urir\! r r!\.r t ? î , " . È i L d ù L d tnLr . , , rrsfe is liH. dùrnnenh4evid.fù. orcoroù lmd,i,m\r ,.rr.,i,u,J n ii L i r u l P . { L seirq ùtreâdiû nrd lailEfgtând Iùw uNrn, rdræoloeior è\muriô^. lt?És d dii]l rg .ononqzs.daiûl!DDùnc.ljrdrecrirr ùrtr cuM!. Î rf,fies ro'h lj(;N2 md na72 ù fH{'ùr. ind 12! G{txs {ùljns irjrrjiDs


ldilâtntt:t aarnmb. md Ior {ifing b.d nnÛA*s nnil .ô!.fleb (Nirol?slri6.331,3?,t!r.53): itco$ :{l lil.d D.' lb ir thc lir3osP[ed.ùtoi dyptrd rîs GÈdlor thê{i.ks olrddles (Ly\oDsrsr2.ia: Blxrkley & H.rDd\$ 10i1.91j) causiry rhe q$lLry or u rili(iaLlishriit to iinpnr consde. l9$r. Lr)2-3) abl! ffztuui ll:irkoln r..ôurt , -"ords Lhe!trr.h6e or 6lb ôf coton rhlÈrd ai l2d pd 1blrom Alire sDice. (rlto t10L/102/13).r ihof c som.dcDc. 1lùLii ss trs.d in mnkin( .lo1hÈslor Rjcl,trd ll Silkrhfrdws trsn exk.snt! iù rrra.wirt x on(nrùdiordtiqaldothi.sinthcnnddle âg.s a pklire {hi.h h llkely rô haÈ beenIol loxîd by ùe ârisrocrar {'d rid' ù rhâft fan' jljt.s lr ili'1ûall! tln onlysè\riu ntreadto lim s8i!èd rhê durp. mâerobiccoûdi1io'sli h ons\rderrnit !ir.s vo$oithcstkthreads an rçô rl!, crch elcme teiig 7-Mhrtdând theispli.d L\replionsn'rhùil((jrdij,'!da FurlL rrun â lâr. lilth{cnhLr derÉsir ..d a h.mrd edllÈoi {htrt çâs p'!bâbl} n ltil where sirulelhÉltr]\oraosillk(rt us.d(\ol1r8 fiq Silknyêâdis tr*dIo, seu'sa hq15u'ûn; suNivirq riisDois ôr {ov. , Jk. ltu corNed th'.rd n bund on \ot l.16rid 327.r'her M riipcêsol tine silk lnl,bv re j{,iD{tl by li, tr' ole ni'dLi',( (Fis1:!^). r1!ùy hdè theser". ms mort rùr.enFd {irh â ,}m join rhentri(h vi$d nikries.Arlrisn iarJy.l.gdrl(.ofrîn. d,aNior I may bc n l.tr reD.ir ]id probâbly .oûEtumâlùingolr$rn'e .El\t{1,,n tr)_ nne ùn,1ir rhnid is lsd ro, h.nmiry or edre {hipping the Èxt.nel.v rire silk Èns (i\os 33?sjll rlLn!'l i\ Àkôun'dror 3lll,Iiss rj7.6S,121i). il k qnl nj nqcomplere bu(onholesaid E?leG tiirsrlr ls 112I16,t63).Iorseûtri'sD,rrd Xi2)i)rdlcoraNe Licriu(ors1Il$ !{1.113.]JJ. lorldit hins (1.i6 lit,, r1:) trM irr dero'rÙlt brakh,ndcdeestrulieddnedi!o't'lh.da.s l4ll. Û. ol nc*, . anl Nr.s (Fiss;^ u,]-C.135.

hr1s

evide'cehelr^ i) t elâi" 'rLr.r..s to thc del uscoflincû md si[{ thrÈadoi !ùious strnncnls in dr. Grc?trvâ rbeiKord\tr1'hhhaflr.tr rrithcfro lDririr3.forin$ d.. dirj(rlr ù, iiùî'.i of grtd cloih vas rrÈ r yl 01fi\t g/re* senled to a]keo Pr,ilir{ri)rh, I l:a{.r.Iôdriig ih. Dakins or whi.h h r.quned llb ol linon thrêtrd rnd 3ozsoI silk thred. oo a Nnd b Ftr br\is sill rhr.âd {rs onsid.mbly more .xpoxivcthmlitundtreid ll1êt;rcârrvâ rcbe r..ounriolrhel3l0sslrovll'arli,n trc{1ofi.tr e*ù0r,, r^rl( ssrh ln Fr lb 12d.pcroz,10. {hereG silkthrprd.ostin rheregionor lis. il ll0s.Ér1bI]resill Lrïd'a,ûnnllyourbFcd i. n cls Dcr.rs or ll.lid r.rchtrnu ùd vrs aLril,lrl. itr â $de rile 01ol,ù' \\rl,ii . Lla.k, ÉatedlyrÈ.ined ùldF{ $îtr|d hâlr n*(d'cd th dlts oI the cliil's od ',tr1 D 5jlk5.alrhôueh or .r.asior it is posrbI thrl ront.liit .ûlorE Vre (;fr lld'hnr. a..ouDb nc.d b be ex r nincd 1ocldJt rhf i{ùl.v or soodslile silk rlr.ads Ar Èesed oDlyr lilrl(. \ Ltoùù âbôû I !ùl,r silk$m,.r bdorc thr nnddk oI rh! lrth (€1uiy, .lthoùgh .xtcnsiueseârrh has rtu dù.adaqmnliri d int,n.niù raadi"s dr.i, adiviti.s lxt r in thc l+th Dii i. rhe r5ù .êtrr!4 (Dale l9rl2 { Lâce! 11ilr7). lre! !K illlai ir b rids.liiqqes.h!*lr trtrdoth.r sn?il slk eoods. \b !'u!,l k, !\ rdrnriin ùûo1rlne?d ihc riidlur rs.s  pmctirc ol con:ide uê trt riqd! .id oie {h'rh âppeâr ro h e bcetrm,r nxtonNoolrkiliiDalodiid l.r.lôr,an(lxlrin Yô.k.dmDs th! l01hùd rrlh rê lfier (I'f' tcl,rd 19st. 5s 9: \rr:LltnrrlillqÀ. 103) rl'o! is Nry r,niior lr wôlkl sdr ùd by Lhisùne lirer at aDdsi1l,rhiei(lsF'hl,lr Édu.i,'ar..l

lr.sneû n,pf. c be 1i[le dotrbr.lùrtv f, r1L(rhenseoI qil n ri'{ rhr.tul ùri $ili halr lr..i \ùl.nr.ad ù thl lo\ù dAses oI 5ociea{ silk th eâdùtr' als, Le lorûl ù! d ùFr $ff] iM n is ùÈ lpr ol l1ned thd q?sNed o, rhl rrll'rdtrry riiin's I'm, Hùjolsfs, Gre.n nlsolor bûoihôles hdrs. ând sems. Tlt Fe Fndr Ne orL)n niL.hirgrnons t6. L.ndon land,\'hich\rm .lùniùt.oùnui9 losrdditrl u.urlly trscdfo' the rri,r serG. *h.nas th. n'ore c!{r\i!. silk rln.rd Nh prob.b\ re scmd Ior iisiblè ârd dP.ottu. stithLry llis

o,nr li$ .Mnù,lcs or ù.ol thtuâd $ed lùr sil.hill! D,ùDo*s srnnr froni L.ndon lor Llùs I.ltr(. *f i$u. i, d {iih laLrrmedie!1]Fri,


sl ui,ts b.tr|n6

otd taihniljl

rtrbby+o\dr .lorhs. indtrdins one rnrid, i cd trtrql sirh {.i ri..d bxnds(No28,).ltÈ ako insenedrlrouh dr. selv.dte oi a sill l\o 153) dd Loiirrh â nGnedrry n,llorrwill(ldh {No l5ri) lh. ollcouldhn. brn mcdrs r beh b( êqrilll- intryhtrF lreù âti.fo'{â$ening a dorli o,

rnn be slrked silh thHDrld irr u,rr rrf rvo , .quisitc.ds.s r .oDht suchr mdhodofroin

Nlu ùrtlLds dd iLis JF$ible rhd dre rh@d \?s ùnârlled lron Llk nÉre.iâ]. ll'ooLrlrend ri nlt ftqn vdÉr.d yà r (ht r knoqi as ft6rL rhrtd) orcrÈ o.ly o...sioù.lly ir tlie Cfetrr ll:ùdtubeâr.omLswherirseemsrohôt beeL us.d solclytu' .Dibroidc'r mohrs(NLcohsl!6.

ù'oru rheiridor rexilês ô.cr ir Nos326and 3:i (Fq 12dA).T\o Dieresol rrediùr'\tish{

edses a.c seiedges or vhere they dè boù

gen',Àrwith r hfiy côa6ê NÈpl:/ silk dlead. dors llt *lvedseotore ûece irrr folded .dsc of th. oth.c th! stirchi.c tr .otrsiienrly n'$jùg'hsaidi\plâyi}.ù.lt'Ùd.lji|Â

Sewing tcchniqucs l]rc o,isiml constuctionor dothire in md heD truopc liom dinà] skjnsnodotrbrbrcushrâboul

nnène$onhÉ.d ùd smllnè$ of$ir.h whi.h is appruFùre ro such a silk ând {hirh is de'roo whâtpurlose thesenigù'ed6 *fledr tl'ey {ftê Frlur\ r linin! olaaanN .,lrerly c(r(l{l Irom sonr .arljcr Ge. rre joi. epears n01ro

rhnn {ere sr.duâllyûùdified lonFe {irh clodr Mltn fromruot, tinen,md. er ktLy.sir]lerr ûiil.s. l h. r.p.'bnc orstitchcstrscdtojoin âDd is .n ùb1io6 qry oljoiiiu edtes ol r puFe or bq lor in{rk this is ânorherlossible i er 'lli. dn.dioD or thc stithing, .o trpicd icJ Dn,ce$,i ï,dyi"! a li.lirt njrdij,Ls. Dr.hrior wth $hd seeùsto bê a ;bftiis kmt ardF l.È scmiûg, hcmri.s rnd other hnÈhing lerh h l side,susens d,d il\r$eriell oi nor risht to 1.fr,or lith thc &rk hcldin the bn hand. con{n'diondi{ills in ùÈdidil.rd eùlJ"ùod e,n Eùope. In the lollsring rlmcnlâry v{iu ruL lrom leil 1orish1.or lordiis the body. Anorhefroining lerhniqneNhirh Jnry dene h.rd.d È.hùl.iai il Gve4 llkelysôrp {it.hi"l {ns râriei orl bvlerlr,aùred se\rec.rrrl irr,s I' oDil.dh.r {.rkiia h drt or ,rrdrr., .decs. m $ôpr biilcs mt bc.nDo$ibl.to idcnti$thn hcdai.S. isai,' nrher le$ sathrtraola 'ftn i\ a ,r o,r rh.n. rtu be.N* li rftvirs FjoËrirxit,,jrjir iLh,'iqù. rrd sas!,âirùâr! toldiry ol onc or boih edgesrill briry seda e duih to thc join as in n'Fândjell seHns.Io. exGndedin ùs me on \ovÈn 1èxlilès10.!,b.ù! su.h pmcricâlrennemcnt as henriry ldher eunple. A s:ll rù! of lrarrtu îtumthc l?1e llrh ..rtr4/ {\os 2:lli and 2ilÈ2,12) dnpLay {ionùi bdd!. bni& ôr fri"ses stir.hiit rli dnièn€ ol ov.napr.d *trtr\ rlthotrgh rll ù. ramerobe ukd or n\ oworofieârede(nrnt iithing ùed\. p.cnntitr o.$'ilr litui, hav. loi si'rc disppcacd (fis 125).Itu pd F of sritchirg rrrês .oupltd NiL\ L\c diiibtr a)æÀlirdxr8or rlhippiry rru edsesLoÊerher is r comon k.hnique lor joiiiq r$ pi<"esoLnk ltur \rheù the rie.es tre olFied ort, rid bêiiÊ erommirâl oI Dh"io$ n,arerial h n nnsl eisili

thc scm thd xns med \Iilh ù.! Èx.eùior all Lhese bzsmenbapper to be rherer Nolrhe i)d nriiod ôrhôs..rh.rc Jht{anN }.tr1dbc ûos .onJonâùle:the doulrlesdthitrg e.htriqùc MUldenablerheserDt)ies{11,!{(df |i ç i!.. orfta..xpo icnc.dinsidcr shoror booll1


i


seuiryhrhki|]4.d|.1fui10,,18

|f'!^|i|' IiÙ. hl! llh eltuE dc!o:i|r' 1c) ùu{6Fsha!( i m! [& b4^ nn$cd iLLlI

$!!ld *em ljieD nd dr. li.i ud dampnesof rheh(mn Joi crcabd.o0dirions Nhùc tuf r.r shrinkâgcol ù. .l{{1, look d?kr rh| rtrs edles do'rs die seâùs nox halr an ud,,ldin( aÈ iDiûlti.c' or ov.r Êia.d,.e rhi..à hassussend sèsrc to crri.f r.s.m.rP6 b( in tâd ir G sinpry ùat d,e soliru rhrtad rcmaimd ji rtâ.e {hird dù nrromding rtueads ôr rhe cloth shÉrk the usualsrrlaDor rlksese?msÈ 1 7trri whik ûe srir.hêstre abotrl3.m lo4 aM plac.d ai:r lntr' ldery s. The slirchinghoÈs md a$cined derressionsi' thc dôin shos lluL â tunlx D.ql'r hemsûrchms rsd .long both ûw èdFs. f.rayi,a ms rtiu\ ninimised;ijnFr more ûe clorh {o!td halr becDtull..t b.fore b.iu o'âd,,r(rurd inLogrùe$. . Èoces {hi.h.ho reduced Fayirr nr rHi Ne otâ seirn oI this kind on L\e lior se.rionsot hos. is .rli.m.d by n4in.irs ,J hos oi l6dr+tus, oriein irud i,r dre cio eÙler ûn ..ni4 1l,; *irhiit ôi s,re orùese larcr h-agnenris slitL iitld ind. ilrhough onccda. i\ ùsudlyloldedro sive sûenÉn on L\e finer Mlled cldh qhiclr sù Fccd.d bbby sd{r clolh hose.eseùblly rhê

oie tirçnrit 1\ô 212) 'jLh narchDof. .r.qiy ùtrt4Dirr:. sê,ms01È 9mrdotstrôrroDedro b.fi oD hôn..rd nlybe âlrhoughal ort$Dt ir È impô$iblÈ10hzri qhar rhis n, shl havebeêi ]i{l{ Lhcno{ùdirloùlrormof {an isrl'r1 \r'heFa Lincor{in rrir! nrs prxllcr girh rhÈrr! .;tr edscsto bejoincd.and I hxsr, be ,r\Lmed

ùd by rhe ddd1. 4cs too rl,isws Lhemo{ trs neùod lorioinitrgte\riles Alrhougha ftdr ber 0l sems ôr rliis ki $Rive aDio.srhe l,.don te*iles, thè lnchiru thr.adshân âLTon compldcl! llis@!eâ'ed, leaing *tfdejincd srirchiis holes liom this dkt, Dren is tusible iô rr,w rhd in Lhcm,jorinùl rasesaaiù r'e ,,,nrsiâr, fts usnr i)r hot.liry ûc so edses baetnù (lir 116!Ù.]n. siæ or ù njrdr vdes so'n.{hd. $ is 10be expsb4 bur n È usuxly


Fia 126 sars j! ûrl Û l^) iuù'iieiil.b a'd rR)bdlr ntul, L) s(dùoÈùcdn?rmd r.iÂfor.(r

r.labd to d,. Jincnc$aDdtl*ibiLi! oI rhecloù; sli(hlengrhsof2lnnnhavebeenÉ&'ned2 3nnùej,'lùîÉl l)(lxil..lDitm{ot,ic.nmi"} tion or thc hol's rnd impre$ionsbn b) ùè loi sdi.hcs&ùld vtry Rll produceno'e exacrirloF rurjod abort tli. ssiry mcthodsu{d. A li.e or tumiiÊsdthes liÀ long lrsr d,. n!'al Jne(lrod othli,lj'slmft t w,nsi,s rlnr xMhor.*ntitrmmyNnDlesolsLniYing

Beùtrse rhe .ùr e,lgesor vMû ral,rit5 ùnrÙy iiay quib quic y as the rtsLlt ol liirioi, â duir ber of stibhirs rcrhnjqùesnlve beend$tloDed melhodsoI overse\ri"t whet rridiôî is iot .o'l sidemble, ormorcomliùldv. âlrl,rqls !fiI'f sann.,sinslc o.doubl.ioldsùms) oInnG. i.l Nhi.h lredy sr.rgihù drc cdse lrlrereN lodry exlord ft! d$ 5{n iivùirbl} sùfiaih cncdin somcey, (rnrinly ârsùùèîr eùÈs it ls likely n\at in pa$.entuies ri* dtges sufrired dred rtmy rùol hbrns lesslikely b iiry ThedidenceolLl'elenjlesîrer,lrrdo, $8 a.*s rhat on a Ldlù doth a siaL. hm xns

rhos employedin sh.più sarmencio fi. dose\ (\o\ ?35.231 'ury 11Ln(ul,l h lrri {itn to rhehmli fom. or i" iiirri,is fru.iâli)jd\ (â.nhorcs.ror .kmprc) liq u7li, heldwilh â nmniu$!r.h Clos219 ,zrr$1d $!!ld havebeen no'î âpproEùre ?13244Fq D7B)ortoÈrirchedaer',rhei!r,r aFisr2ôR)nln is rù.."âi" ùid.N. ol back s .(lig127c).nlcrintmcthodotrccaprotec sitched semÈ nmùnrs the lrndon re{ile lrrr tionio â ô{ edgerid is apprôprift b L\c hemol Drcn{s,burrisDo$ibleLhmrhesèm\oabibù1 .de. morcmprblc oI ûkiry sonè stu$ .nd ir is ind rnem $e prelercd rher.oùiit rrrt dlfirt usê Addêdst.ngrl' yuD\iruq{lLrhra,of artw wsgi\tnbrrtrf ôr ,unMFditch.s on erch side oI the semr. Nûrkcd drtuqh borhsean alloldre od ourer A sLeewlr@renlnotr'the dqr\j1d!;,F rl L!,r pddl.l çiih md closto thc san' (about2 thc sc.oid qtrdrorthe l4th Énhq d lC/, 3Im).]]is helddF rtr'n allôwic6 ùidên'êatl' hrs ,l 5im foldcdba.t, heldby b?.Lsûchiry in silkihl2Ùnrfu''|h...1Â.]fu'îh.rsî I|1r(Fis tl]ric). a l{hDiqr }hni' is llg, rou(l ir Ir@renG Nirh èdsesù!ârÈdin drisrny mr be $speded10hr &me lron sleses?<wll No\


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11r

lÈ{*

r r.r îe only nro evDlrlt j r/dotrbt. rrèms rtrê lold i'n0on.lttrlor dreoùr., ,irlrsn rll *ool lrrsi,enN otr. ! tl ojliû rn tuD n ; L.L r rêtinmrl ùl,lL tnD.0d rûrlhdnd.!ihliqf nid.abrhN $r.lins. lh frond trùl $ns.L.irtrtr tugcf r û n 5 o r r ' . , , s c o r b ù : n r (i F N:u \ 1 ; . 2 i 1 n , ù . 'rqnr fr)r,bxbl!ioD rrr.h.ùùr manrk.i oorelik.lr rob. r'nr,I o:erha toD xdrd[ir - h h i r r L r r L l r! o v l É, t iL r p n.!r,lrhjln atritùln &qr{e Lo!.. r\u rriLr ) |l I hlLrLLhor', .q c ivrr| a I 1.hrlhj /i d t t r or . l nnri. iLis hêklb y tr. tu. i, s slirdrê\iL xbor L" \ihd.,ltiI th,rn,!nôr i,,fr'inrrir, crnxirnr/h rhÈ Nr.(rrdoùbll 3r.rsl) lhcsxtri.nkrlLd drd har t,lnj tr$d ûj]lrh0dlesotlr6c'ù!.lDDle:oll]

{ildii4hr

rr.rhùrt(\o23). rs Lûirrl

.ri'h .,roù rd L,&ds rrôii ., eîlv lrri{.trr"f dPpùi s.'r 0 h$r lr{n lr.fu $idr n,; rrrrifurie(i.ltr.i Lltre (Nor3r)).h:r! ot Lq! r'.nrlrrnh ro!êrhtrrorrrù,n.riie Drr rnr n,È sid...l$ qnsroldedba.kÈ{rnm xr.L nidrd5 ]j'nir inft nrll.rdge 1ùt.ù.r.dge qblho fôrrrribârkrôidrpdror?;ûn,sLrtLi;û ùrrxrsehenrnoq.,rerndrhnir.tr.d:_ri";,

&iLkd(.rdlLrd jr is FsiN,. td ernf r[d {]ri: trasrhecda.r,ra Lnilm!sarnrtrrn!lLr,rloft x(NL rlr. ùr.d!e oJsjtl,tl)rf n sô i!,.h nortrikêtrbia!.,od Lor,àyripidtf.Djarrnhre .r

,

lfdillirh!n

rhr.&l(l.rgrrjlj.rrr tjs]

n..,mô

LLhr l[


È{r2e (a)RdÈiù0 0r)ro

Anoùer lom of hqn ùnid,la'1y suitcd(oline silks È thc .oled heû Ïlis is le$.orspi.uotrs hemb demnlsnun.rkilland d,aûthedotrble mr{'ltl d' n.rirr' âs it .anmt casLlybe DiûFd ii obce belbrè*wii8 Thê lefr hrd '.11srhe rav edgemd hol.tsrl'Ài| pla(.wl,ilsiii h *itchcdb! rli. 'iaht hand. lnc te.hniqueG lsd elcly on the nie ttrsparcnt silk kils ol ÙÉ larer{rhr.tr (q (ù"o\ 331,33a,f_iss61 129)xhere jl h.s prdcd mo{ efi.ieû âsxlll rs unobbusive.]ïe rollins md siiding - lùl {ljatoial h.m{Ûtch ii! shiclivrps ikf tuoud thètull isespc .ially fiieiy eae.trtcd,ùe tul1 beins le$ thâi 16 $.hÈs lmnr deqr u sirn aoDroxin,atcly pc. cm lne* heûs ùe clerly the Nork or I nigl'lr exÉie.ced r n,ill,d mrk.r andorbû na'r ro hav. b..i slfth.d rilh rheùderirl hc ins.{âr tom dF sft4today il is Jnoreusul rd the mderialb lc h(td rh. othcr\ry romd.

Àu strnivine facjo$ {Yl bindingsde or a {ine h i j \ i k i n ' h ?j f i s l r g r à n ! t i h - t l f , \ i b $ n o \ r i u r n ù h l r , i u s c d r o r Ii .

of boMd edge\ str!i!., all 1l,rc. *dDkt tom lab l1th{ciùry .lcposi6. One 's . shon ls!1l' orsilk.ibbononrheslishdycurd edB'ot x fl@ent of rhn vnh eidir snail bunonhol! sli$ (:'lo 219)Th. tun.bon oI this rie.e r pu, ,iq ltmaybelh.lokf edeeolaburùrdhoôd, rieÀapsa childs hood,f\ ih. bùttorholcsa.e e rmll (3"n): o' it nq be rhe wi$ of a sleek cxiendedro .ors tr. bâct ol rhehï 11'. fiL bon r$ heldl,! slaùing hcmshthins ù bôrh a skhs, bù mly one $ith c ndv pÉrntd vsnd .nnple (iro n6. Iis r,L1)È al ct er ki'ùr rro dr lom. c{qe oJ. tBhdy brtoned slcoe whi.h e{êMcd overFn ol thehïnl. sin'i l:r io thosepon.iyd i', mry cniciesandnoiù ,nùibl bmscs datinsb the *cond hau of the r4rh .eiba (e.e.f-q r57).'rh ditd .n'Dlc is ânumllrlrrl .v.nlv bldcd lenfih of silk ribbon 155mr lots Clo 336).wlùrh hasâ n,c( N\ion or Bindings and Êicings sithiDs holesâloru ê,.h sàli Éshny{irïd lherea\id.of dorbl.hem$.sati"trpproÈi r dgcândnq $dl h.\€ beei ùscdasa bindi',1in '\i di rq:) dl'housh tull-l rihLon.orûrÀ[pe at tinÈhinglor ù edse.and pdi.uhny {h.r \, b bmd thÈ.d!ê\nr n!.he\,ii. ef<at{ {rs .cquned, stt[ of so'ncaddilionâlirer!4li cludiq esrdes mdc tom leallH (Fjr 130) n rial .ould b. rppliedasrtr.lnssor bi.dùs\


r42,PIll a oal:w Fc13, Ûeldineorr wl sh;d;ih silkàdiiNo50,3rMfromin r.g*,aonrdè

Èirddi4bdresendqurneloru'e14$e'!ry'

IVd lrastlgb ol c&d edEjruÊvhicù w ptubâ6lyr<k d ùrnhole edss iiÙ djn ùèn sbEnêdâc@ (No ?3, F's l3l, md No 50,Ë'g r32,PlzB); ûÉy enê ftm the deæsit!j BC72 dâdns10lùe sond quarLr of ùe 11ù ænnfy. In bdn insbne r 3Im ft,1dof the.d€d ho} len êdg! hâÊb€en lned inwld dd ffired ùdr a 5mfrside st ip ol silt heldftrly in pl"æ by!r! rmôf rinylrmiqg{rith* whi.à slishûy Dûchft lhe !@r. outer $i@. The l()w edg€olffih 6cing is âddirionalyûeldh p1æby aD@inuleÙ3-1m sml slnbdhtrritch6,

âlar Althowh in fad di æ a smi{ii.le, the tô he temid oI lhè slilchi'g on No 50 *m n d€itftûrùâlûoslcompletecircleethatit w, nisleadingly,Esdbls â oflplerê n.ck Fæin$ aËach.d10@ {ællfl edgB .15ûe cu A cloùiûg lrasnot 0ro s?), p€.haDsûê slbulierpdion ôIâ sledels ffilùniq h5t$! !Àrlel edges{itn incompleleretuins olhcin€s omposêdolùm stip€ oflne silkAsinslê tufr iq È 6rnly hemêd or @rs{lched lo the ùw edg€olcloifi md belN lnis â n* oltny rming

Êat33 F4ê viil d&h.ing md hbld'Gtr bddÛkeddi€dyonlod'eFftd$ing!È bbreiÀNdÂ4;frtri 3d@sii dnimb rhesnd


iir,es hold!rberrciDslL r(t4r.s rdtlilioml . r ! r t s f , r ! ' h . ! s r L n ' I I ! . ! r P .ri

(No 159.Ii{ 1ri3)Ollre. la(r {rh I ffmn n lresdrrrunùnbot.s

$r(1 !o rhiskir.l.rlr^r.u,,tsr:rirhmro{ - r h , P . r 'I . ' ô rr iriqin, . i

r t 1 rJ r r ê r n r i i !

fu r,'

,\-

r'e btrhorhoLc..r!c,,fi slelacô,ri fNi û1 r,n

1| Prr) di!.rdê( in ttr n(qd qùï rù orrhi r r n r c e n t û rl l!, r t n d r { i e r { t h r r ' ù } r s i , i r.rhcbunùnhol.sJi'r\t,ortv2 Lnrrùrnrrr eds.ôarrnnestôpp'in!an(tniDu.o\!r.tji, kr o! d asj! Lc rni b! &r rnl iD ol 'lrLse r ihrê,.rLhcrbdù,thte iriF r slùL \irh ixbhq^etr edses.otu .of jlÈtr i trû 1\o6i. fi{r35) âù,t,er[3gd]ê(r;n nirdL Lt. m. ill'1"

nJ ' !o!

.li]

]

h dirf

{ \nhsill. Lr\o! ftr irr Rdlorholê\\er. nûiùttf b:.k.d h r;cir! rosjlt ovfiJl nÉLrlrh.rins. xid I qtrire3 trûir D.' ôJ'i!rc.srrj 5j!tu\DGsie lcs \05 ri3. 2ri.2rA?30?2r :rll;:17t.ti3 Fiesldr t70).hj ûesr.ntr ife Drsii! ùcirg.tik rt,rsimlafh rb*!r si1.hù( !ô ltlnoi æntrinry drù ".; pùl,ir\ bokrhn (. coftotrrab.id îje ra.i.s !q,ill! .{tiil uclLbnffd rhebùrorl,1icd lh. rur, .dsp ro p.. d. nrÙxh ûn is ioû]l .. p. n tq..rfrr. L-n i.-Ù Èf.lrcôit ?{, \, ;, b.Jùn 1rrùrrDnùnhol.s r\ vrh rlF iê.L i

. L ] Ld ! L , r ! ? d

r , -ir

,,

rensrh l,frlLeimùàl!e. b.irrtj,nlniL.h|d i,ro

' rfF

è


rltÉ5

ûû3 hbler Butu\o]eetuen'rhh€d

rmo si[<b:jd M*ed niù (]r bbleE No 67 0hù sidéd. froma depNit dâtja b L\è satrd


sdtv trhniq"6 ard totta.as

dati4bt[c$.oidquderofthcl4'heDfu]}is vë ùisin:xy liiish.r viji a àbrd soM dRa b

odyù sdrcbhoksorrli d pre*ftn. t{) con prdê!iæ de 3:4.rB)dd (c) dedrs.s&te? r


Fâstering m€thods Tlr.r,j{.r o4r,qr {,f hne is rnoq the rem. ninls oI $trmenb is ihât ol butons md bur lonholes,?lthoqh laciq ms âIno$ ceûùly utr'ê ]re hrer ws a n'etl'od orcoisidenblè ân rlrily, urrrmGtyderivennom ùe B ot skin

b Ùic lal( r4h .duryi

(n) t!

. ddc fals

dÙrc

Ell39Djqesho}ùghoyùeeF]dswæ

only on. .xmpl. ôf crlct hol.s ror la.i"s ir preseNd tunoru the rpiilp irds lror lnndon. Il,is Ga {rip orjik larrby.lllsr sitk (No329,Fq 133)fom r d.posit of the lab 1,11\c.ntury Îc nowftcùmbrvsbipÀ136'mlongmdlT edses,ro one oI Nbi.h n lil .lla.hed a lolded leulh ol simila silk A conpmion sûip ol silk heldin drce bji ruming silrchêsôn threeeùes or nnchjrs e& ard br lvo l{I,ily !!ù{ l!tu5 'lle qeld stip 1ddiru thêtu[ le41h olrhe slriJ] hæ six sî1et sdll inrac( senly placed?2Im aod'.1ù.yÙc{ojkcdin@plys]]klhr€d.thc @'slithing oreachholebeiis achi$rd by rro .oqiele cjcrils I'I buir'hole{ilch (Ft I39) Aner the ompletion oI ea.h eyeletthe s.Nia

Fjgl4o4abaûretrwofcalàerimB.Âucha'p. cnut$drvdck'413?G75,stMary.schuch' la.la*hilêL!êslê*sÙ€bunonêd10abmùe elbN (coimy Lib4, coûùdld Irsùhre da4 æprcd[d by FmÈsio0 ol c?nonM x lddgq)


W

(B) n,h o창rw. bbby wen silt


5,ùiaek,hli4hAardhiloàlg


F,grlr

Debih or sr.de. No ù (ùo$ sids)

llrcad vi\ diricd trDth. back orthc xork to rhc ncrt ryeb( hole. Asûficiendr'lois s.Ni'g L\reâd seems{o have b*r ui{l n, IDDL1. i[ sii ni.

vivins eyell,Lsni. .Jclc6 showno signoJkir, nor indeeddoesrhe stip ibêtr âpper ro h*e bcenusedor t{ered ûler redsi{,t.ttrr hccs or â troôllù rabricrcmain tuud one elelet. I]]is cont.mpo.a i[uùiûatioi s ônr depictlâciq vêry clcdy. S.me lomÙ efûsies 5ho* ih us.


srui's xthn4u6 atu taton^E

helpæhiae the clo* tit bshid.ble io the nid dlêoflh- r4dr.cnùry 0 { 140)SnùlÀ b.i"c rolld bèDlÀ-"dn the \ide *:G rd rhisa in!; habd assarys ine mjddleo1ùe 12rhcdrtr y in rhewrchcsr PslÈr (wormld 19?3.pl 2t), + ihotrshperhâpsasa ridicrneof a hirly ns 6sh ion.wrisi ts{sings Mrq ol .dr6ê, alsoofren laed. In rddirion,slip c@e^ oJrich sillis lerè Lled m. pillos aid .ùsliôis enablinstheû r.

bequicldyrd easilvrerNd. An rlternarip * lutioûmy he foundin rheprâcric.ofhordinsnhe neblshaûIsoJbftnsn,rcueh.relct\ùy ùêâns ora lae ât rhehact Ge p. r72) Tvo orhe. esnples oI radnss ryiù eydeb hne been r€coded nnû ûediMt d.posib in ltûslmdi otrct on r pir ôll daiir,qto the la$ de €de of lhè 13th cntury at Souuimolon (c4wfoot 1e75,335,m T2,tu 2n) ândlhe other

=


nonh Eumpca clothingdùi$ rhe f6t hrr or rhe 13thcenlùry 011ne 1973,233.273).rheo d'ôr. roronan'cntthrn rorpn|b. rhey$erevôn''ftere pù.Fs6 .al seer s io oihersoodcxpld in. aljonfor Lle My butunssi(lually nui{i({l ii{r aû q.cll.nt vehicle lor exhB lturralllhGrLurydeù\ilhKognoouuo,Hull liul,, (tràlton fodhcoming) ln both of th.se the silk sance,âsrI e prehrcd lâsteningarthe. {k PeF .lodr È siniltr to diar or $c r,ndon pieceburjn naF ûe chiel i',nû'.. *rs Lhc Àdopuonor bfton iineniç lor thewrist oDeii"gsorsbms ing {hd the êyelet \de @rkèd in linen.ln viN in plæe of dajly sriichiry or dr orÉri,,$ or dr olùeN esp'exduv ollacine ir isnolsùDrisiry la.in3.By rh' €Ù y.an orLhc1{th .cnhq bû bns veE bêingr*d in incfeasingnmbeN asa ddÈrs '!!d1one il [.tl1nd. .s 'ell .s oi the fishion reâtue.Onthewhole,rl'e erce*$ ôfthis rashjôùàr. mtoidcntamoqrhe rmrins oll4th Con{inenr duringrhe llth md l1lh cflûies (chNll.r li King 1eô0,23i ^L.rDdcr & tsinski oJa slede d'ro {il. Fils ]ar, 1a2,Pl 1), \.ith ib rq$, ron &s 5r-3:cejte.rq61.46,m 33.d 4e: $.1r smâllclolh butt ns ùd butonholes.is a 19È9?, no irir) Here r consemdE 6rm olthe iEhioû lar ro.e Ùu!u's areuseduprl. optninathæ is fi.tly necesery. but thry do norre.ch upb d'..lbow in L,renn ief demonshredby cddqryora.y .nid.s and snrons @Der to hnvebeeninhù.èd inL

hbl.horn edsinsonsreæ Noe ftôû sder.


Stuits tuhnqn$ a adtotta. \s

Ilmùsdiptiùbinnio6 (ee Fjc1,!0). îD dhe. f?snenlsof slff ed8psûomthesùê dem,ir ôr.43Èa0 preft à baer imber oabuÈ 10nhô16,16 m de (No34,Ftst3?)ùd 2sonthe other(No 67,F( r35),*hjk tns s,r çr. d eme bun ns by il,is daletu bejudsedlrom o$er rd€nûE lNo 33,I's 143A)A buroÉd cdsinsnon thelarer,iùrcqro, ho@r oriÉ inâIyhÀd6 mJnr:s,16llolhbutrGn x sherh oloriy 3l5m (No2$, ris ra{). wnns! oloue, ùey srêd theDncticADur pos ôt hodmgNù edr+srosèrheL rheelin. ùàlt deoratih uûe oI bunonsm ihê r4rh enbny h oideni in 0rc aDDucbto rhe or slructionoJtheedsesiobejoinedin rhÈwy,fte e{æ to ùhich lhê hutonstàdselps rê âr-

F-,Ê14 EdseofFlrqt No216.Mrhd rea*46 doÛrbùibiq ftm LrbL4r\{4ù4 Lotrdoi(À he

bched È n6elr a singlefôld of.loth dd the sblks of ihe bûtuns are aûched nrûù\rro this rotd (Fi!s r4l 14,1.I47) one e&e, h;@r io


leik:

and clrtrirs

lhe 8ùtunt æd rhoscin cros.Fxjniry rohim or he. i.Iigs 135,136,1,!2,163). HoLs ind'.fonnof sriGd.igh(dglestod\ê opcningdge .ur lor L\c butorhol.s ,,1,2 "€reilÈ u$âl iodalro cùrtlF hùtes di.y xr ft rcrkd; 4rl rhey hdc b... {ork.d wii]l b onhole sûches rner is novkible $ iden.eot r cirtrit or runinr*itch.s rôdd 0F hote10hoh ùc M lâ'€rs togdhèr ud to scngihcD ilr wln{ible oi sliG.îe uû*nbl_v bftônholes emined here a.c âr vorkcd ih a sltuu r{Gpl} {z ti$ed, Splied) silk rhrè.d in butonholeiith {Fis 115)n'e dnedion in {hich iic silrhi',s wâs {hi.h verysftL[ butonsùc stiichcdhasâ si,,gh totd onty 3Im $ide md hcre â sirk t.ing w.s u*d only r?ccs of whhh tu* reû'ù (No 395, Flcl(3B) Oi i\e bùd.nnolesideol thc opcûin il'e edseorlbe clolh vas bn nw md, o!.e â silk t.ias hadbeenappliedrorhc rûdcfnh, â ul,let woÉn silk hraid ms {orted difedry .loû!l rhe mwcdF, ajviry it â n.d bù bdery visibF nnish {hi.h $!uld oily ùe arpre.iiled by rhema' c. or lcc146snd|hfuoho]ëwlktdjJ'silkd'fud No290(bDrhside9 roû r dê@sirùdq b ràelar

oeletely der lodây 1k cai leel reNonably cftjn rhd th. morer.frr u,ifo'n rpproachto s*ing fthniqle. t uthr rd paskd or by m.ùs ôl switrs snele booksmd. lârerl:/,prided È( books did not di$ in th. inkldl ies Some dirxriry mâybt $e rcsulr orhnhândednes jn rhemrkc, s but it Day t qualrxbe didenr tor â le$ sophi$ictrteds.ge in rhe solution ol d,. ski s ôf uiloÀ altr] semiresses somê of nre Ùltodholes apFù to hrr bmi *o.kql h I clo.kwisefishion,*hil$ itrorlF^ thednecùorol ihc srfthing is der!- adi{r€kwise. îe ssing thrcadrE caried ur rhebackor thc mfk rrôn, brrodhore lo bu(onhoteGft Fiss L16 1,16)mc vidinEsimple,bû cLeùLycr€rv. |nnedlon 1o


stûi,rt

thrian5 and ttitaùE

0,e Rr e4qes niere G m didence of spc.ial tchniqu.si.rrqrsÙ'errhe{e e{ pdof .he holes (ire loinG ât eachod ôrthc n i) Ly .rose .dlial silchiry or by ùe addirior oI. plain o. rlorkedthrcadbaf ai ôm dr hdl, endsoI rÀeslii sùrh t{hniques {ere.en.inly in us b! Lhc16di ccûrur! *hq, d,e {.ess onen plâcedo. buf ronholesL) p.ddedand tish.Jihnis lanJorrble dolhing mde su.h fei,rforcetuni imp.dirc (sc irnold19i95.:r3 Jia13)hseensu[k 1ydD. such$Éir ws pln.edtrFn bftorhôI.\ ù, nrn lne size or thc btriôtrhdle\ qries .onsider 3bly. nrosc on kleûffable \dst oæ'iDÂs ôr srco.s r. 7 r0o4 whiti orher astargeasù l,!tr'û Nos 2r.272) ac pc'hâpsrrur llt lenl qrse orr srmenr ]re bûoihole s[b lisbning thehoodundù ,c.1,i,,clo21d Fiel70)der 1'1m'long lr'e dèrrnol thebutorhohnn{.hiq c ûsuilry ûi sed abourI l.5rm nie nn.hes pKked closly toce$er ro ronn. sotidbmd xs n no.malroday.lrifevDd{irches&utdbeusd onqùirelooselywùÉn doths,No 220lor.sr\,le *hre tlr b(onholes re onlyÈ7rn lorlg û,iq r.16),butpresumabry strfii..d i). rltn prpose, in conbination*idi the 6re siI{ trci.es. on l4.r nndres Gn appcâabêii8 T1'is G on\ $e lnnd dchreold..l sne in wtu.h clor\ buroDsof À ]1rh{edtrfl daiehave been loudr the other sirês tur H.rjôlrri.s, (i,eirùd (N.rru t124,fig 65),atrd\ie!*qr dijk, AnErertid, fte \dh.nands Ot,!$Cotr'is r932.lr4), Nhereiheyinchdêbunonsy\tr rothc clothEfysnnibÎo No 64.Thedoth bLrtonsfmnr r,ndor fal i,r, a (ûrbe. ot soups rfr! a.È simplycirclesoI rr[Ju11.d cloth Daririded ro aonwl.odenkddomes fte],çdèptubrbly sârheredby oneol sR.ml rùm;,s{n.hes clor ri 0reoftide edcedd rthd! s.lhered ùpùnd.. ncâdi (l.it r1?) The whole {m dren rreûgih ênedby .on.enric riDssor sÙnher{rbbed yenielly rhrotrgh,1dri.lliesses. 11is posrbl. r.ôn, sjde bntunstoud ûi dF tde Llh<eÈ that at rhis n4. turdnr n,lj{lj1! nay hm ben achiftd by ar addidoùatnrliryor sh.inkinsJ]'G 20qtr nnd35mn in diatr'eterNos 2?5 223,274, c.rs for soin, bu(ons (es ûose on sle4e No l.ic l{3) U',like rhe erlier, sâIêr exùndes 61)rre inmen$ly compd. llrs. p,nic,i r bu! ihe* forh fla(ish butois md hak tu ùlirionâl rD\ re 9mm'n dineter ùd trreâû.hed b thc nife ng insiderhcm The rarglsl oi rhe Foup (No2?3,r'ig 1{.sR)iÈ) ù,1hæ beenusedin dre IoldeddiqoDxrsr.R. ôJiori,,sby a ?-3Im sblk


atrl l4hî'!ry dcposib iD r.ndon (lird !t Èiichdd D9! b!t, bJ'côrft$ to cbrn burors. noneno{ renLù dkl,e(l r, dy ih' ôrdoLhng 'llih is p.'lrapsbc.aGctheylerè.nâ.r'.d in a differetrtMr ind.yd, shmts d rlre bftk or rtu movedliom rrmet to !ûne* by r\e simple exptdienroI selling Lhel,nrq, nùù rlùotrÂhâ !o.k(rl t yt k i hol. and paisinga lare do\û ,e ba.k oI th! eleletsaM dÏôush the shmk, â r{rr. niqùe sdl atrerei ir \trvivi"r .ldhi4 ôr th. 16th..ftry and by .arÙervisud è! eNe In deedthÈ trny hak ben ùe pùpose oI rhe silk eyeleb (Fls r3s) orl {orkl .xLnritr {hy th.y sho! noste$.lneJ non &isiôi L]kc bro(hes beJoreùem, burors ir' the rarl' (,h,',\ l,.dri.

rigr4 Ùutomtoo Âderoi' drdnsb ùe ùk urh and+ (a) No2r5 (R)No,23 (eaùûûrr

sme {ry I1 hâsro sigi ôl $âb $itchi'rs bom franirobâck,ândthesdhci, {l ( ldh t 1lù l,afk is ioi .ôtrsolidftd as on the other burons.16 llâf nessâid .heçry th. uppersùtrce md edcesâre dÈc,Frhaps n.de irornMod or hori, lik. latur butons ?ltermtntb il my \iqù ha{ lnn Pre.iselyhos cloth $?s MnipulâGd io nnke rhesn,'[e( orlhe L,ùr" i\ ùr âli.{.in.. cl.r lncre È noposibiùly ol(oneri.liru themdfti,l in ttùtc L\c sme Nâys ms doneIor ùe lfsr 't'qics. bd..rblnly r û..dlc andsilkthrtad oncemoreplayedtrvjûlrolcinlomirymdal rachiJisllrn.rj i ninn.s pi.R d tôih thclrur ronnd rheloldededsè,rhesilk dtremleftidi"8 beMpcnthe fold ol ùe doth md linliiry oneb( r,i t âiorl'cr (Fig 1,!.3,\).lncsc bùfronsæ mosly 54m in dirùeter (3-,lnnnor Nô 393. rs 143ts)md are placedd ir[en,'l\ or çsnùi, h.F beei ùê {ork oi a tughly skjled pe.en. nEy $ùld al!, ha{: airù.d lâirly noidù 6om the eflec6oJveâr.ndtè.r Nowoù er thererôfe $at the* edgeswre remoFd and dj{Fld Nlet l bunois ùadê fiom riq pùùer, htunze md bn\\ haw i!, lûn n.o{r..I rion' l3ih

rheDukeof Oneaishadâ setol25goldbtr(o'\ eâchqilh n dia'Dùl lnùrù d b:/ rôurpcarls (shniland1930,2l) r.d ù dtubr rr'esê{êre d 1l! rn{ôr b.h.dtohisclolhingb!Ll'i\nerhùl bùiôB wôfl by th. tumalcrc.p.r ron ljde lll! lonb (Iri! l5?) and bt ll5lhm oI Harlleld €ig 173)wre DtulùL\ ltl!, nù( d ii rlik rxy.

Decoi?tivefeât'res Tetiles onei hadpâftrns rc€n ùto rhembû ir ? ler iÈhce\ rlrn.de iidl.ârotrs ordcorxiivc b.hnLqùcsrpplied dler Edins as rtrt ôf L\c sinslè .Dpddr dide'.. JorsaLhcringirud al oneend ol x dam:Bd slrjr) orùl,brM!.tr .loth {\o 72) Mod or rh! ùersins sqgsesbrhe ros sibill!' or a brcâd bând ol Eslâr shll{ù !dh.r!, !.h âr Naslatc' odrcllcd by suJtce sliLhing Gmocki"g) Tliis f:emm( hse$r Nirh seved o$er imll .elaredrra!'n.ic. sould xppcarto h^r om. ûom â arhed ol sone kind, Nrhars d,e neckedseoI a.?pt or doâ]{ A rdher similm rierc or sdn.f.d cloth rus rc cmRd fom a 151h{drui} deposit in oslo $heF dre.,lolhis a ?.rNi[ an.lrhes$]n's rhn*d $oôl (Kifllb.qle7e $ 103,Jis7).Andher snD ol clour tron lrndon has stitchins ed ioldiu evidemewhich \uald rd { iû&s o' idgcs (No233,! ig 149)itheserrq.inmy be decû,rivc mrs oJconbllnu tulne$. The* Frl'ers d.

rl


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d?n (Nô.kfl l!34, r9r 4), rhcre ihê, trle in dr( Irm rhe!ùr b rhel4rh cnûn€s ft* iatupleds,T 236rnwidê,*ûr sdhhedodrhe recordedon pi{es oJclorhinslrom ScandiDeja ùdg side ol ùe srment siû wll rùnnins - Oslo, Beaetr âid Trdhein in NoMv $ibhes whi.h hêld ûe plêab Derlrtr.rtly in

93,ro{irjclberg1982. 0<jer&rs1e79, 143-,t. î!

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A qêriêsolpmlrerftorfmuu sûkhe!jn \il{ 0rrëd ôn , Ery 6ne so n.n d^th ôlo r7L Fis150):l.onrsdrùden( orde! dlron ôra oGlruc!ûnâl b.iniqùeshich.motforrhe nrc rent b. explâincd. Thê 6qnùt, lioû a deposn darinsrod,elîle t4rhcshry, js nôwin mùcrha,

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. d@n very smâl piees wiù lôrs hililg cûds ol silk ùrèrdi im r{m oJsithiqs with ûtjng knob srive oi one tsqnent 21,1mx kN! *iLh looseendsson. 40'm loa 11lGnv hde b.cn dcmrâiivesliLhi'rg oJa darnins qpe An exdde fiom rhese.ord qudtr ôriiic l,fth cF rury siÈs a .Larcr imûe$ion oJrhedecontivc e{ed oJihis typê or srir.hing i.l,Io3i. rig 151) ek a Noolfl 2.1l{iI is lincd{iLh a pieceoI silk r,bby md th.y de held to!€ther ann Bs oJ

rmins stitcheswhicnlom a tiâns'ld pribrn A lqnenl o if slk (No 13ri,Fe 152) now 1,10Imx 135m, is plndred by a muliitudeor sdrchinsholes alrhoùlh iôl â si4lc stibh re ùâi',s i',bcL llis mry h.ve bæi a dêcontik vnn iilchiis ii silk or 1inc.threrd in a ddnitt $ibh formiry a linear geoneticâl desien.The $itcni,rsnÉy ùfle *Rd the prrti.s. orholding layersor 'naieri:i bgethei asin 'tuiltnlg,but the

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nir.hins holcs md rhe! .rrÈr. to havêbêen in pli.e.0ûeirip lft r dDn q'd illo heûnned dhpraF cvid.ûre ol ftmy shrhes. ldh.rn for lioldins â ù.ù!4 div.lile orumerl ir rrft. T{, nrt,! or v.lv.i (Nô :r51 fis 16) rko rppcr ro han bèèd$irchedto trn pcnsiveembroi&rJ or tlie middh ascs$?s d'e prdoaârive oI lhe cl,uRl,ï n,yil .in i.. ii il ('r.itr dri l.s snlrnt .itizr.s oJl,ndon loùd rays to eilivên dr.n odre.vi* plâin rcollen dorhirs Edli r (liir,bc ol dih bookhav. dcD, onsrxtcd the d!.oûlire etre.rsvl'lch .otrld bê itrùdùrd into &oller clolhs oo lrr ltDt' nr4f,s .h.cks andmo(led effed - .nn {hi.h did ùt ie.esri\' addcrcrbiblly io the price. ld b. mânipdatcd to prc ConkniqLd,lsù duo r tudher decodliv! efed .rd d'is, courled *irh a litle ol rhe lorldnd'in! di{$sql il{rye, sÀ âl'nost.cnrinl! theonlr d.contiDnthd ûo$ halr leode {ore silk.ords dd bÉids couldâ1so j.\rlL.d brcorhes ârd s les ror tl'o+ whô ,Ilre .ôûld :fod surh luûies nedieql Grri es derordivÈ{{hnnres indkabd in ûr. a.courb oJ ûe tuyal hor\el'old {s\^rilr{l 1930:sâùilâr.l

Cônstruction

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$ùviliu lmmpiu drms.hrs. Dany oI trhrh d ;, lln. s(dnliùviâr .our haÊ beerexravai, bi.s dùine the hi r00 y!ùs (Ndrlùd 19211 Ihld 1930iltiqg 1933!H{q l!r34r:,Jockenr135i R" r03?) l l'.s. arc supplc'ncntcd by doth'De Iror theroûrb;orrûlên, mblesand.hurhmer, Ior esmDle dre Fû\rnF Hquy rll ',d Hotry Iv,ryl l'lrllioorsNrbiaxtsplyùrdhedftlGd noj' (rvli,uerchrisri$ d,r re7:), rne !às lilimrqalr^',ilj d rln âb&r.rs saivadoraM hhr th. coNt.1 ùl Lis Iluels6. borhii rhepfôv L{r,1!170:.rnn tu 11}33) aM cârgmd. d.llx :i.1. in \etuiâ. Jhl] (vi8aliaro r$3) nF evidencerôich llÉse gmmerlscrr proljile h6 .v.rto b. .xplorcd tulb or collrtcd whilstinfo.nu rioi âbou.a nûmbêrôl n.ent iinds is onlr jusr ddirion.so Iir.s is knoNnrhde h.s beei ûô sudy in rôich rhe nmeme Droyidfll L,yelfr izbd .lorhi.g has rnn com@cd {ith thai or TIF lder non û'ablx iltr nÎÈ.kalù pd,rn ase.iated lirh chdes dc lrlois (liêd 136.1) (rms 1s52,30.lù rvi \snon 1930,106 pl3e) haf siDirâù mi bæn tuùy$udi.d for rh. inro. mliorrhey. orovidetrbôltappror.hêsrom'l stucrionor s$ri',sn,crr,ds,rnl ili\ ll*(.lxrhJ thh !.uld add g.eatLyto où leq limited

,I]re.e $ry in is nirl Frùchre.urariorrbotrl1r,e \tich dothLncconnndion dmlopcd dùins th. middle 4es l!ld! trtll+sahljshed rrireA on

L.ndon is lirushr wirh p.oble'nsmd urcûûii ùes.Gnân ilemso Foes erneEevirh li(rle difii.trlS. but thcrc ùc quib a numbcror ind'u d!,r pÈæs{hkh for rh rinc b.i'rn d.! âoude

vislal so!rc.s,hô? highlithÈda Èilôriis re loh{ioniD{hede.â(re r}'riÈro,nwonirs rùeir

be|ellnr pub[r.rio. .r .l.ler d.le Nheûâ sreater qmli(r- oI .omDrdne mderiaLhaseJneEedk,

irisirg srrorixl efts.s G:vd 1963i Byd! rele) lr is highlyû'liktlJ'iliâii È.lirl dh,r. rookder ir qtrr, a;hon dn.. bul nrlFr rhd exLenrar Dre$ue\ l,e\Fd b !,ed trDr pro.e$ {hich hrd b.en dolloping lor a .o.sidrrblc

neùods ol slqiing clothiry i', the eùly lnsoùisi.xtcd ir modù. hrms bû nstnheless efeclnt to rh! .ot rempo'â4e}t nh i n is hr rhaLthereq2satr

shr!,'s of ù'êdiemlgrinpmis to be touid in Dejrl,tryilnrûtr rii.dry !nne\, r'owe!e4at. lhoush the r-iden.e lrom both is b! no mcms

n,m body,troo rh 1;n, ,i rltrNr(a, rrqùsi at L.æ1,slorÙ Froducedindcdn!! inleûrjve ùseol sôâi lere esendrly g?ometicâlsl'are\.


n'Lhglerlnri$re., led ilselftl rhis!i{rù 5jû r rnâI., ù..cs coul.l carly bc join.d bgûhrr dicLes (c,ùses.lor ini.r.È. or *d Lats) or d nFmd qjnied asJeroralivebunG.In hd mod oI lorrheuseridreus,"or.lôrhhùiêdidrldôd,inll Llievre disanLed rùc ùu( laryerderesttr !lml. Frm.n6) ûich ro c i0m1vd in thr tu ù th! \r'hot th!* 6,FknL< lrom srnknLs p'avde .lues 'âner rnancomplere{ eme lor n.diôrl ltr,rloi ny rh,Àl4rh .eitury tr tr!tr'bêr olrrlhod\ ol.trllir! â srl{,irs.ldl,iD! e! irb.l o lrm in rhcpFccs of bûDcd6rtopcd a,!$

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irc$ Ior {rLe æn!tri$ û .o'n.. Drii.lhny i'r u e,qtr mLs[nLs,nlu]L nrnrel! be.ù'e ù! silÈ|dii som.ronnsoriûionrlcostunr.,\num bÛùithêl.trdotr'4jne$trcrcbtcdtoL\is utd bl $ed d th. sides01the heelsoI hos (o hclp slÉpt dr .rorh romd |ttr rûd ûrq 163).A riors rllo nflive anoilj dF llrdor textlles r,4errirrar|[scdior\ n,avrtn rreideûiied ofr,our! ois r70) prolide Iuùness.1thè h!û btrl sorts sened ro'lnesÉ not ùe Naisr .eqnncd buLky sems

lorrr pd oLnruni rodd (othèr'lLt$ d thè hdn (|ie lul ln$ ûe'!.rd b.tu \bt of llselhe.È i rhesùne Tl]Gapp.oachrodjrid i r y r k d n d ! o r d d hu A \ d l , l { d q t , l i r r r r

rheofrrs ol .irLes or qni{n É .onld b. e.o nonnra[! delloled eLsern,e.e on rlie srne rloak

lje r4dles,ry liqD\ii .r Rc72(No\ 22+23r) sqse$ !'ch o o.isi lor rhenLllrs .nd probl b1rcomeilaù rùni's or suÉnmis A FoùpoI rexrile rtm nsfromrlreldelllh{eiruif .l.Nrir ai Rc7:r (iio :33) Â.trcialy di. Itrfget Die.et rron' dF a$onbl4.. s.pn' to b. mân'sdre$ (l',s 15t rh{ crn bc ronpred $ith .ofpleF ndi@l srin $ .raded 'n cfterlui (Fgr:64 Nonud r92r)ni.s.s.$ di0eirn hndsdcmoDstd.thd rhe shuing oI


173

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{oniniis the sre-..sl nlm Henors.: crolmd lânôrr N'fhod) Îe mÙn pic.ê hdc âeorc addidor ùeæ is a *acs ol sidcgofts. (B) Req$hllju's|'di4l'oYsuchad'esojght

complex than !i.1ori,l sorccs hre $ flr sus

s.sbd f rcm â omûiry vêry dishr frur rhe sreat neni.!z1conùbarior\, d'e$ iùîhs $ûc m?deor ur io ciaht shap.d sdiôns, wi.h eme sms on lhe shilhr'Ilasnjn of dre fabn. md tl, j'lar4iositionol biâsdd eA ona pdirl biæ qûisht ftigcs{ould givennele$ntm@ncnr to ihe smdt in {e4 {hi.h G 4idenl etr ii in. nLrrercome till .kins Rmcni cxcmlions in

strdo sem likcly to esâblishthat d'À Jormol .onsh.don ws ljown in S{dleo i" rl'. *cond quale. of rùe 13il' ..nrury at l.a( (Md8ar@ Nmkcit pe.s.om) f is dism!-., srixN?i! ing consêmrion,iùd! anl É!on. q'ga.sb ûat


stu ht ht]ù i trtÆun d tdah rE I cùalLdiù, .I i rdjt\d rldhiqùnsbudioi 'r,L

rtDfûN or rh. L.trdùr d.eJr r! ol a hnl rL.rhbb!,nn.rr qNrdr,ri!eLee:url! dDx lnkL tistrfp Thor sh .or\ I d k b'î{d dn y !.r ..riLijrÉ\ rrlsl rrlk s1th\rld ud DnrlbN r ? i e " 1 h e ' v i ! n r L c d r r i rf . î r d r H r r i , N o f ! ro \lirL lrneL âll i ,ùi,r,ldè \onr halr i l d,cdionsof i |lr, orl,r{jL.r,iudûns !lo*r dsG linl! .èr n5 oJ 1lr. nxiF il)irirL( 'lÉ rroL \. omr- apr.nûr. lr:ù,'s brotten Nry or n$ l1'rm ydê) erhrLdolD d,c si.s nây bc n'.lt'j,u \ | \elnrr' fulnâll' on. mjlht h.\t .xr,.nÈd 10hDrLrb o .r rî' arro\{rfe. b in rô. ! nrL Nr '.!! stmsr.ir!, r rt.iL n o rrrr!ûdorhooditr rlrismrr hre [èetrr mdhod or..otroùi\i,ao] Lrdr' of ûùr ûiiring pn.s ftôùi the roDsoJ ![rLpnnrF s!ùtrll !] \rnn;Lf trd.tidro Lr ser 1o\d rrdi.F lrtre! or ùrJ s.rotr. m.Frft roroD., r,ru sLeds. dir s..trE rô ctrflP ir ù,!ive, inooih t .h rln LiF rri rodÉ 0,e onl! ûtr. rô ilnN ai! i li!-dion or or \iD!tL,lrFi(t gdh.ms âLotrsrh.!iDft f $dsr)dqc ti!11!) ^rJri(, rr.ak I rhLrH qpd scdm 'Il Dù<bl, bl ill'L |: a:Lit An'i]{ x.ù.551) | |DFe or ooÙ.h dri.lidlù r b.t rrilerielLh I rLdrilthxrùtr b. r \teDe. ituD ih. rôùh ot Th! lonse! srJririr! r$ û rlr :knt Fml mxsur.s ôrr(ùin (oilûr{L rr! ùLhds 6sirnn xnd;:]0nr') Th!o.igLinl.utinlr jatra,ii d,,r rhN FklsÈdiifi.trlhâ{.û]i,r.o\r trhhm oncdgcxhron di n.did,r4,ri,o Llkrabric [r ody otrcrntrie r]d*H dotsih. srDr 4] où rô ri aruLsrrr rik oax r*ùi rhr.ad:ii :I dov lJ'e lengrhoi rhr P.lgerdhùr ùtrr in r iDhNn?ùd aÈ p l ù : . ht o . u r \ o n r d l r c s k , t F m h a p o c r s r l [s? beerdI Lhi, rùngrltrf fônn i)undin odrù exralrt d i,..L,rrr lrn\\ î{ triÉ1Lybsù dârëdvidi ûirisllr!orr: ir dr. skirr rô si{. turdiri0J i rLDr; I 11ÉbeD Th. s.rnti.r!i.r dr.sses rt nu rr lnLùtrr : \ii.r .e,no. btr( FibJrr rcprsùI dr.h onie. shfpiig rrda tiox. nii\i 1.1b herrr trori.*bL i! ftrlitrn pri'ri.s( oIlhe lirr0s{h.r.Lôrrriq rd Dr I rrll !uDH,liqln Lob. trnklêd dosèl! ro r}r rorm

risr57 JoxndcLiro( !!rpûi&o,hek,nhd

ônl! Lorly.,!droual, rôiù.fl irjt: unl br.\ksol d,e Ldelrrb rnturl ifrliLÈdtyshoq $onrtr rmingdos.ll Ji,,j,{lrksse\rfie lr7l,dF .lô


nol indtrde delailsoI sems to indniG mcdy $€4thâia.hangeiidtEsiecesgr'v'achaile wl'id, js exeqtijidl j,, 0êe lrqmed\ Inn A sinelelaqe pire tom â direreni grmeni (No7r I.k15s) is i" r coâNc.darkfcd bbbywid,

r

{nnr !ef( a }6 oriatraly dyedvirh nr(kler 'ftis incorpombspù ofthc ncckmd rmholc of ûl a[ {m'

xrd hm'idd d!e\ ]ir. b(n cù

.he$ ùe oI approxinu{elyslllsrj0lm

(32

31ir!) ïF.(.rlir, nor ùÊ b.s oI thè na k l1e Dre*nt dêrrh ol {hetrmhole is rolm The shqiingoI thisbodi.e ..:\

shôs tl'e tuniliar shtrppof a *ni ri@d trneit rmioationsandrombetuies (|js 15e) !?ry lsv êsrdes ol heûs hd! bèd lodd among$rhe t@err rd ir is 1ike1y ihai lirh xtll tull.d md..ials siql. or dotrbl. JoldhcDis rere not.s uùul or clorhins.sthey.rerod.y Oie lr@ent itutr' the hemoI a Frmenr ùr in a cum (NoJ4 fis 1ri0thasr doublcroldofapprd I'j\isiùlJi!I,}ô|n..1j,],'*jllfigiiàllydyd] virh mdde. $l|$ . nâleriâlreuld beimlined ro lrâymd iherelore{ould reqùneùe ptuie.iionol âstcng|].ndld.rcdg. croarr, rt,ehsnorwl,id\ F,ùaùryr,uchju(rr Foùd, rculd besubjedto a trir momt ol$rr Ivideicelorrhe.!tolsleeFsisnâily.oùnned roâ sle* s{rion rero\rred rrcma deFsi( ollhe scond quà1.. of thc 1.1thccntury(r'is lri H r)


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;tih:tr,"i,;l,liiiiltr" ffi tii,i:1 * "ï:t"flilïJ:'":'iilf,HiXflJi"Jï o me i 5qn'atu r È ù emi4enuvsû;elbn wy ù solr hq ltodriumd rhehmu rormr; iil"#ï,11,i:r.:ffi ïîî,f,i"l* {e I B àhevma Jc8û, trd novjic dEÈ The Ëfl :tr;:f,i*i,i:'Ti,:ti ï t."Jfi"lT 0r sn tùe{. Grlâif,jv ,|{,or\tus ff :Me ior,tu, r,nd if, ùê mddL æs. r h,; bê"*,


îùik

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susse$edLlatbiæ{û( leseâr cme inrou\e ùy rlre urh or 12ili..ntury sir.c manu$riptil luminalionsshowdiagonallystiped legRâr lir riis c1ok1rio ùe conlouroI lhe les f_ôrm.n Lhchoscusurly *hnded to the ur; per rhish aid ws aû.hed by l:.es 1oa brech cloul,the !idle vhi.l, slôû.d tl,rcugh thc rop of md .slinen uderbree.hes. The* ii tlm wrc tuckedinsidcLhehos Nldtrsnip( ilumiùlioD s Ir{knrrr' rd.ar j$t such armngcmcnb (!ig 165).dd cde6 âre en'etines repreFnbd holdinghosein p1a.! belowrhe kn* (Fiss 112. 160. r]x, l.s .ov.fings or wom6 did not nor naly *tdd e higl' u thê lps.probâblyusually feâ.ùiry orJyrobelo$lhe koeea''l hâvii| b b. l'èld j', tilr.c by !:tun. Îrry rerc pEslfrbly shâped*.11y like nei s hose.bn ûùoû ùe pointedupper edse. n is llkely lh.l mer tôo, {nn.tna vorc shoft. socklike ho* Indeed

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byri. {xcs vridio.s 'l1]cre shûed are mmy fi-Àsûentrryû{es or ho* fion l l1hrnbïy deposiNin rhêCiry.soniedù. readily ideùifiâbl. ùm oth.^. it is lilely that there qs no ûilorn aNroæh ro constùdion dd this âddsb $e difictrldesoI idè ijli'Ê il]. orisi,s or snalLr 6@.nb tsâsicrlt a stip oI tue b s clorhes nttedmrnd ttu Ès n on ùigh io anlie. Pd ol (hisslrjp 'njsht.ôtrij.u. d.r the insbp and/ordoM thesidesoIùe ùLles, ândbe suDdementedby addiiionâl s{rions io beL) shaDeùe fld clolh ni'.d di. rooi.^A'otrp ormll prc*md sedionsoI hoselrom rhelârel4thld tury depositai BC72is of mêdim Eishr kbl)y @n cl,,lh dy.d wiLh DEddcr (No 235, Fiss 167À163A).'fteyùe p.n'ars rmmnb orâ pân of sùofr so.Flike ho*.]r'e t{o largrr picces

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les 6iddt id the wsred 22 l{iu 6_d vhidr

vnsæ in rh€ me 16tbænh!yùÉ ttte shirids is ')ud b nêlirùraly ùibrh, cleqty 0l i m rlæ b olinùe mooùry (m ùe b, bimsulF €ddÊ be iFteD,wltrfltêd dÉ, hdv*r, alpea onùe sm orfte dfts âsided fiûl aud Mâ4ûetâ h uppcaia Itr ûê ilfu ,nd *,trhà eL uÀdoedt G'@ |q35,Dl 23a), 169),rheEy fasrnmbry didæ or thêI41h cqlhedÉl swdd (Geij* d "r rôlndi€b th.l b dÉ Y@ousb sibed v$ich is \!ù d 15lh enù4 ho* tom tlndm ffi centny,i! rtis intucè the mdrodliek6 lone L\isco+ùdiônâl r€tugmt hadmi Éi bs dddiBed.Sose 14ih*ntuy 6'a8'Mb dmm' sLn strs b li.14 snknti*ntuixùqf. #ie tlE &ltjnudion of vEdssh.!€d æclio$ cil+ €artiû ùlÉÈtûfiùd 6 @r.d Êm cite yd mpùbrished, dnibit tne sm béàlièt ol {È rheânlle€dd heel(€!. Nc A6 ed 2t7, ùê bækw, ,ifioq! rhestthiis holâ de Êrs16?8ud c), vbild otnæ, rêsnbÛnsErv

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of clodrofhE nùch llæ e|elicityard sEùgih md hâdh€@m th€pr&nêd natèrjalt/ hos 'I!e lrte 14drcûry de!ôdt ât BC72yi€ldeda hoddOlû216,F's ddrsed nlt àlnostcomplete bsid bnsuès,a!ç.rto hæ cdMd t]]einsp Dd nbnt of the fo.t (e.s NG 237dd 44, Frs YO, Iw in si! ri@s. It È ôl mdm wighr 167Dùd E) r& rlr€dy dissd (s p153)lhe labhy{l}mdôrh ÊLjnedaddrllm6h.bld\ trhÈh h.s rct bM leâtêdir dves.Th€ M *æ Fd ontlË trrt e.lims - ærlt!ê M Lrged LâllenF ùe had seclidq èæhLLr àlodseæhN €dseôdàcrnft r sEonssootn næinsnâdâIârlEffu€r€hap€dts@ tornæây 6nish- âl)@ tob. @lir b Lhbme dùdùs foD thetoot€dge.ftiseùesùom m didmê ftre pDb€bly FtÉl vù]} ltl]j€.q. Itd 6r â hd ard e â 6ttDincludi{ lh. h.m rey rid! d ûis rift. dd orâl d dûori@l sedic hft bêdcu!i*q;û sai$€tuÛobethew ldnd tn 'gialion rftn hô* nl8lMls n ybe ealâinedæ str@gdHiiE d i6 dd he.ls (Ê'c lirft thel*r nek edse.lxhâ i nê*hâsbè6 md.êDlæed. a.ni@d '1 thisêdæby theinsrlion orFo lri. 163).ûênrs!æs toùemew 6'om âruulû æcrim Gùsts) â! eæh.'de, nwàly Æl Llreho* 6-à!ffi15 s br 'trsd*d is tlth€ù rflton de Mde 6_ontalbr clod, held rhê êm ThG 6m ôf slf$lion nlhûùo w6iedloûshedtf illThelarhr1yp€ tmMftû 8en]æEied hoodsddinelothè


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uih centq moe nol.bl.vùo froû' cfêêtrlrM, nû{ in the Naùoml ùl|*NL or Dsnù*k. .oFrha.n (Nrnund Thenu! i e.eni'Lgilrtr drih. hoôdh dr squ..cc ofbûhonhoLes ùd4 rhe.hii n'e rê ùaiN or nin. bltonholes are p.escFed rlinlr de nù\ nnssins.*l'ilê die *.r.h.d otraide dge ol rhe bututrholes F$m,nny nn,lbd fiom tosion on the btrhon s.lkr du.i't rear 'ftÈ !?c ol clo*lt liriry hoodis tliral or the Ndi0( ilhûii[iùrs dd {ùlptu,l fisuFs (Fig LiL).Irksrcrnrrnin]!LyvoDH'd .uùi.u.d


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centtries. oûly a ir vhuâl $ù.!s.ecord the trchniqF in {helSthsiury, vh.i ii Nasuscdb dc.o'at n,c h.N oi knuhb' râbârdsôr ii!+ cirN runks Ii kems (o h e blossrled i' tl'. larr cqiury. ùding irto uscJo.all edFs oIÉ.r ment and, !Fnr!.j\, lFadr.r, as \Ell æ for o'lmentrl hoNe ùqryrs nr'v pùdantomÀ in s wcr knNn rs d:qgês.Dèrorârioiof L\h md mseft'l ishion wlljclr kind. m eftæcrt demonsraledthe r.ict or.otrsDicuo's.onsmp .

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ornerGxtile Lasùri j,' rli. sân'.Iâb l4th{cft tury dcposiiat lrc72 se6s ro hNe had L\js e* perieice It À hoptd rhd orherexcailims tÈy yield si'nilar Dar.rial which !il1clari! the p,tr Nse ândorisiial rorn ofi]'is item

Dâgg€s sin.. mcdiMl clolh v.s ond welltulled indeed delibenbly heâvnyJu[ed 10 exd e (j". on iq or bindù{ ThuslrN up Lhepmcdceoi .u! ring doih iJio srqFs as orrr'ncihl cdacs or aDDliotioDsûe l4th.dturl dæosi6 at Ec?2. 0ardculJy d* ol ûe 1âre11ù .ent,ry. liift yielde{la ùnb.r ol iûtcrc$iq clndes ol rhis sinple rd de.oôrivetechniqùê{hi.h {:s ro be elabomred consnlerablyi! ihe il'n! qtr.edirÂ

oi. su.h dar No 70,fiq 177)Iron rhede Dosirdatiit b d'c se.andqùder oI lhe llrh ren. rùry is oI i lell [,ll(i liaht bmrî rabby a r;mm loq oak1ed \nh . .uived upre. edgesrsge*


ie..:q-4 hFadoscDa.nhlinûenùsbr+'niùrle çhoM m ihr vLnùx11! rortsDoru! knl, rfr4 ,,rF l !a,d lll! so( rriLlLam orHrdrdd1lis l7s).nor iû York rliNFr Th. daqsr rofts rlom â sotrp rrL!ongLDatirg tro rhee.rrxniû{ Th. N'rl lom oI dqF h ùl r rllr!ëitrry irip ornLÈritLllirlirêsrrlI dhsùtrtrlnihdo{r eâ.h:nle Tr\a lrqr {,. rrL a,1,0o\jlur L. r[m \r,1. Cio:i. iriaii$) ]luhaFr nr slmLld! sLirs q).onùarely 10nn d..p. .û roinûrbd ."âln:]n xr ide,rnL ln l5-lrhrl

I


thcsere shoM h maN{ript illumiidions. par iLuldly haing dom liom rl'e edse\ ot sr'on ihqido. ùrrs of liom aboE L\. clbowon sho tighl sleles. lhe) rle appca Ltoùr{hpmbably nrherL{errhm rhisd$ùsir,asd.ùdlv. ddi tions to honc rappinrs A jûrher lroup of dagsêstoù L\e lâie in ren(q are narrcrcr uid *c.ofNrdcd vi(h .cnft!v.nicâl s.âms oros 2,Iea5r, rl! ,. Ûese presrnEblydcG onshie the {onorical ùs oI oldei .e(rcl.d An i(d in this late]1th{etrtùry âs*mblge ol rexdleswhich,ii (he ilÈ{'( rf anyd'or. lik.ly

e ra@(trcl'tud ',ùadù.*ed€ cltrùj.!|lcgc' cin'br]dF Nls 61,rt)

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'fhq nay v.[ h$. bccncû iiom m old FnsL Grcupsol stjrchholesotreâ.h saip sùase{ ùal ommrenrs,proùâùly'ud. f.ôi' i'cr,l, F r ônc. tuch.d b them Geelin $0). The m,ln outc!- nrm ùnrempnry comneÈ raloAresddj',s dr.s {cris to hâv.com. in thc middtedecdes ol dre lalli .enûry, p€rhapsæ L\c frshiomble*ce$e\ orrl,e .ich rtr.kl do{i rl,frrsh di. social$ale, mntodly thrtaEniqqto be.one lbiqritors Daqseswre renânly a dÈ cr.rscasily lincrive ugn ic*.lôih buide crcabdÊon d old sdùeit trid hû.ê d atu,c tirc md albinable fNhiû, lower i!' 1l( \!:ial deposirâr D.ses ton' d'e lât l,(lRntu) BC72re, ryilhok ex.q)rjôù..ôislr d.d in ù. rhe eaiiû l4rhrennry mednm eilhr iâbby. appafcndydrd {iLh {oad, {ere Ùearèdlron 6nnm sidê *ips.utoi 'nx i: ùe shighr ol rheFah (No2{R.F,s l3l) trc l4cr $th slib rTIm dæpatinhnrls oI50. 55nn. Slii.h lôLs susse$ Lte po$ibtry ol rliis h trôrsoc.'bin as melalo'É',eiivLndlgh in L\e ealie. emDlès. Oûnûrmùl strirs like

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lÀNo25,ohdomDh{de11ùeddqde

ê*olanâtion iscurmrLvhterprebdasùêiqsd' r€rd s n dasseiis ôlâ ffne lutledrichb'lm It nN r*ûblesahead do$ O{o252.FiÊ133A). Iê$ bird æd ould hæ .one 6d â 3tip oI Ir 6 àlde in h:vins:hod J[ Ce{6 likeNo2,13. oI '6 êda6 *rlloFd or pinlêd prsunàbly snipp€drirh shûs or s.isds. wielher thÈ reùesft m idle doodlingo m ulrddJ dis âded sEp or È theôn\ didoæ rorLheûô* elabonltdæmdw dæeq b nN diffelt to &

ss. the piee wuld æûùlY hæ fluûsed at ttnctjrelvin a breze. Aroûer i'4ûent 0Io 253. F,slAB), now6rfron.ompleb, looksâsLholsil ii nay als be , disdded !êndat l€f dug$ liom a !-mnlor lenile ac{jNry. It app€dsto haE sore edles ineniiooâly ot inlo salops dd tû h@ r dry sætionoltoL'rer leafâtta.hed This d4æ ffis to be pdlidi{tv aldDro dÉ dt le.f.ljle ede6 dêDi.Fdônsâlûls in hm} Kipr ilûinàbN ùd monmdbl €ffiEd ù


-\I']I.]NI)IX

The dyes LLrlia |roressorM cl\Ihilinsolth.Ii rirNiLl !i Ii Èiol trr.lfill I \e .h lor dFs iû i !n l scl.t{l srùpleor t rtLhsiôùi nai:.'frr I \k: dr' f^L rine thal nôdeû le.hniqLLri of rlt-!. lninrd tdilpr $riirh rc g.tr.'inr nrolrrd 6on' {.r inlirololiralsiLes nF \dr or {hc trrÈtol krm rzs ofg .d siai Jjtrr! I .*bli!h rs rr,dsmdlxù)ùn of (!! cm br dd.d..l I suchrin(h,ù.û iloDlh rlreoiginar.olôùrlù5 lrnnpd b! i[. r]roli oa{riN fided3ndbpe, anrhrùir.ldirs.h:11 t5drrh.13rèrlitesin diÈ orliûinrry dud! Di!{11k) (uk n dek.ùbl. ofa ra,{ù srr orrlrd: Mtr1db. lnnrr\rtrile o@r drÈtrexllilr raF rLnrnr .,oDtrr \re' ! r.{( bv Lhetsriorrprr ùnt{li:indudd uD pl$ scrsr..larii lrrrdhe.Lhnb.ùus.rrrè! Éùin.d vlslblÈrolo li 11rn?. lioqly,r lr$ ri,n.M\alrirnrjLeforrlrlofkrùt !uDl!:\..r sed {o York .i. dr'îrrlùr Qtrnn ùû df. m !ses.usingrlt È.hniqnesd.,rloDù|)" P", ftsôr$il'irirs ÎLùrksïrdu.rôhiùro.pnrid irtdÈûilsorhÈsyrbûi.Io,Jrsi!.rocN làrlôr rorhisadâpbrionôrîh.ls iolmcdro.lrtil tii, Lo,rrHi).dnrh \nrk alhâeologicrt Tn,n rorùl prdiiior ùl hboniox rârlirl \ ny ihe end or rnc {trdr'. i, r9rr. I rolatof 351 ftdi(?LsanDl.\ râD, irr(or sire!lld bêê. *uimd trr.r(r! mntysÈhad b.ùmi rnn,ty .nirri{,!r r!rr otunepdonhei'nÈlicdi0nof

Method of er.tractionând identification

Lû.rn l d!èsNhirh û? ]r..tr{rrlqtdiedlrr,ilr'Jihe (e.g\$d,j,rdiÂoù lthù Dumlt) nÉsûnphsrh.ùrnlr'rl I u rd plus:l.ohol r,ùtrk {rii.h\ritLremolldrc{h.lrlL.rtbeetr aDolid rFrr|t ibrehâsb(tr 0rtedd vdr l rFhLùo.danitna.Ldùktnr. L,uit\oûdatrd !\î oI Lhrldl$ d!e! tu! 01thssorr) nc $o rir[id Nrds ni. nùrnrrFfi'ld .trd ddtbp.d aùdù{ cianird {irh rin rniola rY/rrn r,re lredtuphôrô'rpÈr1nn Dadri,r drùsncrsmrhof huqlirlr' È$iurhouÂhrh. vnDrei!âbsôrrrP.l d ditlertni\x!d.r(rhi rÉ :Fcrortdirrry !4hs Dr{ d'd be com pft.dùrh LhoyoJkmM dJ(\tr,r\ 'f[is oneû Fryi,le.mimncdiaÈ eùiô.ùionorih..txs,'r ro, tunriù i omntioion ri'

ililtld&nr

r {' rÈ usd i" crl ôr}ù,r4,h! SrqnesôrdF ,ryeer-âd rc sronedon b lninr:r-., clinl maio$aLr,!rr&\ lllen rheplâi. ii qF led in x smr rnoun(or sorv.trrirr$r!q{ liLtùeep alo,! r|t plâre.rakjnsDrdr ot lhe dy. {irh ir si.c diff(.tri lD\nrerLs tr-rltl d dif.èi! sDeods the.hromdogmm. of( r,ùù, {{ unl ùvtlDd, rill shoNspos d erling inrn2h :ons {hr prxt rrir! !!G i iùLeLhecoNti. @n5 or rhe d}?r for .x.nptr. alLzari'rÀnl 0c cuin. ilr inj! (ûuonrnls ot d)-êF ù.dder ?,1,I?i,d,'d{L ma!b.i.lÙLiJ|l ;! lhislay

Results

ar dln-ribûr.IrôrâlLr35rvnDl$ ftpr.sê i.s lirns tdr 3ll i'edilvrl iexnl.s nd I iql ror dr. [{ôn (]9! ioDles) kf. fûd 8!;tji ihc T],.p,!rd!f proilreexlrdioDoi.rr-.\|i$l)esl r.mrid{ ftr' smaLlgrôrp. rrù, aUS73,Slt71. d.{rirrd ir lr{.il eLsë}h.fe(T.ylor 1983: ]i.ii. DL:K77 fRr73, IryDl]l. S\1^S1aùl [':l(or 1!n98 r98.1r]0)r. ri l .,r lniLl rDpL IAVUI3.\ron.ur. fûr deDo{sdaredro the d Lr,elerlircisr.aiêdi,,r!tuncsohDti'rôr111 L.lLhrdur). rllho\qh ih.i . àf. lnrJl nmb.is


'r,. t x fron dre urh. l3rh nn.t l;rh cedtrrit\ rile\ v'\t, {l d. indi.abd in thc roncordân.! A ù pl.tc ù{ oJrhe .êsrlb is $ofed in ùe IlLr sêùm or lnndor ù(l,i{. atrl .ôri.s n'a! bc ,iiijù.d or qritcn applicdiodto tr'e .cr.hn€ OI rhe3sr eriù s, 220(l;ii!i) svc positnr .e sdb lne dre provedro b. 'nâdde'r kermes. mad/indiso. li.,ien rqile. ï,d { .ùÂ. ol r,.l lo$ ;rlLnliq {.ld a tnbtilt identin..don ol bzilrco.t. ind i $nal1nmber oi dlts, mâinly J'êllo{s or browns

suDoli.slrrc beinsb.ouht h tôù dr r.{

Cluiti.s, {hù e mandeFo$n'! wA r} l,(nt'. 11110) Boththerlrki arÈ.irljrj (S rær.' 11141 ad Yorkiesc shoùêdthat dr. proporùonsoI Ll'e bvonajor.l.€.onu{{ù5,,Jra, h andNDriD. rii.dù'sid.nbly6omsm e !, s.i'rle.Nhi.h !rof.$or llhirnq (ook b indi.aF | rtuc of althoushth| po$ibilir) that thc mrthod ol dyeirs ùa.vax.r tht i?iio is

Kenk\ 'inh.' ' d dr!. rzs ddctd in lènol dic b.tcr quliN Noolrtrbricstoù Bc72 ândin d}.c ol dre t3rh. nl rlrlL{ drr r.bby {.v.n !6 nad,ler \iù, rrun s\llvrt andcus73 KermèsGdern?d !y iù the moi lalmon dye Èom rhe kennês shilld louse ,(.,,6 ,"',;rrl trôich wi\ !n a'i i" {5$ or thc $3rH0 Fo(p (Plrrh.) Tq a Nl.di'.trri.an itrs.t lhich æd û?%ofthe l.1e14dEênto4sroùplrom ECz {:s imoodcdinlo this.ùun!-y ùider n\. nme ol n,ere $se no 12ù. o. r3rh+duo .rrmpl.s of {rr dy., bri it 'cp'Nnted :igr oI rhe llth to sai', IGfmcs vas *pensive bû nN{h ûr..1 rof ntd l5th.ènrrrysDrphsnlm ùe olhersiles. the rich qlrl.r {hich ir sm. It xas âN:!s r$G r\]t[in va\ Fevd j,' all in. nÉddc' smDlcs ciabd sith ûnk and lias b.d loùd in sner e(lesianicnl l,ùial\,'rrh t'.disxl Eriod 0!îl cxani0cd bychreûd{râDhy Thisindi.atesùar LùD rlr' .ôôLs or dys {âs ,moi ceiâirly dre A thtd fêd dla {hth 4h1 beerFdql ti d'r dyc nùdd.r,tu6,nrtd,r,, L..dher thùirlre r . or my ol $e 1I* Foe oritrdiml t.iil.s È bruilvood, ob nabr lild m.ddû R ,,4n', bincd from the hetrs.od oJ ùes oI rhe rfirish bedstaw d!ts. rll ,i llii.h liM' b.cr {D}' io Iackmy dct(ùble dtdid flâr'10r1933 Czd&ri, &nily.'n,is dyf a ons rô hâ!. bc.n impù1erli'iô r:u'oo. i.m at leÀl the l.re l?th .cnhq ûrtuiÈllo l9?3 13È31,137),bn( thereN vadder is a ersijl( dJ.. usuâllyurd ir. a mfm bricL.cd. dùo,uh it cai also pmducc onlyonerenklire {'jriùri âmonsthcdilcs yellow,violei,bremnraDIr i5r!,ùvd sâmpr.dii.D r.ndon (No t1). Ir c alsorrc 'r Deach ro L,oondld .olorN suchasgne.s andblues, orhft *caBted ttaùLs. allhoLqhil his l,(n .tr .onnre.edj! larl{ ùnlr.rr h tcxlilcssrivùg md .m gûe r soldeùton. b theyclos or$rld.ln ( (five l9t6 abor sroud (HùI! de Cs:f & RocL'Js sd.n .ases lrom8C72.o, Irqn R\1)31aM o( tffm srrwil) t6. dF hd bèer .odÙi'Fd 32,31)itmâyberhd LlÉdle{lqu\{nsir dt xnh bhè tu !h€ pûp1. or bla.k! in ùr€ sillis A puplê dyederivedÈomh.henswasloundnl tom BCT2ir hrl b{ r .ôin imd $th a rdlN, asi1lmd?hâlfsllkill,iGrfrmlat ]4th{nhry andii â Noolclothetu m.ddeHlyedL\rcâdsin yellt$, !jrl, iô llMotr (Nosii.l0.5l) Thh dyehÀ pnrcusly selredse had been ædyed d,e beei identiiicdin a sm l Nmrrf 'i lf,-Nonnri loflî d' .ràia. or bFM s.hrdge st'pe ii a æd medievaLLexliles. sr.'ily ri$,ôd qualiç probâble al It r thar 1lÉ riar. R iddd,, Orrlôr ?È$îton Leril lt). ûe dn n.! be ôL rhoqh nôi rdiv. io thGcomty. h beeûiitc ùined nor tr nùmb.fordllerenr lihens, soft or duced beJoredF Norma .onque$ a.d was rvhich can rie loûnl r:ûslmd ands.othnd. Su.h L.hensaDrer ûrthr beiry cdrn?redh rlit ^.Âlûsdotr Friod (rràl 13di{êtrrù4 Ôa/d,4ù.a 'l li/trt46 unl.r ron1989Â100).r1'tLtu.hiers,tradeÂôr d}tn in 80,31i1.ândis 'nadder {de residenl al lvin.hene. ii n{r rh,"!inp'rr.ôrk(sfitkc1852,7,1 (Bi,ldl(.1976.13È32) md theF de rè.ordsol la.mN lere inDônedfom Non:r in the l11h .enlq il{ok 1966.2:2) maddd bliu sro{n in dr Bcve e.vreâ in l33l (Hebdirrh rroin .Nl..tr Nlcdiremneu [.heN. trob3bly 1946.lLIs). whil.l.Fslationor dr. .ùly 1,1ùccnturylorbâdethe expoiî of df dye slFcies or ,RarÙd5d 1,.dtuÆ begar t' n (!HD. 51È7) By ùe $û cmrùry. tuldjlioùl tded ?sr ll{trein'. inonopôl!uDdcrthc nmre


ororchi1rd.d1300{Kok1966.2s2 3).Therlo dcJinirc.vrilit.) or wiih Q(rder lor ora4e, sold r.*il.s tum Rc?2,on.îrËbrylryednea.Lheif pltrce ofriâillâdure rrt nod hkclvto,.0'.{ri Tw dyes$e.e ye11oN on .arætioi bur be ex \rrer of the norenLlneor.hil hôtd i. a simirùmùmri) inu, N, whirhsç geis rhârii,r wfe browi o. blft* s h.Dappti.d indiaobn.ùc bruc .orôn derikd trom \aad b0n Jil'f 1],erarùndre bdki nu6tr aM indisdoic rvo lDnrs re rs yer indis oakgdls arc notorioûn!diilicûlii, \!mde tiiÊlhh.ble). \.s rue rmons th. D,.dio.al nnn nat'r:lly o(urins ûùiis a.quir4l dùi.c I!rdon l*riLes.l{ocoùsinonry16entrrdes. t.ss bu' ial. and ih. du$tr ided iiei mav well nor than5$oith. roàlrùinb., mxri\!,&nrcntv rcprc*r hÈhe nmrbcr of bmqn/rrra.k k x m.ntioied i'r tide doctrmenbof th. Frlo.l ijle\ NaNDlly p(ùenrd ftol (b.own/grey/ lJFy rnlo) (lrd n mishrbe exp{rcd i,r tr rtrrger blrk)Izs ako nôb.I.ovdx{ryirh nrdde' in nurbe. of t frlcs rrr .xoramriû ùEy rt rrû Neakdycinssrih {ôtrd hde âid de dillicdr ro \1l, tr ri on lexlitesa.e diùdcd a..od d.bd :rr.r rd*irtr, r,ûirr Ptunkds.poprlâr iit rù Îbrt, rhc silksshm a nishrrylririrq( light blle .lorhs. mrch paL.. thxD u uc a nl in,se or dyesnom d'c mol rabri.s RêdsaF LlÉs (Srl7mânl9?3 210) har pefh,È re rFii.oDnof .rrryxow\a{rrqtesrebeGf frpf.s.nFd tln ir the ùlol tniL.s. 1lrr. las Y.nN md bro*i dyesârÈevenùtrc difiicutt nw, rsr{crnmbùolm'deniifieddy6iû rhe iô Ji,rl r, ,lnr,aq,rogirat srmptes. as rllr r. rilks.rcrlcdiisthcnDrof..irli.ori!j,, naskÈdby su'iningtom Ih..a'diDiarir jû In inn4. drc dlc ii dF rexrilesshN a wl'idr thq haveben buied Tn..s ôr a lello\ R4te\ and blues dr prcscnri" rndl n,mbers:ndrlsoycllo{sdd dy. vo c JouMin 1rsaûrrr.s.tr, nùD Ec72rnl one no,n sxa9l a retd ely ne{ iechniquc, bn)wdsï lossibly bla.k I'i(l'Pnsnrc InN chtumâros4hy(HpL.). r.iûs rh! 37!iin{hi.rr nodr-.}a\ rlde.red. 11È s.s âprled by thc l]risrol tcamro s. ôf ih !r'l Doss,ble,ol côùfê. that drese qrrt orieinau! ros rrom Bc72 (r c r liriis rù; .orn) md id.itiii.d, I!Èolir 0h,sk.emDlerclrnd qtrù.irii ir No2r0nllt{colùaloneinNo251Ltrrlolinh lhemuconsiitucntof{.l.l.fmn'J?Âr'&J{,]d L (dùoùsh lùrcori| is ,rso fouid .ombinedNith s.nÀbi,, i,, dy, ints frun dyeis seenyeed, L:s,: !, rrddn L ); L.empierolandqucritin sragf.i 1r,cD.esence ol an âddiùonâldyc in No 2r0.ffil hadbc.nFsibrctoaoDrydn ni\iriltFdù,ique or Hpr ro â grcaÈr ft,nber ol qmples, m:ny mô'r !-.llo* nlr {ll hre been.terecred md idêtrdôed Ar my i.re, the prcscni !.rk rir nuM ùiaryello{ dyesrefe r ùscand,oi oc.} sion.ombin.d wiih kù,r/;dj!o rq sfrn (one

w{d or ok oirhe}t[o{ dycs,or êvei Nirh!ord. Rehnrmcnb to ,. amlyliar srnem re srilt beingd{cloped and iÎ is lo$ible thar in th. tu tur.iln ùulle^ olnegdive rcsdb x bê!i,,to Ùe reduced Mcandril. th. $irr has already 'LenoninGd ind rh. ri.h. {ann ronÈsol nud dcrm.c Don{ ri. no{ nn,rârcototr' s}on in


Concordance 'lhÀ

chaptr lirb âI dr ùo,lnf.d i&ms dG il $hi.h rrtv .!rad r thisl,q,r mdù rhesir,"s utr'ri.Mbd dtrl æfu|di.c 10d,ie aM ribfe/

ttttrttdihj 2 t Lailk tz.ttn yn j <Fijr: rp!5 lib12

rvhere ar i(t' .onsist 0l mofr bxn o( k * 5<3liji',9's!'/ld}TAsllbL!2r.q nud)er js xsigntd 10 lil,, rh. sN dalosuc 'n us er.l, côtrioonerl É'1 ora bNoNd sarmcn( q hi.hi\.li il.D r $ooll.ncloû!o!.n i,r2 I fiill liDcdriLh . I :l si[ aDdrarll rlons the buton ||nd 6tltâ: 2 t tritt: arnal ,)i)ùnq) hôlls \irh a {ri ôr bbbyro'et sill È lin,,l r.n ù cc imÈ\ ùnlc' ùe satrr rùr,lr.. (No 159)r'ith m Ale.isk 'ria..d r.n io ir et.h nme î,e e!*âr.d dliles he been râ1nt'rù.d ând sor.d by sit . sû rhd ur n, LlT.c itcm! of i',irrndion â;t rt'rui cd b iddtri8 a pierc: thr Jh d, (8172. CUSt3. erc. alqL h thc site hedi g), dre rr.l,ii,rai.dr .,,&i ,r,ù.r tLn squart brd k.b) md die dd6,, ,/,nkr ('i 1aÈ aiù l r! :'7!! ânoltu btuckes:3 .o.linùotrs ! . u.n.r ot lui' !i .rs6/r+, raFi. brts uiotrewirrjit.â.hsitr. rals llrL! 3.Fi81iÀ li :!rrs a" /Liiibi,r Dnnbêris lised fo. ih. i.xtilcs r.{! IÀÙlr3 ls ]rrlrL fionr I]CT) ttre p et\ T slFiitics t trHnL r! <È.i5l1ûù ]r\tr1 Tartsi. ligs cane aror r d.lrsit ddins ro ù. s-"ondqùdnr ..5ji'/lj6!r!$1]|1cJ or tlrc l.uh .eitury, fB ris,ili( s ihat r textL a i1n7!!f, r r? 1rri.3 cim nomr dqlsir ttth latrl4Ùi.41tr'r.,\hi e 2.13:j/]0llAihbc]drtsii (ni4Fmrr prefix ixx re lenil(s with ihe ,3 <11:3/13:ra61Ù hbtsr lith'|!. the x indicdj'L(thai drv $ere .ôr sntd d 1l{ lr irÀhi\l$eûirdr.sc nsDrre6d. us..l in th| MOLStrrùive calahgù T|ê Roma, trr(oâls Dlâccdimreditrtclv bè îÆm rnbll3Fig ,t .rs/û tuelll ù.1[co14nal.ôrtcxi numr,qurr.' src codeaUS73' epresed1l( ir.n.h nmbèr ôJthc ,s <sr,/4 r^si Txbl.3 ùnGxL Îil,l.. ris atrd I'l .Pfercncesùe i) râlrl.s/illÈt.dodsnrùisl,ookrRmEn meûl r <a*1$: 1?0. d]! c{cd tullo{ins ù* retun n..s idcnliti6 diP Soleded 2 <a211LL> 1{3. riq 116 cn!lo4. iD!ùich . Iull desiorior d dn $tm .3r:*l]'/I.:1]{.JftcJid cD beJùurd li,É11y.\rlkn ,1)_.b{itrg h.s r. kei pLla thi\i\j i!abd d the dnl oi rheÉLeqù Ba)ndd s casd€ (8c72) tJock ùonsr uclio.. s..o rd qur.cr Uth \B:\o!l-la3ltllhâ\.thcNh.Èolùsi.rlùnGxr

tti ùnita 2 trtjtk ls:Pmyxn)


t\tt!tnjta: 2 2 ttilk tTaltn !dn1)

'63 injrT/2> rni. dFcr(

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rih enltrdd batd: llLt'l Laib:: Iahb16

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s/s,z 11r o'de. in {hi.h wrp endsare1l'r.rlùl dn.ùsh (heheddlesor làbbr in whi.h thesPfrpi.ks passu' Â roorh thread.oi,posedol a lmellâ (,rb Fld.d ftmbtue) silk or hnen $ôûid arcud a ùre or{rinù Drtcriâl (or Èxatr'ple, A looprhrcqh shich r !rr, .trd h paskd sorh.t n My be raÈedor lortrel t, ôD.nthc shed10ldmit $ A selrpaternedwle \irr, . ribby sroundâ.d snall âIrÆr motl\ in orÀd ûss fofm.d bv rqo floatsononeIaceaùl w i Jloatsoû the A ÎBtred {ar i', rhi.h a p.nern,.onpoi"d ot trll Jlùa bôr.d bv rbiDdioq!dD,h add.dtoâFound! 'I

hc principâlor oil.v $trpina 6riLe Unil $ryo$rl orôic or moi. morili constihtesthe!ûteri 0fa rexÙ1e ]len, auxih.y n, rlr mrin xtfr, pâ$edfioù *lveds û, a lnda. to t rficlr th. soLùd or to forma paren'


À singlepassaÂc ol â scfi ùr.ad, or F A *lvedte *here M. sl'trftlcsol trrh 'nreâd prod!.ed by ùivjtrdiis thê bâvrs(Ni'i Jilm'.ntt ol sr ôl Seelell L.ed coù'Dolnd$1]l A {eee basd ona uùi ol iive or mofeends,ÆdÂnumberof pn*! {ual ri, or| oulijd' oi dr. .unbù orcrorunddiouo.more.dj..entpi.ksa dnderôroverd,eie{ ônc fu bindiry Foi nl s r e ser d er rwoor mor e e so! n(e$nt usiE mannûto sirc r smooù 1lr. lù(irrdi',al .ds. orâ t.xtl. clos.d b! mfr loops A gmupoihcddLs lird sideby siden orderLhârtheynn'ybe lDtd ()n|r,, rt rhe\a inne Lhepâsqe oi eâchqdr {hread 'lli. l.te, s s md I ùc uscdto dcnot.r yrnl dnedion ol lwis.'lte eitrl {rôks orL\e le@r mth.s drodi'tcrion in whirh ûe ûisbd ÎE !ai,' hastrsi'nilafdirstiotrôlM sid. Nithoutm.iabon \rnavcbxscdon â uit ors! cndsmd lw ri.ks in {hi.h è..h q ^ ryJr orNimènrp ltæiDA in rhi.h thc sh.ds nreiormedby ribl.ts ri'h holesn\roqh {hi.h drr wap eids âÉ ùreaded.llthe kbleNuerirl.d eirherj,'!nu5orsirsly.d'.dsr'.cr.atedlof qriFÈLd ôrrln.adsolditLre l\kM}irl!oft,w4,a,dr{ft .olouF rach oJq hichis in{e$uên onl! *ith $n Da4oftlF vtrp 'l1r

silk thr.adsthat rcstr1tÊomthc I{isliûs ol reeledhlamenc A weak basei or r uril ol three{r ! rtu or nors djtuenl Di.ks,h lhicl cxchcndpar*s mr or ùdd ,I|e r mùe. bindin{ poins À ftrp pile{ere in *hich ùr pilc È uodùcedby x pilc NârptharI


îènilâ.rdcllrins the sidêda icdile mltrich tiewppre{tonitu Thê ù:ânsrersltr6ds ota lèxlile:lùe thâi&e pæd thmûe! the îhê sldêûlâ texlileonwiich 0E wft pleddni!É mlplmentâry wns in &b ornorê AwÊratterned wafth siês, 6!.ny of diËerorolors, ùd â rajn lÙp rd ahiûdins sap.Itmûs! lhe acdd ol lhÈmin qâr! ends,ollyoæedt ùleLliêôlhû ôr dhæ àrèkelt io the trrr@dspFrsmûËhe, ræreè. ûe èndsofûÉ ùhdingwÙp bindrhe'é il pass, dd the srud ùd ùe patLm me frrmd sintrlhmLsly. The mri.ê surâæ isftrêd by *rt tlôù Lhâthidethe Min wrD sds Ateidile in vbich â p6tkm h ionred, or ùe smrd ûihe4 hy rhê Àyd nBdefrm crJdedÈ'jl nbrs À m@rh ùiead s!!r tm wol Âùrs whicnfiæ bq lâd paràI€l

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E. J. rturi ù

Nolr

d hf b ir if lnq

i''1]c}q]Liîr.jd4!l@d'3ïÈnj ùiÀq I \r r ,.

R{NÈ. rl1!r

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rlrii orqA.,

5:ri",

rr tut)M//r

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, d). $n ùjù| rnti ti)û4 û ftatnal It!ùrêù \!i.dr:tr !ù( Ès7/2. (!f!rd

.û ùa Li{tt( hù 111,

.t!Àr k@6Û1 r\tu

hmn,..11 ({). ni6 [td]dd,i

t}'r

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Rtrxt t l 1\31ktù, a,t hût athndt4rtP r1!ùl ttnrg rûùr4t6 u.ùt' ttuhtnor,t

Ldv{d'nE,Ekilj,l|1,inûî,cd|1'Pnt lldirgs oiile seÙ'rhnûn nnatriùù ,trhaÈ ù \rùr. I D & nrsc\sri c (.ds),1er hddRnùtad, Lrhdb lJl'rctn dittkfir @rl ]r.l!/rj{',/i]nclhi{.boL]\lLÛh.hsù] BoN\û C Ro! !,r

C(d9 1939

Dtsr$flrrr

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RI\'TR JT N*T 1ùiù|ù116ù11\i|ùiÙ*J)rfu|Éi|,??i'i|

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Knivesand Scabbards J.cowcr[ rr d!NxERcaam,\- G]rtr|lïrs Kriecs ildt ;rJ rô hadicvRlmrn aorI rvholerang€ôf qns, fiôn ihc don$ric tu Â! vnû Focirl .onrcxr. l'olged â.d l:iêd rirh g(û sLill, somdims virÀ dabomrcll dc.omrd scrbbùds,tniv* G of inûinsi. fascinârion,besidesbci'is indic or of rhe popultr rti*n os.s of lhe rime.thn book .trt,lôBnB, dn.u$es xùd ilusmtÊs dKr 6vc hundredknnts, $rbbrÀ, shc$ rùd s.ilsors dxiing tôù tle did nvclih ro rhe mid fifkenrh tùmri.s hd làùid in thc Ciry .f Lôndon, partiolarl) do.g rhe wârerf$nr situs,*hdc ùolscd irms ca' bc a.anftlydrred brdendrc.hôidloAl md.ôiD 6rds.lt is a li'ndrmcnr work of retèrenceaormedier'âlrtdarG ùd m:tunrl culrurc. ) r ? h n o l l a f r . 1 0 o t ; d It t h , t ' r ) 0 3 r r t s ô . r

Shoesand Pattens Until r.enù1 very litdÊ sù l<noNnabout ùedievd shôs. clinpscs in nânùsdit t i11u*ntio.s ând on lirneiùy monùmcis, wirll thc occ*rn, rh'cncc br a .orienponry {ritei, w* J1 rhâr rhc .ostomc hntoriar hrd xs .vidence,.or lest becise lertl,ù rcnJs b pcnst aÊo prolonged.ôntrd siih âa rnd eeryrew xdurl cxrmrlcs sùnivcd. In '.ccnt lem, hsvma neùt 2,000 shos, ùrùy torntlci. rnd ii nlaFtcrtcct .ondirion, hxvebeend*.ô\Êcd ùe$vcJ di rlt nôrtl, bank of thc Tn]mcs, md m nôw hôùsêdin ilc l\'lusum of I- dnJôn 1 h; collcdon, âI froù rvel-dried ârhacologi.al .onrexs, tils nliis utr git in knùylcdgc, nâkilg it !ôsibt ro .tr.t prccisll, the progres of sb.r &shion bcNee. the Nelfih ùd fifrcntb cennries. 2-?^,togiolh atlin-ill6h1n., ô sstir Rt\ 2

An inrprirt df Boydcll & BEw{ l-td PO lor 9,Wôodûadlr,SufÈt[ lP]2 3Dt' .,,/PO tsox 41026,Rô.hôsd NY 14604 4126

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Текстиль 11 15 вв на англ яз textil i odezhda 1150 1450 gg  
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