Student Name: Hongshuai Zhang Student Number: 688502
Knowledge Map (Week 01) Dead loads Live loads Compression
Collinear forces: occur along a straight line.
Concurrent forces: lines of action intersecting at
a common point. Nonconcurrent: lines of action
intersect at a common
Snow loads Rain loads
The features of materials that we should know and think about:
Material Behaviour - isotropic or anisotropic
Strength - strong or weak
Steal is much stronger than timber and steal is quite strong in both compression and tension. The other
characteristics of compression and tension
materials are strong in compression such as brick and cement.
like pulling apart and push together by
Stiffness - Stiff, flexible, stretchy or floppy
Some materials are flexible such as rubber. Although rope is flexible it is not stiff and concrete is a kind of
very stiff material.
Shape - mono-dimensional(linear), bi-dimensional(planar) or tridimensional(volumetric)
Economy & Sustainability
Some bi-dimensional(planar) material such as ship shelf and tridimensional(volumetric) shape like bricks.
We should know the price of the material. The
situation of transportation and if it would bring the impact to the environment. How does the efficiency of the material to the constructing system such as timber can be used all over the Australia. (Information from: W01 m1 Introduction to Materials)
In enclosing space for habitation, the structural system of a building must be able to support two types of loads--static and dynamic. Static loads are assumed to be applied slowly to a structure until it reaches its peak value without fluctuating rapidly in magnitude or position. Under a static load, a structure respond slowly and its deformation reaches a peak when the static force is maximum. Dynamic loads are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic load, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The two major types of dynamic loads are wind loads and earthquake loads. Static load - Dead loads & Live loads Live loads comprise any moving or movable loads on a structure resulting from occupancy, collected snow and water, or moving equipment. A live load typically acts vertically downward but may horizontally as well to reflect the dynamic nature of a moving load. Dead loads are static loads acting vertically downward on a structure, comprising the self-weight of building elements, fixtures, and equipment permanently attached to it.
Header is a masonry unit laid horizontally with the
Wythe is a continuous vertical section of a masonry wall oe unit un thickness.
shorter end exposed or parallel to the surface.
Course is a continuous horizontal range of masonry units.
Rowlock is a brick laid horizontally on the longer
Collar joint is the vertical joint between two wythes of masonry.
edge with the shorter end exposed.
Bed joint is the horizontal joint between two masonry courses. The term bed may refer to the
Soldier id a brick laid vertically with the longer edge
underside of a masonry unit, or to the layer of mortar in which a masonry unit is laid.
Head joint is the vertical joint between two masonry units, perpendicular to the face of a wall.
Running bond, commonly used for cavity and veneer
Stretcher is a masonry unit laid horizontally with the longer edge exposed or parallel to the surface.
walls, is composed of overlapping stretchers. Common bond has a course of headers between every five or six courses of stretchers; also known as American bond.
Long-and-short work is an arrangement of rectangular quoins or jambstones set alternately horizontally and vertically.
A force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body.
It is considered to be a vector quantity possessing both magnitude and direction, represented
When an external load pulls on a structural member,
by an arrow whose length is proportional to the magnitude and whose orientation in space
the particles composing the material move apart and
represents the direction.
Collinear forces occur along a straight line, the vector sum of which is the algebraic sum of the
Tension forces stretch and elongate the material.
magnitudes of the forces, acting along the same line of action.
The amount of elongation depends on the stiffness of the material, cross sectional area, and the magnitude of the load. COMPRESSION FORCES A compression force produces the opposite effect of a tension force. When an external load pushes on a structural member, the particles of the material compact together. Compression forces result in the shortening of the material.
Membranes structure X Skeletal Sports stadiums with large area but cheap Surface structure
Knowledge Map (Week 02)
-Egypt, Great Wall
Allows horizontal movement Restrict vertical, rotation
-Stone, bricks Pin joint
Sydney opera house Structural System
-Common, frame systems
Restrict horizontal, vertical
-Very efficient way to transfer loads down through the ground
Week 02 Restricts horizontal, vertical, rotation
Hybrid structure -Air integral
-Particular membrane called ETFE
Local materials, material efficiency, thermal mass, night air purging, solar energy, wind energy, cross ventilation, smart and design, insulation, water harvesting
The manner in which we select, assemble, and
The structural system of a building is designed and constructed to support and transmit gravity and lateral
load safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in its members.(Columns, beams, and
construction should take into account the following
loading walls support floor and roof structures.)
The enclose system is the shell or envelop of a building, consisting of the roof,exterior walls, windows, and
-Structural compatibility, integration, and safety
doors.(Exterior walls and roofs also dampen noise and provide security and privacy for the occupants of a
building. Doors provide physical access. Windows provide access yo light, air, and views.)
-Desired relationship of building to its site, adjacent
properties, and neighborhood
The mechanical systems of a building provide essential services to a building.(The electrical system
controls, meters, and distributes it in a safe manner for power, lighting, security, and communication
-Compliance with zoning ordinances and building
Economic Considerations -Initial cost comprising material, transportation, equipment,and labor costs Environmental Impact -Conversation of energy and resources through sitting and building design Construction Practices -Safety requirementts
Arches are curved structures for spanning an opening, designed
Solar systems they have particular kinds of structural sections sociate with them. This
to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression. They
structure might be found early buildings from Athens, Egypt, the Great Wall of China where
transform the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined
people were working with stones, bricks or mud systems. Compression is the main action in
components and transmit them to abutments on either side of the
Shell are thin, cured plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are
Cable structures utilize the cable as the principle means of
shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses-the compressive, tensile, and shear
support. Because cables have high tensile strength but offer no
stresses acting in the plane of their surface.
resistance to compression or bending, they must be used purely in tension. When subject to concentrated loads, the shape of a cable consists of straight-line segments. Under a uniformly distributed load, it will take on the shape of an inverted arch. Suspension structures utilize a network of cables suspended and presented between compression members to directly support applied loads.
Shell and thin, curved plate structure typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are
The manner in which forces are transferred from one
shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses-the compressive, tensile, and shear
structural element to the next and how a structural system
stresses acting in the plane of their surfaces. A shell can sustain relatively large forces if uniformly
performs as a whole depend to a great extent on the types
applied. Because of its thinness, however, a shell has little bending resistance and is unsuitable for
of joints and connections used. Structural elements can be
joined to each other in three ways. Butt joints allow one of
Plate structures are rigid, planar, usually monolithic structures that disperse applied loads in a
the elements to be continuous and usually require a third
multidirectional pattern, with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the
mediating element to make the connection. Overlapping
supports. A common example of a structure is a reinforced concrete slab.
joints allows all of the connected elements to bypass each
Membranes are thin, flexible surfaces that carry loads primarily through the development of
other and be continuous across the joint. The joining
tensile stresses. They may be suspended or stretched between posts, or be supported by pressure.
elements can also be molded or shaped to form a structural connection. The connectors used to join the structural elements may be in the form of a point, a line or a surface. While linear and surface types of connector resist rotation, point connectors do not unless a series of them is distributed across a large surface area.
A beam simply supported by two columns is not capable of resisting lateral force unless it
Column are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed
is braced. If the joints connecting the columns and beams are capable of resisting both
primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of
forces and moments, then the assembly becomes a grid frame. Applied loads produce
the members. Relatively short, thick columns are subject to failure
axial, bending, and shear forces in all members of the frame because the rigid joints
by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct
restrain the ends of the members from rotating freely. In addition, vertical loads cause a
stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the
rigid frame to develop horizontal thrusts as its base. A grid frame is statically
material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however,
indeterminate and rigid only in its plane.
can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section. Beams are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. The nonconcurrent pattern of forces subjects a beam to bending and deflection, which must be resisted by the internal strength of the material. A truss is a structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear members subject only to axial tension or compression.