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Student Name: Hongshuai Zhang Student Number: 688502

Knowledge Map (Week 01) Dead loads Live loads Compression


Settlement load

Collinear forces: occur along a straight line.

Occupancy load

Concurrent forces: lines of action intersecting at

Ground pressure


Static Load

Thermal stresses

a common point. Nonconcurrent: lines of action

Water pressure




intersect at a common

Impact loads

Dynamic Load

Snow loads Rain loads


Wind load

Earthquake load


The features of materials that we should know and think about:

Material Behaviour - isotropic or anisotropic

Strength - strong or weak


Steal is much stronger than timber and steal is quite strong in both compression and tension. The other

characteristics of compression and tension

materials are strong in compression such as brick and cement.

like pulling apart and push together by

Stiffness - Stiff, flexible, stretchy or floppy



Some materials are flexible such as rubber. Although rope is flexible it is not stiff and concrete is a kind of



very stiff material.


Shape - mono-dimensional(linear), bi-dimensional(planar) or tridimensional(volumetric)

Economy & Sustainability

Some bi-dimensional(planar) material such as ship shelf and tridimensional(volumetric) shape like bricks.

We should know the price of the material. The



materials the




behaviour so


situation of transportation and if it would bring the impact to the environment. How does the efficiency of the material to the constructing system such as timber can be used all over the Australia. (Information from: W01 m1 Introduction to Materials)

In enclosing space for habitation, the structural system of a building must be able to support two types of loads--static and dynamic. Static loads are assumed to be applied slowly to a structure until it reaches its peak value without fluctuating rapidly in magnitude or position. Under a static load, a structure respond slowly and its deformation reaches a peak when the static force is maximum. Dynamic loads are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic load, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The two major types of dynamic loads are wind loads and earthquake loads. Static load - Dead loads & Live loads Live loads comprise any moving or movable loads on a structure resulting from occupancy, collected snow and water, or moving equipment. A live load typically acts vertically downward but may horizontally as well to reflect the dynamic nature of a moving load. Dead loads are static loads acting vertically downward on a structure, comprising the self-weight of building elements, fixtures, and equipment permanently attached to it.

Masonry Terminology

Header is a masonry unit laid horizontally with the

Wythe is a continuous vertical section of a masonry wall oe unit un thickness.

shorter end exposed or parallel to the surface.

Course is a continuous horizontal range of masonry units.

Rowlock is a brick laid horizontally on the longer

Collar joint is the vertical joint between two wythes of masonry.

edge with the shorter end exposed.

Bed joint is the horizontal joint between two masonry courses. The term bed may refer to the

Soldier id a brick laid vertically with the longer edge

underside of a masonry unit, or to the layer of mortar in which a masonry unit is laid.

face exposed.

Head joint is the vertical joint between two masonry units, perpendicular to the face of a wall.

Running bond, commonly used for cavity and veneer

Stretcher is a masonry unit laid horizontally with the longer edge exposed or parallel to the surface.

walls, is composed of overlapping stretchers. Common bond has a course of headers between every five or six courses of stretchers; also known as American bond.

Long-and-short work is an arrangement of rectangular quoins or jambstones set alternately horizontally and vertically.

A force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body.


It is considered to be a vector quantity possessing both magnitude and direction, represented

When an external load pulls on a structural member,

by an arrow whose length is proportional to the magnitude and whose orientation in space

the particles composing the material move apart and

represents the direction.

undergo tension.

Collinear forces occur along a straight line, the vector sum of which is the algebraic sum of the

Tension forces stretch and elongate the material.

magnitudes of the forces, acting along the same line of action.

The amount of elongation depends on the stiffness of the material, cross sectional area, and the magnitude of the load. COMPRESSION FORCES A compression force produces the opposite effect of a tension force. When an external load pushes on a structural member, the particles of the material compact together. Compression forces result in the shortening of the material.

Membranes structure X Skeletal Sports stadiums with large area but cheap Surface structure

Solid structure

Knowledge Map (Week 02)

-Early buildings

Roller joint

-Egypt, Great Wall

Allows horizontal movement Restrict vertical, rotation

-Stone, bricks Pin joint

Sydney opera house Structural System

Structural Joints

Skeletal structure

Allows rotation

-Common, frame systems

Restrict horizontal, vertical

-Very efficient way to transfer loads down through the ground

Fixed joint

Week 02 Restricts horizontal, vertical, rotation

Hybrid structure -Air integral

ESD Strategies

-Particular membrane called ETFE

Local materials, material efficiency, thermal mass, night air purging, solar energy, wind energy, cross ventilation, smart and design, insulation, water harvesting

Structural System

The manner in which we select, assemble, and

The structural system of a building is designed and constructed to support and transmit gravity and lateral


load safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in its members.(Columns, beams, and

construction should take into account the following

loading walls support floor and roof structures.)


Enclose System

Performance Requirements

The enclose system is the shell or envelop of a building, consisting of the roof,exterior walls, windows, and

-Structural compatibility, integration, and safety

doors.(Exterior walls and roofs also dampen noise and provide security and privacy for the occupants of a

Aesthetic Qualities

building. Doors provide physical access. Windows provide access yo light, air, and views.)

-Desired relationship of building to its site, adjacent

Mechanical Systems

properties, and neighborhood

The mechanical systems of a building provide essential services to a building.(The electrical system

Regulatory Constraints

controls, meters, and distributes it in a safe manner for power, lighting, security, and communication

-Compliance with zoning ordinances and building








Economic Considerations -Initial cost comprising material, transportation, equipment,and labor costs Environmental Impact -Conversation of energy and resources through sitting and building design Construction Practices -Safety requirementts

Structural Systems

Arches are curved structures for spanning an opening, designed

Solar systems they have particular kinds of structural sections sociate with them. This

to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression. They

structure might be found early buildings from Athens, Egypt, the Great Wall of China where

transform the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined

people were working with stones, bricks or mud systems. Compression is the main action in

components and transmit them to abutments on either side of the

the structures.


Shell are thin, cured plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are

Cable structures utilize the cable as the principle means of

shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses-the compressive, tensile, and shear

support. Because cables have high tensile strength but offer no

stresses acting in the plane of their surface.

resistance to compression or bending, they must be used purely in tension. When subject to concentrated loads, the shape of a cable consists of straight-line segments. Under a uniformly distributed load, it will take on the shape of an inverted arch. Suspension structures utilize a network of cables suspended and presented between compression members to directly support applied loads.

Shell and thin, curved plate structure typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are

The manner in which forces are transferred from one

shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses-the compressive, tensile, and shear

structural element to the next and how a structural system

stresses acting in the plane of their surfaces. A shell can sustain relatively large forces if uniformly

performs as a whole depend to a great extent on the types

applied. Because of its thinness, however, a shell has little bending resistance and is unsuitable for

of joints and connections used. Structural elements can be

concentrated loads.

joined to each other in three ways. Butt joints allow one of

Plate structures are rigid, planar, usually monolithic structures that disperse applied loads in a

the elements to be continuous and usually require a third

multidirectional pattern, with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the

mediating element to make the connection. Overlapping

supports. A common example of a structure is a reinforced concrete slab.

joints allows all of the connected elements to bypass each

Membranes are thin, flexible surfaces that carry loads primarily through the development of

other and be continuous across the joint. The joining

tensile stresses. They may be suspended or stretched between posts, or be supported by pressure.

elements can also be molded or shaped to form a structural connection. The connectors used to join the structural elements may be in the form of a point, a line or a surface. While linear and surface types of connector resist rotation, point connectors do not unless a series of them is distributed across a large surface area.

A beam simply supported by two columns is not capable of resisting lateral force unless it

Column are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed

is braced. If the joints connecting the columns and beams are capable of resisting both

primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of

forces and moments, then the assembly becomes a grid frame. Applied loads produce

the members. Relatively short, thick columns are subject to failure

axial, bending, and shear forces in all members of the frame because the rigid joints

by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct

restrain the ends of the members from rotating freely. In addition, vertical loads cause a

stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the

rigid frame to develop horizontal thrusts as its base. A grid frame is statically

material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however,

indeterminate and rigid only in its plane.

can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section. Beams are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. The nonconcurrent pattern of forces subjects a beam to bending and deflection, which must be resisted by the internal strength of the material. A truss is a structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear members subject only to axial tension or compression.

Hongshuai Zhang 688502  

Logbook for submission Constructing Environments University of Melbourne

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