Specimen by Manuel von Gebhardi, matd 2016
Grote sque Attra ctions Typefaces: Ruth, Danny, Lawson, Tony (Dialogue Family)
This specimen is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Typeface Design, University of Reading, 2016. Typefaces and Typography Manuel@vonGebhardi.de
I would like to thank Gerry Leonidas, Fiona Ross, Gerard Unger, Victor Gaultney, Michael Twyman, James Mosley, the visiting lecturers, my classmates and everyone else that was there for me in this terrific year â€“ last but not least I want to thank my family for their continuing support.
Don’t order me about. You’re not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. Advice now, is it? That’s big of you. I’m sorry I steamed into you. Talk’s cheap. You think you’ve got me taped. I speak as I find. danny goes to take him under the arms to pull him up. Get off me! ruth reappears. The Attractions I’m idoing my best, Ruth! English Play by Tony Marchant Can’t be a change of heart Labibah he’s having; I don’t believe it. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold ruth to lawson Ruth Regular, Italic, Bold GiveRegular, him aItalic chance. I wouldn’t Lawson ii Typefaces with him if he was hopeless. Tonybother Regular Dialogue Family Narrator RegularLabiba He doesn’t want ﻋﺎدي ،ﺳﻤﻴﻚ ﻟﺒﺒﺔbox. to let go of that I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. Philosophy Literature I’lliiihold it for and you. Come on. Arabic Essay by Abolfazl lawson hands the box over, allowing danny to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back. It’s my new attraction. I’m going to have it mounted. My concession to the modern ... I’m going for broke. They’ll be queueing up. D’you want a special preview? أ اﻟﻔﻀﻞ :
Very early on I was attracted by dialogues and plays without really knowing why. By now, I am even more fascinated then ever, as it is an amazing typographic playground. All the different characters and layers seem to call for a thoughtful and rich typography to immerse the reader into the story and amplify the authors intentions. The following twelve pages are typeset, as if I would have been approached to design a new edition of The Attractions, by Tony Marchant.
TONY MARCH ANT
AMBER LANE PRESS 2016
All rights whatsover in this play are striclty reserved and application for performance, etc. should be made before rehearsal to: Lemon and Durbridge Ltd. 24 Pottery Lane Holland Park London W11 4LZ No performance may be given unless a licence has been obtained. First published in 1988 by Amber Lane Press Ltd. 9 Middle Way Oxford OX2 7LH 2nd Edition, published in 2016, Printed in Great Britain by Cotswold Press Ltd., Oxford Typography and Typedesign by Manuel von Gebhardi Paintings by Peter Piek ISBN: 0 906399 85 8 Copyright by Tony Marchant, 1988/2016
Conditions of Sale This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisherâ€™s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without aÂ similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. First Performance The Attractions was first presented at the Soho Poly Theatre, London, on 13th July, 1987. It was directed by Brian Stirner with the following cast: lawson by Ivor Roberts, ruth by Saskia Reeves, danny by Ross Boatman; design by Michael Taylor, lightning by Peter Glencross, sound by Colin Brown.
Lawson, Ruth, Danny, Narrator Setting Somewhere on the South Coast â€“ a large room broadly with the design and layout of a museum/exhibition. Cabinets and cases and display tables. It is important that the museum has a quality which reflects the fact that the museum has the ordinary sense. Its location (seaside town) and subject of matter should give it a slightly seedy look. However, it is not sensationalist in any way and generally the exhibits are presented straightforwardly and simply.
Evening. Summer. lawson is changing the order of some of the weaponry exhibits that hang down a wall or are on a display table. They are weapons used in murders and other violent crimes. They range from the expected knives (including kitchen), coshes, pokers, iron bars to the bizarre: a hanging ‘grip’ used on London Trans port tube trains by standing passengers, a toasting fork with sharp metal prongs. Any fire arms on display would be in cabinets or cases. ruth appears at the doorway.
L Why can’t people be trusted to leave
things as they found them?
R Perhaps you shouldn’t let them
inspect them. L
No, this is what’s done now. You encourage that sort of thing. I read it in an article. Participation. I can see the logic of it too, being able to touch instead of just look. It’s a great spur to the imagination. The acts themselves brought closer — if they can stomach it. R
Participation’s one thing, order’s another.
That’s right. I am trying to keep abreast of ... well, developments. But I’m not having chaos for the sake of a few extra admissions. R
[looking at his watch] We’re open for another hour yet. R
Don’t make fun of me.
I’m not. R
Is a coach party coming, then?
Anxious to get off early, are we? Got someone to meet? What is he — a lifeguard or something? R
So we wait. R
Not convinced though, are you?
Not when no-one ever seems to put things back in the right place. I’ll keep this display open but no-one’s getting at the rest. R
I came to ask whether I should be doing the takings.
One day I won’t turn up. I ’ll have taken up an offer in London or something.
You don’t have to stay tonight. Not if you don’t want to. Not if you’ve got better things to do. R
I ’ve bought pies for both of us.
What are we having for the sake of a few extra admissions, then? 3
danny, in his early twenties, is walking round looking at the various exhibits in the museum. lawson, a man in his early sixties, attempts to remove some graffiti from a wall. danny carries a suitcase.
L We’re closing soon.
D You Work here, then? L
No son, I’m a vandal. I’m defacing the property. Don’t tell anyone. [Pause.] D
No, I run the place. Or rather it runs me. Into the ground. D
Thought you might be a workman or something.
[indicating the graffiti] Get a lot of that, do you?
Bloody nuisance it is and I can never catch the buggers in the act.
[Pause. danny continues to look at the rest of the exhibits. lawson removes the rest of the graffiti. After a few moments ...] L
What d’you think? D
This is a terrifying display here, depicting the tragedy of man. Each item building into a dreadful catalogue of iniquity and vice. And what do you call them? Knickknacks! Bloody knickknacks! Where’s your imagination, son?
It’s educational too. This is horror, but it’s the real thing. I’ll have you know that all objects here are genuine and fully documented in historical fact. If you want knickknacks, go down to the souvenir shop ... Like the better waxworks establishment we deal in actualities but unlike them our exhibits aren’t made of wax. They reproduce. We don’t have to. D
About what you see. D
I think it’s alright. All the things you’ve got on show, all the knickknacks.
[shrugging] Your colour scheme?
I came in to see something horrible. Like it says outside: A chilling and macabre journey through the dark side of human nature.
Well, haven’t you seen anything that’s amazed you, appalled you? D
I only came in for a bit of an entertainment. That’s what it’s for, innit?
Well, I thought the entrance fee was a bit stiff. Considering it’s only a room.
Look at this. [going to a display cabinet] In the gardens of 10, Rillington Place, the home of John Reginald Christie, a tobacco tin was found containing four sets of pubic hairs from four of his victims. Mrs. Durand Deacon, murdered and immersed in vat of acid by John George Haigh in 1949. Gallstones, a part of a foot and a full set of dentures were found among the remains. The very bath in which George Smith drowned Bessie Munday in Herne Bay in 1912, a man described by his father-in-law as ‘of very evil appearance — a bad man’. How many ‘wives’ he actually had or murdered we shall never know. A letter written by Mrs. Muriel McKay, a kidnap victim, during imprisonment. ‘Please do something to get me home. I am blindfolded and cold. Please cooperate for I cannot keep going.’ Her body was never found. Two men were charged with her murder and found guilty. D
[Danny shrugs.] This place doesn’t work for you, then? D
Well, people are interested in who done it not who it got done to. I am, anyway. You’ve got too much stuff about victims in here. What d’you want me to do — wear a black armband?
Doesn’t it compel, doesn’t it provoke ... something? Not even a certain grim, voyeuristic fascination? D
Voyeuristic? That means kinky.
Animation, I think.
When I worked there the only execution exhibit they had was the electric chair. D
Even Madame Tussauds have got Gary Gilmore being shot, slumping in his seat, and the blood running down his shirt. You hear the bullet go in and then see his head sink and roll to one side.
How do they manage that, then? D
Well, to be honest I was expecting a bit more ... I don’t know ... horribleness. Have you thought about beefing it up a bit?
What, with a few more knickknacks? D
Some sort of thing though, innit?
You’re disappointed, then? D
Even ghost trains never did much for me when I was a kid. Everyone else was screaming and putting their hands over their eyes at the bats, spiders, skeletons and coffins. I always wanted my money back.
But this isn’t a ghost train.
But they’re all victims.
Don’t you feel anything? D
No, it means curiosity. Seeing what would normally be unseen, witnessing what’s foreign. Young man, don’t you see you’re getting that kind of opportunity here?
You worked for them?
I was a commissionaire. S’what set me off. I haven’t been back there for years.
Maybe you should. Things have moved on, mate. They’re trying to keep up with the times. You’re not.
No it’s not. D
In the trade yourself, are you? L D
We’re closing now, if you don’t mind. Ask for a refund on your way out. Tell the young lady at the box office I’ve said it’s all right. D
No — I was just offereing an opinion.
No need to get funny, mate.
[Pause. danny goes. lawson gets on with his work. Within moments, danny returns.]
Wouldn’t be one going, would there ... ? I want to work anywhere ... look, just say no if there’s nothing doing. I’m not desperate, you know! Danny turns to go. Danny. Look, I know you think I don’t reckon much to all this ...
You don’t, do you? D
Anything you want ...
I said it was interesting.
But you need more than interesting.
I can always come back if you’re busy ... if there’s any point.
I do need someone, as it happens. D
How d’you mean?
Your job application. D
Seaside’s got its attractions. French students with Dutch caps in their rucksacks. They come over to learn English. I teach ’em phrases, things like ‘Can you pay? I seem to have forgotten my wallet’ and ‘You’d better go to the clinic, I think I’ve got something.’ Then there’s bye-by-e, ta-ta and that’s the way to Dover.
They fall for your charm. I expect you’re wondering if I have.
What’s your name? D
I was just wondering ... if you needed anything doing.
You want to work here? D
It’s a job you’re after? D
One of Maggie’s wandering minstrels. [Pause.] Ain’t been doing too badly, though. So far this summer I’ve been a deckchair attendant in Hastings, an ice-cream seller in Brighton and a waiter in Bournemouth. The whole of the South Coast has had the benefit of my experience. I should get an award from the Tourist Board.
Miss not being at home?
Such as? D
Politeness now, is it? D
Look, I didn’t mean to be rude ...
It’s not just you. [Pause.] [indicating DANNY’s suitcase.] Move around a lot?
I’m responding to a customer’s complaints! Now just get out.
That’s just me.
I’ve got references ...
No need. I’m impressed by your curriculum vitae. D
Doesn’t matter. [Pause.] Two seventy an hour till the end of the season. No paperwork. D
Oh. The DHSS’ll want me to move on again soon. Unless I say I’ve found work.
You’re going to have to earn it. D
When do I start?
[Danny goes and offers his hand. He’s being provocative.]
R Start what?
Thanks for the welcome. He holds his hand out.
We can’t afford him.
You didn’t like him.
I ’ve just done today’s takings. It didn’t take long. No. What do we need him for, anyway?
You should have consulted me beforehand. Courtesy.
I just did it on the spur. I’m sorry. R
Why wasn’t I asked?
I’m in charge. R
Pleased to meet you. [to Lawson] See you tomorrow then ... Mr. Lawson.
Nine-thirty. Danny exists.
Didn’t it? R
No, I don’t but I run the boxoffice, I do the books and I take care of the correspondence. What will you be doing?
General maintenance stroke attendant stroke assistant to the curator stroke proprietor. R
What — as an exhibit?
Does she bite? R
You can call me darling.
He’ll be joining us ... tomorrow. R
This is Ruth. This is Danny. D
I’ll have to come to you, then.
[Ruth appears at the doorway/exit door.]
Why’s she work here, then?
I hand out tickets from the booth. I can listen to Radio One in there and on slow days I read a book. That’s not unpleasant. But once I get inside this far I don’t come any further. Understand? D
I ’m not moving. Tell him, Mr. Lawson.
Ruth doesn’t actually like to come into the museum. To put it mildly. It upsets her. D
All right — we’ll sort the details out later. If you’re agreeable. D
What d’you mean, oh? D
We can’t afford anyone. There’s a rates demand out there. A red one. They don’t come in any more colours after that. It’ll be a solicitor’s letter next.
Trouble with you is you’ve got a nervous disposition. R
Who is he?
Just a lad looking around. R
Get rid of him. Tell him you’ve changed your mind. I ’ll do it for you.
He’s only going to be temporary.
And closure’s permanent, Mr. Lawson.
Just till the end of the season. This place’ll be boarded up by then. We’r e not making enough at the door to waste on him. You’ll lose the museum and I ’ll have to start signing on. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?
We can manage without anyone else. Just us, Mr. Lawson. I thought you liked that.
I do. R
Yes you do. We’r e managing, just about — the two of us. We’r e not getting London Dungeon trade but at least we’r e benefiting from that burger bar being open next door. If it hadn’t been for that ... another wage and we might go under.
But [...] what about the new punishments display I’ve introduced ... ? Once people hear about that ... You’re just trying to alarm me! R
Don’t risk it for some kid who thinks he knows best, then.
I don’t know what’s best anymore. R
All the exhibits’ll have to be packed away in boxes when you close down. Stored in someones’s garage. And there’s nothing for me in this town. I ’ll have to go to London. You wouldn’t see much of me again. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?
Course not, but ...
Well, this one must have made an impression.
But he hasn’t even started yet. R
What are you talking about, Mr. Lawson? A boy made a few remarks – what’s new? If you took on every know-all who passed comment you’d be bigger than ICI.
Yes. He’ll be useful. R
Maybe I should start taking notice. R
You could have said no. Just because someone asks ... he’s just a stray.
He’s a boy of his times. R
I just thought ... some new blood about the place. Not the best of expressions, I know ...
He had some very forthright things to say about the museum. R
And you offered him a job — just like that?
He asked. R
Don’t spoil it, then. You don’t want me walking round in a strop, do you, upset?
You know I wouldn’t like to upset you. R
I like working here. I might not any more.
TheThe Attractions Attractions . com
Lawson Ruth Danny
TA Gallery, London, August 2016
The Attractions . com
It’s very precious.
I’ll hold it for you. TA Gallery, London, August 2016
Posters for Booklaunch or Exhibition
Throughout the year I used this grotesque, slightly dark play by Tony Marchant as a very important source of inspiration to develop my type designs. It not only gave me a specific typographic context but also ideas for the overall atmosphere and the voice of the four members: Lawson, Ruth, Danny and the Narrator. An additional fifth typeface, which is not used in the play, was developed to expand upon my approach and to question more clearly the thin path between different typedesigns of a large super family and mixing entirely different type designs.
rrrr tttt ffff U-0072/74/66
Dialogue Family This is a collection of individually crafted typefaces in the formal atmosphere of 19th and 20th century Grotesques1. It is an attempt to capture some of the typographic richness of those wonderful types and transfer this creativity into typefaces to be used in contemporary typesetting for a variety of literature. Another crucial source of inspiration was the typography of plays, or rather its limitations. Despite that each character might have a distinct personality, they are usually all set in one typeface. With my contribution I hope to not only make these pieces of literature more immersive and less disruptive, but maybe even give the writers more freedom in how they twist dialogues in written form. As you already experienced the typefaces in a mixed setting, I will now introduce you, one by one, to each of the typefaces I have sculpted.
1Including serif designs, as e.g. by the foundry Stephenson Blake: Grot No. 9, Windsor, Latin Antique, DeÂ Vinne; but also Monotype Grotesque and Bureau Grotesque. They all are grotesque â€“ in one way or the other; very lively, slightly weird treatments, often very prominent in the curves and terminals.
abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu vwxyz
is rather neutral and does not expose much of himself. He appears to know everyone, yet no one really knows anything about him. He seems rather dry and rational, but you can not really tell much about him. Most of the time you don’t even notice him.
Placeholder text: In this coloums through out the following pages you will find more information on the thinking behind the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. Unfortunately I did not find enough time to write this section. The following is only a loose draft to elaborate some ideas behind the development. drawing – The whole lower and uppercase characterset of Lawson was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes
with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement. Analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it would take to test the characters in context – which indeed was very important to me. Sure, digital drawing is still much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating ter-
minals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters. The other would be about a more contextual approach, whre the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture.
abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu vwxyz
is a confident, charming boy of his time looking for entertainment but gets bored easily. He knows how to make an impression, likes to talk, to tell stories. Behind the curtains he is insecure, rather naive but actually has more to offer than he thinks.
italics â€“ Contionuing placeholder text. Originally I had tested several versions of truly cursive styles, various hybrid experiments but ultimately I went for an oblique approach as it fitted my context the best. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics the corresponding regular while still offereing a clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would
been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. family â€“ I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different typefaces appart from one another. Through out the process I was able to identify a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size, so they all should
roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a rather similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly Placeholder text: depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that they and more placeholder text;
abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w x yz
Lawson is dedicated and believes in what he does, but most people don’t seem to understand. He is a good person and wants to contribute something; believes in the truth but doesn’t see the point of political correctness. Why are people afraid to see the dark side of human nature?
build up a general atmosphere – slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I’ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my Reflection of Practice. In this coloums through out the following pages you will find more information
about the thinking behind my the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. type — The whole lower and uppercase characterset was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement – analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it takes to test characters in context which indeed was very important to me – sure, digital drawing is still
much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating terminals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters as done in (Corporate ASE, I think) The other would be about a more contextual approach, placeholder text,
abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz
Ruth is a strong, moral character. She knows her strengths and knows how to use them; likes if things stay just as they are â€” the comfort of continuity. But below the surface there is something else, something she does not quite want to admit, a darker side.
where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics of the corresponding regular, while still offereing a
clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different typefaces appart from one another.
Through out the process I found a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size, so they all should roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context the type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall placeholder text weight
abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz
makes the impression to be a very interesting figure â€“ flamboyant, but elegant. He seems confident and it is interesting to listen to him, not only his stories but especially the way he articulates is rather colorful and vibrant, yet feels familar.
and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that they build up a general atmosphere â€“ slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I â€™ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my Reflection of Practice. Another is
the punctua which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on
the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should; where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture than trying to make things similar.
Falls on the bed, and dies
cassio This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon; For he was great of heart. lodovico [to Iago] O Spartan dog, More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea! Look on the tragic loading of this bed; This is thy work: the object poisons sight; Let it be hid. Gratiano, keep the house, And seize upon the fortunes of the Moor, For they succeed on you. To you, lord governor, Remains the censure of this hellish villain; The time, the place, the torture: O, enforce it! Myself will straight aboard: and to the state This heavy act with heavy heart relate. Exeunt
the end Please close the specimen and start on the opposite cover.
واﻵن ﻖ ﻟ إﻻ أن أت ﻓ ﻗﺒﻠﺔ. ﺎﺳﻴﻮ ﻛﻨﺖ أﺧ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻜ أﻇﻦ أن ﻣﻌﻪ ﺳﻴﻔﺎً.. ﻗﻀ وﺎن ﻗﻠ¥ﻪ ﻛﺴ¢£اً.. ﻟﻮدﻓﻴﻜﻮ أﻳﻦ ﻠﺐ إﺳ®¢ﻃﺔ .ﻳﺎ أﻗ« ﻣﻦ اﻷ واﻟﺠﻮع واﻟﺒﺤﺮ. اﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺠﺜﺚ اﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮة اﻟﻤ¢±اﻛﻤﺔ ﻋ¯ ﻫﺬا اﻟ¼»ﻳﺮ .ﻫﺬا ﻋﻤﻠﻚ .ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ºﻔﺚ ﻧﺎﻗﻊ اﻟﺴﻢ ﻓ اﻷﺑﺼﺎر ﻓﺄﻟﻘﻮا ﻋﻠÃﻪ ﻏﻄﺎء –أي ﻏﺮا¿Àﺎﻧﻮ اﺣﺮس اﻟﺒﺖ وﺗﺴﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑ ﻓ إﻟﻴﻚ– وأﻧﺖ أÇﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻮاﻟ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓ ﻋﻘﺎب ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺮم اﻟﺠﻬﻨ Éﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﺎء .اﺿﺮب ﻟﺬﻟﻚ أﺟﻼ وﻋ £ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ ً واﺧ ¢±آﻻت اﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ÐÑﻋﺬﺑﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﺘ Ïاﻟﺸﺪة وﺑﻼ رﺣﻤﺔ ﺳﺄﺑﺤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮري ﻋﺎﺋﺪا ً إﻟ اﻟﺒÒﺪﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﻼ إﻟ اﻟﻘﻮم ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺣﺰﻳﻦ ﺧ® ¢ﻫﺬه اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ اﻟﻔﺎﺟﻌﺔ. وﻫﻜﺬا ﺎن
اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﺮﺟﺎء إﻏﻼق اﻟﻜﺘﺐ واﻟﺒﺪء ﻣﻦ اﻻﺗﺠﺎه اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ.
اﻟﺴﺆال :ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ؟ اﻟﺪرس اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺎ ،وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ أداة اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ß¿àﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻋﻘﻠÃﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ãäﻌﺮف áﻬﺎ ﻋ¯ اﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎرá Ýاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗåﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ
اﻟﺴﺆال :ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ£ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ؟ اﻟﺪرس اﻹﺣﺴﺎس theواﻹدراك اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺎ ،وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ أداة اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ quickﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ß¿àﻤﺎ ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻋﻘﻠÃﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ãäﻌﺮف áﻬﺎ ﻋ¯ اﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎرá Ýاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗåﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ß¿àﻬﻤﺎ واﻟﺘﻘﺎرب اﻟﻜﺒ ¢£اﻟﺬي ﻳÜçèﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ أﺛﺎر إﺷﻜﺎﻻ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء foxﻟﺪى اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﻮل إﻣﻜﺎ¿äﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ß¿àﻬﻤﺎ أو ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ،ﺑﻤ ìÜإن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýواﻟﺮد ﻋ¯ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺼﻮرة اﻓﻘﺔ ﻫﻞ ﻧﻌﺘ® ¢إﺣﺴﺎس أم إدراك أم
ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻼن ﻇﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة ؟ إﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك . ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠÃﺪي ﻋ¯ ﺿﺮورة اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك وﻳﻌﺘ®¢ اﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻧﻄﻼق ا ﻣﻦ أن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺮ Àﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ،أﻣﺎ اﻹدراك ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮ Àﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ. أي ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﺗﺴîﻨﺪ إﻟ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺎﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ واﻟﺬﺎء وﺟﻪ إﻟ ﺿﻮع ﻣﻌ .£ﻓﻴﻜﻮن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﺔ theأوﻟﻴﺔ ﻠﻎ ﺑåﺪ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤÜﺮ ß¿àﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ãÀﻢ ﻓ إﻃﺎر اﻟﺰﻣﺎن دñﻜﺎرت( » :أﻧﺎ( lazyواﻟﻤﻜﺎن .ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل أدرك ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻓ ذﻫ ìﻣﻦ ﻗﻮة اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ أﺣﺴﺐ أﻧ أراه ﺑåﻴ.» ì
وﻳﻘﻮل اﻹدراك ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋ¯ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺄن آﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ôﻜﻮن أﺷﺪ ﻓﻌﻼ واﻟﻨﻔﺲ أﻛ÷ ¢اãäﺒﺎﻫﺎ .«»()«....وﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻹدراك ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻷن اﻹدراك ﻓﻴﻺﺣﺴﺎس وﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻛﻤﺎ أن اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ اﻟﺤﺪùﺔ ºÀﻈﺮ إﻟ اﻹدراك ﻋ¯ أﻧﻪ ﺷﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس أو çúﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟºÀ üﻘﻠﻬﺎ إﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﻮاﺳﻪ ،ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺗ£ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘ £ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة ،وﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮن ﻟﻔﻆ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻋ¯ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة áﺟﻬﻴﻬﺎ اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟ واﻟﻌﻘ¯ ﻣﻌﺎ )رﻳﺪ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل «:اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮب ﺑﺎﻻãäﺒﺎه ». ß¿àﻤﺎ ìاﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ ﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻓ اﻹدراك ﻋ¯ أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أو اﻟﺼﻮرة
®ºàﻧءﻟﻞ ﺷﺰ ي ظ á ﺿﺬ م ﻏﻐﺞ ﻗﻘﻖ ﻩ ﻫﻬﻪ ﮐﻚ ﻣﻼ ﻻ
ﺪﻳﺔÃاﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﻠ واﻟ|ﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ، واﻟﻨﻘ، إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ اﻟﺴﺨÐ[ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ.\اﻟﻔﻠﺴ اﻟﻨ^ ﻟﻸدب¢£ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺒ ً ﺪيÃ اﻟﺴﻴﺎق اﻟﺘﻘﻠ£ﻜﻮن وﺳﻴﻄﺎ ﺑñ ﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎùاﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﺤﺪ اﺧﺘﺰال اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﻴﻜﻮن أﺣﺎدي اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ.ﺎﺻﺮÜواﻟﻤ ﻣﻴﻼ إﻟ اﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟ أﻧﻪ ﻓ ﺟﻮﻫﺮه ﻳﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ً ﺧﻄﺎ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ. ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ¢£اﻟﻮﺿﻮح ﻓ اﻟﻜﺜ ﻋﻦ ً ﻜﻤﻦ اﻟﻬﺪف اﻷﺳﺎ@ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ ﻓñ ،^ﻃ?ﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻗﺮا>¿ﺔ ﻣﺮﻳﺤﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﻤﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﺳﻮاء ﻓ¢£ﺗﻮﻓ وﻗﻮاﻋﺪ،ﺴﺐÒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟ.Éاﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت أو ﻓ اﻟﻌﺮض اﻟﺮﻗ ﻴﻊ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺçú واﻧﺴﻴﺎب ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ،اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺴﺦÒﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎت ﻧﻤﻂ اﻟÒﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘçèﻣﺴﺘﻮﺣﺎة ﻣﻦ ﻣ إﻳﻼء اﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﺧﺎص إﻟ اﻧﺴﻴﺎب ﺣﺮﻛﺔÐ[ وﻗﺪ.ﺪيÃاﻟﺘﻘﻠ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﺣﺪة ﻣﻊ اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋ¯ درﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ .ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺠﻮ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد
The generous, pure and unpretentious atmosphere of the type was created to extend the typographic vocabulary for modern philosophical literature. These rather recent texts often act as a mediator between tradition and the modern contemporary context. The reduction to mono-linearity, however, reflects not only a current association to modernity but also at its core is reminiscent of the search for clarity in many philosophical texts. As a text face, the main aim of the type is to provide a comfortable reading experience for text-intensive analogue and digital documents. The proportions, visual script grammar and stroke-flow are inspired by a variety of traditional Naskh manuscripts. Special attention has been paid to a natural monolinear stroke flow while preserving a grade of typographic formality anticipating the intended atmosphere.
0627 \ 0640 × 2 \ 0646 \ 064A \ 0644-U
واﺿﺢ وﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام-ﻟﺒﺒﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻂ ﻃ?ﺎ اﻟﻨ^ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪه ﻋ¯ اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺎط ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺÀ اﻟ|ﺴﺎﻃﺔ واﻻر£ﺧﻼل ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﻮازن ﺑ .اﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ
Labiba is a clear monolinear text face that expresses modernity while emphasising tradition through its balance between simplicity and truthful connection to the scripts inherent characteristics.
ﻓﻬﺮس اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك 1ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك؟ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ واﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ 2ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﻜ ¢£ﺑﺪون ﻟﻐﺔ؟ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر 3ﻫﻞ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻣçèﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن؟ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة 4ﻣﺎ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة؟ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة واﻟﺬﺎء 5ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن ﻫﻨﺎك ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑ £اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة واﻟﺬﺎء؟ اﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ 6ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ãﻢ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻫﺆﻻء اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ãﺠﺎوزون اﻟﻌﺎدة 7ﻗﻴﻞ :إن اﻟﻌﺎدة +ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰة ،ﻣﺎ رأñﻚ؟ اﻟﻌﺎدة 8إﻟ أي ﻣﺪى ôﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺎدة ﻣﺼﺪرا ﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك؟ 9ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ãÀﺤﻮل اﻷﺧﻼق إﻟ دراﺳﺎت ﻟﻠﻌﺎدات اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ؟ اﻷﺧﻼق 10ﻳﻘﻮل :ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻏ¢£ي ﻓﺄﻧﺎ وﺣﺪي اﻟﺬي أﻗﺮر اﻟﺨ ¢£واﺧ¢±ع اﻟﺸﺮ اﻷﺧﻼق اﻷﺧﻼق 11ﻟﻤﺎذا ¢£ùوﺟﻮد اﻟﺸﺮ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰﻳﻘﻴﺔ؟ اﻷﺧﻼق 12ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ اﻷﺧﻼق ﻋ¯ أﺳﺎس اﻟﻌﻘﻞ وﺣﺪه؟ اﻷﺧﻼق واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد 13ﻫﻞ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟ اﻷﺧﻼق؟ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ واﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ 14إﻟ أي ﺣﺪ ñﻜﻤﻦ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ؟ 15ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻓ ﺗﻄﻮرﻫﺎ ﻧﺎﺑåﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ...اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ 16أي اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ أن ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑ £اﻟﺘﻔﻜ ¢£اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘ واﻟﺘﻔﻜ ... ¢£اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ 17ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﺑåﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ أم اﻟﻌﻘﻞ؟ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ 18ﻗﺎرن ﺑ £اﻟﻤÜﺮف اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ واﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ﺔ؟ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ 19دور اﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳ*؟ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ 20ﻧﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﻮل ﺣﺪود اﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻓ اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ 21ﻗﻴﻞ :ﺑﻘﺪر ﻣﺎ ºÀﺠﺢ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ¿äﺔ ﻓ إﻧﺠﺎز ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ¯ ...اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ¿äﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤÜﻴﺎرﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ¿äﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤÜﻴﺎرﻳﺔ 22ﺑﻤﺎذا ﺗﻔ¼» ﺗåﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻓ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ؟ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ¿äﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤÜﻴﺎرﻳﺔ 23ﻫﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺆرخ أن ãﺠﺎوز اﻟﻌﻮاﺋﻖ اﻟ üﺗﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ... اﻟﺬﺎء واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ 24ﻫﻞ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺪﻳﻦ ãàﺨﻴﻠ&ﺎ اﻹﺑﺪا -ﻟﺬواºÀﺎ أم ﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻨﺎ ... اﻟﻔﻦ واﻟçèﺎل 25اﻹﻧﺴﺎن واﻹﺑﺪاع؟ اﻟﻔﻦ واﻟçèﺎل 26ﻋﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻔﻦ ﺑﺎﻟçèﺎل؟ اﻟﺘﺼﻮف 27ﻣﺎ اﻟﺘﺼﻮف؟ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ واﻟﻔﻜﺮ 28ﺗﺤﻠÃﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ :د .ز %ﻧﺠﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻤﻮد اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ﺔ 29ﺗﺤﻠÃﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ :ﻏﺎﺳﺘﻮن ﺑﺎﺷﻼر اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ 30ﺗﺤﻠÃﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ á :ﻓﻮن اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ¿äﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤÜﻴﺎرﻳﺔ 31ﺗﺤﻠÃﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ :دﻟﺘﺎي اﻹﺑﺴﺘﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ 32اﻹﺑﺴﺘﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻧﻘﺪي .ﺣﻠﻞ وﻧﺎﻗﺶ
اﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ : اﻟﺤﺠﺔ :
اﻟﻨﻘﺪ : اﻟ¢±ﻛﻴﺐ :
اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻻ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣçèﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن )اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر( اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻫﻮ ﻣçèﻮع اﻟﺤﻮادث اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺒﻮﺗﺔ اﻟ üﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ دون اﻟﺸﻌﻮر áﻬﺎ وﻳﻌﺘ® ¢ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺘﺸﻒ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وﻟﻮ أن áادر ﻫﺬا اﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎف ﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﻮدة ﻗﺒﻠ Dﻣﻊ Cﻟﻴ|ﺘﺰ (1646–1716) Bاﻟﺬي ﺣﺎول إ! ﺎت ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻷدﻟﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﻠÃﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎلC :ﻟﺪºﺎ ﻓ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﻋﺪد ﻻ Eﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻻدراﺎت اﻟ üﻻ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ وﻻ ﻧﻈﺮ ÐÑ Bﺟﺎء دور اﻷﻃ?ﺎء وﻣﻨﻬﻢ CﺑﺮEﻬﺎ (1919–1837) BÐFوCﺷﺎرﻛﻮB ) (1825–1913ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻣﺮض اﻟﻬﺴﺘ¢£ﻳﺎ )اﺿﻄﺮاﺑﺎت ﻋﻘﻠÃﺔ وﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ دون وﺟﻮد ﺧﻠﻞ ﻋﻀﻮي( وﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﺘÒﻮ ÐFاﻟﻤﻐﻨﻄﻴ« اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺬي ﻫﺪى " ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ " وﺑåﺪ وﻗﻮﻓﻪ ﻋ¯ ﺗﺠﺎرب Cﺑﺮوﻳﺮ (1842–1925) Bإﻟ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وﻫﺬا ﻳﻌ ìأن ﻫﻨﺎك ﺟﺎ äﺎ ﻓ ﺣﻴﺎºÀﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ أ»Kار وﻋﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮوج ﻓ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ،وﻣﻦ ÐÑﻛﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺮãﻪ ﻓ اﻟﺘﺤﻠÃﻞ اﻟﻨﻔ« اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋ¯ اﻟﺘﺪا -اﻟﺤﺮ. ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وإن أﺻﺒﺢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ºÀﻜﺮ ﻓﺈن اﻟﺤﻮادث اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن Àﻘ ﺗﺠﺮي ﻓ ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻷوﻟ ﻓﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻟﺤﻈﺎت ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ واﻋﻴﺎ. اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ãÀﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر. ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﻫﻤﺎل اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻟﺸﻌﻮري ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﻫﻤﺎل اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻟﺸﻌﻮري ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إMﻜﺎر دور اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﺑåﺪ ﻣﺎ [Ð اﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠÃﻪ ،وﻣﻦ ÐÑﻓﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن أﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﺠﺎ £ äﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ وﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إMﻜﺎر وﺟﻮده .وﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ çúﻴﻊ أﻓﻌﺎل اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ داﺋﻤﺎ ÐÑ .أن ﻟﻠﺪواﻓﻊ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ أﺛﺮ ﺑﺎرز ﻓ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻔﺮد. اﻟﺨﺎﺗﻤﺔ إن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﺎﺋﻦ وا -ﺑﺎﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻷوﻟ .وﻋﻠÃﻪ ﻓﺈذا ﺎن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﻤﻜﻦ رده إﻟ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﻟﺜﻘﻞ ﻓ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻵﺧﺮ.
ﻫﻞ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻣﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن؟ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر
اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ñﻜﺎد ﻳçèﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓ ﺗåﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮر ﻋ¯ أﻧﻪ إدراك اﻟﻤﺮء ﻟﺬاﺗﻪ أو ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪس اﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻷﺣﻮاﻟﻪ وأﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ )اﻟﺤﺪس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة( وﻋﻠÃﻪ ñﻜﻮن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر أﺳﺎس اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺬا¿Àﺔ .وﻣﻦ ÐÑﻓﻬﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻋ¯ ﺷﻌﻮره وﺣﺪه ﻓ إدراك ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻮل ﻓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ؟ ﺑﻤ ìÜآﺧﺮ ﻫﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻇﻮاﻫﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ؟ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣçèﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ )اﻟﺸﻌﻮر أﺳﺎس اﻷﺣﻮل اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ(. اﻟﺤﺠﺔ :ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺑåﺾ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ أﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ )اﻟﺘﻘﻠÃﺪﻳﺔ( إﻟ أن اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻓ ﻣçèﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮم ﻋ¯ أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻌﻮر وﻋ¯ رأس ﻫﺆﻻء Cدñﻜﺎرت Bاﻟﺬي ا Àﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺸﻚ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ Nء إﻻ اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ اﻷﺻﻠÃﺔ اﻟﻐ ¢£ﻣﺸﺮوﻃﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ واﻟ üﺣﺪدﻫﺎ دñﻜﺎرت ب Cأﻧﺎ أﻓﻜﺮ إذن أﻧﺎ ﺟﺪ Bوﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﺟﻴîﻮ اﻟﺪñﻜﺎرﺗ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻠﻢ áﺟﻮد اﻟﺘﻔﻜ ¢£وﺑﻤﺎ أن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻻ ºﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﻜ ¢£ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ Oﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻋ¯ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻨﻔﺲ وﺑﻤﺎ أن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺣﺪس واﻟﺤﺪس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﻻ ﺗﺨ PQﻓﻬﻮ ºﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗåﻴﺸﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ وﻣﻦ ÐÑ ﻻ وﺟﻮد ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺮى ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔ« ﻳﺮادف ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺷﻌﻮري .وﻫﻨﺎك آﺧﺮون ﻣﻤﻦ ﻳﺮون ذﻟﻚ أﻣﺜﺎل Cﺳîﻴﻜﺎل Bأو Cاﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎء Bﻓ اﻟﻔﻜﺮ اﻹﺳﻼ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮلC :اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻟﺬات ﻻ ãﻮﻗﻒ أﺑﺪا Bوﻫﻜﺬا ﺳﺎد اﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺎ أ ،ﺷﻌﻮر اﻷﺳﺎس اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ. اﻟﻨﻘﺪ :ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ñﻜﺸﻒ أﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺤﻈﺎت ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻓ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ واﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺼﺪر ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﺎت ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ áﻬﺎ إﻻ ﺑåﺪ ﻓﻮاSﻬﺎ أو RºÀﻴﻬﻪ إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ زﻻت اﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻓﻠUﺎت اﻟﻠﺴﺎن ...وﻫﺬا ﻳﺪل ﻋ¯ وﺟﻮد ﺣﻴﺎة ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ..
اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻋ¯ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة áﺟﻬﻴﻬﺎ اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟ واﻟﻌﻘ¯ ﻣﻌﺎ )رﻳﺪ(dieRﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل C:اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮب ﺑﺎﻻãäﺒﺎهß¿à .Bﻤﺎ ìاﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ ﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻓ اﻹدراك ﻋ¯ أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أو اﻟﺼﻮرة اﻟﻜﻠÃﺔ اﻟWº üﻈﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر ،Ýﻓﺎﻟﺠﺰء ﻻ ñﻜîﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎه إﻻ داﺧﻞ اﻟﻜﻞ .ﻓﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ اﻟﻜﻠÃﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ +أﺳﺎس اﻹدراك .ﻓﺎﻹدراك ﻳﻌﻮد إﻟ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ .ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﻎ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ +اﻟ üﺗﻔﺮض ﻗﻮاß¿äﻬﺎ ﻋﻠÃﻨﺎ وﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋ¯ إدراﻛﻨﺎ، وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓ Ïﺗﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪراºÀﺎ اﻟﻌﻘﻠÃﺔ .وﻋﻠ&ﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻹدراك ﻟﺲ ﻣçèﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت وإﻧﻤﺎ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻠﺼﻮرة ﻫﻮ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺤﺪد ﻣﻌ ìاﻹدراك.ﻓﺎﻟﺜﻮب اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ أﻧﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻔﺘﺎة ،وذات اﻟﺜﻮب ﺑﺨﻄﻮط أﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﻮﻟﻬﺎ إﻟ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺮﻣﻴﻞ .ﻟﻜﻦ رد اﻹدراك ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛ¯ إﻟ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýأﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎن ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﺬي ﺗåﻴﺸﻪ اﻟﺬات ﻛﻤﺎ أن رد اﻹدراك إﻟ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ وﺣﺪﻫﺎ ،ﻓﻴﻪ إﻗﺼﺎء ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ وﻟﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺬا¿Àﺔ اﻟ üﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺛﺮ .وإﻻ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺤﺪث ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ اﻹدراك؟ وﻣﻦ ﻳﺪرك؟ اﻹدراك ºﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس وãﺠﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع .إن اﻹدراك ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻧﺸﻴﻄﺔ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻓﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر Ýأو اﻟﺪاﺧ¯ ،و+ ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮ -ﻓﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋ¯ اﻷﺷﻴﺎء .واﻹدراك ﻳﺸ¢±ط ﻟﻮﺟﻮده ﻋﻤﻠÃﺎت ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ºﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ .وﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس O ،ﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﻻﺗﻪ اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟ üﺗåﻴﺸﻬﺎ اﻟﺬات اﻟﻤﺪرﻛﺔ ،ووﺟﻮد اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر Ýاﻟﺬي ãÀﻮﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ اﻟﺬات اﻟﻤﺪرﻛﺔ Oﻜﻞ ﻗﻮاﻫﺎ وﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﻤﺪرك. إن اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﺑ £ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠÃﺪي اﻟﺬي ﻳﻤﻴﺰ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ،وﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﻤﻴﺰ ß¿àﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ +اﻷﺳﺎس ﻓ اﻹدراك ﻘ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ .ﻏ ¢£أن اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﻔﺮدﻳﺔ |ùÀﺖ أن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻓ اﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýوﻓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ºﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻴﺎء ÐÑﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺴ¢£ واﻟﺘﺄوﻳﻞ ﻓﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ اﻹدراك ﻟﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ إن ñﻜﻦ زﻣﻨﻴﺎ.
ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك؟ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك
اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺎ ،وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ أداة اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ß¿àﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻋﻘﻠÃﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ãäﻌﺮف áﻬﺎ ﻋ¯ اﻟﻌﺎ اﻟﺨﺎرá Ýاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗåﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ß¿àﻬﻤﺎ واﻟﺘﻘﺎرب اﻟﻜﺒ ¢£اﻟﺬي ﻳÜçèﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ أﺛﺎر إﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﻟﺪى اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﻮل إﻣﻜﺎ¿äﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ß¿àﻬﻤﺎ أو ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ،ﺑﻤ ìÜإن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ اﻟﺨﺎر Ýواﻟﺮد ﻋ¯ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺼﻮرة اﻓﻘﺔ ﻫﻞ ﻧﻌﺘ® ¢إﺣﺴﺎس أم إدراك أم أEﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻼن ﻇﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة؟ إﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك .ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠÃﺪي ﻋ¯ ﺿﺮورة اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك وﻳﻌﺘ® ¢اﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ أن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺮ Àﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ،أﻣﺎ اﻹدراك ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮ Àﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ .أي ﻋﻤﻠÃﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﺗﺴîﻨﺪ إﻟ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺎﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ واﻟﺬﺎء وﺟﻪ إﻟ ﺿﻮع ﻣﻌ.£ ﻓﻴﻜﻮن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ أوﻟﻴﺔ ﻠﻎ ﺑåﺪ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤÜﺮﻓﺔ ß¿àﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ãÀﻢ ﻓ إﻃﺎر اﻟﺰﻣﺎن واﻟﻤﻜﺎن .ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل )دñﻜﺎرت(C :أﻧﺎ أدرك ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻓ ذﻫ ìﻣﻦ ﻗﻮة اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ أﺣﺴﺐ أﻧ أراه ﺑåﻴ B.ìوﻳﻘﻮل )ﻣ £دوﺑ¢£ان( C:Maine de Biranاﻹدراك ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋ¯ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺄن آﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ôﻜﻮن أﺷﺪ ﻓﻌﻼ واﻟﻨﻔﺲ أﻛ÷ ¢اãäﺒﺎﻫﺎ .B...وﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻹدراك ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻷن اﻹدراك ﻓ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻘﻠÃﺔ واﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟﺪا¿äﺔ اﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ .ﻟﻜﻦ إﻣﻜﺎ¿äﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ¿àﻢ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ أﻣﺮ ﻏ ¢£ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻹدراك ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋ¯ اﻟﺤﻮاس .ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎل )اﻟﺘﻬﺎﻧﻮي(: Cاﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻹدراك Bوﻗﺎل )اﻟﺠﺮﺟﺎﻧ(C :اﻹﺣﺴﺎس إدراك اﻟء ﺑﺈﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس .Bاﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك .ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋ¯ ﻋﺪم إﻣﻜﺎ¿äﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ £اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻛﻤﺎ أن اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ اﻟﺤﺪùﺔ ºÀﻈﺮ إﻟ اﻹدراك ﻋ¯ أﻧﻪ ﺷﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس أو çúﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟºÀ üﻘﻠﻬﺎ إﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﻮاﺳﻪ ،ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺗ£ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘ £وإﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻤﺎ وﺟﻬﺎن ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة ،وﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮن ﻟﻔﻆ
ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ -آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ
آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ أ áاﻟﻔﻀﻞ
Text by Abou El Fadl This text was first published publicly by the author on Maqalaty.com in 2012. (maqalaty.com/8560.html) Paintings by Kazimir Malevich • Suprematism: Non-Objective Composition, 1915; The Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, provided with assistance from the State Museum and Exhibition Center ROSIZO • Suprematist Composition, 1916; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
ت ﻧﻤﻂ¢±ﻛﻤﺤﺘﻮى ﻧ^ وﻛﺈﻟﻬﺎم ﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻫﺬا اﻟﺨﻂ اﺧ اﻟﻨﺺ إﻟ اﻟﺴﺎر ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺄﺧﻮذ.اﻷدب اﻟﻔﻠﺴ\ اﻟﻌﺎم ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻓ.ﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ واﻷدب¢±ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎل ﻋ¯ اﻹﻧ .اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ دﻗﺎق
As typographic context and inspiration to develop the voice of this typeface I looked into the general genre of philosophical literature. The specific text starting on the left is an online article on phillosophy and literature, which I have selected with the help of Mohamed Dakak.
Don’t order me about. You’re not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔAdvice آداب now, is it? That’s big of you. اﻟﻔﻀﻞáﻣﻘﺎل ﺑﻘﻠﻢ أ Labibah I’m sorry I steamed into you. Talk’s cheap. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold Ruth Regular, Italic,you’ve Bold You think got me taped. Lawson Regular, Italic اﻟﻄﺒﺎIاﻟﺨﻂ speak as I find. Tony ﻟﺒﺒﺔRegular danny goes to take him under Narrator Dialogue Family Regular the arms to pull ﻋﺎدي،ﺳﻤﻴﻚ ﻟﺒﺒﺔhim up. Get off me! ruth reappears. The AttractionsI’m doing my best, Ruth! Tony Marchant ﻣ¼»ﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻠﻢ Can’t be a change of heart اﻟﻔﻀﻞIأdon’t believe it. he’s having; ruth to lawson Give him a chance. I wouldn’t bother with him if he was hopeless. He doesn’t want to let go of that box. I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. I’ll hold it for you. Come on. lawson hands the box over, allowing danny to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back.
آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ :
ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻓ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻴÒﺔ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻄﻠ¥ﺎت اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋ¯ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺟﺴﺘ ¢£ﻓ اﻵداب ﻓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﻄﺒﺎ -ﻓ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ رﻳﺪºﺞ.2016 ، ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﻄﺒﺎ -واﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ áاﺳﻄﺔ Manuel@vonGebhardi.de
اود ان اﺷﻜﺮ ،Fiona Ross ،Gerry Leonidas ،Michael Twyman ،Victor Gaultney ،Gerard Unger ،James Mosleyاﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ اﻟﺰاﺋﺮﻳﻦ ،زﻣﻼﺋ وçúﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﻧ ﻓ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم راﺋﻊ .أﺧ¢£ا وﻟﺲ آﺧﺮا أود أن أﺷﻜﺮ ﻋﺎﺋﻠ üﻟﺪﻋﻤﻬﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ.
2016 MATD ،Manuel von Gebhardi ﺔÒﻋﻦ ﻃﻳﻖ ﻋﻴ
ﺣﺪ ﻏﺮاﺛﺔ ﺔ [Labiba] ﻟﺒﺒﺔ:ﻣﺤﺮف
Published on Oct 25, 2016
Small booklet showcasing the type designs I created during the Master of Typeface Design at the University of Reading in 2016.