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Specimen by Manuel von Gebhardi, matd 2016

Grote sque Attra ctions Typefaces: Ruth, Danny, Lawson, Tony (Dialogue Family)


This specimen is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Typeface Design, University of Reading, 2016. Typefaces and Typography Manuel@vonGebhardi.de

I would like to thank Gerry Leonidas, Fiona Ross, Gerard Unger, Victor Gaultney, Michael Twyman, James Mosley, the visiting lecturers, my classmates and everyone else that was there for me in this terrific year – last but not least I want to thank my family for their continuing support.


Don’t order me about. You’re not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. Advice now, is it? That’s big of you. I’m sorry I steamed into you. Talk’s cheap. You think you’ve got me taped. I speak as I find. danny goes to take him under the arms to pull him up. Get off me! ruth reappears. The Attractions I’m idoing my best, Ruth! English Play by Tony Marchant Can’t be a change of heart Labibah he’s having; I don’t believe it. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold ruth to lawson Ruth Regular, Italic, Bold GiveRegular, him aItalic chance. I wouldn’t Lawson ii Typefaces with him if he was hopeless. Tonybother Regular Dialogue Family Narrator RegularLabiba He doesn’t want ‫ﻋﺎدي‬ ،‫ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‬ ‫ ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬box. to let go of that I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. Philosophy Literature I’lliiihold it for and you. Come on. Arabic Essay by Abolfazl lawson hands the box over, allowing danny to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back. It’s my new attraction. I’m going to have it mounted. My concession to the modern ... I’m going for broke. They’ll be queueing up. D’you want a special preview? ‫أ اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬ :

RUTH:

‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬

DANNY:

LAWSON:


Very early on I was attracted by dialogues and plays without really knowing why. By now, I am even more fascinated then ever, as it is an amazing typographic playground. All the different characters and layers seem to call for a thoughtful and rich typography to immerse the reader into the story and amplify the authors intentions. The following twelve pages are typeset, as if I would have been approached to design a new edition of The Attractions, by Tony Marchant.


The Attractions

Tony Marchant


For George


TONY MARCH ANT

The Attractions

AMBER LANE PRESS 2016


All rights whatsover in this play are striclty reserved and application for performance, etc. should be made before rehearsal to: Lemon and Durbridge Ltd. 24 Pottery Lane Holland Park London W11 4LZ No performance may be given unless a licence has been obtained. First published in 1988 by Amber Lane Press Ltd. 9 Middle Way Oxford OX2 7LH 2nd Edition, published in 2016, Printed in Great Britain by Cotswold Press Ltd., Oxford Typography and Typedesign by Manuel von Gebhardi Paintings by Peter Piek ISBN: 0 906399 85 8 Copyright by Tony Marchant, 1988/2016

Conditions of Sale This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. First Performance The Attractions was first presented at the Soho Poly Theatre, London, on 13th July, 1987. It was directed by Brian Stirner with the following cast: lawson by Ivor Roberts, ruth by Saskia Reeves, danny by Ross Boatman; design by Michael Taylor, lightning by Peter Glencross, sound by Colin Brown.


Characters

Lawson, Ruth, Danny, Narrator Setting Somewhere on the South Coast – a large room broadly with the design and layout of a museum/exhibition. Cabinets and cases and display tables. It is important that the museum has a quality which reflects the fact that the museum has the ordinary sense. Its location (seaside town) and subject of matter should give it a slightly seedy look. However, it is not sensationalist in any way and generally the exhibits are presented straightforwardly and simply.


Act One


Prologue

Evening. Summer. lawson is changing the order of some of the weaponry exhibits that hang down a wall or are on a display table. They are weapons used in murders and other violent crimes. They range from the expected knives (including kitchen), coshes, pokers, iron bars to the bizarre: a hanging ‘grip’ used on London Trans port tube trains by standing passengers, a toasting fork with sharp metal prongs. Any fire arms on display would be in cabinets or cases. ruth appears at the doorway.

L Why can’t people be trusted to leave

L

things as they found them?

Eh? R

R Perhaps you shouldn’t let them

inspect them. L

No, this is what’s done now. You encourage that sort of thing. I read it in an article. Participation. I can see the logic of it too, being able to touch instead of just look. It’s a great spur to the imagination. The acts themselves brought closer — if they can stomach it. R

L

L

Participation’s one thing, order’s another.

That’s right. I am trying to keep abreast of ... well, developments. But I’m not having chaos for the sake of a few extra admissions. R

[looking at his watch] We’re open for another hour yet. R

L

L

Don’t make fun of me.

I’m not. R

L

Is a coach party coming, then?

Anxious to get off early, are we? Got someone to meet? What is he — a lifeguard or something? R

L

So?

So we wait. R

Not convinced though, are you?

Not when no-one ever seems to put things back in the right place. I’ll keep this display open but no-one’s getting at the rest. R

L

I came to ask whether I should be doing the takings.

One day I won’t turn up. I ’ll have taken up an offer in London or something.

You don’t have to stay tonight. Not if you don’t want to. Not if you’ve got better things to do. R

I ’ve bought pies for both of us.

What are we having for the sake of a few extra admissions, then? 3


Scene One

danny, in his early twenties, is walking round looking at the various exhibits in the museum. lawson, a man in his early sixties, attempts to remove some graffiti from a wall. danny carries a suitcase.

L We’re closing soon.

L

D You Work here, then? L

No son, I’m a vandal. I’m defacing the property. Don’t tell anyone. [Pause.] D

L

No, I run the place. Or rather it runs me. Into the ground. D

L

Thought you might be a workman or something.

D

L

[indicating the graffiti] Get a lot of that, do you?

Bloody nuisance it is and I can never catch the buggers in the act.

[Pause. danny continues to look at the rest of the exhibits. lawson removes the rest of the graffiti. After a few moments ...] L

What d’you think? D

L

This is a terrifying display here, depicting the tragedy of man. Each item building into a dreadful catalogue of iniquity and vice. And what do you call them? Knickknacks! Bloody knickknacks! Where’s your imagination, son?

It’s educational too. This is horror, but it’s the real thing. I’ll have you know that all objects here are genuine and fully documented in historical fact. If you want knickknacks, go down to the souvenir shop ... Like the better waxworks establishment we deal in actualities but unlike them our exhibits aren’t made of wax. They reproduce. We don’t have to. D

About what?

About what you see. D

I think it’s alright. All the things you’ve got on show, all the knickknacks.

L

Knickknacks. D

4

[shrugging] Your colour scheme?

I came in to see something horrible. Like it says outside: A chilling and macabre journey through the dark side of human nature.

Well, haven’t you seen anything that’s amazed you, appalled you? D

L

I only came in for a bit of an entertainment. That’s what it’s for, innit?

Well, I thought the entrance fee was a bit stiff. Considering it’s only a room.


L

Look at this. [going to a display cabinet] In the gardens of 10, Rillington Place, the home of John Reginald Christie, a tobacco tin was found containing four sets of pubic hairs from four of his victims. Mrs. Durand Deacon, murdered and immersed in vat of acid by John George Haigh in 1949. Gallstones, a part of a foot and a full set of dentures were found among the remains. The very bath in which George Smith drowned Bessie Munday in Herne Bay in 1912, a man described by his father-in-law as ‘of very evil appearance — a bad man’. How many ‘wives’ he actually had or murdered we shall never know. A letter written by Mrs. Muriel McKay, a kidnap victim, during imprisonment. ‘Please do something to get me home. I am blindfolded and cold. Please cooperate for I cannot keep going.’ Her body was never found. Two men were charged with her murder and found guilty. D

L

[Danny shrugs.] This place doesn’t work for you, then? D

L

D

L

Well, people are interested in who done it not who it got done to. I am, anyway. You’ve got too much stuff about victims in here. What d’you want me to do — wear a black armband?

Doesn’t it compel, doesn’t it provoke ... something? Not even a certain grim, voyeuristic fascination? D

Voyeuristic? That means kinky.

Animation, I think.

When I worked there the only execution exhibit they had was the electric chair. D

L

Even Madame Tussauds have got Gary Gilmore being shot, slumping in his seat, and the blood running down his shirt. You hear the bullet go in and then see his head sink and roll to one side.

How do they manage that, then? D

L

Well, to be honest I was expecting a bit more ... I don’t know ... horribleness. Have you thought about beefing it up a bit?

What, with a few more knickknacks? D

L

Some sort of thing though, innit?

You’re disappointed, then? D

L

Even ghost trains never did much for me when I was a kid. Everyone else was screaming and putting their hands over their eyes at the bats, spiders, skeletons and coffins. I always wanted my money back.

But this isn’t a ghost train.

But they’re all victims.

Don’t you feel anything? D

L

No, it means curiosity. Seeing what would normally be unseen, witnessing what’s foreign. Young man, don’t you see you’re getting that kind of opportunity here?

Yes. D

L

L

You worked for them?

I was a commissionaire. S’what set me off. I haven’t been back there for years.

5


D

Maybe you should. Things have moved on, mate. They’re trying to keep up with the times. You’re not.

D

L

No it’s not. D

L

In the trade yourself, are you? L D

L

We’re closing now, if you don’t mind. Ask for a refund on your way out. Tell the young lady at the box office I’ve said it’s all right. D

L

No — I was just offereing an opinion.

D

No need to get funny, mate.

[Pause. danny goes. lawson gets on with his work. Within moments, danny returns.]

L

L

6

Wouldn’t be one going, would there ... ? I want to work anywhere ... look, just say no if there’s nothing doing. I’m not desperate, you know! Danny turns to go. Danny. Look, I know you think I don’t reckon much to all this ...

You don’t, do you? D

L

Anything you want ...

L

D

L

I said it was interesting.

But you need more than interesting.

I can always come back if you’re busy ... if there’s any point.

I do need someone, as it happens. D

L

How d’you mean?

Your job application. D

L

Seaside’s got its attractions. French students with Dutch caps in their rucksacks. They come over to learn English. I teach ’em phrases, things like ‘Can you pay? I seem to have forgotten my wallet’ and ‘You’d better go to the clinic, I think I’ve got something.’ Then there’s bye-by-e, ta-ta and that’s the way to Dover.

They fall for your charm. I expect you’re wondering if I have.

What’s your name? D

L

I was just wondering ... if you needed anything doing.

You want to work here? D

L

D

It’s a job you’re after? D

One of Maggie’s wandering minstrels. [Pause.] Ain’t been doing too badly, though. So far this summer I’ve been a deckchair attendant in Hastings, an ice-cream seller in Brighton and a waiter in Bournemouth. The whole of the South Coast has had the benefit of my experience. I should get an award from the Tourist Board.

Miss not being at home?

Such as? D

L

L

Politeness now, is it? D

L

Look, I didn’t mean to be rude ...

Eh?

It’s not just you. [Pause.] [indicating DANNY’s suitcase.] Move around a lot?

I’m responding to a customer’s complaints! Now just get out.

D

That’s just me.

I’ve got references ...

No need. I’m impressed by your curriculum vitae. D

Eh?


L

Doesn’t matter. [Pause.] Two seventy an hour till the end of the season. No paperwork. D

L

Oh. The DHSS’ll want me to move on again soon. Unless I say I’ve found work.

R

Brilliant.

You’re going to have to earn it. D

When do I start?

[Danny goes and offers his hand. He’s being provocative.]

R Start what?

L

L

R

L

R

Thanks for the welcome. He holds his hand out.

L

We can’t afford him.

You didn’t like him.

I ’ve just done today’s takings. It didn’t take long. No. What do we need him for, anyway?

You should have consulted me beforehand. Courtesy.

I just did it on the spur. I’m sorry. R

L

Why wasn’t I asked?

I’m in charge. R

L

Pleased to meet you. [to Lawson] See you tomorrow then ... Mr. Lawson.

Nine-thirty. Danny exists.

Didn’t it? R

D

No, I don’t but I run the boxoffice, I do the books and I take care of the correspondence. What will you be doing?

General maintenance stroke attendant stroke assistant to the curator stroke proprietor. R

L

What — as an exhibit?

Does she bite? R

L

You can call me darling.

He’ll be joining us ... tomorrow. R

D

D

This is Ruth. This is Danny. D

I’ll have to come to you, then.

Suit yourself.

[Ruth appears at the doorway/exit door.]

L

Why’s she work here, then?

I hand out tickets from the booth. I can listen to Radio One in there and on slow days I read a book. That’s not unpleasant. But once I get inside this far I don’t come any further. Understand? D

R

I ’m not moving. Tell him, Mr. Lawson.

Ruth doesn’t actually like to come into the museum. To put it mildly. It upsets her. D

All right — we’ll sort the details out later. If you’re agreeable. D

L

L

What d’you mean, oh? D

L

R

We can’t afford anyone. There’s a rates demand out there. A red one. They don’t come in any more colours after that. It’ll be a solicitor’s letter next.

Trouble with you is you’ve got a nervous disposition. R

Who is he?

7


L

Just a lad looking around. R

L

R

L

Get rid of him. Tell him you’ve changed your mind. I ’ll do it for you.

He’s only going to be temporary.

L

R

8

And closure’s permanent, Mr. Lawson.

Just till the end of the season. This place’ll be boarded up by then. We’r e not making enough at the door to waste on him. You’ll lose the museum and I ’ll have to start signing on. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?

L

We can manage without anyone else. Just us, Mr. Lawson. I thought you liked that.

I do. R

L

Yes you do. We’r e managing, just about — the two of us. We’r e not getting London Dungeon trade but at least we’r e benefiting from that burger bar being open next door. If it hadn’t been for that ... another wage and we might go under.

But [...] what about the new punishments display I’ve introduced ... ? Once people hear about that ... You’re just trying to alarm me! R

R

Don’t risk it for some kid who thinks he knows best, then.

I don’t know what’s best anymore. R

L

All the exhibits’ll have to be packed away in boxes when you close down. Stored in someones’s garage. And there’s nothing for me in this town. I ’ll have to go to London. You wouldn’t see much of me again. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?

Course not, but ...

Well, this one must have made an impression.

But he hasn’t even started yet. R

L

What are you talking about, Mr. Lawson? A boy made a few remarks – what’s new? If you took on every know-all who passed comment you’d be bigger than ICI.

L

Yes. He’ll be useful. R

L

So?

Maybe I should start taking notice. R

L

R

You could have said no. Just because someone asks ... he’s just a stray.

He’s a boy of his times. R

L

I just thought ... some new blood about the place. Not the best of expressions, I know ...

He had some very forthright things to say about the museum. R

L

And you offered him a job — just like that?

He asked. R

L

L

Don’t spoil it, then. You don’t want me walking round in a strop, do you, upset?

You know I wouldn’t like to upset you. R

I like working here. I might not any more.


TheThe Attractions Attractions . com

Lawson Ruth Danny

TA Gallery, London, August 2016

The Attractions . com

It’s very precious.

RUTH:

I’ll hold it for you. TA Gallery, London, August 2016

Posters for Booklaunch or Exhibition


Throughout the year I used this grotesque, slightly dark play by Tony Marchant as a very important source of inspiration to develop my type designs. It not only gave me a specific typographic context but also ideas for the overall atmosphere and the voice of the four members: Lawson, Ruth, Danny and the Narrator. An additional fifth typeface, which is not used in the play, was developed to expand upon my approach and to question more clearly the thin path between different typedesigns of a large super family and mixing entirely different type designs.


Typefaces

Narrator

Regular

Danny

Regular

Italic

Bold

Lawson

Regular

Italic

Bold

Ruth

Regular

Italic

Bold

Tony

Regular


ssss U-0073

jjjj

rrrr tttt ffff U-0072/74/66

U-006A


Dialogue Family This is a collection of individually crafted typefaces in the formal atmosphere of 19th and 20th century Grotesques1. It is an attempt to capture some of the typographic richness of those wonderful types and transfer this creativity into typefaces to be used in contemporary typesetting for a variety of literature. Another crucial source of inspiration was the typography of plays, or rather its limitations. Despite that each character might have a distinct personality, they are usually all set in one typeface. With my contribution I hope to not only make these pieces of literature more immersive and less disruptive, but maybe even give the writers more freedom in how they twist dialogues in written form. As you already experienced the typefaces in a mixed setting, I will now introduce you, one by one, to each of the typefaces I have sculpted.

1Including serif designs, as e.g. by the foundry Stephenson Blake: Grot No. 9, Windsor, Latin Antique, De Vinne; but also Monotype Grotesque and Bureau Grotesque. They all are grotesque – in one way or the other; very lively, slightly weird treatments, often very prominent in the curves and terminals.


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu vwxyz


Narrator

is rather neutral and does not expose much of himself. He appears to know everyone, yet no one really knows anything about him. He seems rather dry and rational, but you can not really tell much about him. Most of the time you don’t even notice him.

Placeholder text: In this coloums through out the following pages you will find more information on the thinking behind the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. Unfortunately I did not find enough time to write this section. The following is only a loose draft to elaborate some ideas behind the development. drawing – The whole lower and uppercase characterset of Lawson was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes

with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement. Analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it would take to test the characters in context – which indeed was very important to me. Sure, digital drawing is still much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating ter-

minals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters. The other would be about a more contextual approach, whre the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture.


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu vwxyz


Danny

is a confident, charming boy of his time looking for entertainment but gets bored easily. He knows how to make an impression, likes to talk, to tell stories. Behind the curtains he is insecure, rather naive but actually has more to offer than he thinks.

italics – Contionuing placeholder text. Originally I had tested several versions of truly cursive styles, various hybrid experiments but ultimately I went for an oblique approach as it fitted my context the best. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics the corresponding regular while still offereing a clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would

been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. family – I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different typefaces appart from one another. Through out the process I was able to identify a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size, so they all should

roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a rather similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly Placeholder text: depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that they and more placeholder text;


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w x yz


Lawson is dedicated and believes in what he does, but most people don’t seem to understand. He is a good person and wants to contribute something; believes in the truth but doesn’t see the point of political correctness. Why are people afraid to see the dark side of human nature?

build up a general atmosphere – slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I’ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my Reflection of Practice. In this coloums through out the following pages you will find more information

about the thinking behind my the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. type — The whole lower and uppercase characterset was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement – analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it takes to test characters in context which indeed was very important to me – sure, digital drawing is still

much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating terminals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters as done in (Corporate ASE, I think) The other would be about a more contextual approach, placeholder text,


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz


Ruth is a strong, moral character. She knows her strengths and knows how to use them; likes if things stay just as they are — the comfort of continuity. But below the surface there is something else, something she does not quite want to admit, a darker side.

where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics of the corresponding regular, while still offereing a

clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different typefaces appart from one another.

Through out the process I found a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size, so they all should roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context the type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall placeholder text weight


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz


Tony

makes the impression to be a very interesting figure – flamboyant, but elegant. He seems confident and it is interesting to listen to him, not only his stories but especially the way he articulates is rather colorful and vibrant, yet feels familar.

and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that they build up a general atmosphere – slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I ’ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my Reflection of Practice. Another is

the punctua which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on

the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should; where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture than trying to make things similar.


Falls on the bed, and dies

cassio This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon; For he was great of heart. lodovico [to Iago] O Spartan dog, More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea! Look on the tragic loading of this bed; This is thy work: the object poisons sight; Let it be hid. Gratiano, keep the house, And seize upon the fortunes of the Moor, For they succeed on you. To you, lord governor, Remains the censure of this hellish villain; The time, the place, the torture: O, enforce it! Myself will straight aboard: and to the state This heavy act with heavy heart relate. Exeunt

the end Please close the specimen and start on the opposite cover.


‫واﻵن ˆ‡ †…ﻖ ﻟ إﻻ أن أ€­ت ﻓ ﻗﺒﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‹ﺎﺳﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺖ أﺧœ› ﻫﺬه اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻜ•” ˆ‡ أﻇﻦ أن ﻣﻌﻪ ﺳﻴﻔﺎً‪..‬‬ ‫ﻗﻀ› و‹ﺎن ﻗﻠ‪¥‬ﻪ ﻛﺴ‪¢£‬اً‪..‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮدﻓﻴﻜﻮ‬ ‫أﻳﻦ ‹ﻠﺐ إﺳ®‪¢‬ﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺎ أﻗ«› ﻣﻦ اﻷˆ‡ واﻟﺠﻮع واﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺠﺜﺚ اﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮة اﻟﻤ‪¢±‬اﻛﻤﺔ ﻋ¯› ﻫﺬا‬ ‫اﻟ¼»ﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻫﺬا ﻋﻤﻠﻚ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ †‪º‬ﻔﺚ ﻧﺎﻗﻊ اﻟﺴﻢ ﻓ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﺼﺎر ﻓﺄﻟﻘﻮا ﻋﻠ‪Ã‬ﻪ ﻏﻄﺎء –أي ﻏﺮا‪¿À‬ﺎﻧﻮ اﺣﺮس اﻟﺒﺖ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑ ﻓ إﻟﻴﻚ– وأﻧﺖ أ‪Ç‬ﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻟ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓ ﻋﻘﺎب ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺮم اﻟﺠﻬﻨ‪ É‬ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺎء‪ .‬اﺿﺮب ﻟﺬﻟﻚ أﺟﻼ وﻋ‪ ”£‬ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ ً واﺧ‪ ¢±‬آﻻت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ‪ ÐÑ‬ﻋﺬﺑﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﺘ‪ ›Ï‬اﻟﺸﺪة وﺑﻼ رﺣﻤﺔ ﺳﺄﺑﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮري ﻋﺎﺋﺪا ً إﻟ› اﻟﺒ‪Ò‬ﺪﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﻼ إﻟ› اﻟﻘﻮم ﺑﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﻦ ﺧ®‪ ¢‬ﻫﺬه اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ اﻟﻔﺎﺟﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻫﻜﺬا ‹ﺎن‬

‫اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺟﺎء إﻏﻼق اﻟﻜﺘﺐ واﻟﺒﺪء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻻﺗﺠﺎه اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‪.‬‬


‫ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺴﺆال ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫واﻹدراك ؟ اﻟﺪرس اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ أداة‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬ووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ اﻹدراك‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻋﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ‪ãä‬ﻌﺮف ‪á‬ﻬﺎ ﻋ¯›‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪­á Ý‬اﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﺗ‪å‬ﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺴﺆال ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪”£‬‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ؟ اﻟﺪرس اﻹﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫‪ the‬واﻹدراك اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ أداة اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎˆ‡‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬ووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ ‪ quick‬ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻋﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ‪ãä‬ﻌﺮف ‪á‬ﻬﺎ ﻋ¯›‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪­á Ý‬اﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﺗ‪å‬ﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ß¿à‬ﻬﻤﺎ واﻟﺘﻘﺎرب‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒ‪ ¢£‬اﻟﺬي ﻳ‪Üçè‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ أﺛﺎر إﺷﻜﺎﻻ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ‪ fox‬ﻟﺪى اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﻮل إﻣﻜﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ß¿à‬ﻬﻤﺎ أو‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤ‪ ›ìÜ‬إن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬واﻟﺮد ﻋ¯› ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺼﻮرة‬ ‫€­اﻓﻘﺔ ﻫﻞ ﻧﻌﺘ®‪ ¢‬إﺣﺴﺎس أم إدراك أم‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻼن ﻇﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة ؟‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺪي ﻋ¯› ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك وﻳﻌﺘ®‪¢‬‬ ‫اﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻧﻄﻼق‬ ‫ا ﻣﻦ أن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺮ‪…À‬ﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻹدراك ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮ‪…À‬ﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫أي ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﺗﺴ‪î‬ﻨﺪ إﻟ› ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫‹ﺎﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ واﻟﺬ‹ﺎء و€­ﺟﻪ إﻟ›‬ ‫€­ﺿﻮع ﻣﻌ‪ .”£‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ ‪ the‬أوﻟﻴﺔ ˆ‡ †…ﻠﻎ ﺑ‪å‬ﺪ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮ‬ ‫‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ãÀ‬ﻢ ﻓ إﻃﺎر اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‬ ‫د‪ñ‬ﻜﺎرت(‪ » :‬أﻧﺎ( ‪ lazy‬واﻟﻤﻜﺎن‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل‬ ‫أدرك ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻓ ذﻫ‪ ì‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ أﺣﺴﺐ أﻧ أراه ﺑ‪å‬ﻴ‪.» ì‬‬

‫وﻳﻘﻮل اﻹدراك ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋ¯› اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺄن‬ ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ô‬ﻜﻮن أﺷﺪ ﻓﻌﻼ واﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫أﻛ÷‪ ¢‬ا‪ãä‬ﺒﺎﻫﺎ‪ .«»()«....‬وﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻹدراك‬ ‫ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻷن اﻹدراك ﻓﻴﻺﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻛﻤﺎ أن اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ†‪ù‬ﺔ ‪ºÀ‬ﻈﺮ إﻟ› اﻹدراك ﻋ¯› أﻧﻪ ﺷﻌﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس أو ‪çú‬ﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟ‪ºÀ ü‬ﻘﻠﻬﺎ إﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﻮاﺳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺗ‪”£‬‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘ‪ ”£‬ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮن ﻟﻔﻆ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫ﻋ¯› ﻫﺬه اﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة ‪­á‬ﺟﻬﻴﻬﺎ اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻘ¯ ﻣﻌﺎ )رﻳﺪ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل ‪«:‬اﻹدراك‬ ‫ﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮب ﺑﺎﻻ‪ãä‬ﺒﺎه »‪.‬‬ ‫‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ †…‪ ì‬اﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ €­ﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻓ‬ ‫اﻹدراك ﻋ¯› أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أو اﻟﺼﻮرة‬


‫‪ ”®ºà‬ﻧ›ءﻟﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺰ ي ظ ‪­á‬‬ ‫ﺿﺬ م ﻏﻐﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻘﻖ ﻩ ﻫﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻚ ˆ‡ﻣﻼ ﻻ‬


‫ﺪﻳﺔ‬Ã‫اﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‬ ‫ واﻟ|ﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬،‫ واﻟﻨﻘ‬،‫ إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ اﻟﺴﺨ‬Ð[ ‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ‬.\‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴ‬ ‫ اﻟﻨ^ ﻟﻸدب‬¢£‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺒ‬ ً ‫ﺪي‬Ã‫” اﻟﺴﻴﺎق اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‬£‫ﻜﻮن وﺳﻴﻄﺎ ﺑ‬ñ ‫ﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ‬ù†‫اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ اﺧﺘﺰال اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﻴﻜﻮن أﺣﺎدي اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ‬.‫ﺎﺻﺮ‬Ü‫واﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼ إﻟ› اﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟ› أﻧﻪ ﻓ ﺟﻮﻫﺮه ﻳﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ً ‫ﺧﻄﺎ‬ ‫ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ‬.‫ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ‬¢£‫اﻟﻮﺿﻮح ﻓ اﻟﻜﺜ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ً ‫ﻜﻤﻦ اﻟﻬﺪف اﻷﺳﺎ@ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ ﻓ‬ñ ،^‫ﻃ?ﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻗﺮا>¿ﺔ ﻣﺮﻳﺤﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻟﻤﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﺳﻮاء ﻓ‬¢£‫ﺗﻮﻓ‬ ‫ وﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬،‫ﺴﺐ‬Ò‫ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟ‬.É‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت أو ﻓ اﻟﻌﺮض اﻟﺮﻗ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬çú ‫ واﻧﺴﻴﺎب ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬،‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺦ‬Ò‫ﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎت ﻧﻤﻂ اﻟ‬Ò‫ﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘ‬çè‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺣﺎة ﻣﻦ ﻣ‬ ‫ إﻳﻼء اﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﺧﺎص إﻟ› اﻧﺴﻴﺎب ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬Ð[ ‫ وﻗﺪ‬.‫ﺪي‬Ã‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ €­ﺣﺪة ﻣﻊ اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋ¯› درﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ .‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺠﻮ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد‬

The generous, pure and unpretentious atmosphere of the type was created to extend the typographic vocabulary for modern philosophical literature. These rather recent texts often act as a mediator between tradition and the modern contemporary context. The reduction to mono-linearity, however, reflects not only a current association to modernity but also at its core is reminiscent of the search for clarity in many philosophical texts. As a text face, the main aim of the type is to provide a comfortable reading experience for text-intensive analogue and digital documents. The proportions, visual script grammar and stroke-flow are inspired by a variety of traditional Naskh manuscripts. Special attention has been paid to a natural monolinear stroke flow while preserving a grade of typographic formality anticipating the intended atmosphere.


;/‫ﻟﻴ‬ 0648\0645-U

‫ﺐ‬Ò‫ﺒ‬Ò‫ﺒ‬߅ä

­€

0627 \ 0640 × 2 \ 0646 \ 064A \ 0644-U

0628\0646-U


‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎرف‬

‫ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫]‪[Labiba‬‬

‫ﻋﺎدي‪ ،‬ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‬


‫ واﺿﺢ و€­ﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬-‫ﻟﺒﺒﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻂ ﻃ?ﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨ^ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﺤﺪاﺛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪه ﻋ¯› اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫…ﺎط ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬À‫” اﻟ|ﺴﺎﻃﺔ واﻻر‬£‫ﺧﻼل ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﻮازن ﺑ‬ .‫اﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ‬

Labiba is a clear monolinear text face that expresses modernity while emphasising tradition through its balance between simplicity and truthful connection to the scripts inherent characteristics.


‫ﻓﻬﺮس اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‬ ‫‪ 1‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك؟‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ واﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫‪ 2‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﻜ‪ ¢£‬ﺑﺪون ﻟﻐﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر‬ ‫‪ 3‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻣ‪çè‬ﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن؟‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة‬ ‫‪ 4‬ﻣﺎ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة؟‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة واﻟﺬ‹ﺎء‬ ‫‪ 5‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن ﻫﻨﺎك ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة واﻟﺬ‹ﺎء؟‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪ 6‬ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ †‪ã‬ﻢ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻫﺆﻻء اﻟﺬﻳﻦ †‪ã‬ﺠﺎوزون‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدة‬ ‫‪ 7‬ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬إن اﻟﻌﺎدة ‪ +‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰة ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ رأ‪ñ‬ﻚ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدة‬ ‫‪ 8‬إﻟ› أي ﻣﺪى ‪ô‬ﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺎدة ﻣﺼﺪرا ﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك؟‬ ‫‪ 9‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ‪ãÀ‬ﺤﻮل اﻷﺧﻼق إﻟ› دراﺳﺎت ﻟﻠﻌﺎدات اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ؟ اﻷﺧﻼق‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﻳﻘﻮل ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻏ‪¢£‬ي ﻓﺄﻧﺎ وﺣﺪي اﻟﺬي أﻗﺮر اﻟﺨ‪ ¢£‬واﺧ‪¢±‬ع اﻟﺸﺮ اﻷﺧﻼق‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼق‬ ‫‪ 11‬ﻟﻤﺎذا †‪ ¢£ù‬وﺟﻮد اﻟﺸﺮ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰﻳﻘﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼق‬ ‫‪ 12‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ اﻷﺧﻼق ﻋ¯› أﺳﺎس اﻟﻌﻘﻞ وﺣﺪه؟‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼق واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫‪ 13‬ﻫﻞ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟ› اﻷﺧﻼق؟‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ واﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 14‬إﻟ› أي ﺣﺪ ‪ñ‬ﻜﻤﻦ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ؟‬ ‫‪ 15‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻓ ﺗﻄﻮرﻫﺎ ﻧﺎﺑ‪å‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺠﺮ ‪ ...‬اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 16‬أي اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ أن ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻟﺘﻔﻜ‪ ¢£‬اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘ واﻟﺘﻔﻜ‪ ... ¢£‬اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 17‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮى أن اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﺑ‪å‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ أم اﻟﻌﻘﻞ؟ اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 18‬ﻗﺎرن ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮف اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ واﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺮ†…ﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ†…ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 19‬دور اﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻓ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳ*؟‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ†…ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 20‬ﻧﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﻮل ﺣﺪود اﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻓ اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ 21‬ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﺑﻘﺪر ﻣﺎ ‪ºÀ‬ﺠﺢ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ ﻓ إﻧﺠﺎز ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ¯ ‪ ...‬اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ 22‬ﺑﻤﺎذا ﺗﻔ¼» ﺗ‪å‬ﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻓ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ 23‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺆرخ أن †‪ã‬ﺠﺎوز اﻟﻌﻮاﺋﻖ اﻟ‪ ü‬ﺗﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ‪...‬‬ ‫اﻟﺬ‹ﺎء واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪ 24‬ﻫﻞ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺪﻳﻦ ‪ãà‬ﺨﻴﻠ&ﺎ اﻹﺑﺪا‪ -‬ﻟﺬوا‪ºÀ‬ﺎ أم ﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻨﺎ ‪...‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻦ واﻟ‪çè‬ﺎل‬ ‫‪ 25‬اﻹﻧﺴﺎن واﻹﺑﺪاع؟‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻦ واﻟ‪çè‬ﺎل‬ ‫‪ 26‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻔﻦ ﺑﺎﻟ‪çè‬ﺎل؟‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻮف‬ ‫‪ 27‬ﻣﺎ اﻟﺘﺼﻮف؟‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ واﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫‪ 28‬ﺗﺤﻠ‪Ã‬ﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ ‪ :‬د ‪ .‬ز‪ %‬ﻧﺠﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺠﺮ†…ﺔ‬ ‫‪ 29‬ﺗﺤﻠ‪Ã‬ﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ ‪ :‬ﻏﺎﺳﺘﻮن ﺑﺎﺷﻼر‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت واﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ 30‬ﺗﺤﻠ‪Ã‬ﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ ‪­á :‬ﻓﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻹﻧﺴﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ 31‬ﺗﺤﻠ‪Ã‬ﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻟـ ‪ :‬دﻟﺘﺎي‬ ‫اﻹﺑﺴﺘﻮ€­ﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪ 32‬اﻹﺑﺴﺘﻮ€­ﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻧﻘﺪي ‪ .‬ﺣﻠﻞ وﻧﺎﻗﺶ‬


‫اﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻨﻘﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟ‪¢±‬ﻛﻴﺐ ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻻ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣ‪çè‬ﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن )اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر(‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻫﻮ ﻣ‪çè‬ﻮع اﻟﺤﻮادث اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺒﻮﺗﺔ اﻟ‪ ü‬ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ دون‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ‪á‬ﻬﺎ وﻳﻌﺘ®‪ ¢‬ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺘﺸﻒ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وﻟﻮ أن ‪­á‬ادر ﻫﺬا اﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎف ‹ﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫€­ﺟﻮدة ﻗﺒﻠ‪ D‬ﻣﻊ ‪C‬ﻟﻴ|ﺘﺰ‪ (1646–1716) B‬اﻟﺬي ﺣﺎول إ!…ﺎت ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻷدﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎل‪C :‬ﻟﺪ†‪º‬ﺎ ﻓ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﻋﺪد ﻻ ‪E‬ﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻻدرا‹ﺎت اﻟ‪ ü‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ وﻻ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ÐÑ B‬ﺟﺎء دور اﻷﻃ?ﺎء وﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪C‬ﺑﺮ‪E‬ﻬﺎ‪ (1919–1837) BÐF‬و‪C‬ﺷﺎرﻛﻮ‪B‬‬ ‫) ‪ (1825–1913‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻣﺮض اﻟﻬﺴﺘ‪¢£‬ﻳﺎ )اﺿﻄﺮاﺑﺎت ﻋﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ وﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫دون وﺟﻮد ﺧﻠﻞ ﻋﻀﻮي( وﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﺘ‪Ò‬ﻮ‪ ÐF‬اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻄﻴ« اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺬي ﻫﺪى " ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ "‬ ‫وﺑ‪å‬ﺪ وﻗﻮﻓﻪ ﻋ¯› ﺗﺠﺎرب ‪C‬ﺑﺮوﻳﺮ‪ (1842–1925) B‬إﻟ› اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وﻫﺬا‬ ‫ﻳﻌ‪ ì‬أن ﻫﻨﺎك ﺟﺎ‪…ä‬ﺎ ﻓ ﺣﻴﺎ‪ºÀ‬ﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ أ‪»K‬ار وﻋﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮوج ﻓ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ ‪ ÐÑ‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ†‪ã‬ﻪ ﻓ اﻟﺘﺤﻠ‪Ã‬ﻞ اﻟﻨﻔ« اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋ¯›‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪا‪ -‬اﻟﺤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر وإن أﺻﺒﺢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ‪ºÀ‬ﻜﺮ ﻓﺈن اﻟﺤﻮادث اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‪…À‬ﻘ›‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮي ﻓ ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻷوﻟ› ﻓﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻟﺤﻈﺎت ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫واﻋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ‪ãÀ‬ﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﻫﻤﺎل اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻟﺸﻌﻮري ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫إﻫﻤﺎل اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻟﺸﻌﻮري ﻟﺪى اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إ‪M‬ﻜﺎر دور اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﺑ‪å‬ﺪ ﻣﺎ [‪Ð‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠ‪Ã‬ﻪ ‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ ‪ ÐÑ‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن أﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﺠﺎ‪ ”£…ä‬ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫وﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إ‪M‬ﻜﺎر وﺟﻮده‪ .‬وﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ‪çú‬ﻴﻊ‬ ‫أﻓﻌﺎل اﻹﻧﺴﺎن وﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ داﺋﻤﺎ‪ ÐÑ .‬أن ﻟﻠﺪواﻓﻊ اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ أﺛﺮ ﺑﺎرز ﻓ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻔﺮد‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺗﻤﺔ‬ ‫إن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‹ﺎﺋﻦ وا‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻷوﻟ›‪ .‬وﻋﻠ‪Ã‬ﻪ ﻓﺈذا ‹ﺎن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﻤﻜﻦ رده إﻟ› اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﻟﺜﻘﻞ ﻓ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ اﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬


‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن؟‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮر واﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر‬

‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪ñ‬ﻜﺎد ﻳ‪çè‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓ ﺗ‪å‬ﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮر ﻋ¯› أﻧﻪ إدراك اﻟﻤﺮء ﻟﺬاﺗﻪ أو ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪس اﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻷﺣﻮاﻟﻪ وأﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ )اﻟﺤﺪس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة( وﻋﻠ‪Ã‬ﻪ ‪ñ‬ﻜﻮن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر‬ ‫أﺳﺎس اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺬا‪¿À‬ﺔ‪ .‬وﻣﻦ ‪ ÐÑ‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻋ¯› ﺷﻌﻮره وﺣﺪه‬ ‫ﻓ إدراك ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻮل ﻓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ؟ ﺑﻤ‪ ›ìÜ‬آﺧﺮ ﻫﻞ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻇﻮاﻫﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣ‪çè‬ﻞ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ )اﻟﺸﻌﻮر أﺳﺎس اﻷﺣﻮل اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺑ‪å‬ﺾ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ أﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ )اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺪﻳﺔ( إﻟ› أن اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻓ ﻣ‪çè‬ﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮم ﻋ¯› أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻌﻮر وﻋ¯› رأس ﻫﺆﻻء ‪C‬د‪ñ‬ﻜﺎرت‪ B‬اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ا‪…À‬ﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺸﻚ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ‪N‬ء إﻻ اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ اﻷﺻﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ اﻟﻐ‪ ¢£‬ﻣﺸﺮوﻃﺔ ﻓ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ واﻟ‪ ü‬ﺣﺪدﻫﺎ د‪ñ‬ﻜﺎرت ب ‪C‬أﻧﺎ أﻓﻜﺮ إذن أﻧﺎ €­ﺟﺪ‪ B‬وﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﺟﻴ‪î‬ﻮ اﻟﺪ‪ñ‬ﻜﺎرﺗ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻠﻢ ‪­á‬ﺟﻮد اﻟﺘﻔﻜ‪ ¢£‬وﺑﻤﺎ أن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻻ †‪º‬ﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻜ‪ ¢£‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪O‬ﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻋ¯› ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻨﻔﺲ وﺑﻤﺎ أن اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺣﺪس‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺪس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﻻ ﺗﺨ‪ PQ‬ﻓﻬﻮ †‪º‬ﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗ‪å‬ﻴﺸﻪ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ وﻣﻦ ‪ÐÑ‬‬ ‫ﻻ وﺟﻮد ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺮى ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔ« ﻳﺮادف ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻮري ‪ .‬وﻫﻨﺎك آﺧﺮون ﻣﻤﻦ ﻳﺮون ذﻟﻚ أﻣﺜﺎل ‪C‬ﺳ‪î‬ﻴﻜﺎل‪ B‬أو ‪C‬اﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎء‪ B‬ﻓ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮ اﻹﺳﻼ€ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل‪C :‬اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻟﺬات ﻻ †‪ã‬ﻮﻗﻒ أﺑﺪا‪ B‬وﻫﻜﺬا ﺳﺎد‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺎ أ‪ ،‬ﺷﻌﻮر اﻷﺳﺎس اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﺪ ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‪ñ‬ﻜﺸﻒ أﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺤﻈﺎت ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻓ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ واﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺗﺼﺪر ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﻠﻮ‹ﺎت ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪á‬ﻬﺎ إﻻ ﺑ‪å‬ﺪ ﻓﻮا‪S‬ﻬﺎ أو ‪RºÀ‬ﻴﻬﻪ إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ زﻻت اﻟﻘﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻠ‪U‬ﺎت اﻟﻠﺴﺎن ‪ ...‬وﻫﺬا ﻳﺪل ﻋ¯› وﺟﻮد ﺣﻴﺎة ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ‪..‬‬


‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻋ¯› ﻫﺬه اﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة ‪­á‬ﺟﻬﻴﻬﺎ اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟ واﻟﻌﻘ¯ ﻣﻌﺎ )رﻳﺪ(‪dieR‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮل ‪C:‬اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮب ﺑﺎﻻ‪ãä‬ﺒﺎه‪ß¿à .B‬ﻤﺎ †…‪ ì‬اﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ‬ ‫€­ﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻓ اﻹدراك ﻋ¯› أﺳﺎس اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أو اﻟﺼﻮرة اﻟﻜﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ اﻟ‪Wº† ü‬ﻈﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر‪ ،Ý‬ﻓﺎﻟﺠﺰء ﻻ ‪ñ‬ﻜ‪î‬ﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎه إﻻ داﺧﻞ اﻟﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺠﺸﻄﺎﻟﻂ ‪ +‬أﺳﺎس اﻹدراك‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻹدراك ﻳﻌﻮد إﻟ› اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﻎ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ ‪ +‬اﻟ‪ ü‬ﺗﻔﺮض ﻗﻮا‪ß¿ä‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻠ‪Ã‬ﻨﺎ وﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋ¯› إدراﻛﻨﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓ‪ Ï‬ﺗﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪرا‪ºÀ‬ﺎ اﻟﻌﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ‪ .‬وﻋﻠ&ﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻹدراك ﻟﺲ ﻣ‪çè‬ﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت وإﻧﻤﺎ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻠﺼﻮرة ﻫﻮ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺤﺪد ﻣﻌ‪ ›ì‬اﻹدراك‪.‬ﻓﺎﻟﺜﻮب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ أﻧﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻔﺘﺎة‪ ،‬وذات اﻟﺜﻮب ﺑﺨﻄﻮط أﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻮﻟﻬﺎ إﻟ› ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺮﻣﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ رد اﻹدراك ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛ¯ إﻟ› اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎن ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻟﺬي ﺗ‪å‬ﻴﺸﻪ اﻟﺬات ﻛﻤﺎ أن‬ ‫رد اﻹدراك إﻟ› ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ €­ﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ وﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ إﻗﺼﺎء ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ وﻟﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬا‪¿À‬ﺔ اﻟ‪ ü‬ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺛﺮ‪ .‬وإﻻ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺤﺪث ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ اﻹدراك؟ وﻣﻦ ﻳﺪرك؟‬ ‫اﻹدراك †‪º‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس و†‪ã‬ﺠﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‪ .‬إن اﻹدراك ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻧﺸﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻓﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬أو اﻟﺪاﺧ¯‪ ،‬و‪+‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮ‪ -‬ﻓﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋ¯› اﻷﺷﻴﺎء‪ .‬واﻹدراك ﻳﺸ‪¢±‬ط‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻮده ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺎت ﺷﻌﻮرﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ †‪º‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬وﻫﻮ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ‪O ،‬ﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﻻﺗﻪ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟ‪ ü‬ﺗ‪å‬ﻴﺸﻬﺎ اﻟﺬات اﻟﻤﺪرﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ووﺟﻮد اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬اﻟﺬي ‪ãÀ‬ﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫إﻟﻴﻪ اﻟﺬات اﻟﻤﺪرﻛﺔ ‪O‬ﻜﻞ ﻗﻮاﻫﺎ وﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﻤﺪرك‪.‬‬ ‫إن اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﺑ‪ ”£‬ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺪي اﻟﺬي ﻳﻤﻴﺰ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﻤﻴﺰ ‪ß¿à‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ +‬اﻷﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻓ اﻹدراك †…ﻘ› ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻏ‪ ¢£‬أن اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﻔﺮدﻳﺔ ‪|ùÀ‬ﺖ أن اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﻓ اﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬وﻓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ †‪º‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻴﺎء ‪ ÐÑ‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺴ‪¢£‬‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺄوﻳﻞ ﻓﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ اﻹدراك ﻟﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ إن ˆ‡ ‪ñ‬ﻜﻦ زﻣﻨﻴﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑˆ‡‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك؟‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‬

‫اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪة ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫أداة اﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬ووﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻹدراك ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻋﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ‪ãä‬ﻌﺮف ‪á‬ﻬﺎ ﻋ¯› اﻟﻌﺎˆ‡ اﻟﺨﺎر‪­á Ý‬اﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاس وﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗ‪å‬ﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ß¿à‬ﻬﻤﺎ واﻟﺘﻘﺎرب اﻟﻜﺒ‪ ¢£‬اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻳ‪Üçè‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ أﺛﺎر إﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﻟﺪى اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﻮل إﻣﻜﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ß¿à‬ﻬﻤﺎ أو ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤ‪ ›ìÜ‬إن ﺷﻌﻮر اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ اﻟﺨﺎر‪ Ý‬واﻟﺮد ﻋ¯›‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺼﻮرة €­اﻓﻘﺔ ﻫﻞ ﻧﻌﺘ®‪ ¢‬إﺣﺴﺎس أم إدراك أم أ‪E‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻼن‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة؟ إﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‪ .‬ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺪي ﻋ¯› ﺿﺮورة اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك وﻳﻌﺘ®‪ ¢‬اﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس اﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ أن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻇﺎﻫﺮة ﻣﺮ‪…À‬ﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ وﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻹدراك ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮ‪…À‬ﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ .‬أي ﻋﻤﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﺗﺴ‪î‬ﻨﺪ إﻟ› ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ‹ﺎﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ واﻟﺘﺨﻴﻞ واﻟﺬ‹ﺎء و€­ﺟﻪ إﻟ› €­ﺿﻮع ﻣﻌ‪.”£‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮن اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ أوﻟﻴﺔ ˆ‡ †…ﻠﻎ ﺑ‪å‬ﺪ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤ‪Ü‬ﺮﻓﺔ ‪ß¿à‬ﻤﺎ اﻹدراك ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪ãÀ‬ﻢ ﻓ إﻃﺎر اﻟﺰﻣﺎن واﻟﻤﻜﺎن‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮل )د‪ñ‬ﻜﺎرت(‪C :‬أﻧﺎ أدرك ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻓ‬ ‫ذﻫ‪ ì‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮة اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ أﺣﺴﺐ أﻧ أراه ﺑ‪å‬ﻴ‪ B.ì‬وﻳﻘﻮل )ﻣ‪ ”£‬دوﺑ‪¢£‬ان(‬ ‫‪C:Maine de Biran‬اﻹدراك ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋ¯› اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﺑﺄن آﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ô‬ﻜﻮن أﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ واﻟﻨﻔﺲ أﻛ÷‪ ¢‬ا‪ãä‬ﺒﺎﻫﺎ‪ .B...‬وﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻹدراك ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻷن اﻹدراك ﻓ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻘﻠ‪Ã‬ﺔ واﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﺪا‪¿ä‬ﺔ اﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ إﻣﻜﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪¿à‬ﻢ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻏ‪ ¢£‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر أن اﻹدراك ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋ¯› اﻟﺤﻮاس‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎل )اﻟﺘﻬﺎﻧﻮي(‪:‬‬ ‫‪C‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻹدراك‪ B‬وﻗﺎل )اﻟﺠﺮﺟﺎﻧ(‪C :‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس إدراك اﻟœء‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮاس‪ .B‬اﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك‪ .‬ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋ¯› ﻋﺪم إﻣﻜﺎ‪¿ä‬ﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ‪ ”£‬اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻛﻤﺎ أن اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ†‪ù‬ﺔ ‪ºÀ‬ﻈﺮ إﻟ› اﻹدراك ﻋ¯› أﻧﻪ ﺷﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎس أو ‪çú‬ﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟ‪ºÀ ü‬ﻘﻠﻬﺎ إﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﻮاﺳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس واﻹدراك ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺗ‪”£‬‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘ‪ ”£‬وإﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻤﺎ وﺟﻬﺎن ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة واﺣﺪة‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮن ﻟﻔﻆ‬


‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ‪ -‬آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬

‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫أ‪ ­á‬اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺗ ‪2012‬‬


Text by Abou El Fadl This text was first published publicly by the author on Maqalaty.com in 2012. (maqalaty.com/8560.html) Paintings by Kazimir Malevich • Suprematism: Non-Objective Composition, 1915; The Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, provided with assistance from the State Museum and Exhibition Center ROSIZO • Suprematist Composition, 1916; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam


‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬

‫أ‪ ­á‬اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬


‫ت ﻧﻤﻂ‬¢±‫ﻛﻤﺤﺘﻮى ﻧ^ وﻛﺈﻟﻬﺎم ﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻫﺬا اﻟﺨﻂ اﺧ‬ ‫ اﻟﻨﺺ إﻟ› اﻟﺴﺎر ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺄﺧﻮذ‬.‫اﻷدب اﻟﻔﻠﺴ\ اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻓ‬.‫ﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ واﻷدب‬¢±‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎل ﻋ¯› اﻹﻧ‬ .‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ دﻗﺎق‬

As typographic context and inspiration to develop the voice of this typeface I looked into the general genre of philosophical literature. The specific text starting on the left is an online article on phillosophy and literature, which I have selected with the help of Mohamed Dakak.


Don’t order me about. You’re not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. ‫وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬Advice ‫آداب‬ now, is it? That’s big of you. ‫­ اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬á‫ﻣﻘﺎل ﺑﻘﻠﻢ أ‬ Labibah I’m sorry I steamed into you. Talk’s cheap. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold Ruth Regular, Italic,you’ve Bold You think got me taped. Lawson Regular, Italic ”•‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎ‬I‫اﻟﺨﻂ‬ speak as I find. Tony ‫ ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬Regular danny goes to take him under Narrator Dialogue Family Regular the arms to pull ‫ ﻋﺎدي‬،‫ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‬ ‫ ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬him up. Get off me! ruth reappears. The AttractionsI’m doing my best, Ruth! Tony Marchant ‫ﻣ¼»ﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻠﻢ‬ Can’t be a change of heart ‫اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬I‫أ‬don’t believe it. he’s having; ruth to lawson Give him a chance. I wouldn’t bother with him if he was hopeless. He doesn’t want to let go of that box. I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. I’ll hold it for you. Come on. lawson hands the box over, allowing danny to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back.

‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ :

RUTH:

DANNY:

LAWSON:


‫ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻓ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻴ‪Ò‬ﺔ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻄﻠ‪¥‬ﺎت اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻋ¯› درﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺟﺴﺘ‪ ¢£‬ﻓ اﻵداب ﻓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﻄﺒﺎ‪ -‬ﻓ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ رﻳﺪ†‪º‬ﺞ‪.2016 ،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﻄﺒﺎ‪ -‬واﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪­á‬اﺳﻄﺔ ‪Manuel@vonGebhardi.de‬‬

‫اود ان اﺷﻜﺮ ‪،Fiona Ross ،Gerry Leonidas‬‬ ‫‪،Michael Twyman ،Victor Gaultney ،Gerard Unger‬‬ ‫‪ ،James Mosley‬اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ اﻟﺰاﺋﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬زﻣﻼﺋ و‪çú‬ﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺪﻧ ﻓ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم راﺋﻊ‪ .‬أﺧ‪¢£‬ا وﻟﺲ آﺧﺮا أود أن أﺷﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠ‪ ü‬ﻟﺪﻋﻤﻬﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬


2016 MATD ،Manuel von Gebhardi ‫ﺔ‬Ò‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﻳﻖ ﻋﻴ‬

‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮاﺛﺔ‬ ‫†…ﺔ‬ [Labiba] ‫ ﻟﺒﺒﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺤﺮف‬

Manuel von Gebhardi - Typeface Specimen - MATD 2015/16 (b/w)  

Small booklet showcasing the type designs I created during the Master of Typeface Design at the University of Reading in 2016.

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