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Specimen by Manuel von Gebhardi, MATD 2016

Grote sque Attra ctions Typefaces: Ruth, Danny, Lawson, Tony


This specimen is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Typeface Design, University of Reading, 2016. Typefaces and Typography Manuel@vonGebhardi.de

I would like to thank Gerry Leonidas, Fiona Ross, Gerard Unger, Victor Gaultney, Michael Twyman, James Mosley, the visiting lecturers, my classmates and everyone else that was there for me in this terrific year – last but not least I want to thank my family for their continuing support.


Don’t order me about. You’re not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. Advice now, is it? That’s big of you. I’m sorry I steamed into you. Talk’s cheap. You think you’ve got me taped. I speak as I find. DANNY goes to take him under the arms to pull him up. Get off me! RUTH reappears. The Attractions I’m I doing my best, Ruth! English Play by Tony Marchant Can’t be a change of heart Labibah he’s having; I don’t believe it. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold RUTH to LAWSON Ruth Regular, Italic, Bold Give him aItalic chance. I wouldn’t Lawson Regular, II Typefaces bother with him if he was hopeless. Tony Regular Grotesques in Dialogue Narrator RegularTradition He doesn’t want in Modernity ‫عادي‬ ‫ لبيبة‬box. to let go،‫سميك‬ of that I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. Philosophy Literature I’llIII hold it for and you. Come on. Arabic Essay by Abolfazl LAWSON hands the box over, allowing DANNY to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back. It’s my new attraction. I’m going to have it mounted. My concession to the modern ... I’m going for broke. They’ll be queueing up. D’you want a special preview? ‫أ اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬ :

RUTH:

‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬

DANNY:

LAWSON:


Very early on I was attracted by dialogues and plays without really knowing why. By now, I am even more fascinated then ever, as it is an amazing typographic playground. All the different characters and layers seem to call for a thoughtful and rich typography to immerse the reader into the story and amplify the authors intentions. The following twelve pages are typeset, as if I would have been approached to design a new edition of The Attractions, by Tony Marchant.


The Attractions

Tony Marchant


For George


TONY MA RCH ANT

The Attractions

AMBER LANE PRESS 2016


All rights whatsover in this play are striclty reserved and application for performance, etc. should be made before rehearsal to: Lemon and Durbridge Ltd. 24 Pottery Lane Holland Park London W11 4LZ No performance may be given unless a licence has been obtained. First published in 1988 by Amber Lane Press Ltd. 9 Middle Way Oxford OX2 7LH 2nd Edition, published in 2016, Printed in Great Britain by Cotswold Press Ltd., Oxford Typography and Typedesign by Manuel von Gebhardi Paintings by Peter Piek ISBN: 0 906399 85 8 Copyright by Tony Marchant, 1988/2016

Conditions of Sale This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. First Performance The Attractions was first presented at the Soho Poly Theatre, London, on 13th July, 1987. It was directed by Brian Stirner with the following cast: lawson by Ivor Roberts, ruth by Saskia Reeves, danny by Ross Boatman; design by Michael Taylor, lightning by Peter Glencross, sound by Colin Brown.


Characters

Lawson, Ruth, Danny, Narrator Setting Somewhere on the South Coast – a large room broadly with the design and layout of a museum/exhibition. Cabinets and cases and display tables. It is important that the museum has a quality which reflects the fact that the museum has the ordinary sense. Its location (seaside town) and subject of matter should give it a slightly seedy look. However, it is not sensationalist in any way and generally the exhibits are presented straightforwardly and simply.


Act One


Prologue

Evening. Summer. lawson is changing the order of some of the weaponry exhibits that hang down a wall or are on a display table. They are weapons used in murders and other violent crimes. They range from the expected knives (including kitchen), coshes, pokers, iron bars to the bizarre: a hanging ‘grip’ used on London Trans port tube trains by standing pas sengers, a toasting fork with sharp metal prongs. Any fire arms on display would be in cabinets or cases. ruth appears at the doorway.

L Why can’t people be trusted to leave

L

things as they found them?

Eh? R

R Perhaps you shouldn’t let them

inspect them. L

No, this is what’s done now. You encourage that sort of thing. I read it in an article. Participation. I can see the logic of it too, being able to touch instead of just look. It’s a great spur to the imagination. The acts themselves brought closer — if they can stomach it. R

L

L

Participation’s one thing, order’s another.

That’s right. I am trying to keep abreast of ... well, developments. But I’m not having chaos for the sake of a few extra admissions. R

[looking at his watch] We’re open for another hour yet. R

L

L

Don’t make fun of me.

I’m not. R

L

Is a coach party coming, then?

Anxious to get off early, are we? Got someone to meet? What is he — a lifeguard or something? R

L

So?

So we wait. R

Not convinced though, are you?

Not when no-one ever seems to put things back in the right place. I’ll keep this display open but no-one’s getting at the rest. R

L

I came to ask whether I should be doing the takings.

One day I won’t turn up. I ’ll have taken up an offer in London or something.

You don’t have to stay tonight. Not if you don’t want to. Not if you’ve got better things to do. R

I ’ve bought pies for both of us.

What are we having for the sake of a few extra admissions, then? 3


Scene One

Danny, in his early twenties, is walking round looking at the various exhibits in the museum. lawSOn, a man in his early sixties, attempts to remove some graffiti from a wall. Danny carries a suitcase.

L We’re closing soon.

L

D You Work here, then? L

No son, I’m a vandal. I’m defacing the property. Don’t tell anyone. [Pause.] D

L

No, I run the place. Or rather it runs me. Into the ground. D

L

Thought you might be a workman or something.

D

L

[indicating the graffiti] Get a lot of that, do you?

Bloody nuisance it is and I can never catch the buggers in the act.

[Pause. Danny continues to look at the rest of the exhibits. lawSOn removes the rest of the graffiti. After a few moments ...] L

What d’you think? D

L

This is a terrifying display here, depicting the tragedy of man. Each item building into a dreadful cata­ logue of iniquity and vice. And what do you call them? Knickknacks! Bloody knickknacks! Where’s your imagination, son?

It’s educational too. This is horror, but it’s the real thing. I’ll have you know that all objects here are genu­ ine and fully documented in historical fact. If you want knickknacks, go down to the souvenir shop ... Like the better waxworks establishment we deal in actualities but unlike them our exhibits aren’t made of wax. They reproduce. We don’t have to. D

About what?

About what you see. D

I think it’s alright. All the things you’ve got on show, all the knickknacks.

L

Knickknacks. D

4

[shrugging] Your colour scheme?

I came in to see something horrible. Like it says outside: A chilling and macabre journey through the dark side of human nature.

Well, haven’t you seen anything that’s amazed you, appalled you? D

L

I only came in for a bit of an entertainment. That’s what it’s for, innit?

Well, I thought the entrance fee was a bit stiff. Considering it’s only a room.


L

Look at this. [going to a display cabinet] In the gardens of 10, Rillington Place, the home of John Reginald Christie, a tobacco tin was found containing four sets of pubic hairs from four of his victims. Mrs. Durand Deacon, murdered and immersed in vat of acid by John George Haigh in 1949. Gallstones, a part of a foot and a full set of dentures were found among the remains. The very bath in which George Smith drowned Bessie Munday in Herne Bay in 1912, a man described by his fatherin-law as ‘of very evil appearance — a bad man’. How many ‘wives’ he actually had or murdered we shall never know. A letter written by Mrs. Muriel McKay, a kidnap victim, during imprisonment. ‘Please do something to get me home. I am blindfolded and cold. Please cooperate for I cannot keep going.’ Her body was never found. Two men were charged with her murder and found guilty. D

L

[Danny shrugs.] This place doesn’t work for you, then? D

L

D

L

Well, people are interested in who done it not who it got done to. I am, anyway. You’ve got too much stuff about victims in here.

Doesn’t it compel, doesn’t it provoke ... something? Not even a certain grim, voyeuristic fascination? D

L

Voyeuristic? That means kinky.

Animation, I think.

When I worked there the only execu­ tion exhibit they had was the electric chair. D

L

Even Madame Tussauds have got Gary Gilmore being shot, slumping in his seat, and the blood running down his shirt. You hear the bullet go in and then see his head sink and roll to one side.

How do they manage that, then? D

What d’you want me to do — wear a black armband?

Well, to be honest I was expecting a bit more ... I don’t know ... horribleness. Have you thought about beefing it up a bit?

What, with a few more knickknacks? D

L

Some sort of thing though, innit?

You’re disappointed, then? D

L

Even ghost trains never did much for me when I was a kid. Everyone else was screaming and putting their hands over their eyes at the bats, spiders, skeletons and coffins. I always wanted my money back.

But this isn’t a ghost train.

But they’re all victims.

Don’t you feel anything? D

L

No, it means curiosity. Seeing what would normally be unseen, witness­ ing what’s foreign. Young man, don’t you see you’re getting that kind of opportunity here?

Yes. D

L

L

You worked for them?

I was a commissionaire. S’what set me off. I haven’t been back there for years.

5


D

Maybe you should. Things have moved on, mate. They’re trying to keep up with the times. You’re not.

D

L

No it’s not. D

L

In the trade yourself, are you? L D

L

We’re closing now, if you don’t mind. Ask for a refund on your way out. Tell the young lady at the box office I’ve said it’s all right. D

L

No — I was just offereing an opinion.

D

No need to get funny, mate.

[Pause. Danny goes. lawSOn gets on with his work. Within moments, Danny returns.]

L

L

6

I want to work anywhere ... look, just say no if there’s nothing doing. I’m not desperate, you know! Danny turns to go. Danny. Look, I know you think I don’t reckon much to all this ...

You don’t, do you? D

L

Wouldn’t be one going, would there ... ? L

D

L

I said it was interesting.

But you need more than interesting.

I can always come back if you’re busy ... if there’s any point.

I do need someone, as it happens. D

L

How d’you mean?

Your job application. D

L

Seaside’s got its attractions. French students with Dutch caps in their rucksacks. They come over to learn English. I teach ’em phrases, things like ‘Can you pay? I seem to have forgotten my wallet’ and ‘You’d better go to the clinic, I think I’ve got something.’ Then there’s bye-by-e, ta-ta and that’s the way to Dover.

They fall for your charm. I expect you’re wondering if I have.

What’s your name? D

L

Anything you want ...

You want to work here? D

L

D

I was just wondering ... if you needed anything doing.

It’s a job you’re after? D

One of Maggie’s wandering minstrels. [Pause.] Ain’t been doing too badly, though. So far this summer I’ve been a deckchair attendant in Hastings, an ice-cream seller in Brighton and a waiter in Bournemouth. The whole of the South Coast has had the benefit of my experience. I should get an award from the Tourist Board.

Miss not being at home?

Such as? D

L

L

Politeness now, is it? D

L

Look, I didn’t mean to be rude ...

Eh?

It’s not just you. [Pause.] [indicating DANNY’s suitcase.] Move around a lot?

I’m responding to a customer’s com­ plaints! Now just get out.

D

That’s just me.

I’ve got references ...

No need. I’m impressed by your curriculum vitae. D

Eh?


L

Doesn’t matter. [Pause.] Two seventy an hour till the end of the season. No paperwork. D

L

The DHSS’ll want me to move on again soon. Unless I say I’ve found work.

R

Brilliant.

You’re going to have to earn it. D

When do I start?

[Danny goes and offers his hand. He’s being provocative.]

R Start what?

L

L

R

L

R

Thanks for the welcome. He holds his hand out.

L

We can’t afford him.

You didn’t like him.

I ’ve just done today’s takings. It didn’t take long. No. What do we need him for, anyway?

You should have consulted me beforehand. Courtesy.

I just did it on the spur. I’m sorry. R

L

Why wasn’t I asked?

I’m in charge. R

L

Pleased to meet you. [to Lawson] See you tomorrow then ... Mr. Lawson.

Nine­thirty. Danny exists.

Didn’t it? R

D

No, I don’t but I run the boxoffice, I do the books and I take care of the correspondence. What will you be doing?

General maintenance stroke atten­ dant stroke assistant to the curator stroke proprietor. R

L

What — as an exhibit?

Does she bite? R

L

You can call me darling.

He’ll be joining us ... tomorrow. R

D

D

This is Ruth. This is Danny. D

I’ll have to come to you, then.

Suit yourself.

[Ruth appears at the doorway/exit door.]

L

Why’s she work here, then?

I hand out tickets from the booth. I can listen to Radio One in there and on slow days I read a book. That’s not unpleasant. But once I get inside this far I don’t come any further. Understand? D

R

I ’m not moving. Tell him, Mr. Lawson.

Ruth doesn’t actually like to come into the museum. To put it mildly. It upsets her. D

All right — we’ll sort the details out later. If you’re agreeable. D

L

L

Oh.

What d’you mean, oh? D

L

R

We can’t afford anyone. There’s a rates demand out there. A red one. They don’t come in any more colours after that. It’ll be a solicitor’s letter next.

Trouble with you is you’ve got a nervous disposition. R

Who is he?

7


L

Just a lad looking around. R

L

R

L

Get rid of him. Tell him you’ve changed your mind. I ’ll do it for you.

He’s only going to be temporary.

L

R

8

And closure’s permanent, Mr. Lawson.

Just till the end of the season. This place’ll be boarded up by then. We’r e not making enough at the door to waste on him. You’ll lose the museum and I ’ll have to start signing on. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?

L

We can manage without anyone else. Just us, Mr. Lawson. I thought you liked that.

I do. R

L

Yes you do. We’r e managing, just about — the two of us. We’r e not getting London Dungeon trade but at least we’r e benefiting from that burger bar being open next door. If it hadn’t been for that ... another wage and we might go under.

But [...] what about the new punishments display I’ve introduced ... ? Once people hear about that ... You’re just trying to alarm me! R

R

Don’t risk it for some kid who thinks he knows best, then.

I don’t know what’s best any more. R

L

All the exhibits’ll have to be packed away in boxes when you close down. Stored in someones’s garage. And there’s nothing for me in this town. I ’ll have to go to London. You wouldn’t see much of me again. You don’t want that to happen, do you, Mr. Lawson?

Course not, but ...

Well, this one must have made an impression.

But he hasn’t even started yet. R

L

What are you talking about, Mr. Lawson? A boy made a few remarks – what’s new? If you took on every know-all who passed comment you’d be bigger than ICI.

L

Yes. He’ll be useful. R

L

So?

Maybe I should start taking notice. R

L

R

You could have said no. Just because someone asks ... he’s just a stray.

He’s a boy of his times. R

L

I just thought ... some new blood about the place. Not the best of expressions, I know ...

He had some very forthright things to say about the museum. R

L

And you offered him a job — just like that?

He asked. R

L

L

Don’t spoil it, then. You don’t want me walking round in a strop, do you, upset?

You know I wouldn’t like to upset you. R

I like working here. I might not any more.


TheThe Attractions . com Attractions

Lawson Ruth Danny

TA Gallery, London, August 2016

The Attractions . com

It’s very precious.

RUTH:

I’ll hold it for you. TA Gallery, London, August 2016

Posters for Booklaunch or Exhibition


Throughout the year I used this grotesque, slightly dark play by Tony Marchant as a very important source of inspiration to develop my type designs. It not only gave me a specific typographic context but also ideas for the overall atmosphere and the voice of the four members: Lawson, Ruth, Danny and the Narrator. An additional fifth typeface, which is not used in the play, was developed to expand upon my approach and to question more clearly the thin path between different typedesigns of a large super family and mixing entirely different type designs.


Typefaces

Narrator Regular Danny Regular Italic Bold Lawson Regular Italic

Bold

Ruth Regular Italic Bold Tony Regular


ssss U-0073

jjjj

rrrr tttt ffff U-0072/74/66

U-006A


Dialogue Family This is a collection of individually crafted type­ faces in the formal atmosphere of 19th and ­20th century Grotesques1. It is an attempt to cap­­ ture some of the typographic richness of those wonderful types and transfer this creativity into ­t ypefaces to be used in contemporary type­­ setting for a variety of literature. Another crucial source of inspiration was the typography of plays, or rather its limitations. Despite that each character might have a dis­ tinct personality, they are usually all set in one typeface. With my contribution I hope to not only make these pieces of literature ­­more immersive and less disruptive, but maybe even give the writers more freedom in how they twist dialogues in written form. As you ­already experienced the typefaces in a mixed setting, I will now introduce you, one by one, to each of the typefaces I have sculpted.

1Including serif designs, as e.g. by the foundry Stephenson Blake: Grot No. 9, Windsor, Latin Antique, ­De Vinne; but also Monotype Grotesque and Bureau Grotesque. They all are grotesque – in one way or the other; very lively, slightly weird treatments, often very prominent in the curves and terminals.


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu vwxyz


Narrator

is rather neutral and does not expose much of himself. He appears to know everyone, yet no one really knows ­anything about him. He seems rather dry and rational, but you can not really tell much about him. Most of the time you don’t even notice him.

Placeholder text: In this coloums through out the following pages you will find more information on the thinking behind the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. Unfortunately I did not find enough time to write this section. The following is only a loose draft to elaborate some ideas behind the development. Drawing – The whole lower and uppercase characterset of Lawson was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes

with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement. Analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it would take to test the characters in context – which indeed was very important to me. Sure, digital drawing is still much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. Family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating ter-

minals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters. The other would be about a more contextual approach, whre the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture.


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Danny

is a confident, charming boy of his time looking for entertainment but gets bored easily. He knows how to make an impression, likes to talk, to tell stories. Behind the curtains he is insecure, ­rather naive but actually has more to offer than he thinks.

Italics – Contionuing placeholder text. Originally I had tested several versions of truly cursive styles, various hybrid experiments but ultimately I went for an oblique approach as it fitted my context the best. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics the corresponding regular while still offereing a clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would

been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. Family – I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different typefaces appart from one another. Through out the process I found a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size,

so they all should roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly Placeholder text: depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w x yz


Lawson is dedicated and believes in what he does, but most people don’t seem to understand. He is a good person and wants to contribute something; believes in the truth but doesn’t see the point of political correctness. Why are people afraid to see the dark side of human nature?

they and more placeholder text; build up a general atmosphere – slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I’ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my Reflection of Practice. In this coloums through out the following pages

you will find more information about the thinking behind my the typefaces and the philosophy of my approach. Type — The whole lower and uppercase characterset was originally developed in photoshop. It seemed important to me to develop this shapes with a pen first and not being restricted by any point placement – analog drawing I had to dimiss out of practical reasons, mainly duo the huge time effort it takes to test characters in context which indeed was very important to

me – sure, digital drawing is still much slower than manipulating bezier curves but maybe one day we can combine their advantages. Family – One in the direction of making each style the same with a coherent set of formal attributes, e.g. treating termi­ nals simlar, having the same weight, the way the modulation is handled, or even maintaining the exact same width of all the characters as done in (Corpo­ rate ASE, I think) The other would be about a more contex-


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz


Ruth is a strong, moral character. She knows her strengths and knows how to use them; likes if things stay just as they are – the comfort of continuity. But below the surface there is something else, something she does not quite want to admit, a darker side.

tual approach, placeholder text, where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture. The italic should not feel, as another character would speak it should still keep the clear characteristics of the corresponding

regular, while still offereing a clear differientation. Additionally it was also important that the relation between the regular and the italic felt the same across all of the typefaces, which would been very hard to accomplish for the sans-serif style while keeping the original atmosphere. I had the vague idea that it might be even just enough that it comes out of one hand. But if it comes from the same hand the biggest trap might be, that it is actually too similar to one another in the end again. Even one more reason to really push the different type-

faces appart from one another. Through out the process I found a few things that would need to be kept similar. One is the size, so they all should roughly be at the same x-height, cap-height etc. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context the type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the


abcdefg hijklmn opqrstu v w xyz


Tony

makes the impression to be a very interesting figure – flamboyant, but elegant. He seems confident and it is interesting to listen to him, not only his stories but especially the way he articulates is rather colorful and ­vibrant, yet feels familar.

overall placeholder text weight and the thinnest lines should correspond. In the context of my play it was furthermore important that they build up a general atmosphere – slightly dark and grotesque. This was also one of the reasons why I have chosen this play. I ’ve been always attracted by grotesque designs and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. This text is still in development and from here on there will be only placeholder text for the moment, as I need to concentrate on finishing other parts of the specimen and my

Reflection of Practice. Another is the punctua which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other features, mostly depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should. Another is the punctuation which should have a similar treatment. I think I can savely say that those two can be considered essential. Then comes weight and other

features, mostly depending on the context type is meant for. In my case I decided in the process that the overall weight and the thinnest lines should; where the goal is not to make one thing with a lot of variations but to actually make a lot of entirely different things and then see what the absolute minimum is, what needs to be coresponding. I went for the later trying to focus on each design individually more pushing it to something that clearly differientiates in texture than trying to make things


Falls on the bed, and dies

CASSIO This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon; For he was great of heart. LODOVICO [to Iago] O Spartan dog, More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea! Look on the tragic loading of this bed; This is thy work: the object poisons sight; Let it be hid. Gratiano, keep the house, And seize upon the fortunes of the Moor, For they succeed on you. To you, lord governor, Remains the censure of this hellish villain; The time, the place, the torture: O, enforce it! Myself will straight aboard: and to the state This heavy act with heavy heart relate. Exeunt

The End Please close the specimen and start on the opposite cover.


‫واآلن لم يبق لي إال أن أموت في قبلة‪.‬‬ ‫كاسيو‬ ‫كنت أخشى هذه النهاية لكنن لم أظن أن معه سيفا‪ً..‬‬ ‫قضى وكان قلبه كسيراً‪..‬‬ ‫لودفيكو‬ ‫أين كلب إسبرطة‪ .‬يا أقسى من األلم والجوع والبحر‪.‬‬ ‫انظر هذه الجثث الطاهرة المتراكمة على هذا‬ ‫السرير‪ .‬هذا عملك‪ .‬منظر ينفث ناقع السم في‬ ‫األبصار فألقوا عليه غطاء ‪-‬أي غراتيانو احرس البيت‬ ‫وتسلم تركة المغربي في إليك‪ -‬وأنت أيها السيد‬ ‫الوالي تحكم في عقاب هذا المجرم الجهنمي بما‬ ‫تشاء‪ .‬اضرب لذلك أجال وعين مكانا ً واختر آالت‬ ‫التعذيب ثم عذبه بمنتهى الشدة وبال رحمة سأبحر‬ ‫من فوري عائدا ً إلى البندقية حامال إلى القوم بقلب‬ ‫حزين خبر هذه الحادثة الفاجعة‪.‬‬ ‫وهكذا كان‬

‫النهاية‬ ‫الرجاء إغالق الكتيب والبدء‬ ‫من االتجاه المقابل‪.‬‬


‫لبيبة‬

‫السؤال ‪ :‬هل يمكن الفصل بين اإلحساس‬ ‫واإلدراك ؟ الدرس اإلحساس واإلدراك‬ ‫اإلحساس ظاهرة نفسية متولدة عن تأثر‬ ‫إحدى الحواس بمؤثر ما‪ ،‬وبذلك فهو أداة‬ ‫اتصال بالعالم الخارجي ووسيلة من‬ ‫وسائل المعرفة عند اإلنسان بينما اإلدراك‬ ‫هو عملية عقلية معقدة نتعرف بها على‬ ‫العالم الخارجي بواسطة الحواس ومن‬ ‫خالل تعريفهما تظهر العالقة القائمة‬

‫السؤال ‪ :‬هل يمكن الفصل بين‬ ‫اإلحساس واإلدراك ؟ الدرس اإلحساس‬ ‫‪ the‬واإلدراك اإلحساس ظاهرة نفسية‬ ‫متولدة عن تأثر إحدى الحواس بمؤثر‬ ‫ما‪ ،‬وبذلك فهو أداة اتصال بالعالم‬ ‫الخارجي ووسيلة من وسائل المعرفة‬ ‫اإلدراك هو ‪ quick‬عند اإلنسان بينما‬ ‫عملية عقلية معقدة نتعرف بها على‬ ‫العالم الخارجي بواسطة الحواس ومن‬ ‫خالل تعريفهما‬ ‫تظهر العالقة القائمة بينهما والتقارب‬ ‫الكبير الذي يجمعهما مما أثار إشكاال‬ ‫وخاصة علماء ‪ fox‬لدى الفالسفة‬ ‫النفس حول إمكانية الفصل بينهما أو‬ ‫عدمه‪ ،‬بمعنى إن شعور الشخص بالمؤثر‬ ‫الخارجي والرد على هذا المؤثر بصورة‬ ‫موافقة هل نعتبر إحساس أم إدراك أم‬

‫علماء مها يشكالن ظاهرة واحدة ؟‬ ‫إمكان الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك ‪.‬‬ ‫يؤكد علم النفس التقليدي على ضرورة‬ ‫الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك ويعتبر‬ ‫اإلدراك ظاهرة مستقلة عن اإلحساس‬ ‫انطالق‬ ‫ا من أن اإلحساس ظاهرة مرتبطة‬ ‫بالجسم فهو حادثة فيزيولوجية ومعرفة‬ ‫بسيطة‪ ،‬أما اإلدراك فهو مرتبط بالعقل‪.‬‬ ‫أي عملية معقدة تستند إلى عوامل‬ ‫كالتذكر والتخيل والذكاء وموجه إلى‬ ‫موضوع معين‪ .‬فيكون اإلحساس معرفة‬ ‫فة ‪ the‬أولية لم يبلغ بعد درجة المعر‬ ‫بينما اإلدراك معرفة تتم في إطار الزمان‬ ‫ديكارت)‪ « :‬أنا( ‪ lazy‬والمكان‪ .‬حيث يقول‬ ‫أدرك بمحض ما في ذهني من قوة‬ ‫الحكم ما كنت أحسب أني أراه بعيني «‪.‬‬

‫ويقول اإلدراك يزيد على اإلحساس بأن‬ ‫آلة الحس فيه تكون أشد فعال والنفس‬ ‫أكثر انتباها‪ .»«)(»....‬وكما يختلف اإلدراك‬ ‫عن اإلحساس فكذلك يختلف عن‬ ‫العاطفة ألن اإلدراك فيإلحساس‬ ‫وحساس واإلدراك كما أن الفلسفة‬ ‫الحديثة تنظر إلى اإلدراك على أنه شعور‬ ‫باإلحساس أو جملة من االحساسات‬ ‫التي تنقلها إليه حواسه ‪ ،‬فال يصبح‬ ‫عندها اإلحساس واإلدراك ظاهرتين‬ ‫مختلفتين لظاهرة واحدة‪ ،‬ومن‬ ‫الفالسفة الذين يطلقون لفظ اإلحساس‬ ‫على هذه الظاهرة بوجهيها االنفعالي‬ ‫والعقلي معا (ريد) حيث يقول ‪»:‬اإلدراك‬ ‫هو اإلحساس المصحوب باالنتباه «‪.‬‬ ‫بينما يبني الجشطالط موقفهم في‬ ‫اإلدراك على أساس الشكل أو الصورة‬


‫بنبن نىءلل‬ ‫شز ي ظ بو‬ ‫ضذ م غغج‬ ‫ققق ه ههه‬ ‫کك لممال ال‬


‫الحداثة التقليدية‬ ‫ والبسيط للخط ليتمكن‬،‫ والنقي‬،‫تم إنجاز المحيط السخي‬ ‫ هذا النوع من‬.‫الفلسفي‬ ‫من توسيع التعبير النصي لألدب‬ ً ‫النصوص الحديثة غالبا ما يكون وسيطا بين السياق التقليدي‬ ‫ اختزال التصميم ليكون أحادي السماكة يعكس‬.‫والمعاصر‬ ‫ميال إلى الحداثة باإلضافة إلى أنه في جوهره يمثل البحث‬ ً ‫خطا‬ ‫ كونه‬.‫الوضوح في الكثير من النصوص الفلسفية‬ ‫عن‬ ً ‫ يكمن الهدف األساسي للخط في‬،‫طباعيا لالستخدام النصي‬ ‫توفير تجربة قرائية مريحة في النصوص المطولة سواء في‬ ‫ وقواعد‬،‫ كل من النسب‬.‫المطبوعات أو في العرض الرقمي‬ ‫ وانسياب حركة الكتابة جميع هذه الخصائص‬،‫الكتابة‬ ‫مستوحاة من مجموعة متنوعة من مخطوطات نمط النسخ‬ ‫ وقد تم إيالء اهتمام خاص إلى انسياب حركة‬.‫التقليدي‬ ‫الكتابة بسماكة موحدة مع الحفاظ على درجة من الرسمية‬ .‫لتحقيق الجو المقصود‬

The generous, pure and unpretentious atmosphere of the type was created to extend the typographic vocabulary for modern philosophical literature. These rather recent texts often act as a mediator between tradition and the modern contemporary context. The reduction to mono-linearity, however, reflects not only a current association to modernity but also at its core is reminiscent of the search for clarity in many philosophical texts. As a text face, the main aim of the type is to provide a comfortable reading experience for text-intensive analogue and digital documents. The proportions, visual script grammar and stroke-flow are inspired by a variety of traditional Naskh manuscripts. Special attention has been paid to a natural monolinear stroke flow while preserving a grade of typographic formality anticipating the intended atmosphere.


‫ليــنا‬

‫‪0627  \ 0640 × 2 \ 0646 \ 064A \ 0644-U‬‬

‫نبنبنبنب‬ ‫‪0628\0646-U‬‬

‫مو‬

‫‪0648\0645-U‬‬


‫المحارف‬

‫لبيبة‬ ‫]‪[Labiba‬‬

‫عادي‪ ،‬سميك‬


‫لبيبة هو خط طباعي واضح وموحد السماكة لالستخدام‬ ‫النصي يحمل قيم الحداثة مع تأكيده على التقاليد من‬ ‫خالل تحقيق التوازن بين البساطة واالرتباط بالخصائص‬ .‫األصيلة للخط‬

Labiba is a clear monolinear text face that expresses modernity while emphasising tradition through its balance between simplicity and truthful connection to the scripts inherent characteristics.


‫ فهرس الموضوعات‬

‫ ‬ ‫اإلحساس واإلدراك‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 1‬هل يمكن الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك؟ ‬ ‫اللغة والتواصل ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 2‬هل يمكن التفكير بدون لغة؟‬ ‫الشعور والالشعور‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 3‬هل يشكل الشعور مجمل الحياة النفسية عند اإلنسان؟‬ ‫الذاكرة‬ ‫ ‪ 4‬ما الذاكرة؟ ‬ ‫الذاكرة والذكاء‬ ‫ ‪ 5‬هل ترى أن هناك عالقة بين الذاكرة والذكاء؟ ‬ ‫التخيل‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 6‬تقدم البشرية يتم بفضل هؤالء الذين يتجاوزون‬ ‫العادة‬ ‫ ‪ 7‬قيل ‪ :‬إن العادة هي ما يقابل الغريزة ‪ ،‬ما رأيك؟ ‬ ‫العادة‬ ‫ ‪ 8‬إلى أي مدى تكون العادة مصدرا لفعالية السلوك؟ ‬ ‫ ‪ 9‬هل يمكن أن تتحول األخالق إلى دراسات للعادات األخالقية؟ األخالق‬ ‫ ‪ 10‬يقول ‪ :‬ال يوجد غيري فأنا وحدي الذي أقرر الخير واخترع الشر األخالق‬ ‫األخالق‬ ‫ ‪ 11‬لماذا يثير وجود الشر مشكلة ميتافيزيقية؟ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫األخالق‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 12‬هل يمكن إقامة األخالق على أساس العقل وحده؟‬ ‫األخالق واالقتصاد‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 13‬هل الدولة بحاجة إلى األخالق؟ ‬ ‫الحقيقة الفلسفية والحقيقة العلمية‬ ‫ ‪ 14‬إلى أي حد يكمن اعتبار مطلقة في الفلسفة؟ ‬ ‫ ‪ 15‬هل ترى أن المفاهيم الرياضية في تطورها نابعة من التجر ‪ ...‬الرياضيات والمطلقية‬ ‫ ‪ 16‬أي الخصائص يمكنها أن تميز بين التفكير المنطقي والتفكير ‪ ...‬الرياضيات والمطلقية‬ ‫ ‪ 17‬هل ترى أن المفاهيم الرياضية نابعة من التجربة أم العقل؟ الرياضيات والمطلقية‬ ‫الرياضيات والمطلقية‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 18‬قارن بين المعرف الرياضية والمعرفة التجريبية؟‬ ‫العلوم التجريبية والعلوم البيولوجية‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 19‬دور الفرضية في المنهج التجريبي؟‬ ‫العلوم التجريبية والعلوم البيولوجية‬ ‫ ‪ 20‬نقالة حول حدود التجريب في البيولوجيا ‬ ‫ ‪ 21‬قيل ‪ :‬بقدر ما تنجح العلوم اإلنسانية في إنجاز عمل عملي ‪ ...‬العلوم اإلنسانية والعلوم المعيارية‬ ‫العلوم اإلنسانية والعلوم المعيارية‬ ‫ ‪ 22‬بماذا تفسر تعدد المناهج في علم النفس؟ ‬ ‫العلوم اإلنسانية والعلوم المعيارية‬ ‫ ‪ 23‬هل يستطيع المؤرخ أن يتجاوز العوائق التي تمنعه من ‪ ...‬‬ ‫الذكاء والتخيل‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 24‬هل نحن ندين بتخيلنا اإلبداعي لذواتنا أم لمحيطنا ‪...‬‬ ‫الفن والجمال‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 25‬اإلنسان واإلبداع؟‬ ‫الفن والجمال‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 26‬عالقة الفن بالجمال؟‬ ‫التصوف‬ ‫ ‪ 27‬ما التصوف؟ ‬ ‫اللغة والفكر‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 28‬تحليل نص لـ ‪ :‬د ‪ .‬زكي نجيب محمود‬ ‫العلوم التجريبية‬ ‫ ‪ 29‬تحليل نص لـ ‪ :‬غاستون باشالر ‬ ‫الرياضيات والمطلقية‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 30‬تحليل نص لـ ‪ :‬بوفون‬ ‫العلوم اإلنسانية والعلوم المعيارية‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‪ 31‬تحليل نص لـ ‪ :‬دلتاي‬ ‫اإلبستومولوجية وقيمة العلم‬ ‫ ‪ 32‬اإلبستومولوجية بحث نقدي ‪ .‬حلل وناقش ‬


‫النقيض ‪:‬‬ ‫الحجة ‪:‬‬

‫النقد ‪:‬‬ ‫التركيب ‪:‬‬

‫الشعور ال يشكل مجمل الحياة النفسية عند اإلنسان (اكتشاف الالشعور)‬ ‫الالشعور هو مجموع الحوادث النفسية المكبوتة التي تؤثر في النفس دون‬ ‫الشعور بها ويعتبر فرويد مكتشف الالشعور ولو أن بوادر هذا االكتشاف كانت‬ ‫موجودة قبله مع «ليبتز» (‪ )1646–1716‬الذي حاول إثبات فكرة الالشعور باألدلة‬ ‫العقلية حيث قال‪« :‬لدينا في كل لحظة عدد ال نهاية له من االدراكات التي ال‬ ‫تأمل فيها وال نظر» ثم جاء دور األطباء ومنهم «برنهايم» (‪ )1919–1837‬و«شاركو»‬ ‫( ‪ )1825–1913‬من خالل معالجة مرض الهستيريا (اضطرابات عقلية ونفسية‬ ‫دون وجود خلل عضوي) وفكرة التنويم المغنطيسي األمر الذي هدى " فرويد "‬ ‫وبعد وقوفه على تجارب «بروير» (‪ )1842–1925‬إلى اكتشاف الالشعور وهذا‬ ‫يعني أن هناك جانبا في حياتنا توجد فيه أسرار وعقد ال يسمح لها بالخروج في‬ ‫حالة الشعور ‪ ،‬ومن ثم كشف عن نظريته في التحليل النفسي القائمة على‬ ‫التداعي الحر‪.‬‬ ‫لكن الالشعور وإن أصبح حقيقة ال تنكر فإن الحوادث النفسية لدى اإلنسان تبقى‬ ‫تجري في مجال الشعور بالدرجة األولى فاإلنسان يعيش معظم لحظات حياته‬ ‫واعيا‪.‬‬ ‫الحياة النفسية تتشكل من الشعور والالشعور‪.‬‬ ‫من خالل ما سبق ال يمكن إهمال الجانب الشعوري لدى اإلنسان وال يمكن‬ ‫إهمال الجانب الشعوري لدى اإلنسان وال يمكن إنكار دور الالشعور بعد ما تم‬ ‫التدليل عليه ‪ ،‬ومن ثم فالحياة النفسية عند اإلنسان أصبحت بجانبين شعورية‬ ‫وال شعورية باعتبار أن الشعور أمر ال يمكن إنكار وجوده‪ .‬ولكنه ال يصاحب جميع‬ ‫أفعال اإلنسان وال يوجهها دائما‪ .‬ثم أن للدوافع الالشعورية أثر بارز في توجيه‬ ‫سلوك الفرد‪.‬‬ ‫الخاتمة‬ ‫إن اإلنسان كائن واعي بالدرجة األولى‪ .‬وعليه فإذا كان شعور اإلنسان ال يشمل‬ ‫كل حياته النفسية فما يلفت من الشعور يمكن رده إلى الالشعور فهو في نظر‬ ‫فرويد مركز الثقل في الحياة النفسية وبالتالي فالشعور يشكل جانب من الحياة‬ ‫النفسية والالشعور يشكل الجانب اآلخر‪.‬‬


‫هل يشكل الشعور مجمل‬ ‫الحياة النفسية عند اإلنسان؟‬ ‫الشعور والالشعور‬

‫المقدمة‬ ‫يكاد يجمع علماء النفس في تعريفهم للشعور على أنه إدراك المرء لذاته أو هو‬ ‫حدس الفكر ألحواله وأفعاله (الحدس معرفة مباشرة) وعليه يكون الشعور‬ ‫أساس المعرفة الذاتية‪ .‬ومن ثم فهل يمكن اعتماد اإلنسان على شعوره وحده‬ ‫في إدراك كل ما يجول في حياته النفسية ؟ بمعنى آخر هل الشعور يصاحب كل‬ ‫ظواهر النفس؟‬ ‫التحليل‬ ‫القضية الشعور يشكل مجمل الحياة النفسية (الشعور أساس األحول النفسية)‪.‬‬ ‫الحجة ‪ :‬يذهب بعض الفالسفة أصحاب النظرية الكالسيكية (التقليدية) إلى أن الحياة‬ ‫النفسية في مجملها تقوم على أساس الشعور وعلى رأس هؤالء «ديكارت» الذي‬ ‫اتبع منهج الشك الذي يشمل كل شيء إال البداية األصلية الغير مشروطة في‬ ‫المعرفة والتي حددها ديكارت ب «أنا أفكر إذن أنا موجد» وهو ما يعرف‬ ‫بالكوجيتو الديكارتي حيث سلم بوجود التفكير وبما أن اإلنسان ال ينقطع عن‬ ‫التفكير فهو يشعر بكل ما يحدث على مستوى النفس وبما أن الشعور حدس‬ ‫والحدس معرفة مباشرة ال تخطئ فهو ينقل للفكر كل ما تعيشه النفس ومن ثم‬ ‫ال وجود للحياة النفسية ال شعورية لذلك يرى كل ما هو نفسي يرادف ما هو‬ ‫شعوري ‪ .‬وهناك آخرون ممن يرون ذلك أمثال «ستيكال» أو «ابن سيناء» في‬ ‫الفكر اإلسالمي حيث يقول‪« :‬الشعور بالذات ال يتوقف أبدا» وهكذا ساد‬ ‫االعتقاد قديما أ‪ ،‬شعور األساس الحياة النفسية‪.‬‬ ‫النقد ‪ :‬لكن المتأمل لحياة اإلنسان يكشف أنه يعيش كل لحظات حياته في حالة واعية‬ ‫بل تصدر منه سلوكات ال يشعر بها إال بعد فواتها أو تنبيهه إليها مثل زالت القلم‬ ‫فلتات اللسان ‪ ...‬وهذا يدل على وجود حياة ال شعورية ‪..‬‬


‫اإلحساس على هذه الظاهرة بوجهيها االنفعالي والعقلي معا (ريد)‪dieR‬حيث‬ ‫يقول ‪«:‬اإلدراك هو اإلحساس المصحوب باالنتباه»‪ .‬بينما يبني الجشطالط‬ ‫موقفهم في اإلدراك على أساس الشكل أو الصورة الكلية التي ينتظم فيها‬ ‫الموضوع الخارجي‪ ،‬فالجزء ال يكتسب معناه إال داخل الكل‪ .‬فتكون الصيغة‬ ‫الكلية عند الجشطالط هي أساس اإلدراك‪ .‬فاإلدراك يعود إلى العوامل‬ ‫الموضوعية‪ .‬فالصيغ الخارجية هي التي تفرض قوانينها علينا وتؤثر على إدراكنا‪،‬‬ ‫وبذلك فهي تحد من قدراتنا العقلية‪ .‬وعلنية فاإلدراك ليس مجموعة من‬ ‫االحساسات وإنما الشكل العام للصورة هو الذي يحدد معنى اإلدراك‪.‬فالثوب‬ ‫المخطط عموديا قد يزيد من أناقة الفتاة‪ ،‬وذات الثوب بخطوط أفقية قد‬ ‫يحولها إلى شبه برميل‪ .‬لكن رد اإلدراك بشكل كلي إلى الشكل الخارجي أمر ال يؤكد‬ ‫الحالة النفسية لإلنسان فهو يشعر بأسبقية اإلحساس الذي تعيشه الذات كما أن‬ ‫رد اإلدراك إلى عوامل موضوعية وحدها‪ ،‬فيه إقصاء للعقل ولكل العوامل‬ ‫الذاتية التي تستجيب للمؤثر‪ .‬وإال كيف تحدث عملية اإلدراك؟ ومن يدرك؟‬ ‫اإلدراك ينطلق من اإلحساس ويتجه نحو الموضوع‪ .‬إن اإلدراك عملية نشيطة‬ ‫يعيشها اإلنسان فتمكنه من االتصال بالموضوع الخارجي أو الداخلي‪ ،‬وهي‬ ‫عملية مصحوبة بالوعي فتمكنه من التعرف على األشياء‪ .‬واإلدراك يشترط‬ ‫لوجوده عمليات شعورية بسيطة ينطلق منها‪ .‬وهو اإلحساس ‪ ،‬بكل حاالته‬ ‫االنفعالية التي تعيشها الذات المدركة‪ ،‬ووجود الموضوع الخارجي الذي تتوجه‬ ‫إليه الذات المدركة بكل قواها وهو ما يعرف بالموضوع المدرك‪.‬‬ ‫إن االختالف بين علم النفس التقليدي الذي يميز اإلحساس واإلدراك‪ ،‬وعلم‬ ‫النفس الحديث الذي ال يميز بينهما باعتبار أن العوامل الموضوعية هي األساس‬ ‫في اإلدراك يبقى قائما‪ .‬غير أن التجربة الفردية تثبت أن اإلنسان في اتصاله‬ ‫بالعالم الخارجي وفي معرفته له ينطلق من اإلحساس باألشياء ثم مرحلة التفسير‬ ‫والتأويل فاإلحساس مميز عن اإلدراك ليسبقه منطقيا إن لم يكن زمنيا‪.‬‬


‫هل يمكن الفصل بين‬ ‫اإلحساس واإلدراك؟‬ ‫اإلحساس واإلدراك‬

‫اإلحساس ظاهرة نفسية متولدة عن تأثر إحدى الحواس بمؤثر ما‪ ،‬وبذلك فهو‬ ‫أداة اتصال بالعالم الخارجي ووسيلة من وسائل المعرفة عند اإلنسان بينما‬ ‫اإلدراك هو عملية عقلية معقدة نتعرف بها على العالم الخارجي بواسطة‬ ‫الحواس ومن خالل تعريفهما تظهر العالقة القائمة بينهما والتقارب الكبير الذي‬ ‫يجمعهما مما أثار إشكاال لدى الفالسفة وخاصة علماء النفس حول إمكانية‬ ‫الفصل بينهما أو عدمه‪ ،‬بمعنى إن شعور الشخص بالمؤثر الخارجي والرد على‬ ‫هذا المؤثر بصورة موافقة هل نعتبر إحساس أم إدراك أم أنهما مها يشكالن‬ ‫ظاهرة واحدة؟ إمكان الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك‪ .‬يؤكد علم النفس‬ ‫التقليدي على ضرورة الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك ويعتبر اإلدراك ظاهرة‬ ‫مستقلة عن اإلحساس انطالقا من أن اإلحساس ظاهرة مرتبطة بالجسم فهو‬ ‫حادثة فيزيولوجية ومعرفة بسيطة‪ ،‬أما اإلدراك فهو مرتبط بالعقل‪ .‬أي عملية‬ ‫معقدة تستند إلى عوامل كالتذكر والتخيل والذكاء وموجه إلى موضوع معين‪.‬‬ ‫فيكون اإلحساس معرفة أولية لم يبلغ بعد درجة المعرفة بينما اإلدراك معرفة‬ ‫تتم في إطار الزمان والمكان‪ .‬حيث يقول (ديكارت)‪« :‬أنا أدرك بمحض ما في‬ ‫ذهني من قوة الحكم ما كنت أحسب أني أراه بعيني‪ ».‬ويقول (مين دوبيران)‬ ‫ ‪«:Maine de Biran‬اإلدراك يزيد على اإلحساس بأن آلة الحس فيه تكون أشد‬ ‫فعال والنفس أكثر انتباها‪ .»...‬وكما يختلف اإلدراك عن اإلحساس فكذلك‬ ‫يختلف عن العاطفة ألن اإلدراك في نظرهم حالة عقلية والعاطفة حالة‬ ‫وجدانية انفعالية‪ .‬لكن إمكانية الفصل بيم اإلحساس واإلدراك بشكل مطلق أمر‬ ‫غير ممكن باعتبار أن اإلدراك يعتمد على الحواس‪ .‬حيث قال (التهانوي)‪:‬‬ ‫«اإلحساس قسم من اإلدراك» وقال (الجرجاني)‪« :‬اإلحساس إدراك الشيء‬ ‫بإحدى الحواس»‪ .‬استحالة الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك‪ .‬يؤكد علم النفس‬ ‫الحديث على عدم إمكانية الفصل بين اإلحساس واإلدراك كما أن الفلسفة‬ ‫الحديثة تنظر إلى اإلدراك على أنه شعور باإلحساس أو جملة من االحساسات‬ ‫التي تنقلها إليه حواسه ‪ ،‬فال يصبح عندها اإلحساس واإلدراك ظاهرتين‬ ‫مختلفتين وإنما هما وجهان لظاهرة واحدة‪ ،‬ومن الفالسفة الذين يطلقون لفظ‬


‫مقاالت فلسفة ‪ -‬آداب وفلسفة‬

‫آداب وفلسفة‬ ‫أبو الفضل‬

‫مقاالتي ‪2012‬‬


Text by Abou El Fadl This text was first published publicly by the author on Maqalaty.com in 2012. (maqalaty.com/8560.html) Paintings by Kazimir Malevich • Suprematism: Non-Objective Composition, 1915; The Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, provided with assistance from the State Museum and Exhibition Center ROSIZO • Suprematist Composition, 1916; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam


‫آداب وفلسفة‬

‫أبو الفضل‬


‫كمحتوى نصي وكإلهام لسياق هذا الخط اخترت نمط‬ ‫ النص إلى اليسار بالتحديد مأخوذ من‬.‫األدب الفلسفي العام‬ ‫ ساعد في اختيار‬.‫مقال على اإلنترنت عن الفلسفة واألدب‬ .‫النص محمد دقاق‬

As typographic context and inspiration for the voice of this typeface I have chosen the general genre of philosophical literature. The specific text to the left is an online article on phillosophy and literature, which I have selected with the help of Mohamed Dakak.


Don’t order me about. not taking my box. You can’t stay there all day. ‫وفلسفة‬Advice ‫ آداب‬now, is it? That’s big of you. ‫ مقال بقلم أبو الفضل‬ I’m sorry I steamed into you. Labibah Talk’s cheap. Danny Regular, Italic, Bold Ruth Regular, Italic,you’ve Bold You think got me taped. Lawson Regular, Italic ‫الطباعي‬I speak ‫ الخط‬as I find. Tony Regular ‫التقليدية‬ ‫ الحداثة‬ DANNY goes to take him under Grotesques inNarrator Dialogue Regular the arms to pull ‫ عادي‬،‫سميك‬ ‫ لبيبة‬him up. Get off me! RUTH reappears. The Attractions I’m doing my best, Ruth! Tony Marchant ‫مسرحية بقلم‬ Can’t be a change of heart ‫اﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬I don’t ‫أ‬ he’s having; believe it. RUTH to LAWSON Give him a chance. I wouldn’t bother with him if he was hopeless. He doesn’t want to let go of that box. I don’t want it stolen. It’s very precious. I’ll hold it for you. Come on. LAWSON hands the box over, allowing DANNY to pick him up and put him on the chair. More comfortable than the floor, innit? Wonders will never cease. There’s your box back. You’re

‫آداب وﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ :

RUTH:

DANNY:

LAWSON:


‫تستوفي هذه العينة جزء من متطلبات الحصول‬ ‫على درجة الماجستير في اآلداب في تصميم‬ ‫الخط الطباعي في جامعة ريدينج‪.2016 ،‬‬ ‫تصميم الخط الطباعي والطباعة‬ ‫بواسطة ‪Manuel@vonGebhardi.de‬‬

‫اود ان اشكر ‪،Fiona Ross ،Gerry Leonidas‬‬ ‫‪،Michael Twyman ،Victor Gaultney ،Gerard Unger‬‬ ‫‪ ،James Mosley‬المحاضرين الزائرين‪ ،‬زمالئي وجميع من‬ ‫ساندني في هذا العام رائع‪ .‬أخيرا وليس آخرا أود أن أشكر‬ ‫عائلتي لدعمهم المستمر‪.‬‬


‫عن طريق عينة ‪2016 MATD ،Manuel von Gebhardi‬‬

‫حد‬ ‫غراثة‬ ‫يبة‬ ‫محرف‪ :‬لبيبة ]‪[Labiba‬‬

Manuel von Gebhardi - Typeface Specimen - MATD 2015/16  

Small booklet showcasing the type designs I created during the Master of Typeface Design at the University of Reading in 2016.

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