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aaaaa The University of the State of New York • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov

cm 1

Earth Science Reference Tables

2

14

14

Carbon-14

N

C

K

{

solid liquid gas

10

Properties of Water ...............

Energy released during freezing

............ ........

Energy released during condensation

..........................

540 calories/gram 540 calories/gram

13

Density at 3.98°C

....

80 calories/gram

12

Energy gained during vaporization

80 calories/gram

11

Energy gained during melting

9

0.5 1.0 0.5 0.24 0.20 0.19 0.11 0.09 0.03

8

10

SPECIFIC HEAT (calories/gram • C°)

7

Dry air Basalt Granite Iron Copper Lead

9

4.9 × 10

Sr

Rb

9

87

87

Rubidium-87

Water

4.5 × 10

Pb

U

1.3 × 10

3

206

238

Uranium-238

5.7 × 10

MATERIAL

6

Potassium-40

40

Ar 40 Ca

40

HALF-LIFE (years)

5

DISINTEGRATION

4

Specific Heats of Common Materials

Radioactive Decay Data

RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE

3

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

1.00 gram/milliliter

14 15

EQUATIONS

16

Eccentricity of an ellipse

eccentricity = distance between foci length of major axis

Gradient

gradient =

Rate of change

rate of change =

Density of a substance

density =

18

deviation (%) =

17

difference from accepted value × 100 accepted value

Percent deviation from accepted value

19

change in field value distance

20

change in field value time

21

mass volume

22 23

2001 EDITION

EURYPTERUS

24

New York State Fossil

25

This edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables should be used in the classroom beginning in the 2000–2001 school year. The first examination for which these tables will be used is the January 2001 Regents Examination in Earth Science.


LAKE ERIE

AP P AL A

U EA T A PL

KEY

S) ND A PL (U

TUG HILL PLATEAU

. ST

International Boundary

State Boundary

Landscape Region Boundary

S ND LA W LO

THE CATSKILLS

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS

E NC E R W LA

Major Geographic Province Boundary

ALLEGHENY PLATEAU

ERIE–ONTARIO LOWLANDS (PLAINS)

LAKE ONTARIO

INTERIOR LOWLANDS

GRENVILLE PROVINCE (HIGHLANDS)

Generalized Landscape Regions of New York State

N CH IA

DS

HU

ND S

L AT

K LO W

ON – M O H AW N LO EW W AR L K A ND S

EW N

E C N I V O R P S) D ND N A LA L G GH EN (HI

A CO IC T AN

IN L PLA STA

N

S AND GHL I H SON HUD ONG N PR A T T HA MAN

DS AN CHAMPLAIN LOWL LA TA C O N IC MO UNTAIN S

2

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


} }

limestones, shales, sandstones, and dolostones

}

CAMBRIAN and EARLY ORDOVICIAN sandstones and dolostones Moderately to intensely metamorphosed east of the Hudson River. CAMBRIAN and ORDOVICIAN (undifferentiated) quartzites, dolostones, marbles, and schists Intensely metamorphosed; includes portions of the Taconic Sequence and Cortlandt Complex. TACONIC SEQUENCE sandstones, shales, and slates Slightly to intensely metamorphosed rocks of CAMBRIAN through MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ages. MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC gneisses, quartzites, and marbles Lines are generalized structure trends. Intensely Metamorphosed Rocks (regional metamorphism about 1,000 m.y.a.) MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC anorthositic rocks

ORDOVICIAN CAMBRIAN

CRETACEOUS, TERTIARY, PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays LATE TRIASSIC and EARLY JURASSIC conglomerates, red sandstones, red shales, and diabase (in Palisades Sill) PENNSYLVANIAN and MISSISSIPPIAN conglomerates, sandstones, and shales DEVONIAN limestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates Silurian also contains salt, gypsum, and hematite. SILURIAN

GEOLOGICAL PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORK

modified from GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 1989

Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State

ara River ag Ni

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

3

}

}

Dominantly Metamorphosed Rocks

Dominantly Sedimentary Origin

NG LO

O UND AND S ISL

N


Surface Ocean Currents

4

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

5

KEY:

Fiji Plate

Mid-Ocean Ridge

Divergent Plate Boundary (usually broken by transform faults along mid-ocean ridges)

Philippine Plate

Convergent Plate Boundary (Subduction Zone)

subducting plate

overriding plate

Transform Plate Boundary (Transform Fault)

Sandwich Plate

Tectonic Plates

Mid-Atlantic Ri dge

Relative Motion at Plate Boundary

Mantle Hot Spot

NOTE: Not all plates and boundaries are shown.

Complex or Uncertain Plate Boundary


Rock Cycle in Earth’s Crust

Relationship of Transported Particle Size to Water Velocity

De po s it ion

SEDIMENTS

n

/or Pressure t a nd Hea tamorphism Me

re

io n lift) os (Up & Er ring the Wea lting Me

Me ltin g

li d

PEBBLES 0.2 cm

0.1 SAND

0.01

0.006 cm

0.001

SILT 0.0004 cm

0.0001

0.00001

IGNEOUS ROCK

So

1.0

CLAY

0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

STREAM VELOCITY (cm/sec) *This generalized graph shows the water velocity needed to maintain, but not start, movement. Variations occur due to differences in particle density and shape.

if

ic

METAMORPHIC ROCK

BOULDERS 25.6 cm COBBLES 6.4 cm

10.0

MAGMA

Pumice

Vesicular Basaltic Glass

Vesicular Rhyolite Rhyolite

Andesite

Basalt

Granite

Diorite

Gabbro

Scoria

Peridotite

Pegmatite

LIGHT

COLOR

DARK

LOW

DENSITY

HIGH

COMPOSITION

TEXTURE

Glassy

Nonvesicular Vesicular (gas pockets)

Fine

Coarse

Nonvesicular

Very Coarse

MAFIC (Fe, Mg)

100%

100% Potassium feldspar (pink to white)

75%

Quartz (clear to white)

75% Plagioclase feldspar (white to gray)

50%

50%

Pyroxene (green) Biotite (black)

25% Amphibole (black)

0%

6

Vesicular Basalt

Vesicular Andesite

GRAIN SIZE

Noncrystalline

Basaltic Glass

Dunite

INTRUSIVE (Plutonic)

EXTRUSIVE (Volcanic)

Obsidian (usually appears black)

FELSIC (Al)

MINERAL COMPOSITION (Relative by Volume)

CHARACTERISTICS

IGNEOUS ROCKS

ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION

Scheme for Igneous Rock Identification

10 mm 1 mm less than or to 1 mm larger 10 mm

Melting

Heat and/or Pressu

(Up We lift) athe ring & Er osio

Erosion

SEDIMENTARY ROCK Metamorphism

PARTICLE DIAMETER (cm)

100.0

(Uplift) Weathering & Erosion

e

on at i nt

at ion

Ce m

Burial

Compaction

Olivine (green)

25%

0%

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification INORGANIC LAND-DERIVED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS TEXTURE

GRAIN SIZE

COMPOSITION

COMMENTS

ROCK NAME

a

MAP SYMBOL

a Pebbles, cobbles, and/or boulders embedded in sand, silt, and/or clay

Clastic (fragmental)

Sand (0.2 to 0.006 cm)

Silt (0.006 to 0.0004 cm)

Clay (less than 0.0004 cm)

Rounded fragments

Mostly quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals; may contain fragments of other rocks and minerals

Conglomerate Breccia

Angular fragments Fine to coarse

Sandstone

Very fine grain

Siltstone

Compact; may split easily

Shale

CHEMICALLY AND/OR ORGANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

TEXTURE

GRAIN SIZE

COMPOSITION

Varied

Halite

Varied

Gypsum

Varied

Dolomite

Microscopic to coarse

Calcite

Cemented shell fragments or precipitates of biologic origin

Limestone

Varied

Carbon

From plant remains

Coal

Crystalline

Bioclastic

COMMENTS

ROCK NAME

Rock Salt

Crystals from chemical precipitates and evaporites

Rock Gypsum Dolostone

Scheme for Metamorphic Rock Identification

GRAIN SIZE

TYPE OF METAMORPHISM

Regional

Fine to medium

(Heat and pressure increase with depth)

Medium to coarse

AMPHIBOLE GARNET PYROXENE

Fine

Fine

NONFOLIATED

COMPOSITION

MICA QUARTZ FELDSPAR

MINERAL ALIGNMENT BANDING

FOLIATED

TEXTURE

Variable

Contact (Heat)

Quartz

Fine to coarse

Low-grade metamorphism of shale

Foliation surfaces shiny from microscopic mica crystals

ROCK NAME

Slate

Phyllite

Platy mica crystals visible from metamorphism of clay or feldspars

Schist

High-grade metamorphism; some mica changed to feldspar; segregated by mineral type into bands

Gneiss

Various rocks changed by heat from nearby magma/lava

Hornfels

Metamorphism of quartz sandstone

Quartzite

Metamorphism of limestone or dolostone

Marble

Regional

Calcite and/or dolomite

or

Contact

Coarse

COMMENTS

Various minerals in particles and matrix

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Pebbles may be distorted or stretched

Metaconglomerate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MAP SYMBOL

MAP SYMBOL

7


GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF NEW YORK STATE F

G

H

J

I

K

Valcouroceras Tetragraptus Eucalyptocrinus Centroceras Cryptolithus Ctenocrinus Dicellograptus Manticoceras Phacops Elliptocephala Hexameroceras

Era

Period

Epoch

Life on Earth

Millions of years ago

MESOZOIC CRETACEOUS

Important Geologic Events in New York

Inferred Position of Earth’s Landmasses

EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN

DEVONIAN

323

LATE EARLY LATE

Oldest microfossils

Earliest reptiles Extensive coal-forming forests

MIDDLE

418 LATE

SILURIAN EARLY

C

F

Earliest insects Earliest land plants and animals Peak development of eurypterids

E

LATE

ORDOVICIAN

Invertebrates dominant – mollusks become abundant Diverse coral and echinoderms

MIDDLE

490

Estimated time of origin of Earth and solar system

LATE MIDDLE

Graptolites abundant Earliest fish Algal reefs Burgess shale fauna Earliest chordates, diverse trilobites Earliest trilobites Earliest marine animals with shells

EARLY

G I

443

Oldest known rocks

Passive Margin Rifting

Appalachian (Alleghanian) Orogeny caused by collision of North America and Africa along transform margin, forming Pangea

B

D

H K

N

M

Q

P

Earth’s first coral reef

X

Z

V Y

U

T

W

J

A

1300

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Passive Margin

Rifting

Ediacaran fauna

Soft-bodied organisms

CRETACEOUS

119 million years ago

TRIASSIC

232 million years ago

Catskill Delta forms Erosion of Acadian Mountains

R

544 580

59 million years ago

Earth’s first forest

362

EARLY

Geochemical evidence for oldest biological fixing of carbon

Abundant sharks and amphibians Large and numerous scale trees and seed ferns Earliest amphibians, ammonoids, sharks Extinction of armored fish, other fish abundant

TERTIARY

Extensive erosion

Transform Collision

LATE PENNSYLVANIAN

Z

Intrusion of Palisades sill Pangea begins to break up

Continental Collision

290

Y

Initial opening of Atlantic Ocean North America and Africa separate

BRACHIOPODS

EARLY

GASTROPODS

PERMIAN

L

CORALS

Transition to atmosphere containing oxygen

Modern coral groups appear Earliest dinosaurs and mammals with abundant cycads and conifers Extinction of many kinds of marine animals, including trilobites First mammal-like reptiles

X

Development of passive continental margin

VASCULAR PLANTS

PALEOZOIC

LATE MIDDLE EARLY 251 LATE

W

Sands and shales underlying Long Island and Staten Island deposited on margin of Atlantic Ocean

PLACODERM FISH

TRIASSIC

206

CAMBRIAN

8

V

U

Advance and retreat of last continental ice Uplift of Adirondack region

Earliest birds Abundant dinosaurs and ammonoids

MIDDLE

EARLY 4600

S

Subduction

E A R L Y

T

142

EURYPTERIDS

M I D D L E

Tectonic Events Affecting Northeast North America

LATE

JURASSIC

E A R L Y

Earliest flowering plants Decline of brachiopods Diverse bony fishes

EARLY

First appearance of sexually reproducing organisms

Beluga Whale

A

O

S

R

Q

Bothriolepis Naples Tree Lichenaria Pleurodictyum Mucrospirifer Platyceras Cooksonia Aneurophyton Condor Eospirifer Maclurites Cystiphyllum

Time Distribution of Fossils Rock Record (Including Important Fossils of New York) in Lettered circles indicate the approximate time of existence of a specific NYS index fossil (e.g. Fossil lived at the end of the Early Cambrian).

CRINOIDS

PROTEROZOIC

PALEOGENE

P

O

Stylonurus Eurypterus Mastodont

GRAPTOLITES

4000

NEOGENE

Coelophysis

HOLOCENE 0 0.01 PLEISTOCENE 1.6 Humans, mastodonts, mammoths PLIOCENE 5.3 Large carnivores Abundant grazing mammals MIOCENE 24 Earliest grasses OLIGOCENE Large running mammals EOCENE 33.7 Many modern groups of mammals 54.8 PALEOCENE 65 Extinction of dinosaurs and ammonoids Earliest placental mammals LATE Climax of dinosaurs and ammonoids

EARLY

L A T E

ARCHEAN

P R E C A M B R I A N

3000

M I D D L E

Oldest multicellular life

TERTIARY

L A T E

1000

2000

QUATERNARY

CENOZOIC

CARBONIFEROUS

500

PHANEROZOIC

Millions of years ago 0

N

M

AMMONOIDS

Eon

L

BIRDS

E

MAMMALS

D

NAUTILOIDS

C

TRILOBITES

B

A

DINOSAURS

(Fossils not drawn to scale)

Acadian Orogeny caused by collision of North America and Avalon and closing of remaining part of Iapetus Ocean

DEVONIAN/MISSISSIPPIAN 362 million years ago

Salt and gypsum deposited in evaporite basins

Erosion of Taconic Mountains; Queenston Delta forms Taconian Orogeny caused by closing of western part of Iapetus Ocean and collision between North America and volcanic island arc

ORDOVICIAN

458 million years ago

Iapetus passive margin forms Rifting and initial opening of Iapetus Ocean Erosion of Grenville Mountains Grenville Orogeny: Ancestral Adirondack Mtns. and Hudson Highlands formed

Stromatolites 99-098 CDK(rev) 8/2000

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

9


a

Inferred Properties of Earth’s Interior

T LAN AT

IC

OCE

AN

DENSITY (g/cm3)

IC TLANT MID-AIDGE R

E

S LA (P

3.3–5.5

LE NT MA

PRESSURE (millions of atmospheres)

9.9–12.1

IC

&

N

RE CO KEL

12.7–13.0

IRO

IN N

ER

E

N

CO R

STI FF ER

AS

4

EARTH’S CENTER

3 2 1

0

?

6000

?

?

? ?

MEL TING POIN T

MANTLE

TEMPERATURE (°C)

?) ON (IR

O UT ER

PACIFIC OCEAN

C A T S R C E A N D C E H S CR US T

a

SP HE R

M R IG AN ID TH TL EN E O

NO RT H

AM ER I

CA

RE LE) HE P NT S A O M C TH TI LI

2.7 continental crust 3.0 oceanic crust MOHO

5000

4000

3000

2000

AC

? ? ? ?

A TU

E LT

TU RA E MP

NG TI EL M

RE

T IN PO

PARTIAL MELTING OF ULTRAMAFIC MANTLE

1000 0

0

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 DEPTH (km)

10

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


Average Chemical Composition of Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere CRUST

ELEMENT (symbol)

Oxygen (O) Silicon (Si) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Potassium (K) Nitrogen (N) Hydrogen (H) Other

Percent by Mass

Percent by Volume

46.40 28.15 8.23 5.63 4.15 2.36 2.33 2.09

94.04 0.88 0.48 0.49 1.18 1.11 0.33 1.42

HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHERE Percent by Percent by Volume Volume

21.0

33.0

78.0 0.66

0.07

66.0 1.0

1.0

Earthquake P-wave and S-wave Travel Time 24 23 22 21 20 19 18

S

17

TRAVEL TIME (minutes)

16 15 14 13 12 11 10

P

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

2

3 4 5 6 7 3 EPICENTER DISTANCE (×10 km)

8

9

10

11


Dewpoint Temperatures (°C) Dry-Bulb Temperature (°C) – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°) 0 – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

1 – 33 – 28 – 24 – 21 –18 –14 –12 –10 –7 –5 –3 –1 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 19 21 23 25 27 29

2

– 36 – 28 – 22 –18 –14 –12 –8 –6 –3 –1 1 3 6 8 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

– 29 – 22 –17 – 29 –13 – 20 – 9 –15 – 24 – 6 –11 –17 – 4 – 7 –11 –19 –1 – 4 – 7 –13 – 21 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 – 28 4 4 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –16 6 6 4 1 – 2 – 5 –10 –17 9 9 7 4 1 –1 – 6 –10 –17 11 11 9 7 4 2 – 2 – 5 –10 –19 13 14 12 10 7 4 2 –2 – 5 –10 –19 15 3 –1 – 5 –10 –19 16 14 12 10 8 5 17 6 2 –1 – 5 –10 –18 18 16 14 12 10 8 20 9 6 0 –4 –9 20 18 17 15 13 11 3 22 11 9 4 1 –3 22 21 19 17 16 14 7 24 12 10 8 5 1 24 23 21 19 18 16 14 26

Relative Humidity (%) Dry-Bulb Temperature (°C) – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

12

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°) 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

1 28 40 48 55 61 66 71 73 77 79 81 83 85 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

11 23 33 41 48 54 58 63 67 70 72 74 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 86

13 20 32 37 45 51 56 59 62 65 67 69 71 72 74 75 76 77 78 79

11 20 28 36 42 46 51 54 57 60 62 64 66 68 69 70 71 72

1 11 20 27 35 39 43 48 50 54 56 58 60 62 64 65 66

6 14 22 28 33 38 41 45 48 51 53 55 57 59 61

10 17 24 28 33 37 40 44 46 49 51 53 55

6 13 19 25 29 33 36 40 42 45 47 49

4 10 16 21 26 30 33 36 39 42 44

2 8 14 19 23 27 30 34 36 39

1 7 12 17 21 25 28 31 34

1 6 11 15 20 23 26 29

5 10 14 18 21 25

4 9 13 17 20

4 9 12 16

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


Pressure

Temperature Fahrenheit

Celsius 110

Water boils

220

Human body temperature Room temperature

70

140

60

120

50

20 10

–20 –30

–40

–40

–60

–50

30.50

30.30 1024.0

30.20

1020.0

30.10

310

1016.0

30.00

300

one atmosphere 1012.0 1013.2 mb

29.90 29.80

1008.0 29.70 1004.0

270

–10

–20

1028.0

280

0

0

350

290

60

20

1032.0

320

40

Ice melts

30.60

330

30

80

1036.0

360

340

40

100

30.70

30.40

80

160

1040.0

370

90

180

inches

380

100

200

millibars

Kelvin

29.60

260

1000.0

250

996.0

29.40

992.0

29.30

240 230 988.0

220

29.50

29.20 29.10

984.0

Weather Map Symbols

980.0

Station Model Temperature (°F) Present weather Visibility (mi) Dewpoint (°F)

28 1 2✱

27

Wind speed whole feather = 10 knots half feather = 5 knots total = 15 knots

Present Weather

Drizzle

Rain

Smog

Hail

✱ Snow

Sleet

Freezing Rain

Fog

Haze

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Amount of cloud cover (approximately 75% covered) Barometric pressure 196 (1019.6 mb) Barometric trend +19/ (a steady 1.9-mb rise the past 3 hours) .25 Precipitation (inches past 6 hours)

Snow Showers

28.90

976.0

28.80

972.0

28.70

968.0

28.60 28.50

Wind direction (from the southwest) (1 knot = 1.15 mi/hr)

Air Masses

ThunderRain storms Showers

29.00

Front Symbols

cA continental arctic

Cold

cP continental polar

Warm

cT continental tropical mT maritime tropical mP maritime polar

Hurricane

Stationary Occluded

13


Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere

mi

km 150

Water Vapor

Atmospheric Pressure

Temperature Zones

75 100

Thermosphere Mesopause

50 Altitude

Mesosphere Stratopause

50 25

Stratosphere

100°

10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 10 0

0° –100° 15° –90° –55° Temperature (°C)

0

20

40

Concentration (g/m3)

Pressure (atm)

0.000,000,1

0.000,001

0.000,01

0.000,1

0.001

0.01

0.1

1.0

10

100

1,000

Electromagnetic Spectrum

0.000,000,01

cm 10–10

0

0.000,000,001

cm

0.000,000,000,1

Sea Level 0

Tropopause Troposphere

10–9

10–8

10–7

10–6

10–5

10–4

10–3

10–2

10–1

100

101

102

103

Gamma rays

x rays Visible

Microwaves Ultraviolet

Infrared Radio waves

Decreasing Wavelength

Increasing Wavelength Visible Light

7.0 × 10

–5

Red

6.3 × 10–5

Orange

5.8 × 10

4.9 × 10

Yellow –5

Green

5.3 × 10–5

Blue –5

4.3 × 10–5

4.0 × 10–5

Violet

Tropopause Polar Front Jet Stream DRY

Polar Front

N.E.

WET

60° N

S.W. WINDS DRY

30° N

N.E. WINDS

WET

Subtropical Jet Streams

S.E. WINDS DRY N.W. WINDS WET

30° S

Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts in the Troposphere The drawing to the left shows the locations of the belts near the time of an equinox. The locations shift somewhat with the changing latitude of the Sun’s vertical ray. In the Northern Hemisphere, the belts shift northward in summer and southward in winter.

60° S

S.E.

DRY

14

Polar Front Jet Stream Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition


Luminosity and Temperature of Stars (Name in italics refers to star shown by a + )

Luminosity (Relative to the Sun)

1,000,000 Massive Stars

Blue Supergiants

Rigel

Betelgeuse

+

10,000

Luminosity is the brightness of stars compared to the brightness of our Sun as seen from the same distance from the observer.

Supergiants +

Polaris +

Ma

in S

Red Giants + Aldebaran

equ

100

enc

e

+ Sirius

1

Sun

+ +

Alpha Centauri

White Dwarfs + Procyon B

0.01

Red Dwarfs Barnard’s Star +

Small Stars 0.0001

20,000

White Stars Color

Blue Stars

5,000

10,000 Temperature (°C)

Yellow Stars

2,500 Red Stars

Solar System Data Object

Mean Distance from Sun (millions of km)

Period of Revolution

Period of Rotation

Eccentricity Equatorial of Diameter Orbit (km)

SUN

27 days

MERCURY

57.9

88 days

59 days

0.206

4,880

VENUS

108.2

224.7 days

243 days

0.007

EARTH

149.6

365.26 days

23 hr 56 min 4 sec

MARS

227.9

687 days

JUPITER

778.3

333,000.00

Density Number 3 of (g/cm ) Moons

1.4

0.553

5.4

0

12,104

0.815

5.2

0

0.017

12,756

1.00

5.5

1

24 hr 37 min 23 sec

0.093

6,787

0.1074

3.9

2

11.86 years

9 hr 50 min 30 sec

0.048

142,800

317.896

1.3

16

10 14 17 14 16

0.056

120,000

95.185

0.7

18

0.047

51,800

14.537

1.2

21

0.009

49,500

17.151

1.7

8

SATURN

1,427

29.46 years

URANUS

2,869

84.0 years

NEPTUNE

4,496

164.8 years

PLUTO

5,900

247.7 years

6 days 9 hr

0.250

2,300

0.0025

2.0

1

27.3 days

27 days 8 hr

0.055

3,476

0.0123

3.3

EARTH’S MOON

149.6 (0.386 from Earth)

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

hr min hr min hr

1,392,000

Mass (Earth = 1)

15


Either

Metallic Luster

COMMON COLORS

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS

USE(S)

MINERAL NAME

COMPOSITION*

1–2

silver to gray

black streak, greasy feel

pencil lead, lubricants

Graphite

C

2.5

metallic silver

very dense (7.6 g/cm3), gray-black streak

ore of lead

Galena

PbS

5.5–6.5

black to silver

attracted by magnet, black streak

ore of iron

Magnetite

Fe3O4

6.5

brassy yellow

green-black streak, cubic crystals

ore of sulfur

Pyrite

FeS2

1–6.5

metallic silver or earthy red

red-brown streak

ore of iron

Hematite

Fe2O3

white to green

greasy feel

talcum powder, soapstone

Talc

Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

yellow to amber

easily melted, may smell

vulcanize rubber, sulfuric acid

Sulfur

S

1

✔ ✔

2

Nonmetallic Luster

FRACTURE

HARDNESS

CLEAVAGE

LUSTER

Properties of Common Minerals

2

white to pink or gray

easily scratched by fingernail

plaster of paris and drywall

Gypsum (Selenite)

CaSO4 •2H2O

2–2.5

colorless to yellow

flexible in thin sheets

electrical insulator

Muscovite Mica

KAl3Si3O10(OH)2

2.5

colorless to white

cubic cleavage, salty taste

food additive, melts ice

Halite

NaCl

2.5–3

black to dark brown

flexible in thin sheets

electrical insulator

Biotite Mica

K(Mg,Fe)3 AlSi3O10(OH)2

3

colorless or variable

bubbles with acid

cement, polarizing prisms

Calcite

CaCO3

3.5

colorless or variable

bubbles with acid when powdered

source of magnesium

Dolomite

CaMg(CO3)2

4

colorless or variable

cleaves in 4 directions

hydrofluoric acid

Fluorite

CaF2

5–6

black to dark green

cleaves in 2 directions at 90°

mineral collections

Pyroxene (commonly Augite)

(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al) (Si,Al)2O6

5.5

black to dark green

cleaves at 56° and 124°

mineral collections

6

white to pink

cleaves in 2 directions at 90°

ceramics and glass

Potassium Feldspar (Orthoclase)

KAlSi3O8

6

white to gray

cleaves in 2 directions, striations visible

ceramics and glass

Plagioclase Feldspar (Na-Ca Feldspar)

(Na,Ca)AlSi3O8

furnace bricks and jewelry

Olivine

(Fe,Mg)2SiO4

Quartz

SiO2

Garnet (commonly Almandine)

Fe3Al2Si3O12

6.5

green to gray or brown

commonly light green and granular

7

colorless or variable

glassy luster, may form hexagonal crystals

7

dark red to green

glassy luster, often seen as red grains in NYS metamorphic rocks

*Chemical Symbols:

Al = aluminum C = carbon Ca = calcium

Cl = chlorine F = fluorine Fe = iron

H = hydrogen K = potassium Mg = magnesium

CaNa(Mg,Fe)4 (Al,Fe,Ti)3 Amphiboles (commonly Hornblende) Si6O22(O,OH)2

glass, jewelry, and electronics jewelry and abrasives

Na = sodium O = oxygen Pb = lead

S = sulfur Si = silicon Ti = titanium

✔ = dominant form of breakage

16 DET 633 (0-00-00,000)

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition 9-073587 99-098 CDK


Earth Science Reference Tables