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Febuary 2014 Abbie Marley

Oceans issue #4


Exploring the underwater realm

Scientific Explorations Oceans life facts Water areas and Food chain details

US $19.99



February Water Specifics................................3 Scientific Explorations......................4 Food Chains......................................5 Ocean Life........................................6 Lexicon.........................................(7-12) Bibliography..................................13


Water is everywhere

Anglerfish fun fact! This very unusual animal can swallow its prey 2 times the size of itself!

The Black Swallower: Here is a drawing of a black swallower consuming this prey. Notice how the stomach stretches out in order for the food to fit?

The oceans are mainly broken apart in different ecosystems from where they are living in the ocean. The Abyss, this occurs to be the deepest level in the oceans, some even go down to 3,00 feet in depth. According to Discover Ocean Life, “ There is life down here, and the animals developed some ways of surviving.” This environment is for the most part, a habitat to many carnivores. These organisms have a different way of living considering that they live in absolute darkness. The Anglerfish is mainly famous for their “fishing lure” which attracts the prey and gives the fish a better chance to consume the food. The Hatchetfish has large eyes at the top of its head, the eyes filter light that way its easier to see prey. The Black Swallower’s stomach extends to carry large amounts of food. Since the food is different from the open ocean areas, the fish will swallow anything, even prey larger than itself! The open sea is another large section of the oceans. It is the home to many animals such as sharks, whales, turtles, stingrays, dolphins, and seals. Schools of fish swim rapidly through the waters keeping close eyes out for predators and many more. All of the water boundaries are having a huge impact from sea temperatures rising. This means as the climate is changing, the oceans response is more slower than the land. Marine ecosystems are more sensitive than what the scientists expected with the climate difference.

Above shows the schools of fish in the open sea clustering from predators.


Scientific explorations updated work for the year of 2014. Impact of Climate change on coral reefs The climate change encounters a serious threat against coral reefs in the central Pacific ocean. Scientists around the world propose a coral reefs health inspection and start to begin research on the weakening reefs. This impact many more organisms living in the reefs such as clams, crabs and many fish. Mariana Trench Life The frigid bottom of the oceans trenches, scientists have discovered   a new life-form in a location in which they thought couldn’t survive. Hoping to discover more while on the Deep Sea Challenge. Glow in the Dark Reefs This discovery is of coral reefs lighting up with fluorescent colors. These colors are produced by certain types of protein and cells mixed to make up these beautiful colors. If humans are able to collect samples, we will be able to figure out how our brain processes in more detail. Rediscovery of Ancient Maya Sites In Mexico, which is a developing area of Classic Maya society.Scientists set out to explore the ruins of the region that has not been found since late 29th century. Many contained monuments with pieces connected to some in museums all over the world. According to Guillermo de Anda, an underwater archaeologist states that “The ancient Maya liked to make it hard; they searched for extremely distant places. So we know the harder it is to get there, the better our findings may be." Reading the monuments, there is some connection to the great Maya polity. New Bacteria found on rusting Titanic Scientists collect samples of rust formations called “rusticles”. No one discovered anything different so they just grouped using broad categories such as fungi and bacteria. Scientist decided to look more closely at the microscopic life-forms. Pulling their evidence together, they are trying to discovered a new species that has never been seen in the deep waters.


Searching the items scientists discovered while on ancient maya sites mission.

Above is the rusting titanic, with a new bacteria to be studied.

FOOD CHAINS UNDERWATER All animals have to eat which consuming consumers for example can is a repetition of a food chain. A vary to sharks, lions, cheetahs and food chain is developed by a so on. Last are the omnivores. The food chain producer that takes in energy These organisms are both always has to start with a single celled from the sun which is mainly herbivores and carnivores. The organism. a plant. Then there are the food chain would first start off consumers, which break apart with the energy source which is into three categories; herbivores, the sun, then the producer and the carnivores and omnivores. Herbivores or prey’s and predators ect. For example: also known as primary consumers, take Sun, plankton, Mackerel, Seal, Shark. in their energy from plants. The Therefore, the food chains are a very carnivores hunt their animal prey. important element because without this Secondary consumers, because they are continuing cycle, the organisms wouldn’t








The ocean is made up with with many producers, prey, predators living. But where in the ocean do the animals live in? The very bottom of the ocean is seen to be the ocean-floor, a beautiful reef filled realms with many fascinating creatures along the floor. The main organism that lies across the ground are coral. Coral is known as the world’s most diverse ecosystem, the coral reefs cover less than one percent of seafloor and support one-fourth of marine species. Complex structures built with little organisms called “coral polyps”. They attach themselves to rocks to connect their limestone skeletons to grow colonies. The sea anemone may look like flowering plants but they are animals and some are even carnivorous predators. With sting fish with tentacles stacked with harpoon like filaments that  produces toxic venom living through the anemone. Other than the lowest part of the sea, the open ocean. This is an expanse of sea away from the land and is a home to many large marine animals such as the Great White shark. Sitting at the top of the oceans food chain is the world’s largest predatory fish. This shark has 300 teeth that are usually used to hunt sea lions, whales and sea turtles. Species of jellyfish also roam the open ocean.  With the use of  their dangling tentacles with so called “darts” which is loaded with neurotoxins to sting any creature that crosses its path. The jellyfishes unique pulsing motion moves them across the water fast if in danger, rather than some that drift with the currants. They also use their central mouth to consume and remove waste. Going even deeper into the ocean, the Abyss is a place where no light shines and frightening viperfish roam through the waters. The pacific viperfish has needlelike teeth which keeps the mouth open and are able to lure their prey with a certain type of photophores on their stomachs. These organisms live in the depths of 13,000 feet below. You would never expect them to be surviving with little sources of food and absolute darkness!

Above, species of jellyfish drift in the open ocean


Sea Anemone is filled with many marine life to have a safe habitat.

Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer Word Page #

Part of speech


Sentence from book

Relevance or importance to topic.

Use the word in a new sentence. (your own!)

Abyss  #32


a  deep  or seemingly bottomless chasm:  a  rope led  down  into the  dark  abyss.

“The  Abyss  is  the deepest  part  of the  sea.”

The  abyss  is  a location  in  the  sea that  is  the  deepest area  in  the  sea.

The  Anglerfish  lures its  prey  in  the  Abyys

Algae  #14


a  simple nonflowering plant  of  a  large group  that includes  the seaweeds  and many single-­celled forms.  Algae contain chlorophyll  but lack  true  stems, roots,  leaves, and  vascular tissue.

“Algae  and  other tiny  plants  can grow  in  crack  of hard  coral.”

Algae  can  form onto  almost  every living  thing, therefore  you  will have  to  know  this word.

The  algae  was blooming  everywhere.

Clams  #24


a  marine  bivalve mollusk  with shells  of  equal size.

“Mollusk”  is  the correct  name  for shellfish;;  like clams,  oysters and  abalone.”

Clams  are  part  of the  food  chain underwater.

The  clams  dug  under the  sand  to  keep  away from  seagulls  on  the shore.

Colony  #16


3  Biology  a community  of animals  or plants  of  one kind  living  close together  or forming  a physically connected structure:  a colony  of  seals.

“A  living  coral colony  is  made up  of  thousands of  tiny  animals called

Many  animals underwater  travel in  colonies.

I  saw  colonies  of  fish travel  past  me together.


Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer Coral  #14


A  sedentary literate  of  warm and  tropical seas,  with  a calcareous, horny,  or  soft skeleton.  Most corals  are colonial  and many  rely  on  the presence  of green  algae  in their  tissues  to obtain  energy from  sunlight.

“Clams  and sponges  attach themselves  to the  hard  corals.”

This  is  important because  the  coral is  homes  to  all sea  life.

Coral  can  be  found  in coral  colonies  with many  organisms around.

Coral  Reefs#14


(coral  reef)  a  reef consisting  of  coral consolidated  into limestone

“Coral  reefs  can be  found  only  in certain  places.”

Coral  reefs  also relate  to  coral,  but mostly  are  just found  in  large colonies.

The  coral  reef  were surrounded  by  a  large amount  of  seas creatures.

Fish  #14


a  limbless cold-­blooded vertebrate animal  with  gills and  fins  and living  wholly  in water:  the  sea  is thick  with  fish.

“Worms,  crabs and  fish  move  in and  out  of holes.”

The  fish  are  a major  animal    to bodies  of  water.

The  fishes  were swarming  around  the coral  reefs.

Fish  Schools  #36


any  group  of  fish that  stay together  for social  reasons are  shoaling, and  if  the  group is  swimming  in the  same direction  in  a coordinated manner,  they are  schooling.

“Many  fish  swim in  schools,  for there  is    safety  in numbers.

Fish  schools  is  a term  that  is  used for  a  large  amount of  fish  that  travels in  a  pack.

The  school  of  fish explore  the  coral  reefs as  a  group.


Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer Jellyfish  #43


1  a free-­swimming marine coelenterate with  a  jellylike bell-­  or saucer-­shaped body  that  is typically transparent  and has  stinging tentacles around  the edge.

“A  jellyfish  has no  brains  and does  not  move quickly.”

Jellyfish  are another  animal that  lives  in  the oceans.

The  jellyfish  stung  the person  and  got  a serious  injury.

Kelp  #20


 a  large  brown seaweed  that typically  has  a long,  tough  stalk with  a  broad frond  divided into  strips. Some  kinds grow  to  a  very large  size  and form  underwater

“Kelp  is  one  of the  thousands kinds  of seaweed.”

Kelp  is  another type  of  seaweed.

I  saw  the  kelp  was  in a  large  clump  along with  other  organisms hiding.

an  expanse  of sea  away  from land.

“The  open  sea  is where hurricanes  are born…..”

The  open  sea  is  a part  of  an  ocean where  the  water  is extended  with passable areas.Sharks  and other  large animals  tend  to lurk  in  this  area.

The  sharks  roamed through  the  open  sea waiting  for trespassers.

the  small  and microscopic organisms drifting  or floating  in  the sea  or freshwater, consisting chiefly  of diatoms, protozoans, small crustaceans, and  the  eggs and  larval stages  of  larger

“The  food  on which  a  polyp feeds  is  the plankton  that drifts  with  the ocean  currents.”

Plankton  is  a  plant in  the  ocean

The  plankton  was growing  all  around  the ocean  floor.

Open  Sea  #26

Plankton  #16



Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer animals.  Many animals  are adapted  to  feed on  plankton, esp.  by  filtering the  water. Compare  with nekton. Prey


an  animal  that is  hunted  and killed  by  another for  food

“Its  eyes  can filter  light  and attract  the  prey overhead.”

The  prey  is  an important  word  to know  because  it connects  with  the food  chain  and  the sources  of  energy for  organisms.

The  prey  was  being hunted  down  by  its predators.

Plants  #8


 a  living organism  of  the kind  exemplified by  trees, shrubs,  herbs, grasses,  ferns, and  mosses, typically  growing in  a  permanent site,  absorbing water  and inorganic substances through  its roots,  and synthesizing nutrients  in  its leaves  by photosynthesis using  the  green pigment chlorophyll.

“Plants  can  grow on  shores  as well”

This  is  related  to the  topic  because the  plants  on  the seafloor  connect to  the  habitats  of sea  life.

The  plants  lie  at  the bottom  of  the  sea where  organisms  live.

Prey  #35


an  animal  that is  hunted  and killed  by  another for  food:  the kestrel  is  ready to  pounce  on unsuspecting prey.

“  Anglerfish dangle  a  glowing lure  in  front  of their  mouth  to attract  prey.”

Prey  is  another  key word  that  is  used in  the  ocean.

The  shark  hunts  down its  prey  to  have  food.


Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer Seaweed  #20


large  algae growing  in  the sea  or  on  rocks below  the high-­water mark.

“Kelp  is  one  of the  thousands kinds  of seaweed.”

Seaweed  grows and  lives  in oceans.

The  seaweed  drifted to  the  shore.

Shallow  #8


(shallows) an  area  of  the sea,  a  lake,  or  a river  where  the water  is  not  very deep.

“Bathed  in  the shallow  waters.”

This  is  important because  it  shows that  there  are shallow  parts  of water  and  deeper part  of  water.

Shallow  water  are habitats  to  many animals  such  as algae.

Sharks  #26


a  long-­bodied chiefly  marine fish  with  a cartilaginous skeleton,  a prominent dorsal  fin,  and toothlike  scales. Most  sharks  are predatory, although  the largest  kinds feed  on plankton.

“The  Great  White shark  is frightening  yet fascinating  to us.”

Sharks  are  an animal  that survives  in  the ocean.

The  shark  has  an average  of  15  rows  of teeth  on  each  jaw.

a  place  giving temporary protection  from bad  weather  or danger.

“They  help  each other  to  find  food, shelter,  and protection.”

Shelter  is  a  main word  in  the oceans,  you  need this  to  survive  and to  stay  away  from predators.

The  fish  took  shelter before  the  shark came.

The  land  along the  edge  of  a sea,  lake,  or other  large  body of  water:  I  took the  tiller  and made  for  the shore. •  Law  the  land between ordinary  high-­ and  low-­water marks. •  (usu.  shores) a  country  or

“Every  piece  of land,  from  the largest  continent to  the  smallest island,  has  a shore.”

The  shore  is  a  part of  the  water boundaries.

I  went  to  the  shore  to look  for  sea  creatures.

Shelter  #38

Shore  #8



Abbie Marley D Block 29 words

Lexicon Organizer other geographic  area bounded  by  a coast:  the shores  of  the New  World. Snorkeling  #14


1  a  short  curved tube  for  a swimmer  to breathe  through while  keeping the  face  under water. snorkel  1 •  a  tube  used  by a  submarine just  below  the surface  as  a fresh-­air  intake.

“Besides  being  a pleasure  to explore  by snorkeling  and scuba-­diving.”

Snorkeling  is  what people  use  to  see under  water  for  a long  period  of time.

The  snorkelers  went to  florida  to  snorkel.

Sponges  #19


a  primitive sedentary  aquatic invertebrate  with a  soft  porous body  that  is typically supported  by  a framework  of fibers  or calcareous  or glassy  spicules. Sponges  draw  in a  current  of  water to  extract nutrients  and oxygen.

“  A  sponge pumps  many gallons  of  water through  its  body every  day.”

Sponges  are  an organism  and  live in  saltwater  areas.

A  sponge  was  slowly floating  in  the  sea.

Stingrays  #30


a bottom-­dwelling marine  ray  with a  flattened diamond-­shape d  body  and  a long  poisonous serrated  spine at  the  base  of the  tail.

“Stingrays  are related  to sharks,  but  they do  not  look  like sharks.”

Stingray  are another  animal that

The  Stingrays  glide over  to  the  plants  as we  walk  closer.

Tidal  Waves  #26


an  exceptionally large  ocean wave,  esp.  one

“We  also  know that  underwater earthquakes

Tidal  waves  a large  amount  of water  that  crashes

A  large  tidal  wave comes  rolling  the shore.


Bibliography -Discover Ocean Life by Alice Jablonsky -

- National Geographic kids: Oceans by Johnna Rizzo

Images Sources


Abbie M