S S E R P
The X E WAR Observers T h e WA R E X P R E S S is an authorized, unofficial publication printed under the provisions of Army Regulation 360-1, and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Defense or p e r s o n n e l t h e r e o f. COMMANDING OFFICER: Col. Donald Stenzil
COMMAND SGT MAJOR: Command Sgt. Maj. Melvin O. Ellis
PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICER/ EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Capt. Sean Casey
CREATIVE DIRECTOR: Sgt. Errol Cadet PUBLIC AFFAIRS NCOIC Sgt. Tanya VanBuskirk
JOURNALIST/LAYOUT EDITOR: Sgt. Christopher A. Bigelow
LEAD PHOTOGRAPHER: Spc. Michael McDevitt
78th Training Division Public Affairs Office Joint Base McGuire-DixLakehurst, N.J. 347-982-4784
Training to save lives
10 12 OPFOR 14
On the Cover
An M551 Sheridan Armored Reconnasaince Airborne Assault Vehicle rests at a training range used during Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 78-13-01 at Fort McCoy, Wis, May. 8, 2013. Fort McCoy has supported many national defense missions, including Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, Noble Eagle and New Dawn. The Training provided at Fort McCoy provides Soldiers with realistic combat environment simulations that ensure the operational readiness of American servicemen and women. More than 140,000 military personnel from 49 states and two territories have mobilized and demobilized at Fort McCoy since Sept. 11, 2001. (U.S. Army Photo by Sgt. Christopher Bigelow/ 304 PAD)
Colonel C.R. Simmons
he Atlanta-based Operations Brigade for the 78th Training Division (TD) is the Operations Group and Mission Command System (MCS) for the Army Reserve Combat Training Center (CTC) conducting Mission Command during Combat Support and Warrior Training Exercises. As the Army Reserve counter-part to the Operations Group at the Joint Readiness Training Center at Fort Polk, the Operations Brigade, 78th TD creates the environment for a Culminating Training Event (CTE) using Commanders Training Objectives (CTOs) for full Combat Support and Combat Service Support brigade formations in their Army Force Generating Model (ARFORGEN) Level 2 T/R 3 years, prior to entering the Army Reserve Contingency Force Pool. The old paradigm for conducting Army Reserve Training Exercises
exclusively through Command and Control (C2) has been thrown out. Now, using Mission Command (ADRP 6.0) as a Warfighting Function, under the guiding doctrine of Unified Land Operations executed through Decisive Action, we have “maneuver units” conducting multiple “missions” within an “operation”. While ADRP 7.0, Training Units and Developing Leaders (Final Draft, 23 FEB 12) does not address specifically the lexicon of CSTX or WAREX, the USARC Regulation 35050-2 (Draft) needs to be updated to operationalize terms and references. The Operations Brigade, as the CTC executing agent for the 78th Division, along with supporting staff elements of the 78th Division, The Atlantic Division of the 75th Training Command, First Army and General Dynamics is currently conducting Mission Command for 2670
Soldiers, representing 60 unit formations from 31 States and one US Territory. Their deployment here in OPERATION COMPASS ADVANTAGE is notionally set in Central Command’s (CENTCOM) Combined Joint Operations AreaAzerbaijan (CJOA-AZ) and is conducted at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin with its 60,000 acres of training ground. This Combat Training Center experience will not only provide valuable operational development for participating Units as well as their Commanders and Soldiers taking part in the exercise, but also for the Operations Brigade along with Atlantic Division as we simulate a One-Star Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) that acts as the higher maneuver element. As the Chief of Operations Group (COG) conducting Mission Command here at WAREX 78-13-01, it is my intent to develop my Joint Operations Center (JOC) Staff within the given (and constrained) 21 day CSTP period to an operational Mission Command System (MCS) standard (ADRP 6.0) so that the JOC as an entity of the Operations Brigade and 78th TD, can not only conduct successful CSTX and WAREX Mission Command, but be trained to such a degree that it can also theoretically, be re-missioned operationally in a theater-of-war for any Task Force because of its doctrinal approach to Mission Command. The components of the MCS are not really new, but for the first time, have been philosophically detailed in Army doctrine, allowing the “art” of warfare to lead the rigidity of the ”science” of warfare.
Personnel, Networks, Information Systems, Processes & Procedures, and Facilities & Equipment, all components of MCS are key to the execution of Mission Command. As MG Michael Nagata once told me, “we are only as effective as the thickness of our connectivity tissue”! Within the JOC, the Mission Command System is our “connectivity tissue” linking people, places and situations together synergistically. More importantly, the “so what?” of MCS is this: Mission Command System provides a base-line structure for a more collegial, non-micro managed form of command that allows Commanders the ability to maximize the relationships of his people in order to utilize their individual initiative to conduct both non-kinetic and kinetic operations. In the United States Army Reserve, the Operations Brigade, 78th Training Division, 84th Training Command is decisively using the Mission Command System to operationalize CSTX and WAREX under the CSTP (USARC Regulation 350-502). Army Reserve Soldiers are proving their ability to deploy, set-up command post operations using the MCS construct, conduct Mission Command as a Combat Training Center in support of full brigade formations, and it should be noted, achieve a level of success commensurate with the JRTC, at a fraction of the cost. Doing all this in just 21 days, the Soldiers of the Operations Brigade along with the 78th TD, The Atlantic Division and First Army are truly Twice the Citizen!
CSM’s Corner The
Command Sgt. Major Melvin O. Ellis
o all the soldiers that are participating in WAREX 78-13-01, I would like to personally thank everyone for a job well done. I understand your sacrifice and the sacrifices of your families as you have been deployed to the Area of Operation here at Fort McCoy for 21 days or more of annual training. You all have shown the soldiers of the 78th Training Division can deliver a relevant, purposeful and professionally led training exercise. Through your untiring dedication and devotion to the mission, our training audience can redeploy to home station with the experience of truly
being challenged in accordance to their unit’s commander training objective consummating with a take home packet that will help them improve on their weaknesses and sustainment of what they do well. Not only was the training audience challenged, all coordinating elements from the JOC to the OPFOR were challenged. It was a collaborative effort from all to make this a successful mission and all of you should be proud of your accomplishments and the professional product you gave to the training audience. Without the cooperation of effort between the 78th TD, 75th TD, 1st Army, GDIT, and Fort McCoy’s installation
support, this could not have being a success. Yes, it was a slow start, but you all pulled together as “one team, one fight” and made WAREX 78-13-01 an experience you all will not forget. As we all transition from WAREX and prepare to deploy home, remember this is not ENDEX it is a CHANGE of MISSION. Safety is our number one priority, I want everyone to redeploy to home station safely. It is my intent for all of you to return to your family safely. We must not get in a hurry to redeploy and make costly mistakes along the way. Be safe along the way and when you get home continue to be safe. In closing, I believe WAREX 7813-01 is a success and I can say I am very proud of all we have accomplished during the mission. For those that are scheduled to participate in CSTX at Ft. Dix, carry over the lessons learned here and help that exercise be a success also. Thank everyone for all you have done to make WAREX 7813-01 a challenging, meaningful, and professional exercise. AUDICITOR!
X E R A W by Sgt. Christopher Bigelow 304 PAD NCO
FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin – Warrior Citizens from across the nation have been assembled at forward operating bases deep inside of enemy territory. They’re surrounded by enemy opposing forces and they’re expected to have “simulated casualties” every single day. The soldiers are part of a Warrior Exercise (WAREX 2013) being conducted during the month of May at Fort McCoy, Wis. The exercise is being provided by the 78th Training Division, an Army Reserve unit from Joint Base McGuireDix-Lakehurst. It is designed to provide Army Reserve personnel with dynamic combat environment simulations and the latest tactics to be used to ensure mission success anywhere in the world. “Environments that United States military units are called upon to operate in are dynamic and ever changing,” said Col. Charles R. Simmons, the WAREX 2013 commander of group for the 78th TNG DIV. “We are prepared to provide U.S. Army Reserve units with dynamic, realistic and challenging training so they are prepared and ready to accomplish their missions overseas,” Simmons added. According to Simmons approximately 4000 combat-servicesupport personnel from an expected 57 units will be participating in WAREX 2013. Army Reserve units take part in WAREX 2013 to practice their wartime missions.
Warrior Battle Drills are the focus of the training with Situational Training Exercises (STEX) selected from the training units Commanders Training Objectives (CTO).To achieve a “Trained” status for the many CTOs, the trained units participate in many different squadand platoon-level Lanes, events and STEXs. The training events emphasize FOB defense and Convoy tactics as well as more unit specific level training. After Action Reviews (AAR) are used after each STEX, Lane or event to help aid soldiers and their commanders in acknowledging their strengths and weaknesses. At the end of the exercise commanders are given packets with copies of the AARs to aid in future training when units return to their home-stations. “I would like the soldiers to come away from this exercise better trained than they were when they got here I want them to understand what their weaknesses are and what their strengths are,” Simmons said. The 78th TNG DV coordinates and organizes units throughout the Army Reserve to provide soldiers with the skills required to complete their occupational skills while operating in a combat environment. According to Simmons as our country moves from wartime to peacetime, our unit’s will continue to prepare for war. By harnessing the vast combat experiences soldiers have gained from the past 10 years the 78th TNG DV will continue to train units within the Army Reserve with exercises like WAREX 2013 to ensure units are prepared and ready to accomplish their mission’s oversees and the maintain the operational readiness of the force.
U.S. Soldiers of the 428th Engineer Com conducting training during Warrior Exer WAREX provides U.S. Army Reserve Sol Observer-Controller/Trainer teams; ove Spc. Michael McDevitt/Released)
mpany navigate a M113A3 Armored Personnel Carrier while rcise (WAREX) 78-13-01 on Fort McCoy, Wis., May 4, 2013. ldiers with realistic training through direct guidance from erseen by the 78th Training Division.(U.S. Army Photo by
by Sgt. Christopher Bigelow 304 PAD FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin -
Rolling through a low valley and expecting contact, the convoy climbed over hills too steep for the troops to move over. With the skeletons of the trees around them
reaching in, the soldiers sunk low into the safety of their armored HUMVEEs. Maneuvering through a cloud of dust, the valley roared from the sounds of their vehicles clawing their way up the hillside. The gunners sunk low into their turrets; the false sense of security provided by the aggressive walls of metal that made up their armored HUMVEEs seemed to be the only safe place left. Boom! The convoy ground to a halt. There was too much smoke to see through.
Pop, pop,pop! It’s happening: ambush! Gunners rip their weapons in the direction of their attackers and unleash hell; giving their brothers in arms valuable time to collect the wounded and escape. But everyone was OK. After all, it was just a training exercise. From first contact the ambush provided everything that the Observer/ Controller-Trainers (OCT), overseen by the 78th Training Division, an Army Reserve unit from Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, needed to see. Their students, Army Reserve soldiers participating in a Warrior Exercise (WAREX), were learning. The OCTs with the 78th TNG DIV are helping to train Army Reserve units from across the country in a WAREX held at Ft. McCoy throughout May. The exercise is designed to provide Army Reserve soldiers and their units with dynamic, realistic and evaluative training as they prepare for deployments throughout the world. “Our mission here is to evaluate, train and mentor these Army Reserve units and soldiers,” said Capt. Christopher Goff, an OCT team leader overseen by the 78th Training Division here. The OCT assesses, assists and facilitates a unit to refine their standard operating procedures to ensure standards are being met. “If units don't meet the standards the Army sets, they won't accomplish their mission,” Goff said. The OCT works closely with the training units at WAREX, observing and controlling every aspect of their missions. The OCT takes notes of
the unit’s successes and failures so that feedback can be provided to the unit’s leadership about how well a unit did or didn’t do on a scenario. “We review mistakes and make suggestions,” Sgt. First Class Gregory Zelmer from San Diego, Calif., an OCT overseen by the 78th Training Division said. “We try to let the units fix themselves, however we influence their process as much as possible through the use of After Action Reviews,” Zelmer added. According to Zelmer, the OCT helps units focus on their mistakes and provide them with the tools and references that they may need to correct their failures. The OCT runs the units back through their scenarios until they are a success. “OCTs help us through the thought process and force us to ask ourselves, is what we’re doing making sense,” Maj. Richard Rucker from Brooklyn N.Y., the battalion operations and plans officer in charge with the 334th Quartermaster Battalion, an Army Reserve unit training in the WAREX, said. With the help of its OCTs the 78th TNG DIV has insured that the training provided at Fort McCoy’s WAREX will enable the Army Reserves warrior citizens to remain combat ready. The dynamic combat training simulations given through the OCTs and overseen by the 78th Training Division, has provided these Army Reserve units participating in the WAREX with the latest tactics necessary to ensure mission success anywhere in the world.
(PHOTO ON LEFT) U.S. Army Soldiers of the 317th Engineer Company react to a simulated casualty during Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 78-13-01 on Fort McCoy, Wis, May. 2, 2013. WAREX provides U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers with realistic training through the use of Observer-ControllerTrainer teams, overseen by the 78th Training Division. (U.S. Army Photo by Spc. Michael McDevitt/Released) (PHOTO ON PREVIOUS PAGE) U.S. Army Soldiers of the 317th Engineer Company react to a simulated casualty during Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 78-13-01 on Fort McCoy, Wis, May. 2, 2013. WAREX provides U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers with realistic training through the use of Observer-Controller-Trainer teams, overseen by the 78th Training Division. (U.S. Army Photo by Spc. Michael McDevitt/Released)
ARFORG by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk 304 PAD Commander
FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin – As the U.S. Army transitions from war time to peace time operations, the 78th Training Division continues to harness years of combat experience and unit evaluations to ensure the operational preparedness of Army Reserve units. The 78th continues its partnership with Fort McCoy, an Army Reserve training center located about 100 miles north west of Madison, Wis., by organizing an annual Warrior Training Exercise. WAREX 2013 has an estimated 4000 soldiers at the training site conducting various missions to evaluate their combat readiness. “As the exercise goes on, units become more proficient; they do what they are supposed to do and there is a lot of good training going on,” said Col. Donald Stenzil, commander of the 78th based at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J., one of the busiest training and deployment sites in the United States for Army Reserve
and National Guard soldiers, more than 140,000 troops have received pre-deployment training there since the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan began. The partnerships created by coordinating this training exercise between various units in the Army Reserve is something Stenzel says is key to enforcing the core process of the Army Force Generation model (ARFORGEN), approved by the secretary of the Army and chief of staff in 2006. ARFORGEN focuses on the structured progression of unit readiness over time and preparing for operational deployment. It satisfies Army requirements by synchronizing training efforts throughout the Army Reserve and classifying unit preparedness into one of three phases: Reset, Train/ Ready and Available. According to Stenzel, by following the ARFORGEN model the 78th is providing challenging training in realistic environments to prepare Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers for the ever-changing combat environment.
A U.S. Army Soldiers of the 317th Engineer Company pulls security during Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 78-13-01 on Fort McCoy, Wis, May. 2, 2013. WAREX provides U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers with realistic training through the use of Observer-Controller-Trainer teams, overseen by the 78th Training Division. (U.S. Army Photo by Spc. Michael McDevitt/Released)
Training to sav by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk 304 PAD Commander
FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin â€“ Citizen soldier is a term Army reserve soldiers take to heart and for the medical staff at the 4215th U.S. Army Hospital
ve lives (USAH), based at Richmond, Vir., serving others is at the heart of what they do and more than just a military occupational specialty; they are training to save lives everyday. From Lab technician to medical doctor, the soldiers working on the ground at Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 2013, Fort McCoy, Wis., have specialized military training combined with civilian education to meet the needs of the estimated 4,000 soldiers participating in WAREX. The 4215th is operating a troop medical center (TMC) as well as five training assembly areas (TAA) or forward operating base (FOB) hospitals for WAREX. The field tents and medical evacuation vehicles are prepared to treat, monitor and assess
injuries sustained in training or illnesses, and transport if necessary. The USAH also monitors all hazardous situations for evaluation; from the temperature of the food being served to the sanitation of the living quarters, this all is part of the job of the medical staff. According to Major Clara Williams, registered nurse, USAH, the environment of WAREX and being able to setup and operate field hospitals is excellent training and more beneficial than just working in a TMC. “Being able to perform skills in the field helps medical soldiers achieve combat readiness,” she added. Williams said that she would like to do this sort of training every year. WAREX 2013 is being conducted during the month of May at Fort
McCoy, Wis. The 78th Training Division, an Army Reserve unit from Joint Base McGuire-DixLakehurst, is hosting the exercise. It is designed to provide Army Reserve personnel with dynamic combat environment simulations and teach the latest tactics to be used to ensure mission success anywhere in the world. “Having medical doctors come out to the soldiers in the field to treat and evaluate, gives the entire staff the valuable field training needed and let’s the soldiers at the FOB or TAA know we have the staff on hand if they need us,” said Williams.
U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Megan Appleby of the 4215th U.S. Army Hospital (USAH) draws blood from Staff Sgt. Eldon Johnson of the 4215th USAH at the Fort McCoy Troop Medical Center on Fort McCoy, Wis., May 4, 2013. Soldiers of the 4215th provided medical support during Warrior Exercise 78-13-01. (U.S. Army Photo by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk/Released)
Soldier Spotlight: Staff Sgt. Megan Appleby by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk 304 PAD Commander FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin-Taking care of the force is something Army Staff Sgt. Megan Appleby feels is her lifelong calling. The 30-year-old Army veteran of 11 years, serving both on active duty and in the reserve as a laboratory technician, has aspirations of being a medical doctor specializing as an obstetric gynecologist. The
native of Lisbon, Iowa, is currently assigned to the 4215th U.S. Army Hospital command based in Richmond, Va. Appleby says her passion for helping people started when she was very young. “When I was little, the doctor that delivered my sisters and me was actually our doctor until we were 18 years old. Having that doctor who knew you from inside your mom’s stomach and have
that connection is really amazing,” said Appleby. Joint Base Lewis-McChord was Appleby’s first duty station from 2002-2006 and where she attended undergraduate school earning a bachelor’s of science degree in microbiology. In mid-2006 she transferred to the Army Reserve and began attending battle assemblies with the 7229th Medical Support Unit. She then transferred to the 4215th USAH. Appleby was deployed to Kuwait in 2003 and she says that being in an environment where there is a feeling of constant danger was scary, but knowing that around her every day are medical experts who could take care of her if she sustained any injuries, allowed her to focus on her job of caring for patients arriving for lifesaving care. According to Appleby, this realization is the driving force behind her pursuit of a medical career in the military. Appleby is taking her medical school entrance exam and applying to the Uniformed Health Medical School to continue her service and military career. According to Appleby this program is a 14-year commitment four years of classroom studies, three years of residency and seven years of service and commissioning as a captain. “I look forward to the challenge because I enjoy both medicine and serving my country,” Appleby added.
Private 1st Class. Xavier Vasquez
by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk 304 PAD Commander FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin – Cooking for the force is no small undertaking, but U.S. Army Pfc. Xavier Vasquez is up for the challenge and says it is an honor for him to serve his fellow Soldiers in the dining facility at Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 2013 on forward operating base (FOB) Liberty, Fort McCoy, Wis. The 263rd Quartermaster Company, 620th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion, 96th Sustainment Brigade, from El Paso, Texas, is serving nearly 500 soldiers at the DFAC on FOB Liberty. Vasquez is part of a team of 5 cooks; lead by food service manager, Staff Sgt. Kevin Hinson of the 263rd. Hinson says that Vasquez and the other cooks are enjoying their training at the WAREX. He added, “I have a good crew; happy with what I’ve got. These guys are from all over the country and we worked well together right away.” Hinson added that the 5 cooks are excited to be able to cook for the troops during WAREX and having soldiers like Vasquez, a college student training in culinary arts, allows the military training to benefit civilian careers. WAREX 2013 is being conducted during the month of May at Fort McCoy, Wis. The 78th Training Division, an Army Reserve unit from
U.S. Army Pfc. Xavier Vasquez of the 263rd Quartermaster Company, 620th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion, 96th Sustainment Brigade, monitors the temperature of rations in the dining facility at forward operating base Liberty on Fort McCoy, Wis., May 5, 2013. The 263rd Quartermaster Company conducted training during Warrior Exercise 78-13-01. (U.S. Army Photo by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk/Released) Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, is hosting the exercise. It is designed to provide Army Reserve personnel with dynamic combat environment simulations and the latest tactics to be used to ensure mission success anywhere in the world. Vasquez says this is his first WAREX and he is enjoying using his
skills in the kitchen. “I love cooking. No matter what I am here for my battle buddies; whatever I can do. I like working with people and being able to talk to soldiers coming back from a hard day and enjoying a warm meal I help cook means a lot to me,” said Vasquez.
U.S. Army Spc. Charles William of the 314th Engineer Platoon engages a convoy with his rifle on Fort McCoy, Wis., May. 2, 2013. William is tasked as an opposing force (OPFOR), which simulate enemy activity during Warrior Exercise 78-13-01. OPFOR receives guidance from Observer-Controller/Trainer teams; overseen by the 78th Training Division. (U.S. Army Photo by Spc. Michael McDevitt/Released)
VES LIVES by Sgt. Tanya Van Buskirk 304 PAD Commander FORT MCCOY, Wisconsin – About 1 million active and reserve soldiers need to be ready on a moments notice to defend nearly 300 million Americans. Being ready to launch an attack requires confidence by the force, and the “train as we fight” approach is what the U.S. Army opposing force program (OPFOR) is all about. OPFOR is a “sparring partner” for commanders. It is used in training events as realistic field training by running through operations against a non cooperative, uncompromising opponent that uses tactics, doctrine, and equipment that could be encountered in current or future combat operations. The U.S. Army Reserve uses live training that gives soldiers practice doing the tasks they do individually or as part of a team the same way they will do it in combat. Warrior Exercise (WAREX) 2013, being held at Fort McCoy, Wis. in the month of May, simulates enemy activity carried out by OPFOR designated soldiers. Wearing uniforms that resemble the likely enemy is what sets the OPFOR teams apart and their vehicles may either similar to those operated by the likely enemy. Enhancing training realism provides useful lessons on how to fight the enemy. U.S. Army Sgt. Rick Baker is a
combat engineer, specializing in demolition, land mines and improvised explosive devices (IED), with the 314th Engineer Platoon. He is part of the OPFOR during WAREX 2013. Baker has 15 years of combat experience in unconventional warfare with more than 1,700 logged combat missions outside the wire. “The objective of the training is to show the soldiers how vulnerable they are to insurgent attacks - for them to see just how easy it is for someone to drive up to them and kill them,” he said. “Each unit gets several opportunities to react to a variety of scenarios the OPFOR carries out, and each time they improve because they are more aware of surroundings.” According to Baker, ambushes are a standard tactic that the Army has used for centuries and at WAREX we are trying to show them our lessons-learned through realistic scenarios that are happening now. Baker says investing in the training at WAREX, will be the key to saving lives in future combat operations. “Making mistakes here will help eliminate some of the worse mistakes made in combat. Complacency kills, and I would like to know that as a member of OPFOR I can help soldiers learn to survive,” said Baker. Baker adds, “The first time we are hitting these units at WAREX with an ambush they have difficulty reacting in time to save lives, but when we go back and do a similar scenario they do much better.”