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1) 2)

Quantum Bit Qubit

1)

0 1


|0>

2)

1 2

|0> +

n

2^n

50

46

|1>

1 2

α | 0 > + β |1 > (

|1 > n

1/2

SuperPosition)

| α | 2 | β |2

n

2^n

FFT

5000

O ( N log 2N ) QFT O(log 2N )

QFT

1996 IBM Lov Grover

0 1

|0> |1>

(Quantum Fourier Transfer QFT) Shor

| α |2 + | β |2 = 1

Grover’s Algorithm N =2^n

O( N 1 / 2 )

O (N )

30s

100

1

46


1) ——

2)

AB

1/2

0

B

Bennett

Brassard

Alice Bob

1984

BB84

4 < > -

EPR

A

1/2

A


| +

O

2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

>

<

|

|

<

-

<

|

<

|

2

+

O

O

+

+

+

+

+

+

O

3

-

<

<

|

|

-

|

|

|

<

4

X

X

X

X

5

0

1

0

1


1) Alices 2) Bob

Bob +O

3) Bob

1/2

1/2

Bob

4)

Bob Alice

2

5)

Aice Bob

4

Alice Alice Bob

m/10 <| 1 > - 0

Bob

5 EPR

2005

150 2002

2003

125 23.4km

100

Quantum Teleportation QT——

87

6%

500~1000km (Los Alamos National Laboratory) 48


1993 Bennett

EPR

Bennet QT

1 a) b)

EPR —— 2 3 Alice

1 2 Bell

1/4

Bell

4

1

Bell

4

3

c)

Bob Alice

d)

EPR

|00>,|01>,|10>,|11>,

3

Bell 4

Bell 4

3 EPR

Alice

4 Bell

1

3

Alice

Bell

Bob


2010.3.30

1

[].

2

.

3

.

4

.

[J].

, T94007

—— [J]. [J]. [J].

,Jan 2007,Vol.17 No.1

, Jun 2004 ,Vol.28 N0.3 ,2008.1


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