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Montly edition

№1 ( 1 ) October 2013

gaming Navy Community Contributor Publishing

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world of warships forum magazine

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Ans st! wer our q and uestio ns win G 25 0 00 old!

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USS «NORTH CAROLINA»

history • photos

• tactics

• screenshots • interview

• weaponry


CONTENTS USS «North Carolina». The development history USS «North Carolina». Оperational use Naval Battle Structure 16”/45 caliber Mark 6 gun

Vought OS2U Kingfisher New York Naval Shipyard USS North Carolina Museum Ship The two ghosts of the North Carolina Awards of USS North Carolina USS North Carolina in World of Warships

A few words from the editor-in-chief

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Howdy, sailors! As the editorin-chief of “Navygaming” I’m very glad to present you its first edition. As such, I would like to say a few words about it. Each edition includes various articles on a specific ship: her development and operational history, different naval shipyards and bases, articles on warships’ weaponry and floatplanes, tactics and famous people lives… Reading through our pages, you will learn interesting facts about the Navy history of different countries and much more! But learning something should not be boring. So, we have asked the developers to help… Now we have some new gaming screenshots, articles written by them… and of course a special contest! There are three questions in the magazine’s pages. Answer them and win 12500, 7500 or 5000 Gold for your WoT or WoWP account! For more information about the rules — read them in the topic. Our team hopes you will like “Navygaming”. We would like you to tell us what you think, so write some words including your critics, suggestions and ideas in the topic where a special poll is also available for you to vote. Thanks for reading, Zamuchryshkin.

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development history

USS North Carоlina

the development history

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he USS North Carolina was launched at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on the 13 June 1940, and less than a year later, on the 9 April 1941 she became the first U.S. fast battleship commisioned. The date marked also the first time the U.S. Navy had commisioned a new battleship in eighteen years. A few new cruisers, and some destroyers, had joined the fleet during that time, but on the whole the Navy, when the North Carolina entered service, was a fleet of old if not obsolete ships. One of the great illusions of history which many unfortunately believe is the myth, that U.S. Navy was completely unprepared, with only old battleships available, when Japanese carried out their attack on the 7th of December and that next day, after attack, America began building the navy that ultimately won the war. In fact, all of the new fast battleships that helped win that victory had been building for at least ten months when Pearl Harbour was attacked and first two, USS North Carolina together with her sister USS Washington, were already in service. Beginnings of North Carolina, and all other fast battleships, go back six full years before Pearl Harbour. The suprise Japanese announcement in December 1934 that they didn´t intend to renew the Washington Treaty when it expired in 1936 changed political situation dramatically. As a signatory to the Washington Treaty, Japan had been required to report all of the details of her naval construction (size, armament, protection, and propulsion details), but after her withdrawal from the accord, Japan had promptly embraced a «cloud of

«Navygaming»

secrecy» regarding her naval construction which elicited more than a little paranoia amongst British and American observers. The Japanese penchant for secrecy soon gave rise to rumors of 16-inch guns, super battleships, and the construction of the «Gibraltar of the Pacific» at Truk Atoll. As a result, for the first time in over a decade, work began on building new U.S. Navy battleships. First design studies for a new class of battleships were begun in 1933. Over the next two years, more than 50 design variations were prepared and evaluated. The first design sketches were actually not for fast battleship, but for an updated version of the traditional U.S. battleship, with firepower and protection emphasised at the expense of speed. It was assumed that she would be heavily armored with a top speed only fast enough to match the rest of the battle line, about 23 knots. In 1935, however, the U.S. Navy General Board decided that it would be useful at least to explore the type being build abroad. It also posed questions to the Naval War College, asking for their opinion as to whether the new class should be a «conventional» 23-

knot ship with possibly an 16-inch main battery, or rather «fast battleship». The issue was finally decided by the need for the ships to operate, and to form fast task forces, with aircraft carriers. The threat presented by the three 26kt Kongos was also an important factor. Since Japanese intentions were still unknown, it was decided to design new ships in accordance with the limitations of the London Naval Treaty, which was supposed to be signed in 1936. The treaty has reaffirmed the Washington Naval Treaty displacement limit of 35,000 long tons and limited the main battery guns to 14 inches. United States agreed to this limits but with the proviso that all signers of the treaty (including Japan) must concur by 1. April 1937. Falling that, the armament limit would automatically revert to 16 inches. The unclear political situation heavily influenced the design of the North Carolina class. The designing turned out to be complex and tortuous process. The main challenge was to find a ship that would incorporate everything considered to be necessary while remaining under 35,000 long tons. Serious preparations for a new class of battleships began in May-July 1935, when three design studies were submitted to the General Board. The design designated as «A» was the only one to remain within the 35,000 long ton displacement limit. The «A» would be armed with nine 14 inch guns in three triple turrets and capable of 30 knots. All three turrets would be ahead of the superstructure and, as other two designs, it would be armored against 14 inch shells.

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development history In an attempt to provide protection against new «super heavy» 16 inch shells, all ships were later redesigned («A1» ,»B1», «C1»). This caused severe weight problems. The «A1» was only 500 long tons below the 35,000 ton limit, while the other two were close to 40,000 long tons. Five more design studies were produced in late September 1935. They were designated as «D» — «H» and had quite various caracteristics. First two were designed as fast battleships with 16 inch guns and protection against the same caliber, but their displacement was way over the treaty limit. The «F» was a radical attempt at a hybrid battleship-carrier, with three catapults mounted fore and eight 14inch guns aft. The «G» and «H» were slower 23-knot ships with nine 14-inch guns. The «H», in particular, was thought to be a very well balanced design, but the General Board desired «fast, multipurpose ships», which «G» and «H» were not. These studies demonstrated the difficulty the designers faced. With a displacement of 35,000 tons, there were two basic choices: a ship similar to the «A1» which was faster (30 knots) but more lightly armed and armored than contemporary battleships, or one which was slower but armed with heavier guns — although fitting in protection against 16-inch guns would be extremely difficult. Preliminary Design drew up five more studies in October 1935 based upon either «A» with additional armor or a scaled-down «B». All versions utilized 14-inch guns and called for 30 or 30.5 knots. One of best proposed versions («K») was development of «A1». The design had a 15-inch (380 mm) belt armor, a 5.25-inch (133 mm) deck armor and an immunity zone between 19,000–30,000 yds against 14-inch shells. The «K» was recognized as best version and was therefore selected to undergo further development. Again, a great number of different designs were proposed. All were numbered with Roman numerals. Their caracteristics varied greatly in everything but their standard displacements and speeds. All designs had displacments of about 35000 long tons and only one was planned for a top speed of under 26,5 knots. The weight gained from reducing the speed was added back in firepower and protection. The «VII» design would have had twelve 14-inch/50 caliber guns in four triple turrets. On the 20 August 1936, the «XVI» version was proposed. It was a 27 knot and 714ft (218 m) long ship that the Bureau of Ordnance found many problems in. To address these problems, a final set of designes, «XVI-B» to «XVI-D», was presented in October 1936. The General Board liked and already approved a «XVI-C» design, with thicker belt than some previous designs and capable of 30 knots but with only nine 14 inch guns mounted. For example, all exhaust was eventually trunked into two funnels as opposed to one, and the 5-in/38 caliber secondary battery was composed of all dual-mounted guns (no single). However, under the influence of one member of the Board, Admiral Joseph Reeves, and at virtually the last minute, the Chief of Naval Operations rejected this design. Admiral Reeves, who had previously been one of the principal developers of the U.S. aircraft carrier strategy, disliked the «XVI-C» because he believed that it was not fast enough to work with the 33-knot fast

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Rush plans for new U.S. Battleships. Washington, D.C., 23 June 1937. Scene in Construction and Repair Division of the U.S. Navy Department where plans for the two new 35000 tonn battleships are being rushed to completion. carriers, and it was not powerful enough to justify its cost. After further revisions, a more traditional 27 knot type, armed with twelwe 14 inch guns was submitted. The ship would be immune against 14 inch shells between 20000 and 30800 yds (18290 and 28160 m). The design also made specific allowance for replacing 14 inch turrets with a triple 16 inch (406 mm) turrets, in the event that an escalator clause in the London Treaty had to be invoked. This was the design which was ultimately adopted. On 27 March 1937, after they delayed their announcement as long as possible, Japanese rejected the limits proposed by the London Treaty. As a result, U.S. goverment invoked the escalator clause and on 10 July 1937 president Roosevelt ordered the new battleships armed with 16 inch guns. What such invocation could not do was change the armor distribution, which was basic to the design. Thus against the 2250lb (1225

kg) 16 inch shell, which was less effective than the 2700lb (1350 kg) shell actually adopted, the North Carolina immunity zone was only 21 000 — 27 000 yds (19200 — 24690 m) over magazines, and 23 200 — 26 000 yds (21210 — 23770 m) over machinery. Since the hull and armor design work were too far along to change, the two ships were actually under armored in relation to the guns they carried. This was viewed as acceptable given the long delays a total redesign would require. The keel of the North Carolina was finally laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on Navy Day, 27 october 1937. On 13 June 1940 she was launched and was christened by miss Isabel Hoey, the daughter of Governor of North Carolina. Although, the process that led to the final configuration was challenging and complex, it resulted in a capable ships and a highly successful design.

Miss Isabel Hoey, daughter of the Governor of North Carolina, makes an immpact on the North Carolina (BB-55) on 13 June 1940

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A

CLASS

«North Carolina» class scheme «A» The 32,250-long-ton (32,770 t) design «A» was one of the first proposals. Unlike «B» and «C», it was far below the treaty-mandated limit of 35,000 long tons. It would have carried nine 14-inch (356 mm) guns in its main battery. All of the turrets were forward of the superstructure. The secondary battery planned was twelve 5-inch (130 mm) guns, unusually arranged in triple mounts.

F

«North Carolina» class scheme «F»

CLASS

«F» was an attempt to create a viable combination of an aircraft carrier and a battleship. Three catapults were mounted on the bow, while a hangar located under that would contain ten bombers with wings folded. Two turrets would be mounted aft, both holding four 14-in guns.

VII

CLASS

«North Carolina» class scheme «VII» «VII» harked back to the days of the slow battleships; with a top speed of 22 knots, it would have been only 1 knot faster than the old battleships. The weight gained from reducing the speed was added back in firepower and protection. The «VII» design would have had twelve 14-inch/50 caliber guns in four triple turrets.

«North Carolina» class scheme «XVI» «XVI» was one of the final proposals; after «XVI-C» was rejected, a modified version of this design was chosen for the North Carolinas. There were a few major differences between this and the final plan. For example, all exhaust was eventually trunked into two funnels as opposed to one, and the 5-in/38 caliber secondary battery was composed of all dual-mounted guns (no single).

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XVI

CLASS

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e s u l a n o i t a Оper

«NORTH CAROLINA»


operational use

B

B 55 sailed out of New York's naval yards and down into the Caribbean to perform her shakedown (sea trials). «The Showboat» (nickname given to the U.S.S. North Carolina because she needed a lot of attention caused by her complex design, ) was originally scheduled to join the Pacific fleet; but instead stayed in the Atlantic until the summer of 1942 to protect Allied convoys sailing between the United States and Great Britain. On the 10th of June, 1942, she passed through the Panama Canal and proceeded to Pearl Harbor, which she eventually left on the 15th of July in a Task Force with the cruiser USS Portland and Atlanta, the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise and 8 destroyers. IJN aircraft carriers were spotted on the 24th of August, commencing the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. During the battle the Japanese aircraft carrier Ryujo was sunk, and a wave of dive bombers and torpedo bombers came in on North Carolina and Enterprise. The North Carolina managed to down 14 enemy aircraft. After the battle was won, North Carolina proceeded to help Marines invade Guadalcanal and was attacked twice by IJN submarines. On September the 15th, she was with Wasp and Hornet, and was attacked by a submarine who caused her some damage below the waterline. The submarine managed to sink Wasp and destroyer O'Brien before sneaking away. North Carolina had to go for temporary repairs in New Caledonia, and sailed on to Pearl Harbor to be drydocked and receive a re-fit and repairs. After a month in the dry dock she left anchor to protect Enterprise and Saratoga in the Solomons. On the 10th of November she sailed out to the islands of Makin, Tarawa, and Abemana to help marines get ashore. She bombarded the islands for 10 days, and moved on to to the Marshall island chain. On December 8, she was tasked with concentrating fire on Japanese facilities on Nauru. And moved to Funafuti, Ellice island chain to join Task Force 58. She then continued the campaign in the Marshall islands, protecting aircraft carriers from attack, providing fire on Kwajalein in early January and later in January firing upon Namur and Roi, where she managed to sink a cargo vessel at anchor. USS North Carolina then moved on to protect aircraft carriers in the strike against Truk, a Japanese fleet HQ in the Caroline island chain. In the Marianas she fought off an air attack from Japanese aircraft carriers, and participated in the attack on Saipan, Guam, and Tinian by protecting U.S carriers. Between the 31st of March and the 1st of April 1944, she helped in the attacks on Palau and Woleai, managing to shoot down an enemy aircraft when approaching the islands. She then supported the attack on modern day Jayapura (Hollandia) through the 13th to the 24th of April. Then she steamed back up to Truk to support another raid and she managed to shoot down another aircraft. Then she started a bombardment on Japanese military installations, destroying coastal guns, airfields, and antiaircraft batteries at the island of Ponape. She sailed to Pearl Harbor to get her rudder repaired and joined a carrier group going to the Marianas, where she and the carriers attacked Saipan, and the North Carolina provided vital bombardment and

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destroyed enemy craft and buildings. She also shot down another aircraft. On the 18th of June, U.S.S North Carolina sailed with the carriers to attack the Japanese 1st mobile fleet. A wave of aircraft approached the American Task Force and most ended up getting shot down by American pilots, the ones that did get through were shot down by USS North Carolina.She continued to operate in the Marianas for a few more weeks and then sailed back to North America to the Puget Sound naval base for an overhaul. After the overhaul she sailed out to the coast off Ulithi Atoll, and rejoined the American aircraft carriers. The group then sailed over to the Philipines and launched air raids on Luzon and the Visayas to support the Leyte offensive, where USS North Carolina fought off an Kamikaze attack. On the 15 of December 1944, USS North Carolina protected the carriers while their planes were attacking Japanese planes at airfields in the Philipines, making sure none would harass the invasion group on their way to Mindoro. She then steamed on towards Formosa and then eventually the coasts of China and Indo-China to participate in raids and attacks on Japanese forces. Then in January 1945, she sailed along the Ryukyu island chain to help with the invasion of those islands, providing bombardment for the Marines on the islands. Then the taskforce sailed towards Okinawa where the U.S.S North Carolina bombarded the island and protected the carriers. On the 6th of April, she was attacked by 3 kamikazes, which she shot down but

took friendly fire from a nearby vessel. On the next day, the Yamato, 1 cruiser, and 1 destroyer were sunk sailing out of harbor to meet the American force, 3 enemy destroyers were scuttled and 4 surviving destroyers limped away to the Japanese naval base of Sasebo. During this time the USS North Carolina managed to shoot down 3 more enemy aircraft. After another refit at Pearl Harbor, she sailed out to Japan to join the carrier taskforce and participated in attacks on the Japanese hometurf by firing upon

industrial plants near Tokyo. She then sent temporary occupational forces to the island and patrolled off the coast and then returned to the bay and weighed anchor and her crew came back aboard and she sailed off to New York, entering the Panama canal on the 8th of October, and reached Boston on the 17th of October. After an overhaul in New York she returned to the Caribbean where she had first went under her shakedown cruises, but this time as a seasoned warship for training new recruits of the navy. She was decommissioned on the 27 of June, 1947. She then sailed to her final resting place Wilmington, North Carolina. Where she now serves as a museum ship, and a testament to American servicemen of the navy during World War 2.

USS North Carolina at sea in the Hawaiian Islands area. March 1943

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история создания Stage 1:

Finding The Enemy The first stage to any engagement is finding the enemy. In ancient times this may take days, or even a week. In the Battle of Midway the first attacks were launched three and a half hours after the first sightings.

Stage 3:

Combat

The main stage of the battle. It generally carries on until one force either surrenders, flees or has been destroyed. It may consist of a combination of these factors; the Battle of Trafalgar is an example where all 3 took place to a degree. The outcome affects what stage 4 will be.

Naval Battle

Structure Since the dawn of sea travel, naval battles have followed a set pattern, with the exact distances and times varying depending on the technology available.

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Stage 2:

Close the Range The second stage is closing the range to one where your weapons of attack are effective. In the case of Roman warships, this is ramming range: for modern aircraft carriers it is about 1000km. This stage generally involves a lot of manoeuvring and chasing, as the Battle of Jutland so amply exemplifies.

Stage 4:

Aftermath

If the enemy flees then Stage 4 becomes closing the range again. This either ends with another round of combat or the cancelling of the chase, either due to conditions or the escape of the prey. If then enemy is destroyed or captured then there will be a period of administration when they decide what to do with the captured vessels and pick up the survivors of sunken ships.

Stage 5:

Return to Base/Push on to Objective Depending on the aim of the sortie the final stage varies, depending on who was defending/attacking and who won the engagement. If the defender wins after the chase the forces generally return to their base to re-supply, etc. If the attackers win they either proceed with their mission, or if they lack the strength to do so, return to port. An example of this last scenario is the Battle of Jutland, when the High Seas Fleet inflicted more damage on the Grand Fleet, but were unable to break out of the blockade.


weaponry

Mark 6 gun r e b i l 5 ca 4 / " 6 1

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he 16"/45 caliber Mark 6 gun was a naval gun designed in 1936 by the United States Navy for their Treaty battleships. It was first introduced in 1941 aboard their North Carolina class battleships, replacing the originally intended 14"/50 caliber Mark B guns and was also used for the follow-up South Dakota class. These battleships carried nine guns in three triple turrets. The gun was an improvement to the 16"/45 caliber guns used aboard the Colorado class, and the predecessor to the 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun used aboard the Iowa class.

During the Battle off Casablanca in November 1942, USS Massachusetts (BB-59) put two AP rounds through deck armor of the French battleship Jean Bart and temporarily silenced her only operational main battery turret with another AP round. During the Battle of Guadalcanal in the same month, USS Washington (BB-56) sank the small Japanese battleship Kirishima with at least nine direct AP hits. Constructed of liner, A tube, jacket, three hoops, two locking rings, liner-locking ring, yoke ring and screw box liner. Some components were autofretted. Used a Welin breech block which opened downwards. As typical of USN weapons, the bore was

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chromium plated. Mod 1 was similar except that there were tapped holes in the breech end for securing the hinge lug to the gun. Mod 2 had a set of adapter sleeves to allow it to be used for regunning the Colorado class, but it is doubtful if any of these guns were actually in service aboard those ships. About 120 guns of all mods were manufactured, with most being Mod 1. One gun formerly used on USS South Dakota (BB-57) was converted to a 24" (60.96 cm) test gun by removing the liner, cutting the overall barrel length down to 492 inches (12.5 m) and then boring out the inside diameter to 24 inches (60.96 cm). The finished gun was part of the Atlas missile

development program and was used to fire 5,000 lbs. (2,268 kg) projectiles at a muzzle velocity of 1,300 fps (396 mps) or 100 lbs. (45.4 kg) projectiles at a muzzle velocity of 3,600 fps (1,097 mps).

Shell The Mark 6 and 7 guns were originally intended to fire the relatively light 2,240-pound (1,020 kg) (1.00 long ton) Mark 5 armorpiercing shell. However, the shell-handling system for these guns was redesigned to use the «super-heavy" 2,700-pound (1,200 kg) APC (Armor Piercing, Capped) Mark 8 shell before any of the Iowa-class battleships were laid down. The large caliber guns were designed to fire two different 16 inch (406 mm) shells: an armor piercing round for anti-ship and anti-structure work, and a high explosive round designed for use against unarmored targets and shore bombardment. The Mark 8 shells gave the North Carolina, South Dakota, and Iowa classes the second heaviest broadside of all battleship classes, despite the fact that the North Carolina and South Dakota ships were treaty battleships. Only the Yamato-class super dreadnoughts could throw more weight. The Mark 6’s disadvantage relative to other contemporary battleship classes was its comparatively shorter range.

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Gun Specifications Weight: 192,310 lb (87,230 kg) Length: 53 ft 6 in (16.31 m) Barrel length: 60 ft (18 m) bore (45 calibers) Shell used: AP, HC Caliber: 16 inch (40.6 cm) Recoil: 48-inch (120 cm) Elevation: -2° to +45° Traverse: -150° to 150° Rate of fire: 2 rpm(rate per minute) Muzzle velocity: AP: 2,300 ft/s (700 m/s) HC: 2,635 ft/s (803 m/s) Maximum range: 40,180 yd (36,740 m) Ship Class Used On: North Carolina (BB-55) and South Dakota (BB-57) classes Date Of Design: 1936 Date In Service: 1941

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The propellant consists of small cylindrical grains of smokeless powder with an extremely high burning rate. A maximum charge consists of six silk bags, each filled with 110 pounds (50 kg) of propellant.

This loss of pressure prevented the pointer from matching up in the load position. One other gun had a misfire which caused it to miss two salvos. The other failures were primarily «error in drill» related.

a destroyer, four freighters and a floating dry-dock. Between 1000 and 1030 on the same day, Massachusetts sank the French destroyer (contre-torpilleur) Boulonnais and shared in the sinking of the French

The battleship USS Massachusetts (BB59) employed these 16»/45 caliber guns as her primary armament, and she is believed to have to fired the United States’ first and last 16 inch shells of World War II; the first use occurring 8 November 1942 during the Naval Battle of Casablanca (shortly before the Naval battle of Guadalcanal), the last being 9 August 1945 off the coast of Hamamatsu, Japan. Furthermore, at Casablanca, this was the only time in the European theater that a fast battleship of the US Navy fired her guns in anger. At 0704 local time on 8 November 1942, USS Massachusetts (BB-59) fired the first US 16 inch (40.6 cm) warshot of World War II. In sixteen minutes she fired nine main battery salvos, scoring five hits on the incomplete French battleship Jean Bart. Heavily damaged, Jean Bart was silenced for the rest of the day. In addition, Massachusetts during this exchange sank

destroyer Fougueux. She fired 59.2% of her outfit in four hours of fighting (0704 to 1104) and then fired an additional 8% during the rest of the day. During the entire action off Casablanca, USS Massachusetts in 134 salvos fired a total of 786 rounds out of a possible 800, an output of 98%. During this engagement, she reported that most salvos had a dispersion of about 2 mils in deflection and about 200 to 300 yards (183 to 274 m) in range. All of these were AP projectiles, as the ship had not yet received any HC projectiles.

Service History As the primary armament of USS Washington (BB-56), these guns were employed against the Imperial Japanese Navy’s Kirishima during the Naval battle of Guadalcanal; this has been cited by historians as the only instance in World War II in which one American battleship actually sank an enemy battleship. (While there was a battleship versus battleship engagement at Leyte Gulf, torpedoes rather than gunfire were largely regarded as being responsible for sinking the enemy battleships.) With the aid of a fire control computer—in this case the Ford Instrument Company Mark 8 Range Keeper analog computer used to direct the fire from the battleship’s guns, taking into account several factors such as the speed of the targeted ship, the time it takes for a projectile to travel, and air resistance to the shells fired at a target. This gave the US Navy a major advantage in the Pacific War, as the Japanese did not develop radar or automated fire control to the level of the US Navy. Washington was able to track and fire at targets at a greater range and with increased accuracy, as was demonstrated in November 1942 when she engaged Kirishima at a range of 8,400 yards (7,700 m) at night. Using her nine 16»/45 caliber Mark 6 guns, Washington fired 75 rounds of 16» AP shells and scored an incredible twenty heavy caliber hits that critically damaged the Kirishima, which eventually sunk. During the same battle, South Dakota also fired off several salvos from her 16»/45 guns before she had to withdraw due to a faulty circuit breaker. In conclusion, Washington fired 42 rounds in approximately 3 minutes (precise time not available) or 1.56 rpm. During the second phase Washington fired 75 rounds in 5 minutes 24 seconds, or 1.54 rpm. Washington fired a total of 117 out of a possible 131 shells, or 89%. Of the 14 missed salvos, the most notable was the center gun of turret 3 which missed five salvos due to a ball check valve being jarred loose by the the firing shock, causing a loss of hydraulic pressure for that gun.

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Successor The next US Navy battleship class, the Iowa class, did not fall under Treaty weight restrictions and allowed for additional displacement. However in their original design, the General Board was incredulous that a tonnage increase of 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) would only allow the addition of 6 knots (11 km/h; 6.9 mph)s over the South Dakotas. Rather than retaining the 16»/45 caliber Mark 6 gun used in the South Dakotas, they ordered that future studies would have to include the more powerful (but heavier) 16»/50 caliber Mark 2 guns left over from the canceled Lexington-class battlecruisers and South Dakota-class battleships of the early 1920s. It also allowed the draft of the ships to be increased, meaning that the ships could be shortened (lowering weight) and the power reduced (since a narrower beam reduces drag). The 50-caliber gun weighed some 400 long tons (410 t) more than the 45 caliber did; the barbette size also had to be increased so the total weight gain was about 2,000 long tons (2,000 t), putting the ship at a total of 46,551 long tons (47,298 t)—well over the 45,000 long ton limit. An apparent savior appeared in a Bureau of Ordnance preliminary design for a turret that could carry the 50 caliber guns in a smaller barbette. This breakthrough was shown to the General Board as part of a series of designs on 2 June 1938.

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floatplanes

OS2U Kingfisher Floatplane

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he OS2U Kingfisher Float-plane was a wellknown reconnaissance aircraft during the Second World War. Designed by Rex B. Beisel, and engineer for Vought, and built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the first flight of this aircraft took place on March 1st 1938. During combat, the pilot had a .30cal machine gun, and the radio operator/gunner had a dual .30cal machine gun as well. For bombing, the «Kingfisher» as it was commonly called, could carry two 100 pound bombs, or two 325 pound depth charges. It was powered by a 450hp Pratt & Whitney R-985-4 Wasp Junior radial engine. Kingfishers started being delivered the the USN in August 1940. Six were assigned to Pearl Harbor right off the bat. 158 were assigned to Pensacola Naval Air Station in Florida, although 53 were assigned to equip the Inshore Patrol Squadrons at Jacksonville, Florida. In 1942, six more Patrol Stations were established with only Kingfishers used. This plane was used for recon and support. It could be launched by Battleships, Heavy Cruisers, and Light Cruisers. It was launched by a steam powered catapult that basically rammed the aircraft up to speed and allowed it to take off in a very limited area. The plane was also used in rescue for other downed flyers. Eddie Rickenbacker, a

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during the war. It was a well-received aircraft. Many nations had them during and after the conflict, to name a few, Australia, England, Chile, Cuba, and even the USSR had a couple of them!

World War I ace, and his crew were rescued by Lt. John A. Burns when their plane was shot down in Truk Lagoon. Burns made two trips from Truk to the submarine USS Tang that was patrolling outside of the Lagoon. He rescued 10 survivors and was awarded the Navy Cross. Kingfishers could be retrieved from the water via a crane mounted close to the stern. They were hoisted up, repaired, refueled, and rearmed. Then they were put back on the catapult to go for another recon mission. There were many types of Kingfishers. The OS2U is just the best known. The other ones are as follows: XO2SU-1, OS2U-1, OS2U-2, OS2U-3, OS2U-4, and the OS2N1. All in all, 1,519 Kingfishers were built

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General Characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 33 ft 10 in Wingspan: 35 ft 11 in Height: 15 ft 1.5 in Wing Area: 262 ft2 Empty Weight: 4,123 lb Max Weight: 6,000 lb Max Speed: 164 mph (264 km/h) Range: 805 miles (1,296 km) Ceiling: 13,000 ft Armament: • Two .30 cal Browning machineguns • 650 lb of bombs

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War is not only won by soldiers, sailors, or airmen. War is won by countries being capable to produce the weapons that let soldiers, sailors, and airmen fight. Sometimes, it was a matter of how many weapons could be built, sometimes it was how good the weapons could be built, and sometimes it was a combination of both. While everyone remembers the USS Iowa, the USS Missouri, or even the USS North Carolina, only a few remember where they were built: the Brooklyn Navy Yard also known as the New York Naval Shipyard.


New York Naval Shipyard


shipyards & naval bases

USS «Ohio»

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he New York Naval Shipyard is a product of the American revolution. Established by President John Adams in 1801, the yard takes 5 years to be built. It will take another 11 years before the first ship to be built within the Brooklyn Navy Yard is laid down: the ship of the line Ohio (2nd ship with that name).

History The Ohio was a 74-gun ship of the line. It will take the Yard 3 years to complete her. She served in the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic, and eventually the Pacific Ocean. She was eventually decommissioned in 1875 and sold in 1883. 45 ships will be laid down in the New York Naval Shipyard during the 19th century. Only 42 of them will be finished, the last one being the Penacook, a 230-ton harbor tug, named after a confederacy of Algonquian tribes who resided in New Hampshire and Massachusetts.

Enter the Battleship The Brooklyn Navy Yard didn’t have the honor to build the first US battleship, but it definitely built some of the better known. The first US battleship was the USS Indiana (BB1), the first of 3 ships of the Indiana-class. She was built in Philadelphia by the William Cramp & Sons shipyard. The USS Connecticut, first of the Connecticut-class battleship was the first of 6 ships pertaining to this class (Connecticut, Louisiana, Vermont, Kansas, Minnesota, and New Hampshire). She would be the only ship of this class ever built in New York. The Connecticut-class were victim of a ship who would revolutionize the world of the battleships: the HMS Dreadnought.

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It will take another 9 years before the Brooklyn Yard is commissioned to build another capital ship. In 1909, the USS Florida is laid down in New York. She is the 30th US battleship. In-between the USS Connecticut and the USS Florida, 11 battleships have been built, but none in Brooklyn. USS Florida was the lead ship of her class which was replacing the Delaware-class battleships. Only 2 ships of the Florida-class were ever built, the other one being the USS Utah who was built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation located in... New Jersey!

World War I Although the United States practically waited until the end of the war to intervene (President Wilson said that «America is too proud to fight»), its navy was getting ready. Brooklyn built 4 more battleships, although the first one (USS New York) was intended to flex some muscles with Mexico, not Germany. 3 more battleships (Arizona, New Mexico, and Tennessee) would be built during World War I. Brooklyn also became specialized in the construction of subchasers, as the fear of German submarines was present. She shared the responsibility with 2 other shipyards, Mathis Yacht Building Company, and Hiltebrand Dry Dock.

In-between wars Brooklyn participated in the construction of 15 ships between the 2 world wars. While she was assigned to the construction of 3 more battleships (USS South Dakota, and USS Indiana, and USS North Carolina), two of them were never finished. The only one who survived was the USS North Carolina. USS North Carolina (BB-55) was laid down in 1937, and launched in 1940. Nicknamed «Showboat», she started her campaign in the Pacific with the Guadalcanal battle, guarding aircraft carriers. She would survive the war, earning 12 battle stars.

World War II With World War II starting in Europe, the United States continued to get its forces ready. Brooklyn didn’t miss the action, and two of the most famous US battleships were built within her waters: USS Iowa and USS Missouri. They would be the last battleships ever produced in New York, as the last two were never finished. They were the victim of the new kid on the block: the aircraft carrier. Brooklyn would build 7 aircraft carriers, including the famous Saratoga, Independence, and Constellation, some of them obviously after World War II.

Dying of old age With the end of World War II, things slowed down though, and even the Korean and Vietnam wars didn’t generate enough business. In the end, ships built in New York would become smaller, and the interval between construction would grow longer. The last one of them was the USS Duluth, an LPD. After she was commissioned, Brooklyn would close her gates, never to be reopened again.

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сцуко верфи New York would have to wait until the 18th battleship was ordered before it laid down its first. US early battleships • BB-1 USS Indiana (Indiana-class) — Philadelphia • BB-2 USS Massachusetts (Indianaclass) — Philadelphia •BB-3 USS Oregon (Indiana-class) — San Francisco • BB-4 USS Iowa (no assigned class) — Philadelphia • BB-5 USS Kearsarge (Kearsarge-class) — Newport News • BB-6 USS Kentucky (Kearsarge-class) — Newport News • BB-7 USS Illinois (Illinois-class) — Newport News • BB-8 USS Alabama (Illinois-class) — Philadelphia • BB-9 USS Wisconsin (Illinois-class) — San Francisco • BB-10 USS Maine (Maine-class) — Philadelphia • BB-11 USS Missouri (Maine-class) — Newport News • BB-12 USS Ohio (Maine-class) — San Francisco • BB-13 USS Virginia (Virginia-class) — Newport News • BB-14 USS Nebraska (Virginia-class) — Seattle • BB-15 USS Georgia (Virginia-class) — Bath • BB-16 USS New Jersey (Virginia-class) — Quincy • BB-17 USS Rhode Island (Virginiaclass) — Quincy • BB-18 USS Connecticut (Connecticutclass) — New York

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USS North Carolina Museum Ship

The North Carolina is undoubtedly a popular ship. In 1960, when she was about to be scrapped, over 2,564,820 USD was raised from various people, including 700,000 schoolchildren, to save her. And they had good reason. The North Carolina class of battleships established the carrier protection role of the fast battleship and showed just how resilient battleships are, not to mention that the North Carolina was given 15 Battle Stars during her service, the most of any battleship The North Carolina was made a museum ship in 1962, and is dedicated to the 10,000 North Carolinians that gave their lives during World War 2. She is incredibly popular, drawing in 250,000 visitors every year at her berth in the Cape Fear River, near Wilmington, North Carolina. As with all historical ships, she is decaying. Right now there are operations to repair her bow, and the Museum is planning to renovate her entire hull. However, the battleship has excellent funding and as said before is a popular attraction. All around the ship are stories from the crew, and silhouettes of in what conditions the crew worked in. Most of the ship is open for freely walking around without a guide. Visitors are constantly shown what life was like aboard the ship during wartime, and it’s a very user friendly ship.


museums

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interesting facts

The

two ghosts

of the North 24 30

ÂŤNavygamingÂť


сцуко верфи

T

hroughout history, many people claim to have seen signs of the supernatural. A recent poll by the Huffington Post showed that 45 percent of Americans believe in ghosts, or that the spirits of the deceased are able to come back in certain places and situations. Most commonly, ghost sightings are reported where there has been loss of life, usually of a tragic nature, which is why there should be little surprise that aboard the battleship USS North Carolina, workers, tourists, and Investigators have reported numerous sightings that they would describe as anything but normal!

hosts

Carolina «Navygaming»

Launched in June, 1940, the North Carolina sailed right into World War II. During her service, she was hit by both her friends and enemies, resulting in two notable incidents in which a number of her crew were killed. In September, 1945, off of Guadalcanal, a Type-95 torpedo launched by I-19, a Japanese submarine impacted her port side bow, tearing a 32-foot long hole in her side, killing five of her crew. Later, off of Okinawa, a friendly 5-inch shell hit her #5 Director, port side, killing four crew and wounding 44 more. There were other deaths, both natural and un-natural, and during her service, at least 18 men died aboard ship. Do some of the spirits of these slain sailors still wander the ship? Lee Steele, a local Paranormal Investigator, believes that they do. A member of S.P.I.R.I.T. Paranormal, Steele investigated reports of ghost sightings aboard North Carolina in 2010. Using helmets the group claims can capture «EVP», or electronic voice phenomenon, Steele and his group started their investigation in the mess hall. Before long, the group was hearing a voice calling for help, and when Steele asked for a name out loud, the voice replied “Tommy”. One reported fatality aboard ship was a crewmember named Thurman Thomas, whom everyone called «Tommy». Thomas died March 7, 1942 when a shell handling tong being hoisted up the #3 Barbette came loose and struck him in the head, causing him to fall. Various investigators have reported chasing spirits who were banging through the various halls and hatches, only to disappear into rooms with no way out, and had fresh batteries in their equipment drained dry in seconds. All agree that there is definitely paranormal activity aboard the aging battleship. Unusual sounds and sightings aren’t limited to those who are in the business of investigating ghosts, however. Museum Staff who work aboard ship have also reported two distinct paranormal presences. One manifests as a young blond man, who often acts as a prankster, slamming hatches and doors, sending blasts of cold air through an otherwise warm room, and turning the

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interesting facts lights and television on and off. This spirit is fond of harassing Danny Bradshaw, one of the Museum’s security staff. Bradshaw wrote a book in which he recounts a night when the blond-headed ghost put a hand on his shoulder and then banged on hatchway covers while emitting heavy footsteps that sounded as if they were coming down the ladder. The sightings aren’t all fun and games, however. The second reported presence aboard the ship is far more malevolent. Witnesses report the second spirit manifests as a frigid, horrifying shadow that fills the room with a palpable feeling of anger. The second spirit has moved objects and even yelled at Bradshaw, terrifying him. «I want you to understand this place is haunted», Bradshaw says. «I get scared. I get horrified». Whether you’re skeptical about ghosts and spirits, or a true believer, visitors to the battleship who are looking for an adventure are advised to visit the mess hall, sick bay, and the shower room where the torpedo impact killed six crewmembers. Investigators and Museum Staff agree that those are the best spots to watch for the two ghosts of the North Carolina.

Torpedo Damage 1

Torpedo Damage 2

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Navygaming.special


interesting facts

f o s a d n r i l a o w r A a C h t r o N S S U B attle stars are an award to recognize ships which participated in battles in any theater of operations, between December 7th, 1941, and March 2, 1946. Only Full Scale battles count, so any submarine patrols don’t count. 5 Bronze Battle Stars, 1 Silver Star. In addition, American, European-AfricanMiddle Eastern, and Asiatic-Pacific campaign medals are awarded for serving in these theaters, between those some same dates.

The USS North Carolina received 15 battlestars throughout its service history. Generally agreed to be North Carolinas most important battle, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons took place on August 2425. The light carrier Ryūjō, along with the

heavy cruiser, Tone, and the two destroyers Amatsukaze, and Tokitsukaze, to attack Henderson Field. This was probably to relieve the men at Rabaul of aircraft attack, and to help them in taking back all of the Solomon Islands. There were multiple

sightings of the Ryūjō, along with multiple subs and dds. Vice Admiral Fletcher attacked Ryūjō with 38 aircraft. Meanwhile Ryūjō attacked Henderson field with 21 aircraft, but doing no damage, and losing 6 planes and their aircrews. Almost at the same time, a scout craft from Chikuma spotted Enterprise, and transmitted their positions before it was shot down. Ryūjō was sunk by aircraft from Saratoga, and help from North Carolina. 36 aircraft were sent to attack Saratoga, but instead attacked Enterprise. Due to effective AA fire by North Carolina and Enterprise, they only managed to land 3 bombs, only of which 2 did significant damage. Then, 4 Vals attacked North Carolina, but all 4 were shot down.

Philippine Liberation Medal The Philippine Liberation Medal is a military award of the Republic of the Philippines which was created by an order of Commonwealth Army of the Philippines Headquarters on December 20, 1944. The award was presented to any service member, of both Philippine Commonwealth and allied militaries, who participated in the liberation of the Philippine Islands between the dates of October 17, 1944 and September 2, 1945. The Philippine Liberation Medal is intended to recognize military service in the last days of WWII when

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the military of Japan was driven from the Philippines and then to eventually surrender in September 1945. To be awarded the medal, a service member must have served in the Philippines for at least thirty days during the eligible time period, or must have participated in one of the following actions: Participation in the initial landing operation of Leyte and adjoining islands from October 7 to October 20, 1944 Participation in any engagement against hostile Japanese forces during the Philippine Liberation Campaign of October 17, 1944 to September 2, 1945

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сцуко верфи American Defense Service Medal In addition, her crew received the American Defense Service Medal, for service during the limited emergency on 1939-1941, or the unlimited emergency during 1941 onward. American Theater Medal, for service during any American theater from December 7 — March 2, 1946.

World War II victory medal Served between December 7 1941 and December 31 1946.

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Asiatic/Pacific theater medal Same as the American Theater medal, just that you served in Asia or in pacific.

Philippine Presidential Unit Citation The badge was first created in 1946 and retroactively awarded to any unit of the Philippine or U.S. military which had served in the defense or liberation of the Philippine Islands during World War II. It was bestowed again to Philippine and U.S. military units for relief efforts during several natural disasters which occurred in the Philippines during 1 August to 15 December 1970 (a series of typhoons) and 21 July to 15 August 1972 (monsoon rains and associated floods).

Navy occupation medal: When you performed occupation duty in the pacific after the war ended.

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what developers do tell

USS North Carolina in World of Warships

Andrey Gashkov

World of Warships Lead Producer

S

ome time ago North Carolina class battleships used to be iconic US Navy ships. USS North Carolina and same class USS Washington were the very first US battleships constructed after almost a 20-year break. What’s more, North Carolina class battleships were also the very first American battleships capable of exceeding a speed of 21 knots (actual speed – 27.5 knots), first battleships carrying triple 16 inch turrets, first battleships with floatplanes aboard, first battleships with universal secondary batteries… However, one should admit that vessels belonging to this class were also kind of guinea-pigs for the industry and the Navy itself. This class was represented by two ships and aboard of both of them all kinds of technical innovations were tested – from new approaches in the industrial engineering to even new fire-control systems. Experience gained during works on North Carolina class later on was used for the construction and development of the succeeding battleship classes, such as South Dakota and Iowa. For some reason it turned out that North Carolina as well as Japanese Fuso not only were the very first battleships implemented to our game, but generally first ships available in World of Warships. Our developers were gaining and improving their skills by playing these vessels. These two warships were used by programmers and game design development teams for game testing purposes - adjusting movement and steering, armor, major caliber artillery firing etc. At the beginning of 2012 these two battleships “took part” in the very first focus test of World of Warships. Soon after we realized that Fuso is slightly weaker and therefore, she was put aside. When it comes to USS North Carolina she stayed in the game, though

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underwent several adjustments. She was used during all focus and play-tests. She “managed” to overcome all bugs and tests performed by 3D modelers, programmers, game-designers, focus-testers. One can say that she became our “guinea-pig”.

Actually, she is the only ship, which is still with us from the very beginning of the World of Warships project. Even though she is very important to our game, she is not going to be the most powerful vessel. This title will belong to Japanese Yamato, American Iowa and Montana – so pretty similar to reality. USS North Carolina will be VIII tier US battleships, a rather high position. Main battery of nine 16 inch guns, 310 mm armor belt and 27.5 knots speed allowed us to give her a really good place in the tech tree. Because of this USS North Carolina will not be available straight away – our future players will have to play and wait a bit until they have a chance to navigate this battleship. I’m pretty sure that once she is in your docks you’ll have a lot of fun and take pleasure in playing this powerful and fast battleship.

«Верные враги». Линкоры «Северная Каролина» и «Фусо». Один из первых скриншотов World of Warships

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Contest’s Rules To take part you must answer the questions below and send your answers to Zamuchryshkin by a forum message (to US or EU forums).

Ours winner is the fisrt person sent the correct answers. Our other prizewinners are the next two participants sent the correct answers.

These people will receive 12 500, 7 500 and 5 000 their WoT or WoWP (afte Gold for r its release) respectively.

1

This is one of important elements of the battleship «North Carolina». What is it? How is it called? What purpose does this element have?

2

This one of the most important mechanisms of the battleship. What is it?

3

A special bracing was added to the rear on the aft director. But at first there wasn’t this construction there. Why was it installed?


gaming screenshots

IJN «Nagato»

IJN «Takao»

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team

editor-in-chief: Nikita Panin aka Zamuchryshkin making-up and design: Artem Romanov aka Nidhhegg content writers: «Design development of USS North Carolina» — MR_Barbarossa «USS North Carolina: Operational use» — Ariecho

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«Naval Battle Structure» — mr3awsome «The 16»/45 caliber Mark 6 gun» — RainbowDash54 «OS2U Kingfisher Floatplane» — Andypandy1996 «New York Naval Shipyard» — Ariecho «USS North Carolina Museum Ship» — xS_DEADLY_Sx «The two ghosts of the North Carolina» — triptyx

«Awards of USS North Carolina» — Spanisharmada «USS North Carolina in World of Warships» — Andrey Gashkov aka Tarn Special thanks to: JamesWhite — for the screenshots and contest’s support Vlegris — for help in contest’s tasks making



Navygaming 02/2013 USA v.