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16


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O6YVCNNrc HOBbIX CONAATCKI.IX NOJIKOB C.{Y}KHJIH <<ABA CTOJIIIA:

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22


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23


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24

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Il pae6oft, n y6uucrna, n cMyrHble BcsKHe 3a1eftgUe BOpOBCKHe CJIOBa>>. HaXOUeU, 3aKJIIOqafl MHp c A,'IeKCeeM MUXafiIOenrreM, nOKOBHqla OTHIOAb He <nOJIOXHJIHcb Ha rocyAapeay BOJIIO>, a AO6tlJltCb oT BJIaCTeft O6eqaHI,Iq He IIpecJI€AOBaTb 3a vqacrlle B BOCCTaHI'II'I H OTBOAa OT ropoAa uapcKHX BoficK' Ho Bce 3To 6u;lo Ans Bo;txottcxoto yxe BbIIle CI{JI' nDr.r-sHarl ' Korr,rnporuucc n 6opr6e co flcxoBoM.B Mocxee nbIraJILICb CKpbIrb {rbltUHbIMI,I TOpXeCTBaMn <<nO6eAbI>, O6[IbHbIMI'l HarpaAaMI'I <<3a {rcKoBcKyr,o cnyx6y>. Ornyuenuuft ncKosl'rqaun Bonroscru-ft ..yAol65l-ft ron cror.rJrcr sHcueft e ero poay qecrl'I - 3BaHHfl 6onpHna. rrpoBer oH e 6ruxHeM oKpy)Kenuu Anexces MuxafiJIOBI'Iqa, noflpaBJrgfl cBoLI TeJIeCHbIe I{ AylxeBHble paHbl 3a npa3AHHIIHbIMI',I CTOJ.aM:[- Vr B noe3AKax c uapeM rro )Kr,rBo.fiucgeftururra MecTaM 3auocKoBgoro xpax. Ha cne4ylou1ltft roA noxxJloft 6oapuH npucMorpeJl Ce6e urraest14Ue B A.nerCugCxOft nonogttl, HO oTAOxHyTb B HeM raK u ue cyuen16. C ipaHuu n Mocrny np[xoAI'I/'IH Bce 6oree rpeBo)KHble [3BeB 1652 u 1653 ri. ebruxre H rroJrHoMorrHbre nocJIbI-6onpe "r"". g KHfl3bfl HaMecrHHK Beluronepnrcxrzfi D. A. Pensr.rH H HaMecTHI{K Myponncxnfi O. O. Bo;tt<oHcruft B TIocJIeAHI'Ift pas y6ex4alu xopolrx fHa l(asumNpa H <<naHoB PaAy> co6.npAarl 3aKperJIeHHbIe MexAyHapoAHbIMI,I AofoBopaMI'I flpaBa yKpaltHcKofo u 6enopyccroro uabo^os. .Iluurr rorAa Mbr floM,pr'Mcfl c pa6auu _cBor'M1r, orBeqafla 'Per{b flocnonnra, KorAa I'IM Ha uIeIl cBoI{ ca6nw noloxnu! B c.neAyrouleM roAy pyccKlie apMHI'I ABI'IHynncb Ha rloMourb yrHe-TeHHbIM 6DartsulT. Borxotrcxnfi suoet BbIcrynHJI B noxoA. l8 lera6ps 1653 r' on 5ur.n uagnaqeH nepBbIM pyccKlrM soesoAoft Kneea. KHssl upu6un ryAa B <<qyMHofI>> 1654 r., KofAa crpauHat gnl'IAeMHfl nopasHJla PoccNlo H vxpanny, yHecq Bo MHOTI'IX ropoAax Ao IoJIOBHHF,I XI,I3uefi. Peqr flOcnOnura CrpeMI.IJIacb MaKCHMaJIbHo LISIIOJIb3oBaTb ero 6eAcrsue. flopaxeHufl pyccKo-yKpaI'IHcKHx eoficr s 6osx co urnsxroft H rarapaMH noA JII,o6oenuaI\aIl u OaepuI{aMH, Hogutr't Buxonou n Mor[flesblM, noA AxraarosoM, MaccltpoBarras' ltpottaraHAa He3yHTOB noxo.ne6anu cToirKocTb Ka3aKoB 14 qacTl,l MeIIIaH, ilOpOAr.rJIH CoMHeHI,Ifl Aax{e CpeA[ yqaCTHIIKOB flepenC.narCXOft paAul8. BoJrHosa,'Incb LI KI'IeBJtqHe; I'Ie3yI'rrbLnJIeJIu B fopoAe cBoI{ 3afo*opei. B KpurtlqecKl'Ift Ans pyccKo-yKpaHHcKoro colo3a MoMeHT 6onruoe, rart6H,

KHrr3b BO.nXOscxllft npOaOU.n Jlyq,1rrge CBOI,I KaqegrSa. OrxaSaBttIlICb <<cbIcKoB> B fopoAe, ou cSopurlpoBaJl i{s ceoefi oxpaHbl I{ Bcex oKa3aBIIIHXCg noA pyroli cI'uI oTpqA, nocaAI.{JI ero Ha cyAa I{ flon ronaagAofr nJIeMtHHI,IKa, KHq3fl ,llryrurpux Bolxogcroro' nocJIaJI Ha

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Henpuarelt 6n.n o[reJIoMJIeH Aep3ocrb]o Bo.nroncroro. floxa @eaop tDe4opoauu co cBoHM roBapl'rqeM BoeBoAoft O. C. KypaxuHbrM AeMoHcrpL.IpoBaJIn npe3peHl'Ie K Ko3HrM I'Ie3yl4roB e KI'Iese, crpeJrbubl KHnBq !,ur.rrpur 6es eAusoro BblcrpeJla BotuJII't B fopoA Typoa. fIoA AasHAoBoM oHH <Bro[raJII'I JIItrBy B ropoA>, BopBa25


Jrkrcb TyF,a Ha [Jteqax [poTr.rBHHKa kt Bbr6HilH [tJr.ffxTy BOH. He ,4,aBag Bpary onoMHnTbcff, flrvrurpnft Bonrouc,xuft nHosl pas6ur Henpr.rflrerr r{ B3flJr ropoA Crolns. fIoA flr,rucroM ero orpflA BcrpeTHJI Kpy,[HbIe cnJIbI [poTLtBHr{Ka, aTaKOBaJr efo I{ [ocJle oxecTolIeHHorO cpaxeHr,If BcTy,nHJr B fopoA, B Ce.re y ceJra CraxOeo KHfl3b Hanec ,noJrbcKr{M KopoHHbrM eoficxal,r raxoft yAap, qro ropo4a Ka-pefta )r(aH H ilarea cAaJrficb 6es 6os. orqasHnbrft saieprxnJrcff rpnyu0a.nrHblM Bo3BparrIeHHeM orprAa Bo.nr<oncrbro B Kr.reB ts. Bocrn o [o6eAax pyccKoro opyx(r,rfl o6o4pn.rrH He roJrbKo KHeBJIqH, Ho tI MocKoBoKIIx BoeBoA. IlepefiAg B Hacryn,'reHue, MoJIoAofi KHs3b PoMoAaHoecr'nri pasrpoMr.rJr KopoJreBcKyro apMr.rlo npu c.rro-soesoAd Hr'rropoAxe. borAas XnrerruuqxHft a Byiyprlus nauec.ril.r cumxuft yAap KpbrMcKoyy xaHy Bo3rre ypovuua oiepnaa crpenxa. flor<uAas eecHoft 1656 r. Kaen, Oeidp <Deaoponu.r oroBcruAy noryqaJl secru o6 yonexax pyccKo-vKpauncicl,rx sofi'cx 20. IIIecrr rrer, c 1656 no l0oz r.l Borrosoxnir 6u.r rofpylKe' B AAMIIHI.ICTPA.TI{BHbIC I' AI,I'NJIOMATHIICCKIC 4C.NA. HUCHHO OH HA [CPC. roBopax g Bunruo pa3raAaJr KoBapHbre rrJraHbr rerMaHoB foHC'escKoro u cauern H cBoeBpeMenno npe4yrrpeAr{Jr o Hr.rx noeno4y !,onropyKoBa; He AaB B.acrarb ce6a opacn.nox, !,o;lropyKoB pa3rpoMun Carngpy n nJreHr4Jr foHcescroro B ceqe Ha Bapxeri.'BeAs';;peroBopbl c rIoJIbcKHMl4' InBeAcKIiMH II AarcKlIMI'I [ocJIaMn, Ilepen]IcKy c 3anopoxleM r{ pyccKr,rM' BoeBoAaMr.r, orpa>KaBrxr.rMr4 sa6eru KpbrMcKoro xaHa, @eAop @e4oponvv ynpanni.n Cucxuuu npHKa3oM n aKTHBHo yrracrBoBaJr B saceAaHnrx Eoapcxofi 4yrvru. B io xe epeyl o_n 3aHHMaJrcr peKoncrpyr(queft rlanuoro o6opouureJrbHoro pyoe)Ka croJrurlbr 3eunsuoro ropoAa. - 3HaMeHr{rofo I(H_rsr OeAop BHec BKJTaA B apxureKrypy croJrlubr, BbrcrpouB e 1662 r' qepxoil cuaca Hepyxoreoplroro'o6pa3a Ha Fiuxo.rrrcxoft yJrr'rqe, s 3anxoHoo[accKoM rraouacrupe22. Bu60p e"oao *ea"a 6un He Cfiyq_aeH. 3Aecr, B MoHacTb_rpe, ,[OCeJII{ncq Cni\,reon rlo.rrOqrcufi, s4ect o6pa3oBaflcq BHaMeHHrbrft- qeHrp HayKH H Jrr{Teparypbr, craBruuft noxope 6asoit 6opr6u c"opo""nxbB npocBerrleHr4fl, sa co3AaHHe LJraBsHo-rpeKo-r'rarr,rHcxofi AraAeuuu. tr4ueHso B sror nepuoA, Bog_ MOXHO' He 6es Bilnn:F.r4fl, yrleHhrx MoHaXoB, cocraB,llr,l Bo;rxolrcxufi ceofi .Ilerorrr,rceu, BottoMuHafl cpeAu MHpHbrx eausrufi spK]re gnr.reo4u ceoefi MoJroAocrr,r. Ho saKo,Hqr{rb cBor,r AHr4 Mr.rpHo KHqBro He cyxAeHo. B 1662 r.' KorAa [orrrr'r nce pyccrne Bo[cKa 6sr.rro MoJroAbre raJraHTJrHBbIe BoeBoAu 6unucl Ha-3arraAe, cMyra oxBarzJra 'r reppr.tropnlo or g".r" Cenepnoro oo Vpa.na. o uacura6e BoccraHlrq Ko51t3ll qCBHIdKOB

3ACTABI,IJIII TOCYAAPfl I EOTPCTYIO AYMY KPCTIKO TIOPAS. MblcJlr.rrb o BoeBoAe, cnoco6sonr _c rpeMfl rroJr.KaMH MocKoBcKoro rapHI'I3oHa Aa BqrcKuM H^IIepMcKr'rM orro"IqejrHeM ycraHoBr.rrb Mr.rp

Ha BocrotrHblx 3eMJrsx. Crapouy KHrgto Bo;lxoucxoMy, noAAepxaHHoMy rrJreMflHHr.rKanru !,unrpr{eM H AHApee*,

cecTb B ceAJIO.

BHoBb

Oeaopy OeAoposnqy npeAcroflJro ABa roAa 6oes u noxoAoB or ao Menje;rrrHcKa, rAe 6u.n rq)Kero paHeH AHapefi Bo.n-

KasaHH 26

np"rrioci


Ho rraup 6HJr saeoesau, BoccraBurne or6poureHbl ea Kapy6exn .HaAe)KHo 3auruuleHbl. 3 aerycra 1664 r. KHq3b pyccKr.re My, o6rsnulr cBor.rM coJIAaraM I.I crpeJlbqarra 6.laroAapHocrb rocyAapfl sa c.nyx6y <<c BeJIIIKHM paAeHHeM>>, BpyqHJI HafpaAbl. B xHnape I<oHcKLIft.

1665 r. BoeBoAa BbIexaJI us MeuaenuHcKa. B $enpale Ha ryrl'l Aouoft oH cKoHqarcs e KasaHLI. Vraeor,r qapr A;rexcen MnxaftroBltqa Ha rop)KecrBenHoe llofpe6esue npocJraBJreHHoro BoeBoAbI 6u.ro orryqeHo 200 py6.teft. BAosa .KHfl3fl Bo.nroscxoro [oryqura or rocyAap-a <<ruy6y 6apxarHyro soJrorHyro Ha co6orflx, ...'ITo6H tol,o ury6oto yrpnrs rpo6 Myx<a>> 23.

B nansrr o

,tlopoBr.rqa BorrrJrr{ B

<<rBepAocrosrerluofi c.nyx6e>> Knff3r Oeaopa @e-

Bonxosoxoro crpaHIr,IrbI efo HeoKoHqeHHo[ .netonncn 3aMeqaremsufi rIaMflrHHK pyccxoft HcropltqecKoft uuc-

1686 r., cosAaHHuft e narpl,taplxeM JIeronHcHoM au -.Ileront,tceq qenTpe n craeurnft saxuoft cocrasuofi qacrblo o6uepyccxl{x Jleronr{cHbrx cBoAoB KoHua XVII e.2a. Paccxasu o co6ltruqx, B Koropblx nprrHHMaJr yqacrne KHs3b Oe4op, yAarIHo AOTIoJIHLIJII4 IIoBecrBoBa-

nne Jleronucqa 1686 f. o rrroJll{Tu{ecroft, soeHHoft il AI.I[roMarI'Iqecrofi ucropnn PoccuftcKoro rocyAapcrBa s XVII s.25. Cocrasvrern Jlerouucqa 1686 r. He cr(pbIBaJIH orAed'IbHble

BoeEHbIe HeyAaqu u coMHHTeJIbHbIe Ar.InJIoMarIiIIecKHe Aeftcrsnq pyccKr{x noJIKoBoAueB H .Il,t{irlJroMaros. B ro >Ke BpeMfl Itx coqlrHeHI,re noKa3brBaJro qr.rrareJlro KpyrIHbIe yclexu Pocclul Ha Me>KAyHapoanoft apene. Paccrasu Bo;rxoncr<ofo noMoraJrr.r cocraBr.rre.flql,I JIe-

r. o6rgcsuru npnqnHbr erux ycrexoB. Cramu Hg Jleronncrla 6oapuua lr BoeBoAbr KHrsfl Oe4opa @e4opoeuua Bo;IKOHCKOTO BOJIHyIOT H COBpeMeHHOtO ql.rrareJrfl KaK XVBOe OTpaX(eHI{e noABr.rra pyccKofo HapoAa, KonAa Bo3pox(AeHHafl Poccrlg BcrynaJra s <<HoBbrft nepraoA csoeft lrcropr.rn>>. Torrucr{a 1686

NPAMEI{AHl4fl

lCrrl.: BoJIKoHcxaq E. f. Poa xgsseft Bonxoucrnx. Cn6., 1900. C. 32-37, ll5 u .up.; Cono sue s C. M. I4ctopua Poccnn c lperueiiruux BpeMeH. M., 1960. Kn. IV. C. 575; M., 1961. Kn. V. C. 98 u ap. z Cru.: ,Il,aopuoBr're pa3pnAbl. Cn6., 1850. T. l; ClI6., 1851. T.2. Cu. rarxe: Paepa4uafl Kurrra 1598-1638 rr. M., 1974. I BoaKoHcKa q E. f. Poa xnsseft Bo;rroucxr.rx. C. l15-116: C oJr

o

Bbe

s M. M. Vc'touus...: Ku. V. C. 264.

272

ri BoeHHbIx co6srrngx, cBtgaHHblx co Cruolencxofi noftnofi 1632-1634 rr., cM.: 6autuur-KaMeHcKufr H. V. ,llepenncra Mexny Poccnen u flo.nluren no 1700 roA, cocraB.IleHHat no Alt[noMaruqecKuM 6vrtraranr. M.. 1862. q.3. 1613-1645 rr. C.46-64; Co.ttoareg C. M. tr4cro' pr.rq...: KH. V. C. 162-163; CraIxeBcrnfi E..I[. Cruo;reucxas eofiHa 1632i634 rr.: OpraHusauus Ii cocroflHlle pyccxofi apMLIr. Kues, 1919; B a fi n' ur t e fi H O. .II. Pocclts u TpuAuarulernss eofiHa: Oueprn no ucroplrx BHeIIT' seft noruruxu Mocxoscroro rocyAapcrBa n nepnoft no,'IoBHHe XVII g. M., 1947; Hoso.ceJlbcKurl A. A. Eopr6a Mocxoscxoro rocyAapcrBa c rarapaMlt B nepnoft norIoBI{He XVII g. l!., .II., 1948;__fIopuHee 6. O. Tpn,qqarn.irernRa sofiHa n BcrynJlenr4e s Hee lllseuan u Mocxogcroro rocyAapcrBa. M., 1976

r

a

O

Aan,rouarnqe^crux

rp. 27


5 llentDaarnnft rocylapcrrenuuft apxua /IpeBHnx arrog_ pa'spsaHHft

o. 2t0.

(,&aree_U|AAA).

np_uxa-i.-Ho"ropoaixnn t^ui 5ii.4 'i,'i3"_42, 'i7g]2[s, bg_b8, {"r. ioe_iaii' ti5-12g, _130: 2t6_zia, Ns 3e. 'rr0_jei,""ioe_re5, q2_fi, t0-24, 3^5_:^47=42,.89_e0,_'102_lo-s, {.._l-9l 2J7-2re, 222-228, 2Se-250; N9 44. Jr. t_p2, tz_isl Vg+_-zba;- .lru il." n. 'ilb_120; gpuxasu'fi.. cro.n. Nb-8t. q. l._ il., 1-_gr lb lq; q6_ A7; ltr-ibO.'h. Mocxoecruft mo.n. M 96.-I._l_-!8; 16 ttZ. i. S6A:*i;-.p".-'o.' rzOS. IIo-f0a;-'Croa6r1u uecrsnrft npr.rKa3. On. l. J\b-_2-9669. .rL -- l;' Nb 29629. trL ZO, no BssrMe. N'538. [1.73_74, lbO ra ap. 6 Cru.: Pamietniki Albrichta St'anislava Radziwilla, kanclera " litewskiego/Wyd. E. Raczynskiego. Poznan, 1839, T. I. S. lb3 btc. ----- w. 7

6-0-64,^

rg9-llt,

Crarru Jleronuc[a Boaxoncxoro

B nrrH pyxonrictx.

[aaee unrnpyprcfl no ny:_nleyy^cnr{cKy: -9rp_a9x-,rtrc_b U|AA4. ^9.^ lSl. pyronucnoe co6panue M|A^MI4A.:{-._l Jv9 2012s. il.809 o6.-8ll o6.;813 o6._6i6."'-"-cn,:- ufAAA. o. 210. paspa,unnfi npnxie. HouiopoAcKufi cro,r. Nb 44, -E-Il. 234-254; q. flpr.lraenuft croJr. Ns'At. t. n. SO-SZ. e Cr',r.: AnopuoBbre pa3psAbr. T. 2. C.382-3g3; pyccxaa ucropuvecxaa 6a6. JruoreKa. T. 9. C. 583 n ap. ,0Cn.: BolxoHcnas-E. f. poa xHsserl Bonxoscxux. C. llg_122; 6_asruu-Kauescr<.ur? H.-H. flcpenucra... C. l2J; c;;o;;es C. M. Acropnz...: KH. V. C. 485-486; o u.neirai ro-"nc"nu noapo6nee cin, U . p_ oHH

nux fI. fl. tr

fsl'l;'< Vnoxenuq^1649 ro,qa. M., lgb3. C.52_ig Co6opnoe V.noxenue- lO49 roaa. Tercr, xorr,rueHrapn4. n., "-ap lbAZ. Ilo.upo6-

Hee^cM.:

Tu_xoMtrpo-g M.

1649 noaa. M.,

H., EnuQarog fI. n.^ y.'roNesue

l96f; M anrroe A. l.

AaJrbnoro npana Poccun. JL, 1980.

Co6oliuoe yJro)r(e'ne

lO+Sl-oi;_'ro.ierc

eeo-

12

,[,onorneHr,fi K Axrau ncropuqecK'M, co^6paunue u H3aaHHbre Apxeorpa. Quvecxoro KoMnccrep. Cn6., 1857. T. Vl. C.'228-290. l3 o soccralrr'ru n HonropoAe N flcxose--16b0_ r. cM. ,ccJreAoBaHHr H Aor(yMenrbr: Co;rosres C. M.-I4cropur...: Kn. V. C.4gg_tl6;---T'"xo""_ Knaccosas pop16a s Poccun XVII e. M., 1969. C. ZS-tOg, ZS+P^o^g_ryl.H. qrrcrrKosa

E._B.,'fopoAcKge Boc-cra'r.rr s poccun n nepnoa-noJroBr{He Bop-ouex, 1975; Bai:urres A. ,fl,oxyr,,renrbr o BoccraHrx l6b0 rB ltcKoBe /ll4croptqecrufi apxne. 1936. Ne 1. C.67_72; ,Iloxvrrlesru o Honro_ p!r4!Ko_M,B-o-ccranr{}t 1650 r. //Hoeropon. K llOO-;rernrc ropola: C6. crareft. M., 1964. C. 286-296 u ap. ___.la Haxag @. (D. Bo;rxoHcKoMy .qoKyMeHTbI o eno ncKoBcxoft uuccn' cu.: II|AAA.^ O: l1l. ' ^llpuxasuue Aena crapbrx ner. Cr.n6. i+. i. Si_9l, 16b; -999i XVII

s.

crr6.

116._JI.

l-36; cur6. lll. il. l-7; Tuxorr,rnpoe M. H.

Knaccosas

poccus n Illseuus n nepnofi norroBr.rne 9:plOu.. ,C.241-242-;.f r<y6oe K. B. ll9rervfl a O6qlectae ncropulr u Apenuocreft poccuftcrnx. lg9g. Ku. lIV!! c. 323-329, 335-339, 367_369. t5

TuxoMr.rpos M. H.

6opt6a. C.267; o Hacrpoenfiu qrenon coo6qapr raKxe nHocrpag[br: - poAee Ae. (t{reHnfl s O6uecrse }rcropzl u 4peauocreft poccuftcrux. lglb. Kn. 2. H. 2): fl^ouuepeHrHl(flVtioe K. Poccun n lileewrs... C.468-474); O6ep'i c r e u __f. B. CHorueHHq lllseunr.r u Poccun Bo sropori noJroBHHe. -(-f--q n XVII sera llXypsan Mr.rHr{crepcrBa HapoAnoro npocBeuteuufl. 1808. Ne S). t6 Cu.: BorroHcKaa E. l. po.q ruaeefi Borroscrux. C. 124_125. 17 Cu.: Cononree C. M. Hcropss...: Kn. V. C. 588-b9b: fo;ro6vux u ft B. A. !,nn,noLlaruqecKar ucropni Ocao6o4arelrxori nofiuu yxpanncxoro HapoAa, 1648-1654 rr. M., 1962 u .i,p. t8 Cu.: Eanrnur-KarueHcKr{fi A. H. Vcropux Maloft Poccr.ru. I(uee;. Cfl6.; Xapnxoe, 1902. t{. 2. C. 209-212; io.nogre's C. M. I,Icropra...: Kn. V. c. 620-639. ie rpr.rKa3. Mocxogcxufi cro;r. Nb 270.. . _Cu.:_ fIfAAA. q. 2!0. ,PaaprAnufi -. '91_ y.^1._4, 35--55, 57_58, .6:_qq,^ 88_, s'0, si_i14,-'1-+i_rsi,""'rso_lss, r72-r74, r82-18e, le3re5, 2J8,2:2?,232, Zbt_z5Si',to;;;n";;; x rouy rrr Jlnopuonux Da3DrrroB. cn6., 18s4. c. l'2; c'o Jr o B b e e c. M. liciopua...: Kn. v.. c. 643-644.' MocxoBcKoro^_npaBr.rreJrbcrBa

28

K.nac,cosaq


20

Cu.: Eanrbrur-KaMeHcxufi .[,. H. I4cropns Ma;rofi

C. 212 n 2r

Pocour-

MH. Ap.

Co.noBbeB C. M. I,Icroprs...: Kn. IV. M., 1961. C. 4l-47. 22Cu.: BonxoHcKas E. f. Poa xggser'i Bolroucxr.rx. C. 128-129; I4ctopun Mocrebr. M., 1952. T. I. C. 502-504. 23 2a

Bo,rxoucxas E. f.

Poa xHsseft Bomoucrux- C. 129-135. llpocrpaunar peAaKqur .Ileronncqa 1686 r. BourJra B cocraB ncropnqe-

cxofi rounxrrrtnu us Pyccxoro XpouorpaQa pe.(aKuur{ 1617 r., oco6oft peAaKquu Hosoro nerofluctta n AonoJrnr.rrenbHbrx crarei (U|A.(A. @. l8l. q. l. l,{b 20/25; flyurxnucxr.rfr AoM. ApeBnexpaHr.rnuule. On. 23. Ne 257), KoMnr.rrrrrlr.rn

c Hogb,rlr Jreronnc[eM (focyAapcrnenxur? ncropuuecrr.rft r'aysefi..{,anee-fHM. CunoAa.nrsoe co6paHue. N, 153), a raxxe cBo.q,a r.r3 coKpau{eHHoro XponorpaQa, ucropuKo-JILrreparypHbIx ttoBecrefi, Crenennofi runrn, HcropuqecKlrx aanucoK, <<Zcroprlt uJIu cKa3aHLIt o qapcrBe' Pycxorrr, B Koe Jrero u KaKo Haqarcfl> n Hogoro .'reroltrIcIla (focy4apctaeuuan O. 256. 6i6.nuorexa CCCP uu. B. I4. Jlenusa. OrAe"'r pyxouaceft. .[,aree - f F.II. Jlerontcqa Co6p. PyruanueBa. Ilb 413). Eoree nos.{Hqfl KparKat pe4axlufl 1686 r., n xoropofr coKpalqeHnlo noABeprnllcb l'I crarbu u3 tlero[rcua BonxoscKoro, coxpaHr.r.rracb B JleronLIcHoM cBoAe I.I3 Bacnlsonoruona, crareft XpoHorpaQa pe.uaxuuu 1617 r., <I4ctopuu HJIu cKa3aHHt o uapcrBe Pycxou>, Creueunoil rinniu u Hoeoro Jleronucqa c AoIIoJIHare,'IbHbtMIt craibflMg H3 CKa3aur'rr AnpaaMHfl fla.nuqusa n xnrnfi (locy,u,apcrnennar fly6,'rnuHar 6n6.ruorexa uu. M. E. CartHxoea-llle,u,plura. Or,qen pyxonnceri. Aalee- fnE. F. XVll. l6). Apyroft cnlzcoK coxpauennofi peAaK[uH .Iletonncua 1686 r. B KoHIre XVII n. coKpaueHHofo reKcra Xpouorparpa

edilen s c6opuur qepKoBHo-LrcropHqecKI'Ix counueHufi, orAenhHbtx BbInI'IcoK I'13 XponorpaQa ri coxpautennoro rerira Hoeoro .Ileronl{c[a (fE,rl' O. 256. Co6p. Nb 364). Pyuxuuena. BHI4MaHI{e coctasurerefr ,Ileronlcua 1686 r' K npooneMaM '5 llrr.renso gnerxUeft nOInTHKlt POCCnn U UX OCHoBaTe.nbHHe 3HaH[fi ee uCTOpIIH 3aCTaBnJIIt npeAnoJloxllrb, tl-ro KaK Jlerornceu 1686 f., raK I'I npeAfirecrJI. B. gepenullHa 'ertny pyriOnnctx lt3BoA HoeOro JleTglngqa 6r,I.ltl't cosAaHH s noCO.71lBytOUnfi

t{epennnn I " ciou npnraee'(crtr.: 1Cuyq1^ n--rcropuorpaQun -B.T. 14. C. 116-ll9)' XVII seKa//Hctojrnuecxre 3;nncKr'r' M., 1945.

29


Sna6a Socg\a/e|u flaauo

2

Donkr'r, ?t, l0occu,il,c/tan ucmo/an

MHHoBaJIL BpeMeHa, KofAa eAr.rHcrBeHHbIMH ueHTpaMH

gQnu_na.nnnoft ncropuorpaQnn Ha Pycr.r 6dns MoHacrbrpr.r. B xvlI B. Kpyr aBropoB KHH. rro lrcropr{fi 3Harrr.rreJrbHo pac.unpr.rr'rcq, B coII[aJIbHoM nJIaHe npexAe Bcefo' Aa H cKpHrITopI.IH yrlpe)KAeHlIg' 3aHI'IMaBIrIEecfi KHIIronHcHbIM AeJIoM, BO3HI,IKaJIII-Tenepb u ga npeAeJraMn recHbrx MonacrbrpcKnx creH. B arou eIrle pas rrpo_ ffBHJrocb ycnreHHe cBercKoro xapaKTepa pyccxoft ucropnorpaQnH

nropoft rroJroBr.rHbr XVII s. oauuita r{g yqpexAeuui,, B cre'ax l(oroporo cocraBJrr"rr'cb r.rcropfirrecKae KHHTH, 6H.[ e ro BpeMq floco,rlcrufi [pr,rKa3. 3a cro ler cBoero cyqecrBoBaHl'Ifl oH crarr He rod'rbKo opfaHoM MexAyHapoAgofi no,raraKr.t, Ho H cBoero poAa KyJrbrypgbrM ueHrpoM crpaHbr. Bo rrase ero croflJIH raxne_gbrcoxoo6pusoeaHHble ,,rIoAH, xax Arrraas HsaHoe,A. JI. Opazn-Har_rroxr.rH, A. C. Mareees,E. n Vxpi_ nHrIeB, B. B. fonnrlbrH H Ap. flpu flocodrrbcKoM npni<ase pa6orana 6o.nrruas rpynra repeBoAqI,IKoB, to,Tuaueft, cn4a npu6bIBaJII,I <<BecroBble nncbMa>>, 3Aecb xpaHI'IJIItCb OTrrerbl nocJroB CrarefiHtre cIIucKH, pa3rr.rr{Hble BbI_ TIHCKH H3 TpyAoB, nepeBoAHbre coql,I HeHHfl H r. A. -HCTOpI-IrrecKHx rle cflyr{aHHo VMeHHO 3AeCb cTaJIa COCTaBT'tqTbcfl cBofl pvKolrficHag ragera A,'rfl c,'ry)Ke6Horo rroJrt,3oBaHr.rr _ ,.Kypagr"rr, cd4u crexa_ Jlacb Bcrr uuQopuaqxa o sapy6exunx crpaHax u Hapo4ax l, l.r, ecrecrBeHHo, B CTeHax npr.rKa3a 3apoAHd'racb MbrcJrb o Heb6xoAurrlocrn cocraBr{Tb rpyAbr no- Hcropr{fi cnoefi crpaubr, Koropble orpa_ xa,rn 6u BeJr[rque Poccnfi.cxor6 rocyaapcrBa ri ee MoHapxa t,t yrBepx(AaJrr{ MexAyHapo4Huft cynepeHr,rrer AepxaBbr. l loMI'MO CBOeTO ocHoBHOrO Ha3HaqeH,{q 3aHqrrrfl sHe[rHeft nolurtxofi, floconlcxr.rfi npr.IKa3 craHoBr.rrcfl -rIeHTpoM HAeoJrornrre_ cKoro obocnosaHr.rfl cyxrecrByrourero crpofl n qeniporr,r oQr.rqna;ll_ uoft acroprorpaQnr.r. oco6enno flBcrBeHHbrM gro cragoBurcfl BcKo_ r" BoccoeAr.rHeHne Vxpaunu c poccnea -1f OS+_ p:"go.c1rt,. -9T:_6y loo/ rr., H pyccKo-rxBeAcKoft sofiHH.

opranusaropog E BAoxHoBvredleM cocraB,'reHls K'r'r no ucroflocontcroro nprrKa3a, rreJroBeK 6ypnon "-opu"u-

pr.rn craJr rJraBa 30


rnrrecKoft cyAb6rr

Aprauon

Cepreennv Mareees (1625-1682),

6orpnua

A. C. Margeesa>: <<A c.nyxa BaM,

noco.rrbcKoro AbrKa, nupocurufi Bo ABoprre, A. C. MarneeB rrocreneHHo npoABr.lraJrcfl no cny>Ke6uofi JrecrHr.rqe: s 1642 r. oH 6ua crpeaerlKnM rorosoft -HarrarbnuKoM'MocKoBcKoro rapHnsoHa, 3areM, noJrb3yrcb 6eerpannvnblM AoBepr{eM qapfl, BbrnoJrHtJI ero caMble oTBeTcTBeHHbIe fiopyqeHr,rrl, HanpHMep, yqacTBoBar B cJreAcrBr.rn no AeJry flarpnapxa Hurona, [oAaBJreHI{r{ Mocroscxoro BoccraHns 1662 r. OH sogrrasrsr Anrerapcxnfi n Ma.nopoccnficxnfr npnra3bl, BeJI Ba)KHbIe neperoBopbr c B. XuenlHlrrIKHM, esAH.,I c [ocoJrbcrBaMr.r B Jlnrey, flo.nlury, a s 1671 r. cMeHr,rJr A. /I. OpAusa-Hauloruna Ha rrocry pyKoBoAr.rrerq floco.nrcxoro ttprlKa3a (ao 1675 r.) 2. flo cBoHM BsrJrflAaM Marneen, :raK w ero npeAruecrBeHHrrK, 6un peonocrnbrM cropouHr.rKoM caMoAepxaBr{q. Cras so rJraBe floconlcroro npr.rKaea, Marsees paseepnyn 6ypqyro AesreJrbHocrb no cocraBJreHr{Io KHHr rro Hcropr.ru Poccun. flo-swAr.rr4oMy, oH Bce >xe se 6un aBropoM Knr,rr, cKopee, opraur.r3aropoM rdx Hanr{canr.rs H peAaKropoM. Cau on raK xapaKTepr{goBaJr 3ry cropoHy csoeft AeflreJrbHocu s <I4croput,t o HeBr.rHHoM sa-

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Bocroxa u Enponu, c KoropbrMn Poccirs rroMepxr.rBaJra

Ar{nJroMa-

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" oH obIJI Ar.rrrJroMaroM Lr fllrcareJreM, BblxoArreN{ Ks lvlonrralrficaH AaBr{r{ Hnxo.naeu laepn.noanueu Mn.necxy-Cna@apneM n noAbs.I Lr rvr_ flocorbcKoro np r.r K a 3 a lI erp o rra .{,o.nrono. B cos4annn unnnarrcp TriryJrffpHr.rKa npHHr.MaJrn yqacrrze raK'e pyccKne xyAoxur{Kn, rax L|nan Marcuuon, .[,rranrpufi Jlreon, fpuropufi _E.narounu, n Apyrne yrrennKr.r sHaMeHr.norb Cuuona'Viraxosa. 9acrb rroprperon 6u.lra cKoflrrpoBana c 3arraAHo-eeponeftcKnx rpaBrop. [oprperHas faJreper TurynapunKa orxoArrr or r{KoHooopa3Hocrr.r JIHUeBoro cBoAa u npuo6peTaer qeprbr peaJrbHoro cxoAcTBa c optrrHHaJroM.

B xnnre 6u.nt

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KonHocrb ArHacruw PoMaHostrx, e€ npeeMcrBeHHocrb or Pnpnxosuqeft (xora n no xeucxoft nuuuu), Ho u ee 6orons6paHHocrl. Teu caMbIM [ponoBeAoBaJrncb uaeu Ooprufipytoqefocs a6co.nrcrn3Ma, xo?t H B <H3AaHLIH>> Pouauogttx. C aroft ueJrbro HcnoJrb3oBa.ncs o6uqnuft Ans aBropoB nropoft rIoJIoBHHbr XVII s. ua6op HcroqHrdKoB: Crenessafl KHr.rfa, llpo-exr yrBepxAeHuofi rparaoru l6l3 r. o6 us6paHHr{ Ha Mocxogcxoe rocyAapcrBo Mnxawaa Oe4opornua PoMaHoea, Hoebrft Jreronr{ceq, CxasaHr.re o nocraBJreHnr.r Ha flarpr{aptrrecrso (Dr.urapera, aKTbr 3eMcKnx co6opon, cKa3aHufl H IloBecrr.r o Cnayrnona BpeMeHr u o xHfl3bqx Bra4nmNpct<lrx, crateftsne clrHcKlr rrocJroB, pa3rr.IrIHbre .ileTorrHcubr H ApyrHe LrcTorrHr.rKri. B ocnony nepnoft qacrr.r Tury.napnuKa cocraBnTeJrrir rroJroxtrJrr.r <KHury crerreHHylo qapcKofo poAocJroBr.rfi)>, Koropafl, no cJroBaM J.r3AareJIq, <coAep)KaJla r.rcropulo Poccnftcryrc c HarraJra oHbIfl Ao apeMeHr.r rocyAapfl uapr H BeJrHKofo KHrss tr4oasua Bacu.ttenuqa> (M., 1775. q. l-2). EcnN s CreneHuofi xsnre Aaercq poAocJroBne KHfl3eft, npr.rBoAflTcfl nx 6r.rorpaQHH, npnMeHflrorcr xyAo)KecrBeH+IbIe [pHeMbr r.rsJroxeHr.rfl, ro Tury.napnrx 6u;l cao6oAes or srofo, xorr r{ coAepxaJl vt HQoprrl arnBnble M arep H aJrbr. Tor xe Kopfiyc trcror{Hr.rKoB cd'ryx(r.rJl rr Arrfl ocBeuleHr.rf Apytux rem Tury.uflpHnKa: o uepKoBHofi sracru n Pocclra, narpnapxax H flarpnaprlecrBe, o [ocoJrbcKnx AeJrax. !,nnlouarnqecKag Hcropllq fipoc,'IelKHBaJIacb Ha ocHoBaHr.ru 6oraroro apxlrBa floco.nlcxoro npr.rKasa, rpaMoT r.rHocTpaHHbrx MoHapxoB H Apyfax MaTepr{aJroB. floapo6so orflcaHbr 6u;la cnoureHaq Poccnn c eeponeficKuMr{ H BoCTOI{HbIMI'I CTPAHAMI', YCTAHOB,'ICHI,IC AI,ITIJIOMATI,IqCCKI,IX OTUOUCXITft,

o6naen rrocoJrbcrBaMu H T. A. Oco6oe BHHMaHne yAeJreHo cocrornnlo

Kpuucxoro xaHcrBa xr,rrrr

r.r noJlr{Tr.rKe xanoB B orHoueHxr.r Poccxn. Tao6paeou, Tnry.napHHK Mo)KHo cqr.rTarb oAHofi r.r3 rrepBbrx KHHI

no sHeilJHeft rroJrr.rrnKe Poccau. Xaparrepno, qro rexcr TuryJrgpHr.rKa ue 6u.n crarlrqHbrM, ero rrbrraJrHcb rrpoAoJrxr.rrl. Tax, cltncoK, ugAasuuft H. I,I. Hos[KoBbrM, Laer cBeAeHHs o nocodrlbcrBe, orrrpaBJreHHoM B Kraraft e 1689 f. AJII BaKJrrorreHr.rq rocre oKoHqaHr.rq Ar6aenHcxoft noiinu Hepunncxoro r,oroBopa. 3ro nponcxoAr.rJro y)Ke flocJre rn6eln Mareeesa s 1682 r. Kunra [pecJreAoBaJra rreJrb rrocraBnTb qapcrnyrcquft AoM, c oAnofi cropoHbr, B cBrsb c npeArxecrnyroqeft 4uuacrueft, a c Apyloft B prA caMoAepxrleB Apyrnx crpaH, - Brrucarb Pol,ranosHx yrBepAHB.TaKKM o6pasou cyBepenr.rrer Poccuu H Bo3Bbrcr.rB AuHacrurc PouanoBblx. !,nnnouarnqecKafl r,rcropr..rfl Poccun [pocJre)KlrBaercfl n TnrynapH,llKe Haqr.rHar or npaBJreHns rrocJreAHero <Popuxoen.ra>>^OeAopa Hganoer.{qa, Munyq rlapcrBoBaHne Eopuca fqAyfioBa r.r Cruyry r{ HerrocpeAcrBeHHo nepexoAfl K BorlapeHr.rp Mxxail32


na OeAopoBurra PoMaHoBa. Tr,rryJrspHHK cocraBuJr onpeAeneuHblfi gran B paapa6orxe npo6;reu Ann.[oMarn]r H MexAyHapoAnbrx or-

nourenuft Ha r.rcxoAe cpeAHeBeKoBbs, qeMy cnoco6crsoBaJro H )Kr.rBonlrcnoe oQoprvr.neune efo. ,[,o cero BpeMeHH pyccKafl Kur.rxuocrb He AaBaJIa raKoro BeJrlIKoJIe[Horo gplrMof,o o6ocuoaaHr.rs ponn Poccr.m. Knsra xar 6H

ee pacTyqee

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BSar.rMocBfl 3aHHOM Mr.rpe.

or Jrerollucnoft Qoprrau l{gJrox(eHntr, coeIO OCOSHaIOT ponb HCTOTIHLTKa, AOKyMeHTa, OU UpttO6peraer xapaKTep c[paBoqHbrft, nuQoprvrarneuufi. B neu Her u reHH qepKoBHocru. llo cBoHM saAaqaM H BbrrroJrHeHnro oH 6u.u coTrrynapuuK orxoAr{T

cTaBHTeJIH

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qapcxoft .rerbr.

- Aerefi B XVIII B. Ha Hero ccbrJraJr[cb, ero KorrupoBaJrlt

lrsAaBaJrH. Taxprnl o6pasou, efo gHarrenr.re BbrxoAHJro sa npeAeJrbl floco.nrcxoro npr.rKasa N npr.ro6perano 6o.ree lrrnpoKoe HcropuKoKyJIb?ypHoe sByrraHHe.

I4cc.[eAosareJrb groro npor.rsBeAeHnq M. A. Karas-TapKoBcKaff cqr{Taer Tnry.rxpnfiK nepexoAHoft Qoprvrori HcropnqecKoro coqr.rHeHr.rfl or Hcropr.rqecKrx rpyAoB XVII s. K ncropnorpaQnn - s.6 XVIII O apyrofi KHnre, cocraBJreHnofi noA pyKoBoAcrBou Marneeoa,

n

<<l4cropuri o HeBr.rHHoM 3aroqeur.ru>, roBopnTcq: <,llpyraa xe KHHra B JrUrIax X(e c perreHuerra: ns6paHue H nocbrJrKa na l(,ocrpoMy, r{ [poIxeHHH, H o rrpaxoAe r Mocxee, H o BeHqaHHr.r Ha IIap-o

creo MocxoBcKoe AeAa rBoero rocyAapfl, 6.naxennax rraMflTlt BeJrHKoro rocyAapq, qapfl H BeJrr.rKoro Kurgq Mnxau.na @e4opoBraqa Bcefl Poccvlr caMoAepxqa>. 9ro He qro lruoe, KaK <<I(unra o us6pauuu Ha rrpecroJr>> Muxarna @e4oponnua PoruaHosa, Koropan TaKxe LrMeJra IIenbIo o6ocHosarl gaKonnocrb al,IHacrr{n PouauoBbIx r{ cBf,3arb ee c lpeAr.uecrByroqr{M rlapcrBoBaHr.le}r ZeaHa IV. EctectnenHo, rrro aBTop npoflBr{Jr orpnuarenbHoe orHolrreHue K Eopr.rcy Fo4ynoey. B xnnre orpa3r.rJrr.rcb 6ypnue co6nrus HeAonroro npaBJreuan lllyficKoro n [paBuTeJrbcrBa <ceun6oxpulnnbr>, aBTop BbrHyxAeH 6un xoscrarr{poBarb BbrcrywreH[x <<pas6orlnnKoB>> KpecrbqH, Koropbre <<coBceM npepBaJrn coo6qenne no Aopore -K Mocxne, He npotrycKafl. Hn roHrIoB, HH cJryxr{Jrbrx r.r roproBbrx rroAeft>

7.

Oco6enso 6o.nnuroe BHHMaHHe yAerflercq B KHnre 6opu6e c nonrcxoft HHrepBeHur{eft, eeHuauun Ha rlapcrBo MaxaN.na <DelopoBl{qa, Bcrperre BogBpalrleHnoro ri3 <<rrJreHa>> <Dnlapera PonragoBa I{ oTua rlapfl. -B rrarpHapxa groM rpyAe HcrroJrbsoBaH-br ABe peAaKrlr,ru <Knnrn o6 Ns6paHHn n BeHqaHHH Ha uapcrBo Mnxauna @e4opoenua>>, pasJrnqHbre npaMorbr H aKroBbre HcrorrHnKr{. flpororNuou <<Knnrn o6 ns6paHI{I{>>, HecoMHeHHo, flBJrsJracb <lpauora yrBepxAeHnaq o6 tla6pauun sa Poccuftcxoft npecroJr rlapeM r cauo4epxqerra Muxan.na @e4oponr.rva Pouauoaa>; oAHaKo nepBas BbrroAHo or.ltfiqaJracb

2-l 18

33


6onee orKpoBeHHbIM xapaKrepoM: aBTop ee He cKpblBaer ocrpyl'o 6opl6y sa 3eucrou co6ope 1613 r. rlo Borpocy o KaI{AHAarype qapn. <I(ttnra o6 us6paunn> HgJlaraer co6urnq flcHbIM, JraKoHIlqHbrM fl3brKoM, Jlyqule I,IJIJIIOCTpLIpOBaHa (21 rvruunarnpa), xors o6u1uft ee nacrpoft coxpaHeH: o6ocHoearl H Bo3BbIcI{rb AI'IHacrHIo PoMaHoeHx.

Marseee upesnuuafino ropAI'IJIcff 3rHM rpyAoM

L

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sOprrAU n IOJII{THIIeCTOft UapouHTocTI'l KHI{ra He 6o.rsuroro BJtLrflHrrfl H a nocJleAyloqyo ncropnorp aQuo. IILIOHHOCTT.T

I'lMe,IIa

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[oJIoBI{He XVII s. orHocurcff oqenr .itrc6onursufr npeueAeHToB: [onblrKa [paBureJlbcrna_ Arerceq ue ulraenuufi Qaxr, Mfixaftroegrra cosAarb crreq[aJrbHoe yqpexAeHlle AJIfl C6opa ocex Bo3MoxHbIx MarepLIaJIoB I{ Harlucanns }Icropnll Poccltlt. flpoo6pas cBoero poAa <<I'IHcrLIryra I'IcropI'I[>> - 3anucnoli npu' Kas 6Hr opraunsonaH rlo yKa3y Irapfl or 3 noa6pn 1657 r. H npocyqecrBoBaJl ABa ro4a. OrcyrcrBue efo yloMI{HaHlIr B llMeloilrfixcfl nepeqHflx npllKa3oe o6tgcHgercfl, no-BIlAHMoMy, TeM, rITo oH KaHueJIspI4I'r {9Ps' a rroAqfiHsJrcs nprKa3y Tailsux AeJI - lzqsoft gro [oArIepKHBaer 3HaqeHue, Koropoe eMy npHAaBaJIocb. PasN'Ie' crr.rJlr{ ero B Kpeule n Ha6epexHblx xopoMax, rAe IIoMexraJIcs npexAe cyAHutft B.la4urranpcrufi npnr<as. Kaapu HoBoro yqpelKAeHI'In QopunpoBadrlncb raK: Bo r!'laBe npurasa 6u;t [ocraBJIeH Asqr TnNaoQeft Kyapssqes, HI'IqeM oco6esno He BblAedrflsrxnftcq: s 1653-1654 rr. os 6u.l >i{I{r'lblIoM (nnsruufi nplrABopHblfi uI.rH), e 1657-1658 rr. qpIcJII'lJIcl AbflKoM, yMep B 166l-1662 rr. Kyapseueny noJlaraJlocb B3qrb Art pa6oru AByx crapblx no4lxvnx r{s flor4ecrHoro npaKa3a c oKdIIaAoM no l0 py6. KaxAouy n na6parb Irlecrb qefloBeK MoJIoAbIx noAbffql'Ix c )KaJIoBaHEeM no 5 py6. Ha ocra.rnsble pacxoAbl (uepun,la, cBer{fi, ApoBa, xaJlo100 py6. euaens,'Iocb l'ts cpeAcrn MaBaHbe cropoxaM I{ rp.) - 6ynarn HaAJIe)KaJIo B3flTb I{3 floconlcrepcrofi na;Iaru, 50 cron cKoro npl{Kasa. OAnaxo opfaHllsal{lll raKoto seo6uqsoro yqperK' AeHHf IIpOxOAI.IJIa TpyAHO: AeJIo OrpaHIit{H!'IOCb npnCUnxOfi ,U,nyX noArsqui Bacunug. Baro.rnsa u KonAparna llep$unbeBa, BcKope floJryqr.rBlllefo ,{,pyfoe HasHaqeHLIe, La w caMoro Kyapreuena r{yrb 6UNO gC NOCJIAJIH B TOJIbKO qTO 3AH'ITbIft CIT,IONETTCK K KHS3IO E. A, Pennuuy. floueueHl,Ie IIpHKasa tpe6onaJlo peMonra, ocyilre' crBJreHnoro Jlr.nub B 1659 r.; 6u.irN npucJlaHbl I,IKoHbt, aHl.ltllftcKoe

Ko sropoft

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(Eopnc fo4yuoe, ero cbtH (De4op, npaaneuuft oAHH Me14. lllyftcrr.rft), a raKx(e nepauft Pouanon MuxarJr OeAoposuq lr caM Alexceft Muxaftnoerq (ao 1657 r.). Cuunrouarur{Ho, r{To 6ut.no o6pauleHo BHI{MaHr,re Ha gHatreHae r.rcroqur.rKoB. fae )Ke npeArroJrafaJrocb co6Nparl MarepuaJrbr AJrs HarucaHlrq r.rcropr{r4 c KoHua XVI e. rr 3a nepBy}o [oJroBr.rHy XVII e.? tlerroft r.rHcrpyKrlnr.r Ha gror cqer He AaBaJrocb. flpe4nu.cblBaJlocb 6parl KHLrfn H3 npI.IKa3oB H <<rAe cBeAaer>> HaqaJrbHLIK yr{pe)KAeHua. O4uaxo, KaK roJrbKo Kyapssqee o6parn.nca e floconrcxafi npr,rKag, AnN,ras tr4eaHoe orBera,'r, qro KpoMe flocoJrbcKr.rx, T. e. HeflocpeAcTBeHHoro AeJIorrpoH3BOACTBa, Hi.rKaKr.tX KHlrf HeT, a noJlbcKafl xpoHHKa E. Eentcxoro B3rrra <(B Bepx>, T. e. K qapn. Tarofi xe orBer 6u.n nonyueH n HB Paspr4noro npr,rKa3a. Kpoue roro, KyapflBueB o6parnlca sa MarepnaJraMr.r B flarpuapuafi npr.rxae. Bunnc:r'A ug npr.rKa3Hbrx AeJI eMy He cAeJraJrr{, Ho KHr4tr4 oH fionyqul. llocreAoea.rlu npocl6u r't K tracrHr,IM Jrr.ruaM. B xosue xoHrIoB xoe-xarofi Marepr{aJr e 3anHcHoM rrpuKa3e Bce >Ke craJl KoHrleHTpHpoBarbcq: <<rtepeqHeBbre rerpaAn>> xHseefi or Plopuxa no Bacunur III, 4e.na H Kur.rrr{ r{3 npr.rKasoB, croJrnHKr.I AoKJraAHbrx BblrurcoK, AeJra o nocoJrbcrBax s flonntlry H T. a. Kyapssqes Ao6Hrancfl. AocraBKH KHnr or B. f. <De{aJrarbeBa, xponorpaQa or 14. M. Korqesa. Ksuru aMeJrncb y rrpuKagHbrx AbflKoB, xulseft, 6orp, xynqoB, B MoHacrbrpcKux 6w6nworerax- 06 3roM cyulecrByer c,'reAyroqafl AoKJraAHafl sarrr{cKa KyApseqeea: <<locrl Marseft Bacfl.ltee cKa3brBa,rr MFre npo AbflKa l4sa*a Turr.loQeena (uueercn B BHAy aBrop <<BpeueuuuKa>>.- A e r.) 6ul-Ae oH KHr.rroqrer{ H BpeMeHHbrx (neronzcHsrx.-Anr.) xuur []rceq, a x{aJroBaJr efo sa ro 6oaplrH KHssb I4saH Muxaftrosu,r Boporuucxuit, Lr noroMy I4saHosHx KHH| r.rJrn cnr.rcKa c rex KHuf v croJrbHr.rKa v KHr3t LIsaHa A.[exceeer4,{a BoporuucKofo qaffr. [a xynu"na iepactr" !,urxoe ltpo Jrerorrflcnbre KHr{rr,r roro x<e AbrKa Vsana TnuoQeena cKa3bIBaJr: qatr-Ae ro l4saHogbl lrrero[HcHble KHI{fr{ ocTaJIHcb noc.ne 6oapuHa KHr3q A.nexces Mnxafiroeuqa .Ilteoea B AoMy eBo. Aa I,t s t{to4one-4e MoHacrblpe ecrb KHr.rfa ,rrerori[cHaq...> 8. !,aree BbrscHaJrocb, r{ro y LI. B. Boporuucxoro sa6pa.n KH}rrt.t 4a,u.a (uapn?) 6oapus Huxnra tr4naHosrq (Porraauoe.- Aer.). Cus uncare.ns C. 14. [laxoscxoro @. C. lllaxoncrori nepe4an s 3anficHoft npnxas KHHry Ha noJrbcKoM sgbrKe o MocxoscKoft Boftue, o xoropoft B cruxorBopuofi Qopue onucbrBaJrncl co6urus c 1604 no 1613 r. <<Toro >Ke qucJra cnpaurrBauo y Eor4aua ?InaHosa cbrHa I(ouuunua, Aa y rocrq Marseq Bac[.[leea ltpo JrerorrucHbre KHHru; n bor4au 6o.neu, a cKa3aJr: Koropbre-Ae y Hero u 6ams rrt,tcbMa H 3arrrcKu, H Te-Ae nncbMa, KaK ABop eao rpa6n.nn oo 156-nr ro4y (co"rruoft 6yHr 1648 r.-Aer.) B ror xe rpa6ex rporraJrr{. A Marseft Baca.nlee rroKa3brBaJr xponorpaQ l,t foBopu,'r: BoJreH-Ae

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I4nrepecno, rlro ycnfiur T. KyapnoqeBa H cMeHHBIrIero ero B Mapre t659 r. f. Kynar<ona He orpaHnquBarucb c6oporvl Heo6xoAHMbrx HCTOqHI{KOB Ir npe[?IpareJlbcrBaMn no sToMy noBoAy c [p]IKaBHbrMr{ H narpnaptunrrad AtqxaMu. OttN ue npene6petaJlll H ycrHbIMr.r cBHAereJIbcrBaMn oqeBI'IAIlen. Tax, 6tI.llo t'IgsecrHo' tITo rorAa y>Ke flpecrapeJlblfi EorAau KouuHIln Mor cKagarb <<B Jlerax tr B qncrax naMflTHo npo MocxoBcKylo ceqy u nolrap, H rlpo nepecbrJIKy, KaK eBo IIocbIJraJIK 6oape u JIursa I'I3 ocaAbl Hs Mocrsbl s noJirr.r x 6onpou Ko KHqsIo ,Il,urrpnro- TnuoQeeor'ruy Tpy6euxotuy c roBapr,rqh I,I or 6orp >x [oJIKoB b Mocxay r 6oapou n x JInrBe> 12. i4naeetcs B BLIAy rlepnoA upaBJIeHI{fl <ceun6oapulnHbl>>.

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t6t( * Buno.nsnm 3aAyMaHHoe BbrnaJro Ha AoJrro AbflKa <Deaopa fpn6oe4on a, r{gBec?Horo cnyx(auero Mocxoscxux npr{Ka3oB, yqacrHr.rKa 3aKonorBop.recxofi KoMr{ccr.ru rro cocraBJrenno Co6opnoro ynoxeuns 1649 r., npeAKa HgBecrHoro nncareJrfl H AurrJroMara. HeI,tgsecrHo, Ha ocHoBaHr.rr.r KaKnx ,4,aHHbrx C. O. IlnaroHoe

ctlnraJr Oe4opa AxnMosuqa lpn6oeaosa npo[cxoArrBrrrnM or BbrxoArla ug flonrruu fna fpxru6oBcKoro, KoropoMy s Poccufi AaHo 6uno uug Hoaxuua fpn6oeaosa. Vlus O. A. lpr.r6oe4ona ynoMlrrraerct yxe B 1639 r., s 1647 f.- oH noArq,rrft npur(asa l(asancKoro ABoprra H cJry>I(Hr n Ee.nropo4e. Vcep,luafl, Irwsnar, cnyx6a BIIABHHyJIa ero B KoMuccr,rp lto cocraB,rrennp Co6opHoro yJrox(enns 1649 r. noA pyKoBoAcrBoM KH. H. U. OAoegcKoro. Sror eaxuuft 4oxyueur 6un cKpenJreH r.r noAflr.rcbro AbrKa O. A. fpn6oeAOBa.

Pa6ora B KoMr,rccnr.r H. U. OAoeecxoro 6ula Aocraroqno cJroxsofi: naAo 6u.no co6parb Bce saKoHoAareJrbHbre MarepnaJrbr H BorrJrorr.rrb ux s Hosofi Sopue B BuAe KoAeKca crareft Vnoxenng, flogre gaBepureHns oroft AesreJlbHocrn r{ flpaHflrns Vnoxenxg

3enrcxnna co6oporvr 1649 r. B reqeH[e Aecffrr.rJrerr.rn fpn6oe4oB cocros.ir AbflKoM trpuKaga KasaHcroro ABopqa, BeAaBrxero y[paBJIeHHeM orpoMuoro pafioua flosorxls. EypHulr e 6norpaQnn fpu6oe4osa 6Hr 1659 roa. [rnx naxoAHJIcff B cBure Krrflsf A. H. Tpy6euroro, orrrpaBuBrrerocr (noc.ne cMeprn B. Xnaenrunqroro) Ha Vnpauny. Euy npnu.nocl 6opotcfl c Msrexou I4. Buroscroro, orcrynam x llyrnnrro, yqacrBo37


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Tpya tD. A. fpn6oeaoBa noABepfaJrcfl npaBKaM: r{sBecrHo AecnncKoB H HecKoJrbKo pe4arqufi. Cau oH Harrrica,'r KHHry n 36 r.naa, [oAaJI ee e 1669 r. n 6u.tt Harpa)xAeH ]Kar'roBaHbeM. Teu se Megee uleApoe Bo3HafpalrAeHhe He coBceM corJracyercrr c noJryqeHHbrMr.r pe3yJrbraraMr.r: o. A. fpu6oe4oay He yAaJrocb rroKa3arb s ceoeft KHr.rre rrcroprirc HapoAa rr Aax{e rocyAapcrBa. OH, Haflpr.rMep, He yrroMtHy.tr o 6opt6e c rarapaMr.r, o BoccoeAHHeHHH VxpauHu c Poccnefi, K ycflexy Koroporo caM npr.rJroxun seua,rufi TpyA, Bblrranv r4g ero <<tr4croprrr{>> u Apyffie BaxHbre co6lrrus. I4 ece-raNlr rpyA ero 6H.[ sucoxo oIIeHeH, <<a Knrfa B3qra K BeJIriKoMy rocyAapro B Bepx>>. t{eu ero o6rgcHurl? Oreer Ha 3ror Borrpoc Aaer C. @. ll.naronoe e flpe4ucJroBur.r, npeAnocd'raHHoM r4sAaHI{}o [aMflTHr.rKa. Os cqural, 9To <<l,Icroplrt> lptt6oeAoBa cocraB.nesa 6u,ra AJrfl pyKoBoAcrBa rocyAapeBbrx Aereft B fix nepBom

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gHaKoMcrBe c Hcropuefi poALrHbI Lr HX IlapcKofi cerulsz, [ocKoJrbKy gTa KHr.rfa MorJra <<cJryxI.ITb JInIIIb AJIq [epBoHariaIbHofo, gJreMeHrapHoro o3HaKoMJreHur c cyAl6aMri BeJrHKofo KHs)KeHr.tr Pyccroro I{ uapcrBa MocxoecKofo>>15. C srau npeAnoJrox{eHneM, rro-BHAr{MoMy, Mo)KHo couracr.rrbcfl: y qapfl AneKceq Muxarinoerqa 6uno l2 aereft n HaAo 6ar.ro lrx yqfirb. Vuurlrear, qro B[ocreAcrBr,r[ KHHra <D. A. fpu6oeAoBa 6n.ta AonoJrHeHa cBeAeH[rrMH o uapcKlrx Aerqx Ao Bo[apeHua @e4opa, neper{HcJleHr,reM MHo)Kecrna 6orpcxl.tx Qanrnlnti, lrAyrqux or rex r.rJrr{ LtHbrx KHgxecKax poAoB, a TaKx(e To, qTo oHa coxpaHHJracb B AeC'ITKC CTI,ICKOB, AYMACTCfl, qTO PEqb MO)KCT HATI,I HC TOJIbKO O HC. o6xoArlrvrocu{ ee KaK yve6Hofr KHHrH AJrr uapcKoft ceMlu, Ho H rrrn39


npnABopHofi cpeAbr, Koropaf yxe qyBcrBoBana rrorpe6o6paSoBa'r.fiu u, [OIyrreHun gneMeHTapHbrx cBeAeH[fi tIO t{cropnn, xorfl 68il r.r B TaKoM ofpaur.rrreHHoM BapIraHTe. B raxofi-ro cre[eHn <Hcropuro> fpn6oe4oua MoxHo crrurarb npeAruecrBenng-

Ire-Anff IIoCTb

B

rlefi <CnHo[cuca> nerrarHofi rnnrn uo pyccxofi lrcropr.ru, npuo6perureft xapaKrep -yue6noft. NPI4METIAH14g

t Cn.: AanaroB M. A. Pyccxar trcTopxtrecraff Mbrc.rrb u 3anaAuar Esposs. M., 1973. C. 323-329. XII-XVII 2 Cu.: IIIerrorbes-JI. Danxxlrfi 6onpnu A C. Marsees rar ryauypuufi s lroJrrrrurrecKnft Aesrear XVII s. C[6., 1906. I Hcropna o aeBuHHoM garoqenng 6laxgero 6oxpnua A. C. Marseeaa. M., na

1785. C. 73.

r Tau xe. C.39. 5 Cu.: floprpern, rep6H u rreqarrr _ cn6., 1903. e Cu.:

6o.nrruofi rocyAapcrBensofi

ruuru

Karas-TapKoBcxas M. ,[,. <Tnryanpnur> KaK

1672 r.

rrepexoAuas

Qopua or EcropnrrecKux coqr.rueurft XVII B. K RcropnorpaQnu XVIII s.//Tpylu orAena ApeBuepyccKort rureparypu (naaee-TO.II,PJI): T. XXVI. JI., 1971. ? Knura o ue6pauxn Ha npecroJl rlapcrBoBau[r [turya] Mnxanaa <Deaoponuqa. M., 1856.

8EeroKypos C. A. I4s Ayxoauoft xR3HE XVII c. M., 1903. Pasa. 3. C. 62-63. eTarrr xe.C.64. ro T au xe. C. 75. 1r Tax xe. C.78. 12 Tau xe. C.80. rs Tau xe. C.79. rrTau xe.C.72. 15 @eAopa fpu6oeAona

o6qectsa

czcropur O qapsx rr BeJrnKrrx Ksr3brx seunu__Pyca B. B. Maftrosa. Cn6., 1894. C. XI.

croft>. Coo6urenue C. O. flJratonosa


S n aB

a

3

0 noDu ft./ecrnonnckoil, \oil,na ZcropHuecrue [oBecrn, HanncaHnbre BcKope rocJre oKonrrangfl KpecrbflHcKoft Bofinrl noA npeABoAnreJrbcrBoM Crenana Pasnua, paccMarplrBaJrncb Ao cero BpeMeHn HcKJrroqr.rreJrbHo KaK LcrorrHHKH tro ee ficropnz (C. M. Cuenuoacxufi, B. H. Tr.rxoMr,rpoB, H. B. CreuauoB r{ ap.). Taxofi noAxoA 6H.ir sosruoxeH Ha roM erarte LrgyrIeHLIg.TeMbI, ttoKa He 6unn suqsJleHbl, conocraBneHbl c HapparHBHbrMH (noaecrooaareJrbHnMH) nauarHuxaMr.r H ony6nuronauu B OAHOM I{SAAHNH BCC XPAHSIIIHCCq B APXHBOXP HHJII,IUIAX AKTOBbIC -6u.na AoKyMeHTbr. 3ra turaHn.recxas pa6ora stilnorHeHa Hx H3AaTeneM n KoMMeHTaropoM, 6esapeuenno cxoHqasuefics E.nenofi Arercau4posnofi Illseqbsofi (l9[g-1976). B Hacrosutee BpeMs Bbrflyrqe]ru TaKxe 4aa c6optulKa oaltl,lcoK r.ruocrpaHqeB o Boccranau C. PasHHa (noa pea. A. f. Manlrosa). Bce gro rlogBo./Iqer HaM B3trqHyrb Ha cKasaHufl I,t noBegrlf, IrogBHBIrrHecq HecKoJrbKo JIer cnycrn nocJre KpecrbflHcKofi nofinn, KaK Ha naMsrnuKrd ficropnqecKofi rrrucnu Konqa XVII s., s o6ule[{-ro H He [pecJreAoBaBrrrue r{eJrb rrocJreAoBaTeJrbHo r{SJraraTb ee xoA, $o AaBaBrrr[e eft oqeuxy c onpeAeneH]rbrx KJraccoBblx uognunfi. gro rlerbrpe floBecru: <Acrpaxancxoe cKasaHne flerpa 3o.norapeaa>, <HsBecrr.re o 6yure H o groAeftcrBnsx AoncKoro KagaKa Crenr,rn Pa3[ua>, <CxasaHne o IBJIeHLII H rlyAecax npecBflTblg BfiaAblrre,rrbt Harlrefl , Hapr,rqaeMbrg Tnxsr,rHcx aa, o u36 annenr,ru rp aAa I{uan.nrcra or HaxoxAeHuff BopoBcKnx Kagaxos Creutxu PaaHHa c roBapr.rrrln> n <Cragasue o HaruecrBnr.r Ha o6nre.nr npenoAo6soro orrla HaIIIero Maxapnn )(e.nronoAcxoto, 6ueuero or BopoB H HsMeHHlrKoB BopoBcKUx KasaKoB>. Hasos_eM n HeAaBHo o6nhpyxennue A. B. JIaspeHrbeBbrM RcroqHr.rKr.r : <qy,leca_ Eoronena tlepnonpcxoro> u HoBbre cnr.rcKr.r paccKa3a o Boccrarr.nu C. PasHHa, ugBecrHbre KaK orpbrBor( rrs,xpoHorpaQa, ony6.nuxosaHuHfi B cBoe BpgMfl K. 14. Aaepnuuu (<Mocrnnrxnun>. 1841. Nb 7. q. IV. C. l6b-170) e <<fucropun o qqpg H Be.rrHKoM KHffBe Mnxanne @e4oponave H HacJreAHr{Kax ero (1613-1700)> n B JreronrcHoM cBoAe 165Z r. Illapoxo ocBeureHa reMa Boccranr.rfl PaguHa n r Qo.nlrlope. Bo sperr,ta rropofi KpecrbsHcKofi softnbl noA rrpeABoAr{reJrbcrBou 4l

nropofi


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rI

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pasHlre ycdryfll e 6opt6e c BoccraBulurtt2. 3araAoqsuM ocraercq TO, r{TO 3o.norapee He IIoABeprCfl pe11pegggflM co CropoHbl pa3I'IHIIeB KaK JIHqo, npn6.nn>xeuHoe L l4ocr'lQy t,t tBHo llm epax4e6Hoe. B nanr.rcdnuou 3olorapeBblM <<Cxa3aunu o Bsrrlllt Actpaxauu n o y6uenaH npeocBtlqenuoro I4ocn$a, MI'rrponoJII'Ira acrpaxaH' CrOrOn 3 CO4epxinrcfl HaMeK Ha TO, qTO BCe 3TI{ fOAbI aBTOp rafisO BeJr ,u,HeBHIix: uO c1ax [EcaHo co o6tqere1wfl w sangcoK tafiHo, a. Ecrl ocHoBaHHfl KOTOpbre 6H.[u e TOe HX BOpOBCKOe AeftCTBo...>) qro HaA yqa' cJIeAcrBI'{fl eMy 6H.[u NesecrHbl Marepl4a,'Ibl noJlararb, Ka3HbI'O c B CB'SI4 H BOCCTaHITfl AyxoBeHCTBa Aonpocbl cTHr.lKaMrr pa3r.IHqaMI,I MKrponoJIIlra l4ocuSa I I rr'ras 167l r' Zcroprr co3Aaunfl 3o.rorapencKofo <<CKasa*Atr>> (e- rureparype oHo yfloMr.rHaercq KaK JlerorlHceu) ue coBceM scga. B Hacrotlqee BpeMt BbIffBJIeHo oKoJIo 20 crllcKoe <<CragaHuq>> (uaunnar ot 8b-x roaos XVII e. ao 30-x foAoB XIX e.5), e roropblx oHo npeAcTaBJIeHO npocTpaHHbIM It KparKuM BapI',IaHTaMI{' rl^pH1gM lepauft HMeeT Tpr.{ peAaKrluv' klccneloBaTeJrb reKcra /I. 3. Msllrorusa noJrafaer, uro pa6ora BeJIacb B ABa 3Tarla: cHaqaJIa' cpa3y xe nocJre naAeHHa Acrpaxann (e nor6pe l67l r.), 6u.n cocraBJleH Kparnnfi napnaHr <<Cxasa'I'Isrr. O xo46 pa6orbl aBropa n nneceHl'tu (nlu cy6.bexrqBHoro xapaKrepa Mo>KHo cyAl'rrb auuapilraunu) perr,rapox -reKcry, ony6.nnroeaHH-oMy s <<AKrax Hcropl{no coxpaHllBllreMycfl qecKnx>> B [oAcrpoqHblx [pHMeqaHPIsx (x 6eloaouy Bapuanry py' ronncu) 6. Kparxoe <<Craganne>> 6u,ro cocraBJleuo flerpou 3o'norapeeuu nO rOpaunu cJIeAaM CO6urnft (vepeS foA 11ocJle la6e.nu_ullrpO11OJI'Ir' m vocw$a. Ka3HH crenaua PasHHa H cMeprr4 ero 6.nuxafiruero cnoABr,rlKHLIKa araMaHa AcrpaxaHu Bacnnua Vca) n Qoptrle pac' cnpoc"t" peueft co6opuux ronoB l(I'rpu;ura E'rltceesa u flerpa HeaHoea. B seu npecJreAoBaJracb ueJrb nepeJroxHrb oTBercrBeHHocrb sa ru6ent I4oiu$a Ha BoccraBrrrux x oAHoBpeMeHHo paeo6.naqHrb Tex npeAcraeureneft AyxoneHcrBa, Koropble yKIoHqILIcb or Saullrrbr MIrrponoJII{Ta [epeA THIIOM aCTpaxaHcKoro <Kpyra>' B <CXaeanHH> IIpOCJISXLIBaeTCS ItCnOJIb3OBaHI{e yCTHbIx I{ IIIrtcbMeHHbIx HCTOqHHKoB: cBAAeTeJIbCKLIx nOragaUUft COBpeMeHHHKOB, CbICKHbrx AeJI, IIapcKLIx rpaMoT, paccKa3oB oqeBlAqeB lI T. A. iloote noAasneHns BoccraHHfl PasuHa B crpaHe 6H.[a eecllvla

TpeBoxHas o6craHoexa: se 6ul norylxeH llolKap B AaJIbHeM-ceBep' CoroseuxoM MoHacrblpe' Ha !,ony lt nbru Qopnocre BoccraBlrl[x s floeorxre oxEBHJIHcI Aeftcrsufl ocraBlrluxcfl orpflAoB, yqacrl'IIUC6 rpa6elrll cyAoB, crnxuftno BosHr.rKaJrH c6opnua Ka3aKOB AJlfl IroxoAoB na Bojrry. HeyAI'IenreJIbHo, qro BoeBoAa Acrpaxann n. M. Caaruxos I.I MHTpo[oJII'rr fIapQennft, 3aueHIasu]fift xa3Hen-

doro pagl,Inqauu I'locnQa, no-nu4nMoMy' HaI[flI{

42

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noMr.rMo BoeHHbIx I{ aAMLIHIICTpaTHBHbIX Mep, npE6erHyrb K LIAeoJIOf[qecKoMy Bo3AeficrBllI,o Ha HapoA. oqeBnAHo, oHlI [ocoBeroBar'IH 3olorapeay cocraBllrb apyrofi (npocrpanuurfi) BapHaHr <<Cxasa<<B IIaMfrb npeAEIAyII{nM pOAoM>>, B HaTIOMLIHaHLIe O <<My' HI{g>) - VIocv.$ qeHr4r.r>> a H Apyfnx npeAcraBureneft rocnoAcrBylouero KJIacca, <<Koropble 3a npaBocJIaBHyIo Bepy n poccttficxoro caMoAepxaBlra nocrpaAarr4 or BopoB r.r H3MeHHlIKog>>. 3Ta HoBas peAaKIIHfl <<CrasaHHs>> AarripoBaHa 7 utons 1679 r.7. Kpyr ncrouHuKoB npocrpaHHoro <<CxaeaHHq> sHaqHreJIbHo IUHpe no cpaBHeHHro c ucTor{Hr.rKaMfi KparKoro BapHaHTa: 3ro MaTepHa,'IbI npuxasnoft rraJrarbl, apxuepeftcxofo AoMa, xurnfiHaq Jlllreparypa, ycrHbre cBl{Aerer'rbcrBa oqeBLIAIreB rarap, flan.ira [y- r,oproBcKux 6eucroro, HeKoefo <<crapl{a>> H Apyfnx JIIII, a raKxe yrroMflHyrble

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8.

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Kacnuftcxoro [oxoAa, aBTop yKagbrBaer Ha HeoAHoKparHbre croJrKHoBeHnfl pa3r,rHqeB co cJryx(I{nblMr.r JrroAbMr.r r.ts AcrpaxaHH, B qacr_ Hocru, B cBrgl{ co BgflTr.reM lyptena-ropoAKa: <kI or roro BpeMeHH craJlo 6urs s Acrpaxaun ocxyAeHrre B .,ryrrrnx .rrroArx, a Hporrl,tM r,r crapbrM, He uMerour[M cMbrcJra, BecbMa ro npusrHo 6nno... H s

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!,a.nee, ocBerqas Aeficrnllg BoeBoAbr U. C. flposoponcKoro B c nsBecrHeM o pasrpoMe pasr.rHr{aMH OrpflAa roJroBbr Llsalf.a Jlonarnua, 3onorapen nn6a.n: iLr 6otpnu c'r ycJrbrrrra, Har.r[aqe [eqaJreH 6ucrt, u floqaJr KpenaTrlcfl ao rpa4e, rE uex ce6e coseToBaxy c MuTpononnrou, vro6 BEilcanKy HagaA rroBoporr{rb>. V Aa_ ree 3o.rorapeB y>xe or cBoero r.rMeHH 4o6annaer: .iroruo HeBeAaMo, qero He BogBpalqail>>12. flpnneafl_-<3HaMeHr.re>), HMeBIrree sxo6u Mecro e Acrpaxauz -^ l3 unus 1670 r., KorAa <HaA Bcero AcrpaxaHlro ornopn.uoci He6o r{ npocbrnaJrr.rcb n3 Hero Ha Becb rpaA noAo6so neqHLrM UCKpaM>, ABTOP-AANEE PACCKASEilBAET O COBEIIIAHI,IH BOCBOAbI C MHTPONOJIIIrou I,IocHQou, 6yure crpeJrbuoB, rpe6oaanruHx >r{aJroBaHHs. u BbrAaqe r{M I4ocuQorvr AeHer ua <xe.nefiHbrx cBonx> ls. Taxuu o6pasou, paccKa3 <O 3HaMeHr,rU> 13 nrous 1670 r. Hr.rcKoJrbKO He [oMerrra.[ 3oaorapeoy ocBer'Tb Hacrpoe'He rapHngo'a Acrpaxaun H r.rgJrocBssr{

44


xHTb Mepbr, [peAnpl{HfiTble BoeBo!.loil v MI',ITponoJInrOM Anq npnBJrerIeHHfl Ha CBOIO cTOpOHy cnyXI{JIbIx JIIoAeft B MoMeHT [OAxOAa K ropoAy pa3I{HqeB. 3oaorapen oTqer.rrHBo fipoflBnqer cBoe oTHorrreHr,re K BOCCTaBrrrr.rM B KOMMeHTapHflx K pdccxaey. Tar, ronopfl o noHMKe ABOI'IX acrpaxaHcKux HHrqHx, xoAirsmnx iaftrortl Ha neperoBopLl K Pasnuy,

3o;r'orapee c yAoBneTBopeHr{eM nr{ureTt _<<DOApnU }Ke, BI{Ae HX BOpoBcrBo, rIoBeJIe LIX Ka3HI'IrH o6oux> la. floc.ne paccKa3a 06 yBeqeiru"""* BoeBoAoft H MHrpoIIoJIlIroM KoMaHAHpoe upn6optloro softcKa aBTOp 3aMer{aeT: <<oHn xe perrbro o6eulasa}orcs cnyx(I{Tb BeJTHKOMy rocyAapn Bepo0 H [paBAoIo' [ocJIeAI'I xe yrIHHrfiCb 15. Bo HI4Kr.r flepBble, BoJrKLt n xnIIIHnKH, naqe Lr MOtoAbIx>

'

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lIITypMalopoAa<acTpaxaHcKHexnTeJII{'[poKJIgTbIe'TexBopoBI{ cTeHy [pHHI',IMaTb noqaJII{"'>>'"' HSMeHHLIKOB Ha rpa.qHylo -ll <<6oroorcryrlgllK>>' 3o.norapea He BeflI'Iqaer I,Inave, xax .,nopt, oH III',IUIeT: <<KaK 6es6oXHLIXaMI{, pa3HHrIeB Pncyn PasHHa. n caMoro oHrr, Bopbl, BoIITJII{ e iopo,n, 3a HeAeJIIo 4o flerp-ora AHq' I'I B Tor o6pa' nocr craJIIt Mrco n cblp ffcrl{' narle rarap, a uro6 Ko I'IcrHHe qeIOBeKa roro I,I OHLI ycJIbIIIIarb, cJroBO y Koro 4O6poe TrrBcfl rrJrr4 17. B eroft TOT xe rrac n cpy6nr> Qpage [pocKaJlb3E[Baer paBHoAyrure pa3I4HIIeB K o6ulenpuunroMy io6'nro,iennrc nocra - ue 6o'nl,a. B csoefi HeHaBr{crH K BOCCTaBTIIuM 3onoraper AoxoALIT AO np"yu"n"uaHHfi. I4ssecrHo' rITo npI'I B3trI'Ill ropoAa- noru6'no v K.a3ueuo no fipnroBopy <<Kpyra> ue 6olee 400 qeroseK' Sororap€B x<e Pugionu KpoBox(aAHbIM 3JloAeerrl: <Aa ror xe Cresl"t"opr*"6t xa Pasnn, Bop H 6oroorctynHl{K' e3Aa Ha KoHe rlo ropoAy' 3a Maa unblx B BOAy JIOe HeTITO OBbrX SaKaJIqg Ca6Igr'Iu, oBblx oceKag, 18' py6n, ornycKaq> I{ Horlt pyKI'I cax(aq, IIHbIM Crperarcr |Ae.trars cnoft paccxa3 noyqLITeJIbHbIM AJIR acrpaxaHqee, 3blotapeB rpoAoJlxaer:-<Pacnpaoy x(e acrpaxaHcKue HsMeH' nnxll ao6pyil ce6-e saxnnn! Ha ro x(e cMorpfl, acrpaxaHcKllx I'I3TOMy x(e noAooHo rBOpflT: MeHHT.TKOB' nerr.r [ocneAylor orIIeM nocJlyuaet, 6sror naJIKaMu u BetualclT co6uparcr Kpvru, 'ABropI't KTo He garryraTb acrpaxaHqeB u npeAoTBpale. nbrraercg sa Hbrr.r' Tnrb LIx Aanruefiruee yqacrne B KJIaccoBtilx 6I,trsax' Taxnu o6pasou, nepeA HaMn npongBeAeHue, HanucaHHoe cBer' CKHMJII,IuoM'ocHoBaHHoeHauc[oJIb3oBaHI,II.IKoHKpeTHbIxHcToqHI,IKOB I,I OTflKIIAIoUIECCfl NOIbITKAMH BbIqCHI'ITb PCAJIbHbIE CBfl3I'I IIPO' LlcxoAtlrrux co6urnft I'I Aarb Htrt co6crseHHoe ToJIKoBaHI'Ie' .,C*asaHrue o HarrrecrBLrr4 Ha o6ure.nl ... Maxapng XerrosoA-

B tarOfi UaMqTHItK CJIOXHOrO COCTaBa' KaK Iu"y*"""naq creneHH as :rlrra' HccJIeAoBaHnas fl' f' BaceHKo s e coBercroe AopeBoJlKlunouuuft [epl4oA u [I- il. Mypaoreeofi

CKOrO>> 6St.ltO gXIIOTIeHO

ll' no aKpocrl'Ixy, ony6;turona{Yony ,f' Bac-euxo' era KHI{ra 6u,ra cocraBJleHa ypoxeHlleM Ht'lx<nero Horropo4a Tnxo1678 r. B 1675-16ii n. Tuxott 6ul uacrosrerleM Maxapre" "o" sa XenrosoAcKoro MoHacrupfl, r 1680 r' cocroflJl KeJIapeM MoHa'

npeuR -'-Cyl"20.

crblps Casebl CropoxercKoro' KaKau-ro o6pasoM craJl

I{sBecreH 45


narpnapxy AH4pnauy, xoropufi Ha3HaqHJl ero Ka3HarreeM narpnapueft Ka3nbr (e 1695-1706 rr.). Ecrl ocHoBaHHe rroJrafarb, r{ro oH BepHyJrcfl B MoHacrhrpb H 6u.r rau noxopouen 21. flouauo .IIaryxnncrori crelessoft KHlrrk Tuxos H3BecreH KaK aBTop pa6or no I{epKoBHOMy neHr.t}o.

llpuuepHo--x 1678 r. oH 3aKoHqr{Jr .Ilaryxuncryro creneHHyro

KHHry H s 1679 r. nepeAaJr ee B MoHacrhrpb, <<AoBoJrHy MgAy 3a ce B3flX>, KaK TOBOpUTCfl B TOM )Ke aKpocTrrxe. ,rlaryxuHcxas crerreHHar KHHra AoIxJra Ao Hacroflulero BpeMeHH B oAHHHaAuara cnucKax, H3 Koropbrx [Iecrb ornocflTcq x rparrofi

peAaKrlr{r H rqrb K npocrpaHHori. B 1696 r. Tuxou cocraBnJr oco6yro KparKyro -pe4aKrlr4ro H. CusoAanrsuft cnncox, <<Koro- r. pufi xpaHnJrcff B narpriapueft cnarlue, B cyHAyKe)>, KaK cKagaHo Ha rrepBoM HeHyMepoBaHHoM JrHCre pyKorrucn. Cxasart HaBepHrrKa, nro 6u,r aBTopoM r{MeHHo <<Craganliq o Ha[recrBulr>>, AoBo,rrbHo rpyAHo. C r.r3BecrHblM ocHoBaHneM Jl. Jl. Mypanteoa r.wcaila, rrro B ro BpeMff HeBosMoxHo 6u,to npoBec^rri pe3Kylo fpaHr.ruy MexAy rpyAoM aBropa u cocraBHre,,rfl KHr.r_ 1u22. To, qro aBTop 6H,'r ayxosHbrM JnrrIoM, K ToMy xe npeKpacHo 3HaB[rr.rM ronorpa0nro MoHacrbrpfl H HeKoropbre noApo6nocrr{ efo ocaAbl, Aaer ocHoBaHre nod'Iararb, qro au 6u;t TaxoH Maxaosee-

clrr.rii.

flpaeneueu,e AoKyMeHTaJIbHbrx AaHHbIx, B lracrHocrr.r paccilpocHUx peueft noBcraHqeB H yqacrHHKoB Cpax(eHr.rfi c saua, noKa3bIBaer reHAeHrrr{o3Hocrb gToro npo[3BeAeHrrrr KaK r.rcropr{qecKoro HCTOTIHHKA.

Tax,

paccnp_ocHbre per{H

npuKa3e

KasaHcxoro ABopua .arc4efi -B foayuona, y6nroio pasr.rHuaMH, w KasaKa, B ilporxJ,IOM KPCCTbflHI'IHA MATTUrCSCXOfi BOJIOCTA H3 BOTIIHHT,I KHfl3g fl. K. tlepxaccKoro, Euenrsna l4eaHosa rro3BoJrfllor cvr[ecrBeHHo yror{HHrb Kaprr'rHy 60pl6u 3a MoHacrbrpr. B <<cxasaw:|.u o HaurecrBI'Ir4)) He ynoMflHyro, qro^roc.ne,repeoti noIIbrrKI,I 83flTb BO,'il{{CKyio ' rBepAbrHro rxrypMoM 8-10 orra6pa noBcraHrraMu 6utna orripaBJreHa B MoHacrblpb AeJlerar{Hfl C npeAJro)KeHaerra Ocno6OArirb craprxH_ uy fleprunna l4eaHoea c roBapr.rqaMr.r, B3aMeH lrero DasuH[rr o6eu{a.nz orofiTH OT MOHaCTbrpg. fleperonopbr oKoHrilt,ril.lcl 3ar(rroqeHHeM AOTOBOpa Ha BbrcoKoM ypoBHe: <<Arauan 6Hn s MoHacrbrpe. B uepKBe rr y apxr.tMopHra B Ke,'rbe>> 23. ApxuuaHApHr flaxour.ilr PACIOP'AI,Id'ICfl BbITIYCTHTb I,I3 TIOPbMbI PASHHIICB, A M. OCUNON OTBCJ,I cBor.r orprAu x MyparuxvrHy. I oBopr o nocJreAyrou{r'x co6uur flx, HoBoM np'cryne K MoHacrbrP! pasnuUeB Iz cAaqe efo rroBcraH(aM l5-l7 oxrx6pa, atsrop <<CxasaHHfl o HaIIIecrBHIt>> ueo6pasu",r Aero raK r{To, gxo6u croJrbHr{Ka

lI.

3TIiM HOBbIM NPI,ICTYIIOM,

BOTIPCKH AO|OBOPCHHOCTA

C MOHACTbIPCKII-

MX B/'IACT'IMH, PYKOBOAI,IJI OTI'Tb-TAXN M, OCANOA, ACJIAfl CfO TA. rnu o6pasou <<KJrrrBo[pecrynHr.{KoM)>. B Aeftc"""rerbnocrn ^ M. Ocnnos 6lt.[ s srn rHLr noi CapancKoM, a Mouacrbrob ocax(AaJI orpfA noA KoMaHAoBaHr.reM fua Huxwrr.rHcKoro2a. Kasaxu 9TOIO OTPgAA ACfiCTEATCJIbHO 3AXBATI'JII,I XPAHI{BIIIECCS TAM HMYUIE. 46


crBO 60rarblx BKnaArIuKoB, noxrJllt roproBble noMelqeHl{g' rAe npo'

xoAr{JIa flpMapKa, H orolxJII'I

r

Myparuxlruy' JAe

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rrrcBaIIIa MHOfHe JTIOAT{>. Tau npNneceggoe LI3 <TaTapbI, MOpABa MOHaCTbIpq I,IMyIqecrBo 6u.lto <<noAyBaHeHo>>' T. e. noAeJIeHO' Antop <<Cragauus o HaIrecrBlII'I>> llcKalKaer eure oAHy AeraJIb' cH.[,e,'ro n roM, qro KpecrbqHe, uogaxu-6enblrbl I'I ApyfHe JIIoAI'I'

II

AeBnr{e B ocaAe, rrocJre oTxoAa oTpsAa M. oc[nosa llorpeuotsaJlH y MoHacrbIpcKLIx sflacreft xaJloBaHbfl, Ho nocJleAgne, o6oApeHHHe oTXoAoM [oBcTaHueB oT cTeH MoHacTblpq, I,IM oTKa3aJIIa: <<HI,Iqero

ragsu He AaJIH lrM r.rg MOHacTbIpCrOfi -Moxer

I-I Te KpeCTbflHe H3 MOHaCTbIpfl 6url araMaH, ^6yayun B Mollacrblpe' He pa3oIIIJILIcb> 25. TOJTbKO UeJIOBaJI LIKOHy BCeAepxI',ITeJIfl c[aca, Ho H CyMeJI rIOrOBOpLtTb c ocaAHbIMI.t JrroAbMr.r, MoxeT 6urt oulr IpgAGSBLIJII{ rpe6ouO ceoeft HHIitIIiaTHBe. TaX LIJIH I{Haqe, CyAU6y MOHaCTbIpq "a*rn" rrpeAorrpeAeJIHJI yxOA KpecrbflH, a coBceM He HapyueHKe AofoBopa

M.

Ocnnoebllu.

Anrop xe <<CKagaHvfl. o Ha[IecrBHI4>> llso6pasu-.lt Ae.lo raxurvl o6pasoM, r{ro <<ocaAHLILI JIIoAI{e u3 Jrtrxa crpaxoM o6rsrn 6ueure posno pas6ero[ract, eABa roql{rc apxuMaHApllr c HeMHororo ocra 6pa-

TLIerc>> 26.

B

<<CxasaHHI,r>> llcKa)KaeTcfl

I,I uocJreAytoqan 6opa6a 3a MoHa-

crbrpb. Anrop p[cyer noBcraHueB

MeABeAtMH <<yfl3BJIeHHbIMI'I>>

t,l

ocaMr.r <<pasApaxeHHbIMI'I>>, a 3aUIIITHLIKOB KpenocTl',I .<<eAI'IHO-MbICJIeHHbrMr.r>> u o66apeunblMl4 rlpuHeceHHoft K HHM HKoHoft ce. Maxapun.

OAsaxo gro rlocrpoeHlle pyuurcs fipu [epBoM )Ke sHaKoMcrBe c ,tI,oKyMeHTaMI,I, H3 KOTOpbIX I{3BeCTHO He ro,'IbKo 06 yxoAe,KpecrbflH r.r3 Monacrblpfl, Ho x o nepexoAe Ha cropouy pa3I'IHqe_B 6ueutax e ocaAe ccbIJIbHbIx Bo fJIaBe c KoHIoxoM I(upu.uoru )(aponcxutvt t't rpex cJryr lI. fo4ynona 27. flo4ueprueaq osro6neHuocrb rloBcraHqeB, aBTop B ro xe BpeMq orreHb raKonr.rrrHo coo6u{aet o Aeficts[qx KapareJlfl Knfl3s K. O. U{ep6aroro. O rou, KaK B AeftcrB}ITeJIbHocrI{ BbIfJIsAeJIo ycraHoBJIeHHe <<TI,IuII{HbI c,ra4xoft> n paft_oue JIHcxoeo-MypaIxKHHo' coo6lraer e csoefi orrlucKe B [pIIKa3 Kasaucxoro ABopIla KHfl3b IO. A. !,o.rropyrrait: <V oHIr-Ae, rocyAapb, roBapnulu MoH, BbIHs r.rc TropbMbI Tex BOpoB, 3a I{X BOpoBcTBO BeJIeJIK Ka3HIrTb CMepTHIO: OTCEI{b TOJIOBbI, A I,IHbIX IIOBECI,ITb, A TPCX qEJIOBCK IIOCAAHTb HA KoJrbe, a r{erblpHaAuarb r{eroBen 6nrn KHyroM, H orcerleHo IrM rlo .rraJrbIIy>> 28.

sHaLIM, aBrop <<CrasaHns>> He oco6esno sa6ornrcq o6 r.rcroplrqecKofi aocroe-epHocrl,I. I(ar,vro )Ke ue,'Ib on ce6e craeun?

Kak

B gaxrloqure.nlnofi qacrlt reKcra <<Cxaganns>> Aaercfl o6lgcuesne' Oiragusaerqfl B3flTbCf ga IIepO erO nO6yAuJILI HaxOAI{MbIe IIOBCIOAy <<III,ICaHLIS

[peJlecrHble>>,

p

a3ocJl aHHbIe pa3I'IHUaUn.

flpottlB

<<IIyIIIeq-

HbIX Lr OfHeHHbIX npHBaJIOB>> pa3HH[eB OH BbIABItfaJI <<AyXOBHOe Opy-

cBflrbll ... Ko BceIIreApoMy Bory I'I K qyAorBopuy Marapurc>>. C aroft uedrlblo oH I'I HarIHcaJI 3Ty ncrop_n-qecKylo [o' secm. Ha ceun crpaHllqax reKcra s Heft ynoMsHyro 30 neftcrsyrc' ilrux nnq. Hecuorpa Ha HeKoropblft Harer 6orocnonus, aBTop MbI>Krle, MoJIr{TBbI

47


CJIBT BIOJIHe IIparMaTHrrecKN, Bce nocraB.rreHo

Ha B[oJrHe 3eMHyro

ocHoBy.

Os nuraercr Hartrn npur{r.rHbr HeKoropbrx co6brrnft (uanpurraep, o6rRcuaer, florreMy MoHacrbrpcKr{e B.rracru [oIrrJrH Ha neperoBopbr c pasHHrIaMw.), oilHpaflcb Ha HcrotrHHKH (aHaQerrlcrooBanue C. pagr.rHy <c roBapr{qu>, npe.rrecrH_bre nnclua), u B To x(e BpeMfl reHAeHrrHoBHo ngJraraer Qaxru. Ou Bpar BoccraBrrrero Hapo4a, noHHcrByrorrlnfi u 6ecnoulaAHbrft, n- npu6erHyJr K r,rAeolorllvecrouy opyx<l,trc noroMy, r{To oltacaercs sogo6HoBJrennfl xpecrtRscr<oft sofiHbr.

_ C nosuufift [poBHAeHrIr{aJrH3Ma (r. e. npeAHarrepran[fi eontl 6oxlefi) Hanr.rcaHbr cKasaHEq [peAcraBr.rre.neft -4yxoneicrea. K unrvr orHocrrcr BbrrrreHaBBaHHbre npor.rgBeAeHr.rff: <<r{yAeca Eoro.nena t{epnonpcroro>> n orpbrB_oK ns <fucropru o qape...u. B nepeoM paccKasbrBaercn o cyAl6e tlepHoro fpa: 6pat ero Pasr,rH nocJlar Hs

Acrpaxann rarap, Koropbrx sxo6u ocJren[.rr r{ orrryrHyJr 6po4neunfi no ropoAcKHM crenaM nnox. To xe trpolrgoruJro r{ co BTopbrM orpsAoM noBcranrreB. To;rlno cnacurnfi rcpoA BoeBoAa I4. D. Munocrascr[ft ciraor sofirn o BocxpeceHcKyro uepKoBb r.r yAtrBtrrbcfl ropnureft raM cBeqe. Buecro PasuHa B <<tryAe> AoJrx(eH 6un eraryprapoBarb Apyroft araMaH IIIenyAnx. Ho Anq uepKoBHr{KoB - Oeaop gro 6buro He cyrb BaxHo oHH ynopHo npoAoJrxaJrn HAeo,'rornqecxyro 6opu6y [pornB yxe -pae6nrux s 6on pasnHrreB. Ha6.nrc4euns. HaA noBecrflMr.r

14

cKagaHufl.Mn noqBoJrflror cAeJrarb

HeKoroptle o6ulue BbrBoAEr o pagBHTr{H Hcropr.rqecKorl uuc,rn B KoHqe XVII n. HcropuvecKne rpyAbr craHoBqrcfl ueneycrpeM.nenseft n colluanbuo s.ro6o4ueaueft. Bsurvrasue nx aBropoB npnKoBbrBaror nor,rcKu peaJlbHbrx npHrrI,rH ncropnr{ecKnx co6urnft, KoHKpernbre AeficrBns nn4eft, JrorlrKa nx lroBeAennfl, xH3HeHHHe o6croqreJrbcrBa. Taru, rAe rlyBcrBoBarcfl Ha.rler 6oroc.nosnq, gro BbrrJIffALrr, cKopee, KaK AaHb cnox<Herueftcff TpaAr{rltr[.

NPI4MEqAHH'I

I Cu.:9ucrsKora

-E._B-. _Acrpaxaul

Pagnna llVlvopun CCCP. 1957. N! 5. C. 189.

B

nepuoA Boccranr{fi Crenana

2 Cu.: 9ucrsKoga E. B. Bacrlanri Vc-cnoAanxusx Crenana pasuHa. M., 1963. C. 45,47, 49. 3 flepeaa peAaKqrrr cJleronucsoro cKa3anur flerpa 3o.norapeBa> noAroroBJIeEa

K neqarn JI. 3. Muarrorurofi n ng6a*a g xH.: norHoe

co6panr.re DvccKHx

(taaee-IICPJI): T. 31. M., 1968. __1 II|AAA. @. Caposcrofi nycrnHr. Kn. 290. JI. 2. Cnucor 6n,r yrasau

aeronacefi

_ B. H. Illyrrruaoanrra. 6 Cu.:

EyraHos B. 14.,flperncaosue llflCPll:- T.31. C.7. HcropuqecKne. Cn6., 1841. T. II. Nb 202. |EJI. O.218. Kapron 341. Kn. l. JL 4l. Cu. rarxe: Eyranoe B. lI. IlpeAncrorue. C. 7. t CretlasoB 11. B. Kpecrrsscrar gofiHa s PoccRu 1670-1671 rr. Boc6

7

Cu.: Axru

craune Crenasa Pasuua: T. I.-JI., 1966. C. 58-67. e Cu.: IICPJI: T. 31. C. 208-211. 48


to

qp.6un"auu[ pasuu!,er

Ha

no6epexre Kacnus

cu.:

_ceBepnou euro Q B. A. Kaaccosas 6opr6a na flnre-s XVII-XVIII ss. M.. 1g66. -O. tt [fA,(A. Caporcrofi nycrunu. Kn. 290. JI. 3 o6. 12 Tau xe, JL O o6. rs Tau xe. JI. 8. ra Tau xe. JI.9. 15 Tar$ xe. JI.9 o6. ro Tan xe. JI. 10. rTTau xe.JI.12. 18 re

,{, a p n-

Tau xe.

Tau xe. JL 12. zo Cu.: Bacesro fI. l.

3auerxu r Jlaryxnucrofi crenessoft xunrell C6opnnr OrAeJeuaR pyccKoro t3HKa n cJroBecuocrn lun. Axa,q,, sayx: T, Zi. CfI6., 1903; MyqaBbeBa JI. JI. O crRcxax Jl_aryxuncxofi ctenennoii xnnrull Apxeorpatpnuecxuft exeroAHr.rK sa lg64 r. M., 1965.

llxowurrK_oB B. C. Onur pyccxofi ncropuorpaQnu: T.2. Kv.2. 22 Cu.: MypaBbeBa JI. JI. O cnncxax Jlaryxuncxort crenessoft xsurlr. C. 85. n. I. Bacenro cquraer, qro <Cragasue> 6Hlo caMocrorreJrbHbrM rraMfiTHnKoM, BKJrrorreHHHM Tuxouou s ICK. Cu.: BaceHKo fI. f.3auerxu x JIa21

Crrr.:

Kues, 1908. C. 1338-1339.

ryxnncxofi crenennoft ruure, C. 82-85. 23 C6. Aox.: Kpecrtxucran sofiHa noA trpeABoAr.rrenbcreoM Crenaua Pasuaa (Aa;ree C6.,qox.: KpecrraxcraR nofiua...): T. II. q. l. M., 1957. Nb 217. C, 266. -A. Ka6anoe csuraer, tITo, no-BnAuMoMy, apxuMagApr{T orKyn[Jrcr or noBcrau[eB, Ho HrrqeM ero__He apryMeuTlrpyer. Cu.:

Ka6anos A.,[,re

eepcun

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xoBcKoro, !,,ryroura, Eenrcxoro, Eorepa, Kpouepa, isaHrr{Hn H Ap.). Kax yxasusar C. .II. fleura,{, aBrop <<crrcreMarrlqecKH npoBepsJI' AoTIoJIHflJI I'I KoppeKTHpoBaJI cBHAerer'lbcrBa IIoJIbcKol't xpoHLIKH pyccKI4MH d'IerottucgMH)> 17. B rle"rroM pflAe cd'IyqaeB oH orMeqaJI pa3Hoper{Hfl B r.rcroqH}rKax (o HasnaHaH p}rccxl.rx, o KpeuleHr.rH Orrrn u Bna1uuupa, o Mex4oyco6uuax xridserl flpoc,ranuveft, o [pollcxoxAeHl{u qapcKllx pera"ltli u r. I.). Teu calluM nDoflB,,rflJIr{Cb 3!'reMeHTbr cpaBHare,,rbHofo 3H3Jr{3&. VXe cau saxr lrcnoar3OBaHLIfl rrOJIbCKr,rx xpoHHK, HanHcat{HbIx KaTOJI}IKaMr{, cBHAeTe,.-rbcrByer o npeoAoJreHHH Co3AaredreM <<cnHorclrca>> cpeAHeBexoeofi

peJrHrnosHofi Herepnuuocrn.

I,Icc.reAogarell Xpounrn M. Crpurixoscxoro A. 14. poroe cqHTaer, qro aBTop <<Cauoncaca>> 3ar.rMcrBoBaJr y noJrbcKoro xpoHr{cra He roJrbKo Qari'rauecrne AaHHbre, so u 60,ree roro - <<reopuecxuft MeroA crpufironcKoro c ero KaK cllrrbHbIMrI, rar u c"ra6uoru cropo54


HaMr.r>>. Anrop orMeqaer nporllBopeqrlt B I,IcrotIHnKax, He pacKpblBas cBoefo MHeHLII Ha cefi cuet, 6errerpn3l.Ipyer onHcaHI{s BoeH,sux 6ara.nafr u np. 18. Bo eceft KHItre r{yBcrByercq rpeAHaMepeuHnfi ot6op aBTopoM KaK LrcrorIHI,IKoB, TaK H AaHHbrx LIg HI,Ix. Aeficrgng orAeJIbHHx rgssefi oH oqeHI.IBaJI c rlo3l{uaft croponHuxa cu.nlttoft BeJIHKo,KHqxecxofi (cauo4epxaaHofi) BJIacrtl. Kueecxas [pl'IBepxeHHocrb aBropa H ero npeArloJlaraeMafl IIepKOBHaff rIpI'IHaAJIexHocrb orcrynaJrr.r 3Aecb ua nropofi nJIaH: KorAa HaAo 6u.no ocyAtlrs Aeficrsnq Anapes Eoronrc6cxoro, pa3rpoMl{Blxefo B 1169 r. KHes, oH ero onpaBAbrBa,'r, rorrblTKy xe raJll{rrKoro KHgSt Pouaga Mct[crasuqa yrBepAr.rrbcs e Kt,teee, uao6opor, rnaluQnqupoBa,'I KaK crp€Mne.Hxe <<npucrflxarll ce6e cauoAepxaBcrBue Poccnftcroe>. Taxoft TeHAeHrIHo3sufi noAxoA K MarepraJly AI{KroBaJIcfl onpeAeJIeHHbIMI{ noJrr{Tr{qecKHMI,I Bo33peHHflMLI aBTopa H qeJIffMI,t efo rpyAa. Orue-

THN{ ocHoBHue upo6,'teMbl, rIocraBJIeHHbIe s <<CtlHortcuce>>. Bepnufi TpaAHuLIfM, 3aJIox(eHHbIM eule cosAareJlflMu xpoHorpaQoo, aBTop Haul{Haer cBoe rIoBecrBoBaHHe o <<cJloBeHo-poccuft-

Ii yKa3blBaer Ha ero Mecro H po,'rb e uuporoft acropuil. Kpyroeop efo urlpoK: B ulaBe 4-ft ou KoporKo [epeqnc,'Ifler qacrli coera (Erpora, AsHr, A$paxa), roBopr.rT o cTpaHax r.r HapoAax, HaceJlflolrll4x I{x, o AocT}I}KeHI{flx B HayKe r.r KyJrbrype. 06 Arraepure cKasauo, qro 9ro: <qerBepraq qacrb BceJIeHHbrr, flKo Haplruaercg Hosblfi ceer; Ho flKo cl{fl rlocJrexAe npoqHx HoBoLISo6peTeHa u K ceMy IIpeAJIo)KeH[Io MaJIo llro KJrroqHMa, cero paAH 6es onncaHllt ocraB.nflercfl>>. Srxrr,t u HcrlepnbrBaercfl AaHb Mr.IpoBofi ncropull. B qenrpe BHr{MaHufl cnasqHcxoft H pyccroft ucropnorpaQnt XVI-XVIII ss. HaxoAuJtacb npo6leua npo[cxoxAeHl.Ifl cJIaBsH, o6pasonaHar HMr4 nepBblx tocyAapcrB, Bo3HHKHoBeHHfl KHflxecKHX rw:r.acruit. B coorsercrBllu c HcropI{qecKI4MH 3lloxaMn H Bo33pe-

cKoM HapoAe>> c Apenueftuero nepl{oAa

HHflMH aBTOpOB r.ICTOp[qeCKI.Ix TpyAOB TeOpnU CflaBqHCKOTO 9THO-

feHe3a cMeHfJII{ OAHa Apyrylo, Ho ocTaBaJlocb crpeMJIeHI,Ie AoKagarb ApeBHocrb grllx HapoAoB, BbIBecrK nx vg MpaKa 6a6.neftcxux BpeMeH, nocraBllTb Ha BIIAHOe MeCTO B COBpeMeHHOM HM MHpe. B yreepx4eHua arofi HaquoHaJlbHo-narpl{orllqecroft LIAeI'I cKa3blBaJrocb xeJraHr{e r{cropl,IKoB npo6y,untt HaIrI{oHaJIbHoe caMoco3Hafrlle cJIaBflH B MoMeHT, KOrAa alpeccopbl nbITa,'IHcb yHHqroxfiTb I'Ix, pa3pylilr.rrb naMIrHI{KLI }Ix KyJIbrypbI, _ npeAart sa6seHl'Ito Bepy, rrHcbMeHHocTb, qsbrK ueJIbIX HapoAoB (HMeff B BI-IAy IOXHbIX H 3anaAHbrx cnanau). B <<Cunoncuce) noilyqaer cBoe HaHBbIcIxee 3aBepIIreHHe raK Ha3bIBaeMafl <<capMaTcKaq> Teopl.tfl pacceJleHHg cJIaBflH I'I ee oTBeT[pHIIIeAurefi ga cMeny BJregpre B Br.rAe nAen <<Mocox - MocxBa>>, B <<floeecrl,I BpeMeHHL[x JIer>> c$oprr,ry;rzposaHHofr eule HecropoM <6anxaucxofi>> reopnu, orAaBIIIeft Aass npaBocJIaBHo-sugaHII'IftcKoMy noJrLITuqecKotuy uacre4nrole.

CQopuynupoBaHHafl exre noJIbcKxMI4 xpoHncraMll, gTa reopug 6ama' noaieaqeHa yKp aIrHcKo-pyccKL'IMIr KHIIxHI'IKaMI' C ocso6ox55


Pycu or rarapo-MoHronbcKoro ura, yKpe[JreHr]eM poccuficKoro rocyAapcrBa, c Bo3Hr.rKHoBeHHeM HaAexA 6alrancrux cna_ BsH Ha ero noMolllr n _60pr6e c SaBoeBareJrffMlt nocreneHHo Mocox (axo6u urecrofi cnH l4a0era) npenparr'Jrcr B <narpraapxa>> Bcex c.rraBsHcKr{x HapoAoB,..a Mocrsa rryrb Jrr{ He a upapo4r.rHy Bcex cJIaBflH. B OCHOSe atOft teopuu nexa.na MbIcJrb o eAnHcrBe cJraBflH, r{x erHHqecKoM KpoBHOM pOACrBe. 14 xax 6u oHr,r rroroM HH pacceJIffJIHcb, xar 6u HI.I Ha3HBaJII{cb 9To 6u.n <eAngo cyrb> cJra- Bce BflHo-pocc[ficrnft HapoA, eAusuft cBor,rM <<ecrecrBoM> H <<Hape_ qHeM>. <I4 raxo poccbr or po3cesHr{ff cBoero flpo3Barrracff, a or cJIaBsHoB I'IMeHeM TorII{P pa3HcrBylor' no poAy x(e cBoeMy eAI{Ho cyrb, g txo eAr,rH n rofi x(Ae HapoA cnaseHcx[ft, uapnqarcicfl cJraBeHopyccKn fi nnw clannopoccxr.rft >. B <Cnnoncfice)>, KaK, B[poqeM, r.r B HeKoropbrx Apyrux [por.r3BeAeHr,rqx rofr nopu, na6nrcAaercfl H*afl, qeM s <<Ilos-ecrn BpeMeHHbrx Jrer>, TpaKToBKa Haqa.ira Pycr.l. Anrop [pocrpaHHo [oBecrByer o6 ucropun Pycn_ sa4o.nro Ao npagBaHlrfl BapqroB: paccKa3brBaer o6 ocHoBaHrrn Kueea s 431 r. lteptsblMrl rHsgrqMr.r- (Knerrl, ll{sKoM,H Xopneorr,r), o [paBd]reHnr{ HoBropoAcKoro Knseq focrouuc1a. Ou fipg.Bpauaer B roroMKos Kkq Acxo.tsAa w [upa; propux, Cnneyc r.r Tpyoop BbrrrrJur sxo6u orKyAa-?o r.rs flpycun n <HapoAa qSbrKa cJroBeHcKa 6nxy>. OHU 6u.nn nprarJraureHbr B cJlo)Kr.rBrxeecn rocyAapcTBo B cHJry BHyTpeHHITX npI{rrHH paAr.r>- <<HecTpoeHHfl If,peyae.unuu,eaa <caMoAepxa,B'crBne> KueBcKHx rnseeft .Ha BceM [porffxeHur{ KHr.IrH, aBrop npocnexnBaeT ncropr.rrc npeeMcrseuuoft rernrnusoft, c ero ro.qKr{ spennq, Ar{Hacrr.rn. Ilapalle.nluo (u raxx<e qeneycrpeu;lenuo) oH orMeqaer pa3Bnrr.re fi yKpeureHne rrep* xoaHoft opraHri3aqr{r.r B[Jrorb Ao ycraHoBJreH]rs flarpr{apuero AeHr{eM

rrpecroJra.

Oco6euso sno6oAHeeHofi 6una Apyrafl BeAyular reua <<CuHonPycn c rarapo-TypeuKzMu noxoAaMri. <<Canoncnc>> - 6opr6ar.r Ha[eqaraH 6u.n uanucaH B oseHb c.noxuurl HcropuqecKsrl uoMeHr: B 1672 r. qacrb IOro-3anaAnoft VxpauHbr flo4o.nnn 6una s_axBaqeua n pasrpa6neHa rypKaMH, a qepes -l0 ner rtorirnula Kapa-Mycra$r,l-naura rroAorrrirr.r r reorpaQnqecKoMy qeHrpy Eoponbr BeHe. Pea.uu3yff gry reMy, aBTop, 3aHr,rMaer qerBeprb KHr.rrE (n -rpemeu \ns6atr4r4 1680 r.) paocKa3oM o I(y;rnroncrofi 6rrse. Ou yAerner BHHMaHlre .rtosr.rqnn JrriroBcKr{x Klisserl Anapes IIonorlroro u ,[,nrr.rrpm EpRucxoro, npr.IurBrrr]rx npaBocJraBue rrepeg Hx Marrexy KHrrr.rHto Anuy, 3a r{To oreq OlmepA nx <<orpuny.tr>. Our nocoBeroBalu .[,nrnrpzrc I4eauosnqy nepeBecru soficxa uepee ,[lon" qro6u <Hr.rKro He noMbrcJln.n (nmu) Ha3aA>. Ha Ky.nnrosoilr nore norn6lo 30 Ha,rarrHr{KoB JruroBcrux, KorAa KHfl3bs no BoBBDaqeHr.rn e Mocnny craJrr.r co6nparrcr 4ouofi, .tlrrlnrpr.rfi cra.rr nfocnrb r.rx ocrarbcs, Ho He cMor yroBopurs. OH BMecre c BlaAuulrpou Xpa6pbrM npoBoAr{Jr r.rx 4o Moxaficxa u rpa paccraBaHuu. HasBaJr nx <<6parnR Mofl MItJrbIe, u cnoco6uraKu Hallu> n [oxeJraJr trrvr 4o6poro nyru. Anrop <Cnuo'ncaca> cTaJr [epBbrM r,rcTopr{KoM coeperraeu,noit cnca>

56


eMy tlarr,rpnHcKoft Borinbr. Ir/.croput groro cro.rrKnoBeHr.rfl c rypKaMlr He Ao KoHrIa oqeHeHa B coBpeMeHuoft ucropnorpaQuu, a Me>KAy TeM sattl{cKu QpaHqyecKoro AurrJroMara MapKasa Hyanre;rs a AefiCTBHfl TONJIAHACKI,IX AHINOMATOB NOKA3bIBAIOT OCTPYIO AI{NJIOMATH.

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.nnroft.

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JICHIICM)>.

3ro 6ula o4ua npo6.leMa, Ho ocraBaJrcfl Hepe[reHubrM Bonpoc 96 ynpoveHua pe3yJrbraroB BoccoeAnuennr Vxfannu c poccnefi. !..ua o6eux crpaH aro 6un rpyanufi Boflpoc. Kax xe ocBerrlaer ero aBrop <<Cnnoucl.rca>? On flpocJrexr]Baei cyas6y Kuesa: nepnofi 4arofr Ha3brBaer 431 r., or Hero oH BeAer eAHHoAepxaBHe Ha pyc_1.r, 3areM paccKasbrBaer o <<npr{MyrreHnfi KHqxeHr.rff KEescxoro lo JlnroBcKoro> KHflsfl leAnuusa (1320 r.). B l4zl r. nolrcxufi KopoJrb npeBparnJr KI,tescxoe K.HrxecrBo B BoeBoAcrBo: <<Or qapcrnnx B KHff>KeHHe, a oT KHffXeHr.If B BOeBOACTBO), CoKpy[raeTcq oH. B 1654 r. Knes 6u.n nosn_panles Poccl.rn. I{eltrc "tll"scerAa "cropnuecKr'rx po3brcxanuft 6nno y6e4Hrb rrr{TareJrE, sro KHes 6u.rr Hcropr.rqecKr,rM qeHrpoM Pycn, npeuenuo norraBrrrr.rM noA BJracrb JII'rrBbr H lloflburfi; Ho r,rcropHrrecKaff cIIpaBeAJrHBOCTb BOCrOpXrecr-

n 6utr He Mor.[o. cosAaHr,rfl <<Cnnoncnca> 6opr6a c flo;lsureft sa noJrHoe BoccoeAr,rHenne Vxpaunu c Poccnefi eule He 6u;la cusra c noBecrKr.r AHf. Bor no,reMy aB.rop aKqeHTr.rpoBaJr BHr.rMaHHe He Ha ToM, qro pa3beAr-rHqto Poccl.rro u Peqr flocnornryro, a Ha roM, rrro nx o6T eAnstJro. Tax_, oH orrycrr.IJr H3JroxeHHe naMqrHofi ero coBpeMeHHr{KaM strorren 5. XuenruarlKoro, coqyBcrBeHHo orosBaJrcfl o noJIbcKoM BoeBoAe Knega A. Kucene H T. A. Ha nau B3rJrflA, 3ro ue 6u.no [oJrI{Tr.IKaHcrBoM L JraBHpoBaHLreM co cropoHbl aBTopa, a BoBaJIa, LIHaqe

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AJq 6opb6br c TypuNefi gaHr.rMara q3BecrHoro pyccKoro AHnJIoMara A. .II. OpauHa-Haqornna. flpono4nuKoM ee, xorfl LI HecKoJIbKo

gaByanupoBaHHo, craJl n <<CuHoncnc>>. Hapnay c MHoroqucJIeHHbIMH I.r3AaHHflMr.r KHHfa rIpoAoJIxaJIa pacnpocrpaHsrbcfl I,I B pyKonlicax. feorpaQnx ee cr?IcKoB qpe3BblqaftHo rxr4poKa: oHK HMe,'rHcb H B IOxnoft (Klles, Koeeteu) , H e

Cenepuoft (ApxaHre.nrcx, KypocrpoBcKafl nolocrl) Pycn, e flosorxle (H. Hoaropo4, Caparon), e Mocroe, flepeRcnasre-3areccKoM, B lletep6ypre (e XVIII-XIX nn.). Cuucrn I{gfoToBJIffJrLIcb AJtg ,'I[rIHoro noJlbgoBaHnq, Hx noKynailfi, Aapvilw, MeHflJII{. Cyln no BJIaAe,'IbqecKkIM HaAnHc;iwt, <<CIlHoncnc> 6HtosaJI B caMblx pa3rItI{HbIX Kpyrax o6qecrsa; oH IlMeJIcff n qapcrofi 6n6ruorere, n floco,nrcKoM npllKase, IIo3>Ke-- B co6panlru leHepaJrbHoro urra6a, B pyKo[[cflx AyxoBHbIx AxaAeuufi t't yupexAenuft. Apyrrx - -<Cxrionczc>> 6n.l e co6paultlx yrIeHbIX (E. B. Eapcona)' rocyAapcrBeHHbrx Aeqrerefi (A. C. Marneena, B. B. fo,rr'rquna)' .[]!rJronaaros (nanpuuep, y Konllacra I4Hocrpauuofi ron.nernu, cJIyxHBrxefo B llepcrlu). <<Ctlnonczcotvt>> BJIaAeJIH KpecrbflHe, Ho oco6oft [onyJIflpHOCTbIO OH TIOJIb3OBaJICfl y MeqaH, KaK cBI'IAeTeJIbC_rByeT H. 14. i{osuxos. IIol lv6oqHbtMtt KaprI'IHKaMI'I Ha croxerbl Ky;tlaxoncxoft 6l,trsH crast{rcfl reKcr H3 <<Cltsoncnca>. Taruu o6pasou, pyccKl.{e JIIOALI 3HaKOMHJILICb C AaJIeKI'lM I'I CJIaBHbIM npou.[blM ceoefi PoaI,IHtt. flporpeccneHafl l,Itfl cBoero BpeMeHH uAefisas ocHoBa, HoeHft IroAxo,u, K IicroqHr.rKy, ocTpble H sro6oAHeBHbre Borrpocbl coBpeI{eHHOCTI,I, [OAHgTbte B KHilfe, UfUpOXUfi (n xpOHO,rOr[qeCKOM n"IaHe) OXBaT CO6Urufi B COqeTaHHI,I C KpaTKOCTbIO tt qeTKOCTbIO l{3,'lox{eHhlfl, Jr[TepaTypHarr $optua IIOBeCTBoBaHHT, BKJTIOqeHHe B reKcr cKa3aur.rft, xpri.narux nupaxeut,tt?, o6paueHufl K qI'ITareJlFo' K irlHporoft ny6nure BCe 3TO Ae,'IaJIO <<Ut't soncl,Ic>> oAHHM I43 CaMbIX ll CnOCo6crBOBa,lO efo HCIIO,'Ib3OBaHHIO B KanorryJlfpnblx TpyAOB qeciee yue6uofi- KHrrrH no pyccxoft trglo_p:rz. Ha <Cuuonc'c)> ccblra,,rr{cb noqrn Bce r.rcropnfrl rouqa XVII - Haqad'ta XIX n., xorn u orMeqarn B HeM B pqAe cJlyqaeB ours6rn Qaxrnuecxofo nopsAra (A. H. Masxues, A. 14. ,rltl3.non, M' B. ,rloNaoHocoe, B. H. Tarr{rreB u ap.)20. Ou c.rlyxt't.lt ucropuqecKoli ocHoeoft AJIfl HeKoro(14. Muxafi,lon, B. A- OaepoB)2r. pbrx ^ Jll{reparypnblx npoisne4enuh Taxulrr o6paeou, HaKaHyHe 3aK,'lrcqeHl4q <<BeqHofo MIlpa> (1686 r.) norBI.IJIocb neqarHoe npol'r3BeAeHl're, n xoropou 6u'na cQoprvrynupoBaHa tlAeq o6 o6uuocru ciIaBxHcKI'Ix HapoAoB, [oKa3aHo nepenJIereHI,Ie ux Itcropl'IqecKI'Ix cyae6 (na npurr'lepe Kueea), noAqepKHyra rIpeAonpeAe,'IeHHocrb H Hcrop]IqecKafl cIIpaBeAr'l1.rBOCTb BOCCOeA14HSHUq, S nOIHHfi TOJIOg 3aqBIeHO O seo6xOAnr,lOcrlr coBMecrsux AeficrsI.rft Poccuu H Apyffix cJIaBqHcKI'lx crpaH B 6opr6e c ocMaHcKLIMI{ 3aBoeBaH[flMIz I{ loKa3aHa pealnsaqua aroft nAeH Ha ttpuMepe t{urnpnncxfix noxoAoB, rIpeAorBparHBlI]Hx Aa.lbHefilrre Saxsarbl TypOK Ha BOCTOKe. B erOu 3aKJIIorIaJIocl O6qeCrBeHHo-

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pnorpaQuu. C. 25 (IIpuuevaHnn). 6 Cnsoncuc. Kues. 1674

O. CusoAalrsoe co6pauue. N! 460.

304. lHMJ_I 81 Cu.: aflno-Aanu,neicxufi A. C. "rl. Ouepx pasnurnR pyccxor? ucroqggipaQ4li LIl .n s n xus 14. A. I,Icrop,ua loro-3airiasoft pyca. ^rnreparypri Cn6., 1908-l9ll; M a Kcrrr oeilq'H. O xudscx"oi; enapxuar'rbHbre BeAoMocrrr. 1868. Nb

9. C.

e Cngoncrrc. Kuee, 1836. C. 208-209. 10

cu.: fI e'r r r-r q c. JI.

353.

<<cuHoncuc>>

"C;;n;;;-et/*K".".*n"

KaK flcropr4qecKoe

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//

Cusoucac. Cn6., 1810. C. 237. rz Cu.: Axru, orHocrul,ecH_ri t{_crop'H lONHori u 3anaAHoii pycrz, co6p. Hsa. ApJieorp-: rou.: T. 12 (1675 1676i. Cn6., 1882. J\lb 12,. C. g7_40.

n

TOAP,'I. M.; "rI., 1958. T. 15. C. 287-288. rr

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cJraBqHcKoro

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flancr.rir Xuleu4apcxnfi. M., 4.^^f._HcroprrorpaQltfl 1963. C. bl.' ra. Cu.: <Cusoncnc>. KHes, 1836. C. 18. 114 15 crrl.: E p e y u s E. fL I( ucropun o6uiecrseHHori Mrrrc,*{ Ha vxDaHHc ero.. poir no.noeunu XVII s. IITOAPI\. M.; JL, 1964. T. 10. r6 Cr'1.: fICP"ll: T. I. ClI6., 1843; lI errr rr.t q C. /I. <Cuuoncuc> KaK Hcro_

,psqecKoe npousBeAeHr.re.

n

C. 289-291.

fleurnq C. JI. <<CuHoncnc> KaK ucropuqecKoe npor.r3BeAeHrre. C. 2gl. rs Cru.: Poros A. _1,I. Pyccro-noJrr,cKr{e Ky.rrbrypHbre cBfl3lr a snoxy Bos17

poxAcgr.rfl (Crpuriixoncrr.rfi u ero xponuxa). tvl., iSOO.'C. aOZ. le Cu.: Po6unco_y A. H. HcropdorpaQuq craBrucKoro BoapoxgeHut

flaucuri Xtlexaapcxsfi. C. l0l. 20

n

sa oa-A,-11._Cr<NQcrar Hcropr{s. M., 1782. r{. l. C. 22, JT, 5-4-55: Mouceesa f.-H..Ilorrronbcon u ape'eHepyccKaq nr.rreparypa. tt.,iezt. Q. 124;,rlouoHocoB M. B. Ilo;ru. co6p.^cou. M.; 1., l9b2: T:'0. C. b_fO.

06

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lrcnom,eogauuu <cuHoncuca>> yKpaHHcKHMa r-rcropl4KaMn cM.: 14 x o g H rn B. C. Onsrr '1584-1597 pyccxoft ucropaorpbsua. I(uen, lg0'8. T. II. Ku. II. C. l54Z_ 553; I 572- 1 573: .' C"Aopoua_JI. ,t' u3epoBa ,!*.' .fI.. _..llpesHepyccKHe HcroqHHKH rpafeanH ^ A. r'. <AMHTpHlt -AoHcKoit> llnccJte!oBaqHr 14 Marep[arH rlo ApeBHe_ ,pyccKori nureparype. M., 1961.

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H CCJIbCKHM CB'IUICHHUKAM, NOCAACKI'IM JINAflM H CTPCJIbIIAM. 6ypnoft nolnrlqecxoft xHSHII He c[acaJla, Bnporpero.rtuenufi Or qeM, H rlepHaff oAexAa MoHaxa. 06 grolu qpKo cBI'IAereJIbcrByIor ucropuxo-ny6lnqucruuecKl{e npol'I3BeA_eHKr raKI'Ix repogg saureft xunru, Kax- Cum,secrp Me4neAeB H LIr:uatvfi Pr'rrvrcxuri-KopcaKoB. <flp r.rcrp acrgs M H M HpcKI{M I'I> rp enI'IJI H cocraBl'IreJl H II arp II a ptrrl{x H MOHaCT6IpCTNX netgnUgeft, C KOTOpbIMLI MbI Aanee CTOJIKHeMCS. oAnaxo He 6Hsaer [paBr{Jr 6es I{crnn.reHHft. BuAarculutvtcf IIaffTIHM

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or

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(Nb'522, 310 .rrn.)

cocraBnTe.ne Jleronucua HeMHoro' l4sy'tan coqTo elto I{cTotIHI{Kt,I coq}IHeHl{g, yqeHble ycTaHoBHJIH'

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AepxaHI,Ie n aBrop rpI{HaAJIexaJI K oKpyxeHnrc narpnapxa Voaxuua (16741690- rr.) E cnyxlrJl B oAHoM H3 narpl{aptu-Il-x IIpHKa3oB HTIL Ha noABeAoMcrBeHHoM euy llevarHoM ABope'. V*^^ aBTopa yKaSaHo

B reKcre Jleronucqa, B crarbe o Haruecrsufi EarHq noA 6745 (1236lg7l r. <A noA.nl.rHso o6o BceM eBo noxoxAeHl{Il n o BoftHe,-r rbnopur hnrop o Eatue, - ilucaHo B ApyroM Jleronllcqe' MoeM xe, Cnaopa CHasI'IHa>> (c. 68). OAnaro, HecMorpn Ha ero yKasaHne' [pocJIeALITb cyas6Y aBTopa oKasaJlocb He raK rlpocro' ^ pe4xylo s Poiclll' Qauull.llo CHasuHH H.CHJII{ [peAcraBHreJIII ce6q sblxoAqaMlt Il3 !,aYuu'' [Ipu poAa, ABopflHcKoro "u"tuuut"" nonyquJlu noMecrbn B HoBropoAcKllx seMJIflx I,IsdHe fposnou oHIl 60


r{ 3aHlrMaJrH Hr{grrryto cryfieub B uepapxr{H cJryxctJrblx Qeo4anor, uMeHyffcb <AerbMr{ 6oapcxlll,nr>. .Iluun a Cuyruoe BpeMfl oArrH r{3 g- <<lrlocxoscKuft Cuasasux c xapaKTepHbIM LrMeHerr,r - flayx nona.n crrucoK>> ABopflH, Ho efo poA He rrpoAoJrxrrr'rcn. B pesyltrare o6-

Son4on flouecrnoro n Paepr4Horo np[Ka3oB, Jrr,IqHoro Qou4a CnasaHrrx a Apxnne LOVA (ro.u. 238. l.63) H pyKorrrcuux co6panafr yAanoct co6parl o6unpHufi MarepuaJt o x(r,rsHn rj AeflreJrbHocrn Qarrlu.uau CHasraHbrx e XVII 8., Ho Vlcuaopa nnvt Cz4opa (una Cn4oponnueft) cpeAr,r Hllx He oKa3aJrocb. He saruJrocb yrroMHHaHHf o Cvaop_e H ero Ae-rrx u B cron6qax OpyxeficJreAoBaHr.rfl

sofi nalaru, AoKyMeHTax KaseHHoro, fleuarnoro u cyAHbrx trpnKa3oB, cJroBoM, Hr.rrAe, rAe o6H.IIro no4po6no orpaxannct co6Hr[q >Kr{SHr{ ABOpqHHHa.

Sror orpaqatenluttfi, ua nepnnft B3rJ'IflA, p$yJlbrar rIosBoJIL.IJr

cAeJlarb Baxnoe saKrroqeHue, qro Cr.laop CnaeHH He noryrrafl noMecrbs, He cJryxr.rJr co cBoHM pa3prAoM <Aerefi 6oapcrux>, He coBCPIIIAJI I,IMYIIICCTBCHHbIX CACJIOK, HC ilOTYqAN X(AJIOBAHbg I,I AA)KC Hr.r pa3y He cyAnJrcff. fipyrnrrlu cJroBaMr.r, B orrnqne or cBonx poAcrBeHHr{KoB BecbMa HpaBa BoeHHbrx H ltpnKaoHbrx

^6yfiuoro nIor,efi HoBropoAcKoro Co0uficxoro (uurpono.nuurero) Abua ou r.rs6pa;r AyxoBHyp Kapbepy. floncxu ero nMeHn B HoBropoAcKnx cr.rHoAuKax (noununuxax), Aa)r(e s figrro6fleuHor\d CHa-sHHbIr{E Ane_xcan4po-canpcrou MoHacrbrpe 3, TaKxe oKaSaJrr.{cb rurerHbrMr{. H,o Masypnncruft neronaceq, no rpafiuefi uetrie s nocileAHeft ceoefi qacrH, nocsqqeHHori co6Ht[qM Mocroscxoro BoccraHr,rfl 1682 r., 6u.n sanncaH B croJrr,rqe: aBTop 6Hn o.ree[ArleM BoccraHI{q. ceftqac. py-KonHcb MexaHr{qecKn o6pnnaerca r{a 3a[r4cH Ba 27 texa6pn 1682 r. Bcxope, BHArrMo, oHa-6slna saKoHqena: Ha sro yKa3brBaer yBerHrreHr,re xpoHonorHqecroft qacrorbr ganucefi Hatr[Hafl. c ronqusu 4apa <De4opa A;lexceesu\a 2T alpeJrfl 16g2 r., a TaKxe BoArrnbre gHaKH Ha. 6yuare pyKonr,rca,Aarnpyroq[eca nepnofi uonoguuofi 1680-x roAoB a. flosrolly noEcKH cse;ieHnft o6 anrope HyxHo 6u.no npo4oJrxarb a Kpeule, B oKpyx(eHHH narprrapxa yroaKwMa. LHAOpa uHa3I{Ha He oKasaJrocb cpeAH cJryxailIflx naT_ puaprxxx [pr.rKasoB, I(asennoro u .ll,eopqonoro, cpeA[ corpyAunKots fle'rarHoro ABopa, cpeAn rrepKoBnbrx AonxHocrgbrx Jrr.rq, ,HaqHHafl c xe.napefi a Ka3HaqeeB, Koropble y)Ke orMerraJlHcb B narpllapIurx nprxoAo-pacxoAHbrx KHr.rrax. flocronrxy KHr{rt,I ue Qnrcn_ poBaJII'I JII{IIIb npocThlx MoHaxoB H cBffIIIeHHHKoB, ocTaeTcfl gaKJIIoqI,ITb, qTO CHASHH 6Hfl OAHHIA HS UIIX. CICAU CrO ACflTCJIbHOCTII AoJrxHbr 6u;nr coxpaHzrbcff n pyronncnofr KHr.rxHocrn. Tax n oKa3aJrocb.

B CunoAa.rrrnou (6uoureM narpr.rapueu) co6paunn pyr<ouuceft locyaapcreeHHoro ucropr,rqecKoro Mysee'coxpalru.ncr'Cnno4nr, cocraBJreHHHli so rroporl noJroBr.rHe 1670-x roAoB o tly4oncxou MoHacrbrpe narpr.rapxa (Nb 576/290). OH Haqnuarcq - o6nre.nu npoKnflTHffMH <<epeTr.rKaM>>, Box(ArrM pacKoJra H yqacTHHKaM Kpecrrnucrofi eoftHH Bo rJraBe co Crenasoru PasnHbrM H [poAoJrx(aflcg IIoMr{HoBeHr{eM KOHCTaHTT{HOTTOJIbCKnX IIaTpHapxOB, pyccKHx 6l


BeJrnKux KHfl3efi r{ qapeli, Mr.rrponoJil.IToB nroAefi>> Poccr.u.t. flpe4naaHaqeHsufi

lr

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4la rlepronuoft c;ryx6u

c

yqacrneM rlarpuapxa, CauoAzx oqeHb cKyno. flpeAcraBJrflr .rpoAlr BeJrHKr.Ix .nroAeft>. ,[,ocrarouuo cKa3arb, qro poAbr Boporuucrux n fo.nuqusux 6urlr sanucaHbl B Hero Jrr{Irrb s 1680-x noAax (n cansu c r.rx sHaqnTeJrbHbrM Bo3BbrIIIeHHeM B rrepuoA pereHrcrBa uapeBHbr CoQru, 1682-1689 rr.); 4axe raKue sHarnbre Qaunruu, r(aK Crperuuenu, Co6axuuu u Hap6exoBbr, yrroMuHaJrlrcb s CI.rHoAnxe KparKo, 6es pocnucH I{MeH I{r'IeHoB po4a. 3a cocraBoM CnuoAHxa TUIaTeJIbHO C,reAI.lJIH.

on

aXrypaTHO norIOJIHsJl]fl. safiUCsMLI O CKOH-

rlapcKoft ceMbu (uauunaa c uapeBHrla vn:bu @e4oponuua, yM. 2l ulr,rrr. 1680 r.), a poAbl onaJlbnblx 6onp3aKJIeLIBaJIIicl .ll'Icrofi 6yrvraroft . HanpLIMep MurocJrascKI,IX CunoAure cpeAI.I nrcAefi, <<1.{s6[eHsJII{rapHoM sroM cyry6o B

qaBr.ilrrxcfl rrJreHax

Hbrx noA Kagaulto u e KagaHIa>>, MbI o6napyxnaaeM... MeJIKoro ABo-

psHHHa Irloa:nua CHaaI-rHa! (.1. 85). .Il,a,ree, cpeAI'I - y6urux <<Ha iocyaapeoe cnyx6e... B noJIKy 6onpuHa H BoeBoAbI I4oauHa Arupe-

eBl{qa XosaucKoto>> ( 1660- 1662 rr.) 3allllcaH npocrofi peftrap .[,rr.rurpufi CHasHH (.n"n. 208 o6. - 290), a no3xe, cpeAl{ HeMHofHX orr\{eqeHHblx x{eprB KpoBonpoJll'{rHoft tlurnpnucrofi nofisu l678 r., 3anncaH Oeaop Hnrarnq CHasNH (n' %a). tle"toneK, sHecurufi s CuHoAnr< cpa3y rpex npeAcraslrrereft cBoero He3HarHoro po4a' 6esyc.rioeno, nbrnaa"'re)KaJl

K 6paruu t{yAoacxoro ruouacrupn.

AoJr)KeH 6r,r,r norlsoBarbcn KHr.tx(HIIKOB,

r,ry6orult

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He I4CnpaBI'IBITIHX TaKoe flBHOe HapylxeHHe QeoAa'/Ib-

uoft uepapxull.

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B

croro, fiurte uurpono,rllra (Dz"runna.

.Il,oxytueHrar'rbHble LICroq-

Hl.lxu'Masypr.rHcKoro Jrerorrucqa _n peAcra BJreHbr p a3p fl AH bIM LI 3 a ilnqerBeproro crrMr.r tr co6opHol rpauorofi 1570 r. o pa3peueHHH oco6eH HH brx a poanoro. Cpe4u Op aia l4e au a' f _Nnocrp 'croqHl,tKoB

Ho BbrAeJlrercx norlyJlflpla's' e Poccnll XVII s. XpoHara Marses CroHfixoscroro. 'Aarop MasypnHcxoro,'reTorr[cqa TxIaTe,'IbHO lepepa6arslean Iicror{HHKLT cBoero coqHHeHHn. l4s6eran ilpsMoro tlllTupoBaHufl' oH

,62


Hx coAep)KaHue, JTIiIIIb tISpeAKa yKaSbIBarI HcTOrt* o ceM s Creneuuofi xHare, n rrase 14> (c. 130); <KopoJrb .Iloruuy puMrrrHr{Hy AaJr cBoro fpaMory r.r BeJreJr npoBoAr.rrb 4o Puua, H orryAa cr,re nficaHr{e K K HaM npr4r.rAe> (c. 120); <<A s HaKa3e Hanr.rcano> (c. 178). lloerouy AeTaJIbHo BbIflcHHTb ltcroqHuKlr Masypllucxoro Jrerorrncrla oqeHb TpyAHo. Becrua BepoqrHo, qacrb LIcrorrHHKoB 6u.na acnoJrbgoBaHa aBTOpOM He HenOCpeACTBeHHO, a B nepeAaqe pyccKl{x ,retonucefi, KoMflltrqur{ft }r csoAoe rropofi rroJroBr.rHbr XVII s. B ro apeuq KaK coBpeMeuHbre eMy r.tcropr.rorpaQu nce 6o.nee CTPCMI.IJII,ICb K TCMATHqCCXOfi CESSUOCTI.I TIOBCCTBOBAHIIg, qETKOCTH efo coxerHofo crpor, CHasnH us6pan AJrr npon3BeAenr.rfl noAqepKHyro rpaAurrr.roHHyrc Qopuy. Ero ,Ileronuceq cocrouT r4g orAeJIbHbIx crarefi ro foAaM, gHaqI.ITe,'IbHo H, BLIALIMo, lpeAHaMepeHHo orJrHlrHbrx Apyr or Apyra ilo coAepxanuro. Kpyr nHrepecoB aBropa oqeHb rxupor{. .rleronlceq oxBarbrBaer co6nrns Ha BCeM IIpaBocJraBHou Bocroxe c 4penuefturax BpeMeH. llO,r]ma,recKr4e n rlepKoBHbre codttrun, qyAeca LI gHaMeHLIf, rlox(apbl, 9nI{AeMLIH H crpoaTeJrbcrBo Ha Pycu couerarorcg co cBeAeHufllvtn o co6Hrusx e oKpecrHbrx crpaHax: e ,IIurse u flontue, Cep6zu n Banaxuu, Eo.rr_ tapilv u Bugaurnu, n OpAe u o6pasonaB[rnxcrr [ocr,re ee pacnaAa xaHcrBax. Ero nucnl Bropfaercfl B r.rcroprdro HapoAoB cpe4ueli AsHn u Cpe4uaerr,rHoMopbfl,_- oH ynouunaer l4cninraro u'Kllnp, AnexcaH4purc ra Baeuron, Merry u Meausy. Coo6uenru" lrlusy_ pHHCKoro Jreronacrla o6pasyror BMecre rogKyro rKaHb r.rcropr{i{ nporxenujr.rx BeKoB, n roropor? rcropna pycz lr ee HapoAa BvAHrcfr HeorbeMJreMofi q acrurc r{eroBeqecKoft Ncropur.r. flpoucxox4egLre H srHrrqecKue cBfl3H pyccKoro HapoAa ,B,.,rrr_ rorcf Ba)KHbIM npeAMeroM UCTOpT{r{ecKux tzgucxasaft cHasaHa. KaK H Asapefi Jllr3noB, oH o6pauqaer npl4craJrbHoe BHr.rMaHHe Ha n-po,6neuu srHofeHeBa. oc'osbrsaqcl ira pa6orax n,cropr.iKoB XVII s., oco6eHso <<Cxa,aurzl.r o Be.rnxou inuu"nin.r,- C"ur"" cqr4Taer cJraBsH oAHr.rM ne 4peaHeftrxux HapoAoe, cxnQavru, Koropbre <<flKo r^pKnaTr4]d OpJrr{ [peJrel3xy nycrbrHH MHor[.rH, Hxlyue ce6e naecra Ha ceJreHneu (c. ll). c;raeanb a pycr, cor,{zcHo.rerolucuy,- ero eAnnuft HapoA. I4n,te,uuo c Hefo, c <<Harrara Be.quroro Curaoeucxa, Hxe HbrHe Be,rvrufi Hoarpaa> (a SllB r. or Cor_ BOpeHxfl uupa), HaqHHaer cHasuH cBoe ricroplrqecKoe noBecrBoBauue. Crporo QaxronoruqecKoe, [oArrepKHyro'r{s6era}ouee HaBrrsbIBAHHfl CBOI{X OI{CHOK lIHTaTe,'IIo II3JIO>KeHI.Ie npI{AaeT cnosavl CHasnua oco6yro y6e4areJrbHocrb. Ho xopoLro ycBoeHHaf BHeilrHrrfl 6ecnpucrpacrHocrb aBTopa He osuaqaer, qro -ero rny6ox'e BHyrpeHHIie y6ex4euua He HalrrJtu cBoero Bbrpax(eHl{fl. Tar, nocle paccKa3a o [ocrpoeHfir.l .C.naseHcKa B 3ll3 r. c"leAyer crarbq o MHofocrpaAaJrbHoM 6r.r6.nericxorrl l4one no4 357b r. (sa 1925 Jrer Ao PoxAecrsa Xpncrona!), o fipopoKe Mogcee lo4 lu r. a.'M"o.o rro3xe, B 1919 ..,o tr4rrcyce HaerHe non 40b8 r. 4UEb r., cJryx o MoryqecrBeHHbrx craBqnax H pycax <<Bo yixrl Bo3rpeMe>> caMoMy A.rrexcaH4py Mare4oHcKoMy, <<Bcea BceJreHHbrq ca_ TOqHO nepeAaBaJr

HlrK cBeAeHHft, Hanp[Mep: <peqecfl

63,


MoAepxqy>. He ocugnrBlur{cb BoeBarb c HHMr{, oH HeMeAJreHHo 3 AapE[ MHOIUMI{ I{ IIHCaHHe, MHOTHME IIOXBaJIaMH yKparleHo r{ caMoro qaps BbrcoKoAepx{aBnoro Aecuftqerc 3JrartrMr.r nrrcMeHbl noAn[caHo>. Anercau4p aro6u HB:oflBHTT <qecrb, M[rp I{ MIaJIocrb... xpa6ponry HapoAy cJIaBeHcKoMy, cnaunefrureMy KoJreHy, pycKr,rM KHflseM H BJraAeJrbrloM oT rvropa BapnlKcKoro Aa>r{e Ao uopa Xna.nbrgcKoro> u uplr3HaJr IIx BJracrb HaA BceMlr ceBepgbrMr,r <nocblJlaeT K HI,IM

3eMJInMIr

(c. l2-13).

CoquHeHue CHasHHa orpa3HJIo QopunponaHr,Ie Balr(Hefiureft nAeu o6quocrn rrJreMeH r.r HapoAoB Poccuftcroro rocyAapcrBa, onllparcqerlcq Ha ApeBHloro KyJrbrypHylo rpaAl{Irl.tto. flo4uepKnBafl. s cgoeft

Jrerorrncll r.ry6ouafturue [cropltqecKl{e KopHLI poccuficroro HapoAa,

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64


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c eroro BpeMeHH, npoAoJr)Kar orMesarb eax'eft,u'ue co6nrug eceo6qerl ucropHr.I, JreronHcell cocpeAoTorrr.rBaer ocHoBHoe BHHMa_ HHe Ha pasBnraE pyccKoro [paBocnaBHOrO rocyAapcrBa, crpeMr,rTeJrbHoM pocre ero cJraBbr_I{ MoryqecrBa, noABHrax ero 60rarrupefi I,I CBqTbIX TIOAB}IX(HI,IKOB, MCPUUft PACCXAS CHASI,IHA OTMCqAET NCPCHCCEHIIC g POCCNrc XPI{CTHAHCKI{X PCJIHKBI,Ift U SHAXOS OTJII,ITINS snsaHruftcrHx r.rMneparopoB, HaqaJIo Mocxsbl n <MocxoscKofo rocnoAonasaJrbcrBa>, KHflx{ecKne yco6uuu r{ TarapcKoe pa3opeHr.re, 6opr6y pyccKr'rx xusgeft c rpecroHocllaMr,I H HHbTMH saBoeBareJrflMH' Mr'rpHbre orHorrreHnq c coceAql,ru. Jleronficer{ crapaercr orpaSHTb XH3Hb BCCCTOPOHHC, BKJIIOTIAT NOfiHY H AI{NJIOMATI,IIO, BHYTpeHHIOr,O Ll BHOIIIHTOIO IOJrI.ITI,IKy, r{cTopltn uepKBI,r I4 Bepbl, CTpOr,r_ TCJIbCTBA I.I PA3PYIIICHHg, OIII{CbIBACT CTI,IXNftNUC 6CACTBI'Iff, 3NI'ACMHrl t4 roJroA, .lrro60uurHne He6ecnue gBJIeHHfl g pOccnH I{ oKpecrHbrx crpaHax. flpo4o.txeulre rpaAr.rqnonuofi noroAsofr Jreronr.{cr{ c 4penHeft_ IxI'Ix BpeMeH Ao caMbrx nocJreAHr{x, coBpeMeHHbrx aBropy co6urnfi r'rMeJro r.ny60xuft ucropnocoQcxuft cunc.rt. Tax xe xax'LaHoxecrso caMblx pasHblx co6urnft, He cBg3aHHbIx B [oBecrBoBaHHH, orpaxaET CAI{HCTBO UNOTOO6PA3Hfl XH3HI,T, TAK I{ KANJIH JICT. CJII,IBAflCb B floroKlr BeK_oB, o6pasyrcr HecKoHrraeMyro Ao KoHqr.rHbr MHpa peKy Hcropt{rr, o6teAussroulyro Hacrorrqee, npoureArrree u 6yayrqee. Hb BHe[rHrs, cy6rexrnnHafi oqeHKa, a Mecro co6urus e pexe-ucropur.t, caMo cyqecrBoBaHue Qarra onpeAeJrffer ero sHaqeHr.re. OqeHra JInqHOCTHa, JrI{qHOCTb Ha 3eMJIe BpeMeHHa, CO6nrue )Ke ocraercfl B r{cropnn. Tax noAqepKr{yro rpaAr{ItnoHnoe no eopue, MaKcr{MaJrbHo o6terrnsHsr,rpoBaHHoe noBecrBoBaHr.re Jreronficlla craHoBI.ITCfl g ETTCIIICfi CTCICHU KOHIIENqI{OHHIilM. BETN'A HA IICTOPHK) Cnaop CHasnH rr[ilraercs 3aMeHnrb cauori ucropueft. 3-l

18

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fpaxAaH croJrr.tubr nporHB <<I43MeHHHKOn-6Orp 8' rroAeft>, Koropble <<3a8,'IaAeJIIt BceM rocyAapctnou> caoeo6paeae uAefisoir no3Hqrru cu.qopa cHasuHa He AoJIxHo, oAHaKO, yBOAr4Tb HaC oT roro Qaxra, qTo efo colIIEHeHI{e sBJIgeTCt neOtteon.treoaOft qactrrc narpgapuero Jlerongcaulrn. O6pa3oBaHHe JTeTOnHCHOTO IIeHrpa [pI'I MoCKOBCKOM rlarpl{apueM ABOpe B noc.neAseft qerBeprH XVII s. cBfl3blBaercg c noqBreHI'IeM B cro"Iuue HOBoro rrarpl{apxa, 6Hs[JerO HoBropoAcKoro MI'IrpO[OJII{ra kloaxnrraa a 1674 r. Vxe e 1670-x roAax narpHaprrfie JIeronI{cIlbI co3AaroT KpyrrHblft leronucnnft csoA, I{CIOJ'rb3OBaB B HeM KaK pyKonHclt Mocr6scxoft pr.r3'r.rrlbr (6u6.nuorexu narplrapxon), rar I.I HoBropoAcKile I{CTOqHUKII e. 3ro uossorqer npeAfloJlo>xllrb, tITo BMecre c I'Ioaruuorrl e MocKBy npHexanu xna;tllQl{qupoBaHHbIe KHurollHcur']- Co$uficKoro Aop$LrAeHqr{r4 nosfopoAcrnx MfirponoJrgroB. Tonlro B [ocJIeAMa neft- uernepru XVII B. HoBropoAcKue KHHxHHKI{ co3AaJIH pffA Kpyngeftuux .ltetonracsux [aMffTHr.rKoB, B TOM qI,ICJIe Horropo,tcxyto TDeTbro JreTonucb (cocraereHr.re nepeofi peAaKuHt'I roropoil 6u.no npep"a"o s 1674 uiu 1675 r.), HonropoAcKyto 3a6elnncrylo Jlero'

JIeHr.rg rapHfl3oHa r,r

; Afu""ti

6E


nr{cb

rr Hoeropo4cxyro floroAnHcKyro neronucb. Bce osu rlpeAB npocrpaHHbrx r.r Jrr{reparypHo o6pa6oraHHbrx coKpa-

craBJreHbr

UIeHHbIX peAaKUnflx, pacnpocTpaHsBlunxcf, BO MHOXeCTBe cnuc, KoB lo.

HaM ussecrHo, qro Cuagnn npoucxoAr.rJr ns HonropoAa, qro ero pa6oraau e CoQr.rficKoM AoMe, a oH HaqaJr KHHX(uyn pa6ory e Mocxne s 1670-x roAax. B leronucu CHaeuHa 6un [c[oJrb3oBan 6onturofi KoMnJreKc HoBfopoAcKHx r{sBecrr.rft. IlpeacraBJrsercr MaJroBepotrunu, uto6H croJrb 6oraroe no coAepxaHHIo r 6necrqqee no Qopue Jrero[r.rcuoe coqnnenne XVII .or".'6urroMareAaHo HaquHaroulrrM aBTopoM. Bucoxaq creneHb ocBoeHaq pI{aJIa, OTCyTCTBHe XapaKTepHbIX Anff 60luruux JreroflI{cHblx KoMnnngqnft Toro BpeMeHr.r <rrrBoB>> Me)KAy pa3HbIMH I{crorrHLIKaMr.r reKcTa 3acraBJrsror AyMarb, qro flepeA rraMr.r yx{e BTopas, ynopffAOqeHHaff H coKparrleHHaff peAaKur.rf [aMfTHnKa. Kar xe cosAaBaJrocb 9ro coquueune? Cyanrt o6 sroM rvrbl MoxeM no aHaJronHH c Apyruuu JreronHcrrMr{ Kpyfa CHasuHa, B 3a6e.rrnncxorrr co6paHan focyAapcrBeHHoro ncropurrecKofo Myses noA Nb 261 _c-oxpanr.rJrcfl vep_noooft anrorpae nepnoft, npocrpaHuoft peAaxrlxu Hoeropo4cxoft 3a6e.nuncxoir .rr-eronucs. MnoroqncJIEHHbIC BbINIICKI{ I,I3 CAMbIX PA3HbIX I,ICTOqHIJKOB CJIOXCHbI B HCM B onpeAeJreHnoM nops4xe, cua6xeubr npnnucKaMn r{ Ao[oJrHeHr{ffNan. 3aAa.refi rpynnu Jrero[[crreB-cocrainre,reft npex,qe scero 6brJIO COSAAHHC KOMNJICKCA IiCTOPHIICCKIIX CACACHHfi I,I ONPCACJICHI,IE lrx nocJreAoBareJrbHocrlr, a 3areM yxe (ara pa60ra npoAoJrxaJracb B cor(paqennoft pe4axqrn) npnAanr.te reKcry nr.rreparypHofo poAcrBeHHr.rxu

E,[I,IHCTBA.

-

flpr.t

cocraBJreHHH nepBouaqarbnoft KoMnHils,wrl saxHo 6uno rroMHHTb, OTKyAa B3gr roT lr.rrH Huoft Marepr4aJl, MoxHo .rru 6yaer

ero flpn seo6xognuocrr.r pacruupnrb H yrorrHr.rrb. floerouy cocraBnreJIIt orMeqaJlr.r: <<O ceu flpocrpaHHee nHurer B XI.ITI{H ero>; <<H o ceM B KHHre CrpanHure no4po6Hy>>; <<H o ceM ecrb r{ rucropr.rfl>; <<I{ o ceM ecrb r.{croJrKoBaHr4e c HeMeuKoro Ha pyccKnfi asblK, uero paAH cne sHaMeHHe 6ucrr H qro eMy roJrK>>; r i. n. tlacm cBeAeuug o6 oAHOM H rOM Xe cO6urnr.r HaxoAr{Jrracb B pasHbrx HcroqHuKax, K_oTopue .nu6o AorroJrHflJrr.r, .nlr6o [porr.rBopeqn,,ur Apyt Apyry

u

B nro60M cflyqae cocrasnreorKyAa cAeJraHbI BbrnHcKH: <<H3 noA-

rpe60n-a.npr ycraHoBJreHrif r.rcrHHu.

.rnu rpe6oeaJlocb

p^a3JrI.Iqarb,

JIHHHLIKA.IIYCTNUA CEME.HA>, TLJTH Wg<XAPATCfiHOTO JIETOIIHCqA>, I4JI8 H3 <Jreronr.rcqa o Pyccxoft 3eMJrr.r>; sa oAHofi sbrnacxofi qacro cre-

c nouerofi: <<BbInLIcaHo ri3 blHoro Jreronncqa>>, <<LIg uHoft xurrn>>. Heo6xo4r,rMocrb sacraBJrsJra npn pa6me HaA Kpy[HbrM npo[sBeAeHHeM paSA[rrarb Aaxe paSHbre peAaKrlr{n oAHoro I,IcroqHHKa, HanpLIMep, pa3Hble ug'.a]f.nn <<Cnuoncuca>: <aBbIrIHcaHo c neqarnoro Jreronncqa noJrbcKaro, a neqaraH B Jrero 7182 s IIe_ uepcroft Kueecxoft o6urenn l,IsoxenraeM fasenervr>; <<cr{e BbrnncaHo Hc neqarHoro Jreroflr{crla, neqaru B Jrero 7188 roay> n MH. ApMacca cBoAHMbrx BMecre coe4eunrl n3 MHo)KecrBa JreronacHbrx u HeJreronr.rcHbrx ucroqHuKoB coAepxaJra noBropbr, rpe6osaaocr, AoBaJra Apyraq,

69


TOTIHO PCIIIHTb, NOA KAKI'IM TOAOM IIOMCCTIITb PACCKA3

O TOM

I{JIIT

IIHOM qeJIOBeKe, AJII'ITeJIbHOM CO6bITI{I{, Ty l4lIll uHylo HCTOpHIO' 3a6ennricxOfi leronucu cocraBureJll{ noMeqaJII'I B HonropoAcxoft "<V o ceM I'IHAe B ApyroM Mecre' - Aar') ecrb-Ilpo"ani-..0"': crDanHee. o HeAocraBLueM 3Jlare' o cTpoeHHI{ MoHacrblps>;-<<n Mep'

"y'p;t nI{CaHo

C;".nencxt'tft y6nen 6nc* or-6es6oxH-aro {apfl EarusB roM B I{H9M Mecre Ha JII'ICre ...- uOn6px e 24 4eur> (.rIucr

JIeTOnI,IC[ O6OSUaqnrl 6HnO Henrgfl ' IIOKa npOAOJI>KaJII'I BCTaB.ltSTbCfl fioBbre MaTepr.raJrbr) . Har<oneu, HeKOTOpbIe 3anltcH_roBOpI{JII'I o 3aBeprrreHHr,r cBoAKH CeeAeHHft o6 oAnorr,t co6bIrHI,I. <cns Hanncaulacfl

(ao cnx nop--Art.)'

;;it;

ITOJII,I

B

KorII'IKo Bo3Morox

o

ceM o6pecru'

YKA3 bIB AJI JICTONHCCII.

H H ANI{CAII A>>,_ rraensrueft Mepe raKI'Ie SaMeqaHnfl coxpaHnnucb B- pyKonl'Icsx

pe4arqnn Apy;.rx cBoAoB. i{anpnnaep, B cnl{cKe rpocrpanHoft OI4!,P Co6panun xpaHslrleMcn_r tiorropo^"Koft rperbefi^leronncn, 127' Ne noA HMeHI'LIlenuna cCcP 6u6rrr4oreKu il.yA;ft-ilHo:i

quTaeM: <<B CBtrIIax, B qerBeprb' neqarH MoCKOBCKOfi 7167-ro roay $anerraraHo, Mecsqa $enpann s 14 AeHb>; <<n flpo.nore npopoqecrpeaarrLIpoBaIIHI',I JIeronHcH tso ero o Pyccxofi 3eMJrH> H T. n. flpu -coxparueHlleM noApo6nocreft) c cBrrsaHHofi ecerAa lnpu*t"o"ar' or6pacunpaBI{JIo, xax l,l, Hyxffist He TaKne noMeTbI cTaHoBHJTI{cb Her, Il uotlTn nx neroflncqa MaeypnncKoro pyxonr'rcn B tsa,rncb. q[CTbIMH U MECTA AJIS AAT QAXTOO' XO' JILIIIIb I-THOIAA OCTABJICHHbIC HaM HanoMlIHaIor yrotlHnrb' He cyMeJI I'I TaK Topble CHAop CHasnH pa6ore' coflocraBl{renbHofI u noNcx6soft o ero

n npOCrpaHHbIX peAaKIII'Iflx cOqI{HeHI{e JILI[IeHo cpaBHeHIrfi u HcK.rrrcueuuruu) Cnarronu (ia nerrauorr.rMK He [peAcraBJlser Antop co6oft. Mex(Ay ucroqsllKoB conocraBJlenuft

B ornu'rne

OT Jleronl,Icefi

cyA ql{rareJls pa3Hble Aarbl I{ nporl'IBOpeqI'IBbIe-sarru, xar [s6eraer npr.rBoAr,rrb pasrgrlHble Be-pcHH co6bIrI'IfI- Jlero"pu"ii'o, se'racl pesy.rrtiarou 6oll'uofi, cKpblroft or rJlag C"asHHa nirct qr{rareJrfl aHaJlHrllqecroft pi6otu' npl',IMepoM roropoft flBrsercq

lla

CotI[HeHue.

.u,pYrce cBfl3aHHOe C HI'IM I{y,u,oncx[ fr qep rosHo-I'IcropuqecKl'Ift clrp aBorIHI'IK KoHIra

''

XVII

s.

SaMHIITJIflJICfl KaK noco6fie, AaIOqee [arpHapulHM JIerOrII,ICIlaM qacro BcrpeqaBlunxcfl B Hx pa6oO6ocHOBaHHoe peulegge nan'6O,lIee ilpeI,IMyUecrBeHHO xpoHoflornqeucropull B re npo6leu: ApeBHeft crux, a B LIcropI'In Poccllt't 6olee nosAHero Bp-e-MeHI{ - olreHoqHblx' py*.jn"." CnpiaounnKa, coxpanllBlrlaflct q-$yqqqtoM co6pauul{ tr6.yaup.tuesnoro Llcropl'IqecKoro My9q1^ (Nb ' roc'rereHHo -1499) ocnoBHoft reKcr, 6wia loee,*eHa Ao ssqi'q Asosa s 1696 r. Ee

flan14gagHgfi C 6OnrurHMH IIpOnyCKaMU, 3a1OJIHeHH6IMLI 3aTeM Bcs' qecKHMH Ao6aBreHI'IflMI'I, npl'IHaAfiexafl Tofi >Ke pyKe' rITo I'I ocgoBHOft TeKCr cuno4Hxa, B pa6ore HaA KOrOpbrM, KaK MbI noMHLlM' rrpnHHMaJI yrlacrl'Ie csasnn. B to xe BpeMfl rnnxuuft cKoponHc-

Aono;lseHHfr B Cnpanounuxe aHarorurleu norlepKy MaeypnnCxorg Jrerqnl{Cqa. I4HbIMI{ SJIOBaMLI, MbI Mo}KeM npeAflo;rara't", qro CHa3I'IH [pI'IHuMaJI yqacrl'Ie B co3AaHI{I{ Cnpanounura' Boupoc o roM, KOfAa H B KaKoft rrocJreAOBareJIbHOCrLI npoucxo-

afufi uouepr

i0


IUNII TC UJIH I{HbIC APEBHEfiUIHC CO6bITI,I', H NOHHHC TIACTO BbI3bIBaer cnopry. B xouqe XVII s. narpr{apune neronHcrlbr BbrflBr{Jrn MHoxecrBo

_n

poTtrBopevufi

uex4y

x

poHoJrornqecKr.rM r.r [oKa3 aH ufl Mrl

Berxoro n Hosoro 3aBeroB, nerdnnieft n' xpoHHK. Hanpnuep, oAr.ru r'rcrorrHtrK noKa3brBaJr, trro rrocJre canrcosa cyAHn e Hspau.rie Euerap.^A <Bo uHbrx Jrerorrncrlax H e Er.r6rr,ru,-orMerr.rJln cocraBr{r€nu Cnpaaor{HLIKa, ur4lrrer o Entrttt, gKo no Carr,rcoHe ue 6ucrt cyAHfl so Vapaunn-ner 40, n 6uwa B caMoBJracrn:r., HrL Kr.tM BoAHMlt, flKO OBrIbr 6es nacrups>. Peuras 9To npoTriBopeqr{e, CHaeI..rH n ero TOBapI{qu SaKJIr,OrIH.rIn, lrro nocJle CaucoHa cHaqara cv,(n.u Euerap, a sareM y)Ke HacraJr flepftoA 6egsfiacrns (n. 2, rai orMeqeHo n B.,coBpeMenuoir pyccxofi 6n6nnz, Cya 16, 3l; cp. 21,25).

vro Eu6lnfl rrcnoJrb3yercfl Jrarub KaK oAHH H3 r.rc_ conocTaBJlffercg C 4pyrrrun rraMgrHr.rKaMn, ee AaIlHbre yrorrHqrcrcfl n HcnpaBJrsrcrcn (.nn. 3_3 o6., 6 o6., 12 o6._13 r AP.). Pa60ra coflpoBox{AaJracb paccyxAeHrieMH o npreHHax xpoXapaKre_pHo,

TOTIHHKOB.

ona

HOJIOrUqecKux ouu60r B LICTOTIHHKaX. Tar, no reronucu 6uno <<or Mo'ceosa yMeprB'fl_Ao cauyn.na ner b20. A no Er6.rruu (BerxoMy san_ery.*A n r.) 540.ner. fnaroler xe cr r .{,eaHuax a[ocroJr_ crzx (3aua.rro 32): or MoaceoBa yMeprBrrr, ro carvryu.na ner 4b0, g6psufeu H3Jrr4rrrHe ro ceMy neronncqy ner 20, a no En6nnn ter 90,cue,-sax.rrcqaer cocraBHTeJIb,-He arlocroJrcKoe nlIcaHLIe [perpe(a ou'6o,rHocrb reKcra fiernufi He BbrsbrBaer y Hero coMHe'ua. nuft.-Anr.), Ho HJrH [penncyrcqaro [perpe-er,ne 6uctr: Ao.n_ raro^ paAn BpeMeHH nrrureMafl crlrparorcfl H He3HaeMa 6Hsaror> @. 2 o6.). Ho ua erou Cr.r4op CHasr,rH H ero KoJrJrerr,r He ocraHosnnncr. OHn

BbIflBIIJIH I.I NOKA3AJIH qHTATETIo MACCOBOCTb XPOHOJIOTHqECKNX NPOruoopeuuft, Ko_rAa oAuo co6urne no-pa3HoMy Aarr.rpoBaJrocb B pae_

Hbrx Mecrax caaqeuuoro nHcaHHg, B paSHbIx JlerorrHcHblx ncroqIfKaT (.nn. 16-16 o6,22 o6.-28 o6.i ZA o6._27,30 o6., 38 o6.,

39 o6.-40, 45 o6.-46 E np.). CraHosnnocb scHo, rrro npocrbrM

collocTaBJIeHI'IeM LICTOTIHHKOB SaAarly ycTaHoBJIeHI,Iq AOCTOBepHbIX Aar He __peurlrrb. llarpuapurHe neronucrlbr cAeJraJrH orcroAa ltpa_ surrHrtft BbrBoA, o6parnnruucb K peKoHcrpyKrlr{H xpoHororuqecioft

cerKu Ha ocHoBe pa4a 6eccnopHo AarHpoBaHHbrx co6urnft, coor6u;lo uru u3BecrHo. flo.nylennue r.rMr,r BbrqHcJleHfiff Jrer or AAanaa Ao poxAecrna Xpncrona orJrnqa.rr[cb or AaHHbrx Bu6nun, <<crapbrx nepevuefi> r{ Jreronr{cefi ("rr. lB) Onnpaact Ha peKoHcrpyKrlnro, cocraBnreJrn'CnpaoouHuKa no_

HOrxeHHe Koropbrx

nyqEJIH Bo3Mo)KHocrb orreHnBarb yxe He cpaBHHreJrbHyr,o, a a6coJrrorHylo (e npe4erax Hx sHaHr{ft) 40croeepHocrb npu'oe4eunux n HCTOTIHI,IKAX AATI]POBOK, HANPI.IMCP: <A Or HA.{AJIA IIAPCTBA ANTYCTOBa ag_poxAecrBa Xpncrosa 42 ner flpflMo, a or AnercaHApa -ro JreronHcHbrx ter 270 H To pa3HorJracne B qr.rcJrax or Ilpel]HcyroryI,tx _ 6ucru, . flKo >Ke npe]KAe pex or Mouces Ao iauyr.r.na, (.ir. 13 o6.). Anarr'3 Bcero KoMnJreKca Aar no3BoJrrJr onpoBepfarb Ty wiln HHyro AarHpoBKy, Bcrpeqanuyrocfl pa3oM B HeCKOJrbKnx aBTOpI{TerHbIx .rIerOrIHcflx, H, 6eeycloeHo, npHsHaBarb npeBocxoA7l


crBo oAHlIx coo6qenlrfi nepeA ApyrI'IMI{: <B lero 6023-e naru

3,nsou qapcrBoBa .rrer 16 H Mecflu,a ABa; Apysn x<e cn[care;In Baxe Harlilcaula...> (rt. 28). B AarsposKax pyccKoft Ncropnn cocraBHTeJII'I He I'IcnEilTbIBaJIH croJrb cepbe3nblx rpyAnocrefi (ea ncxnrcueHl{eM nepBHx runeefi), HO npr{Jroxl{Jln HeMaJIbIe ycHnHfi Anfl BbnLeJIeHHfl TeX qepT H AeflHnft ceoux ilepcoHaxeft, Ha Koropble cJleAoBa.no o6parurr oco6oe BHr,rMaHHe .rnratenefi leronnceft. Han6onrurne cJlo>I{Hocru cocraBJrsJrr.r Aesreru Cuyruoro BpeMeHI{ Haqafla XVII s.: qro6H MoTHBHpoBarb o6JtnqeHue Bopuca lo4yuona, AocraroqHo 6uno npe4craaHTb eno ySypnaTopoM flpecToJla, Ho KaK B raKOM__CJIyqae Mox(Ho 6uno npoinaerrl iaxearrsuero rpon Bacunus. Illyftcxoro? Cna3r.rny u ero KoJIJIeTaM [pnIIIJIocb npon3Becru lllyficroro or B.naAnuupa Crmoro, AoKa3blBarb ero <<6orolrs6paHHocrb>> Ha qapcrBo H AeKJrapupoBarb neo6uqafiHue <,qo6po4erelu>> 3Toro MoHapxa {xoropue, npaBAa, He yAaJlocb noAKperll{rb I'Icrop[qecKI'IMI{ ttpunaeparrau). C cepe4nHu XVII B. xapaKrepncrllKl'I MoHapxoB cMeHHJrr.rcb JraIInAapHbIMI,I yKa3aHI'IflMH BpeMeHU IrX xI43HI',I n qapcTBo-

crfJrr{croBo qapcrBo s 3uHonleso

BAHHfl,

flpueuu pa6oru narpllaptrrnx Jleronl{cqeB pacKpblBa}orcq raKx(e pyKonLIctMI4 npIIHaAJIexaBIxux tlY- -o6urnpnblx I'IcropHlIecKI'{x ror,anri;rsuHft n csoAoe. B cepeAnne 1680-x roAoB utvtt't 6u.na cocraBJreHa KoM[I{JIruI{fl vs XponorpaQa pyccKoro B peAaKqI'In

l6l7 r., Hosoro Jrero[ucqa H MHOXeCTSa 6Onee MeJrKr.rx counnennft, saBepuraBIIIascs JleronrcUeM 1686 r. flon6op n pacnoJlox(eHl'Ie HcTOqHLIKOB noMoIaJIIi cocraBlireJlflM npoBecrl',I qepes Becb reKcr MbrcJrb o6 ncroHsoft npuua4.ne)KHocrH KHeBcKI'Ix SeMe.IIb Pycu,^ee MOCKOBCXUU qAPTU. 3ABC,'IHKI,IM KHfSbflM Ii I{X HACJICAHI{KAM TCM 3TA KOMNI{JISIII{g 6UNA COKPAilICHA I'I OTPCAAKTIIPOBAHA TAK KaK HOBTOpOACKIIe JIeronI'IcHble cBoAbI. 'r(e,Hogurfi eran pa6orbl HaA KoMnI'IJIqqnefi sHar'IeHoBaJI fl-peBpalqeflae ee r o6urnpnefiuruft leronHcuuft cBoA' 3aHulraarculn-ft s PYIo' nscu 2382 crpanuuu. B ua'Iare ero 6nna noMelqeHa <<Knnra Ba-

qapeft, UXe nueuureftu HapoAoB Bcex oT Ao6;lecrsefiunll Mr.rpe oo BceM 6nxy lugr4 or Haqafia MI{pa Aaxe H AoHbIHe>>. Co6pan BoeAI'IHo coo6qeunr XpoHorpaQa, CrenenHoft KHI{rH, rlonyJlflpHblx nosecteft }I x<Hrnft, Honoro JreTonr.rcqa H Apyn11x ucroqHr.rKoB, cOcTaBLITeJIU AOBeJII,I r,rcropr.6o BeJIHKHX I1apefi n iepoen Ao coBpeMeHHI;Ix I'IM <<rocyAapefi oceR-PycH>. coxpauunruufics anrorpas cBo,[a [o3BoJrfer AeranbHo npocneAl,ITb, KaK JIeTOnHCIIbI paclo ilat aJIA BbInI'ICKI',I H3 HCTOqHI{KOB' neperr,reqa;r1 UX, IO1OJIHSJIS HOBbIMI{ 3annCqMLI. CCU;Irn Ha IICTOTIHHKT,I peAKIt n He OTJII{IIaIOTcI TOqHOcrbI,o. .Hanpnuep, BbIIIIIcKa II3 ne,{arioro Kaneu4apa Oorra na 1684 n. o6osHaqeHa: <or Jleronl{cqro I{cIreB xpl'IcTI{aHcKIIx>. B to xe BpeMfl aeronl'Iclrbl orMellalor' H y>I<e npeABapIdTeJIbHyIO [poIxJII'I noJrbsoBaHHble HMI.I MaTepI{aJIbI

CSJTI;OJIOTIOH, CH eCTb cOqHcJIeH[e HJI14 OnpICaHHe BceX

AoBoJrbHo ocHoBareJlbuyro

o6pa6orxy. Tax, ua cnncKe

noBecrE

<O ga,rare qapcrByloqero BeJII'IKofo tpaAa Mocxan, KaKo Hc[epBa garlarcfl>>, JleroflHceq [oMerIIJI: <Cng nosecrb cBoxena rAe y KoBo

72


IIOBeCTb yCJrbIrXI,ITCfl, UJrn yBI{ALITUa, n 6paHO, H CBOXeHO, E CXoAnJro-roJrKo 3Ae cnpaBJreHo peqn MaJro HeqTo; a cBoAHJr He C oAHoBo fiepeBoAy>. H noc.te reKcra noBecrr.r cKa3aHo: <<Cefi nosecrr.r 3Ae KoHerr, qro cBolKeua He B oAHo BpeMfl>. Taxuu o6pasom, Jrero[ilcrlbr ncrroJrbgoBaJrr.r 3apaHee oro6paunufi u npnne4eHuHfi, s

cl{g

rropsAoK MarepHaJr.

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MaJrr.I noMerbr H gatJraBng cocraBHux qacrefi, crpeMscb cJrr.rrb cBeAeHHfl pasHblx I{croqHHKoB s eAraHHft rexcr, y[opsAorrr.rBaJrr{ xpo-

Ho.rrorl4ro noBecrBoBaHHff H crapaJIl{cb Hg6agarr reKcr or H3JILIuIHnX, yBoAsrrlnx B cropoHy, paccKa3oB. 3asepurenue pa6oru HaA Kparroir pe4axuuefi csoAa orHocr.rrcfl yxe K 1690-rra roAaM. Onnr pa6oru narpnaprxux JreronucrleB HarxeJr orpaxeHr4e r{ B CeoAe 1680-x roAoB, cocraBJreHHoM Me)KAy 1680 n 1688 rr. Ceoa COxpaHI{JICg TOJIbKO

B CIIHCKaX CJIeAyI,OqerO AeCflTIrneTLIfl, npOAOtI-

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<<l.ra6paHuocrn>> MocxoBcKoro rocyAapcrBa n poccnftcxux caMoAepxrleB cpeAH <<Bcex [JreMeH 3eMHbrx>, npeAcraBr.rTb ncropHqecxuft npoqecc c no3r.rutrfi nAeonornn a6co.nrcrnsnaa. flocleAoBaBrrree BcKope 3a co3Aagr.reu nepaofi peAaKrrnri CsoAa coKparrleHge ero reKcra npecneAoBaao nr.rreparypHbre qeJrn r{ [oAqepKuna.no uAeftHyro HanpaBJreHnocrb noBecrBoBasng. Baxso orMerurb, uro o$nqHo3rrocTb rroBecrBoBaHr.Iff He Meulara aBropaM H peAaKropaM B psAe cryrraeB npoBoAnrt co6crgeHHbre, He coBnaAaroque c tuunefi narpuapxa B3fJrtAbr. Hanpnuep, oHa noArrepKvr'ailH 3aBncuMocrb <<npaBocJraBrifl.> Lr <<6.naroqecrlrr> qepKBr.I oT caMoAepxaBufl, npoBOAt4JrLr MbrCJrb

O <<IIpeHeCeHnH>> IIeHTpa MLIpOBOTO npaBOCJraBHfl <OT

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73


Hg6eras (nn4nuo, B p$ynbrare rrrrareJrbnofi nepepa6orrn npeABapureJrbHoro rexcra) crr{Jrncrr,rqecKoro pa3Horo-

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M., 1962. C. 51=-52), ony6;tnxonaryuuu panee ero orpbrBoK (3anngrn aplrKa3Hblx_nroAefi_xou_qa X_VII_n- //lp_yAu Or4eaa Apennepyccioft aureparypu. C.448-456). I4eyueuue naumHnxa 6u.no npoAonx(eno 4.; JL, 1956. T. 12. B. H. Kopeuxuu (Masypnncrnfi neroruceu ronqa XVII BeKa u aeronncanue <Cuyrnoro BpeMeHr.r> llClaaaye u Pycr: C6. crarefi. M., 1968. C.282-290), <oropuft noAroroBuJr, coBMecrHo c @. A. Iperyaou, ero r.r3Aanr.re e flonuoM MocKgH.

co6panun pyccKnx aeronnceft. 2 floApo6nee floucKn aBropa Maayptncxoro Jreroflncqa ocBerqeHbr B Ar.rccepraqrfl: EorAaHos A. fI..Ileronncrlne u ny6auqucrtqecKne ucroqHr.rKn tro no.nnrr,{ecxoft r.rcropur.r Poccuu rogrra XVII sexa. M., 1983. C. 43-51. 3 En6ruorera AH CCCP (,u,a;ree DAH). Co6p. M 3 A.ner<caHApo-CBHpcKoro Mouacrupa, Ne l5 (88), 26 (75'). . Bpeua co3.{aHus pyKonncfi o[peAensercr o6H,ruo [yreM cpaBrreHrr Bo.1tEblx 3HaKon (Quanrpanefi) xa ee 6yraare c o6pasqaun, cKorrnpoBanHbrMu B .f,oqno AartrpoBaxxbrx pyKonIrcsx. MasypancrHfi Jrerorrncerl 6ua uanacas na 6y-

uare c BoATHHM oHaKoM <lorosa uryra> rtqrn BIAoB. flepanfi [r3 Hux (IV runa no xraccnQuraqnu C. A. Kaenuroga), pacuo.roxesnuft sa ;ur. l-205 g nMerouufi nr.rrepH PL, cxoAes co 3EaKoM B pyKonucu Kpamoro pocroBcKoro neronucqa (fIIb. Co6p. floroAuua. M 1564, Jl. ll4-l2l o6. 1682 r.); ero aeo6paxenne (no ne anrepu) cxoAno co sHaKoM Nb 455 A s aar6oMe T. B. .{,uanoBofi u JI. M. Kocrpxsnofi <BoAgsue sHaKr{ pyronnceft Poccrlr XVII e.> (M., 1980), orMeqeurrbrM noa 1673-1676 rr. Bropoft sHax (I rnna, a* 2A6-213) c aurepauu GHR s paure 6lneox uso6paxennaM roro xe a.IIbTperufi enar (IV rarra, .tIrI. 214-230) 1670 6oua Nb 351-406 - Nb - 1680-er.ro!,n. 474-1685 9eraeprufi (lV rnna, w. 231-261, 267cxoAeH c a,nr6ouorrr 281) cxoaen c anr6ouou Ne 459-1682 r. flstuft (lV ruua, m. 282-296\ a o6ulrax qeprax npn6.nuxaerca x aar6ouy ,l\& 157-1670 r. 3sax Ha 6yrrlare aa. 297-310 Ee npoq[rHBaercq. Kar Br,{sM, 6yuara co sHaKaMI.t, noAo6nnur sHaKaM s Haueft pyronucu, 6utosaaa g Poccuu e 1670-1680-x roAax, a lnar' 6oaee cxoAnne c naurnuu sHaKH Aarl{posaHH 1682, 1682 u 1685 rr. flpnrrlepno K grr.rM fo/IaM H cneAyer orHecrr.r cocraBJleHrre pyKonl{c[ Masypr.rttcxoro .Ileroflaclla, yqurbrBas BpeMr, Ao KoTopofo b Aaropy

.[,oBeAeH paccKa3.

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'ax JIu6sAu - Corracso erofi rropori JIereHAe, ilx ropoA <Knese[> 6ul ual, a oxo;ro 6463 n. ToJrbKo ruqss Oref <3aJIor*ItJt rpag oe,nnrufi Kueo> (c.39). flotueureHre B reKcre Jlerolucr4 o6oux leres,u,apHblx coo6qenuft xaparrepHo Ant <o6aerrueusnpoaaHsoro> noAxo.[a Cnaet,tqa K cBoLtM l-tcroqunKaM. B ro xe BpeMt on He conocraB-

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H os A. n.: l) Jleronncune u ny6;tnqncrllqecKl'Ie 2) ,Ileronrcer 1686 r. //TOAPJI. JL, 1985. T. 39. 7 Cu.: E or! a H o e A. n.: l) Jleronuorue n ny6;tt'tqncrl{qecKue HcroqHllr<u... C. 5l-52: 2) <XporonpaQeu> Eoro,nena AAaMoea llTOnPil. JI., 1988. T. 4l (c ny6;rsxaur.Iefi). 8 flCPI. M., 1968. 'l .31. C. 180-205 (uy6;rr.rxauur npoctpaunofi peAaxuun); EorAaHcrB A. fl-: l) Peaarrrun Jletonucqa 1619-1691 n. llVcueto-

6 floApo6nee

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v1


BaHH' rlo trcToqHHKOBeAeHnp ucTopH[ cccP AooKTr6pbcKoro nepnoAa.. M.t igdi. C. 124-l5l (c ny6auraunefi'xpatxoft pexaruuu);-2) Jletouraceu 1619rr. llTOnPil. 169l -t<?-o."JI, 1985. T. 39. C. lll-112. '--'r'Coij,

E. M. Hnxososcrufi cBoA n pyccKlle JIeroIIflclI XVIC' 280-293. Ag6eaeg'c. H. Hoaropolcrue JteroIIHctI XVII sexa. Hoanopo,{,

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crn

can ly''sar Hecreponnu n co6crseHHbre JreronncHble gaMerKH-HarrpnMep, o MocKoecxoM BoccraHnra 1682 r. A s 1690-x roAax c Hr,rM pa6orana yxe rpyn[a nHcrIoB, AeJraBrrrax Iro gaAaHnro Kn.rnrnHa BIrIrrI4cKH ug <<Cnnonctlca>>, <<PnrucKr{x AeflHnft>> (auer4orbl I,r3 xr.I3uu Coxpara), nepeao4urilx nosecrefi 2. B xouqe XVII s. B reqeHr,re MHorr.rx Jrer rpyArurcfl HaA co3Aasueu co6crseHuofi peAaKrlr,ru Cu6upcxoro Jreronr.rcHoro cBoAa cH6upcxuir ABopflHriH, no4ravnfi, a ear-elr 4lax M. l. PoMaHoe, noAapnnuuft_o4Hy r.r3 co3AauHbrx r.rM pyKofll,tceft ro6o.nrcKoMy BoeBoAe A. n. fo.noenny. I,Iccne4onareJrn npeA[oJrararor, qro B pa3Hoe BpeMfl x pa6ore HaA CeoAoM rrpHJroxHJrH pyKr{ rz MHorHe Apyrue ABopflHe, He ga6rterrrne ocraBr4Tb AJrfl r.rcroplln naMflTb o ceoeft AeflreJrbHocrn, Hanpr{Mep cbrH 6onpcrnfi Bacu.nnft llerpoollu illy,rrrLrH LI ero 6partn. OpnrznanbHHMn JreronHcHbrMl{ 3attncflMn B 1680-x roAax npoAoJrx(aJr csofi cnficoK Kparxoro Hnxeropo4croro neronHcrla _ npeAcr_aBnreJrb r.rgBecrHofi Qairrn;rlrH cnyxr.tJrblx

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coqerasne o6ulepyccrofo r.rrrrl.r MecrHofo JreronucHoro IroBecrc ganltcqMu o c,ryx6e orAeJlbHbrx ABopflH I{ IIeJrbIx poAoe ue 6u,ro c,ryuaftHuu rrBJreH[eM. CooperurenHuft HccJreAoBareJrb D. H. Moposon cBr.rAereJrbcrByer, q"o Bropas noJroBnHa XVII e. 6una BpeMeHeM oco6euHo rxupoKoro pacfipocrpaueHfifl qacrnblx <[ocr]'xHbrx cn]tcKoB>> sanHcefi o c.nyx<6e orAeJrbnbrx rnu tl 0a- caMHMH ABoprHaun. Ha erorrl uutnttit, cogAaBaBrur,rxcs Qone nurJIrAHr saKoHoMepHbrM H noflBJreul{e O6Urnpnux covnnennft, coueTarou{Hx Jreronr.rcHbre paccKa3b[ o pyccxoft Hcropun c npocnaBJreHLIeM oAHofo H3 ABopnHcKHx ll.rrn 6oapcrux poAoB. I,Ix o6paaqauu rBJrsrorcr HeAaBHo r€yqeHuble Jreronucrlbr A. f. naruKoBa H KHflsefi 9epxaccKuxa. fiyr"rHuft ABopflHItH A"lpeft f,xoeneeuu ,{,aruxoo 6u;l npe4craBHTeJIeM MHOTOT{I4Cr'IeHHO|O u IOJILITI{IIeCKK aKTHBHO|O, xOTff H He g{g_tuKoM _ ApeBHero poAa (norennrnerocR ua Pycn B HaqaJre XVI e.). Os Haqan cnyx6y s 1620 r. B qr.rHe rarpnapruero cro"rrbBoBaHrrs

77


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Hyro cMerKy.

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80


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n 1682 rr. B coorsercrBlrn c <opfaHnqecrofi> reopnefi rocyAapcrBa, croJrb [ocJreAoBareJrbHo npuMeHeHHofi s <Co3eprlaHIrLI KparKoru> Ctl.itreecrpa Me4BeAeBa, xugxecxufi neronllceq roJrKyer Co.rrssoft 6yur rax <Me)KAyyco6nyro 6paub>,, BbrsBaHHyro Hapyrxenr{eM rocyAapcrBeHHbrx Qyururft. Hn eAunoro cJroBa He HaxoAHT JrerorrHcerl B onpaBAaHr{e BHHoBHITKoB BoccTaHr.rt- npeAcrasurereft rocnoAcrByrouero cocJroBr.rfl: E. 14. Moposona, fl. T. TpaxaHnoroBa, H. tlncroro, JI. ll.ueqeaa. C 4pyrofi croponu, B[oJrHe o6reKr]rsHo r.rsJrox(eHbr e Jleron[cqe noBeAeHne n rpe6oBaHHr <<MocKoBcKr,Ix roproBbrx r{ BcsKr.rx qepHbrx .nrc4eft>. Hx nrop)KeHKs Ha rocyAapeB ABop r.r o6paqerus K rlapto Anercen Mr.rxafiJroBr.rqy He paccMarpr.IBarorcq KaK IIpecTyrrJreHHq, xoTff aBrop r.t yfloMlrHaer o6 srcrpeuuou c6ope Bcex qHHoB focy4apera ABopa Bo ABopue <c pyxbeM> n 6oesbrMur KorflMkL nocraBJreHHbtMu B roroBHocrr,r <<Ha rrJroruagw y Llsana Be.nuxoro> (npan4a, r{ ToproBblx, H [ocaAcKLIx rroAefi Jrero[I{ceq paBHo Ha3brBaer <<uepurrc>). Sxcqeccsr <trepnn>> s Mocxse Jrero[nceq l{epxaccxl.rx nputtl{cbrBaer orAerrsofi rpyflne <<BopoB, Koropbre ABopbI rpa6u.ltu>, ne pas6npan fix rrpr,rHaAJrexHocrr{: <<6otpcxne, H oKoJIbHnqecKrre, n croJrbHlMecrve, v Abqlrbn, H rocrllHble, I{ BctKI{x qHHoB>. Ho era .rpynna <(BopoB r.I uapnar'rbrrluKoB> orAeJreua or ocgoBHofi sacrn BoccraBrrrux, Koropafl B sro >Ke BpeMfl o6paulana cnon rpe6oBarnfl K qaprc. Jlrc6onurso, rrro Aaxe 6o.utruoft Lrocxoscxnft ttox<ap aBTop He llocraBr{n B BvtHy BoccraB[II,IM. 6o.uee roro, I{x rpe6onanne, ,r_ro6H rocyAapb yKa3aJr <<cyAbr H BcrrKr.re AeJra B flpaBAy cyAHTb u 6egsoroxnruo, uto6 rrM, BcqKHM ToproBbIM, qepnlilM JIIoAeM HI{ or xoro o6nAu r{ npoAax(u He 6uJro>>, oqeBr{AHo, npeAcraBJrsJlocb Jrnue B 1648

JreronHcrly BnoJrHe 3aKoHoMepHbrM. Anrop c ogo6penNeM nr{rrrer o roM, qro, Bbrcryruan rpe6oeannn BoccraBrrrHx, <noBe.ne rocyAapb ynox(HTb o BCflKr{X Aenax yCTaBHyro KHHry, qro6 cyAbr H BcsKHfl AeJra AeJrarb BnpaBAy, 6egsonoKr,rruo n_6es npo4att<r{>>. Cuuc.l cogbrBa 3eMcKoro co6opa Antr npnHsrl{q V.iloxeHuq 1649

r. Jrero[[ceq BuAr4T r.rMeHHo B ToM, <.rio6

BcrKt4x rrI.IHoB nroAeM Ta ycraBHaf, KHEra, Bce

crarbn ro4nun 6uOcnosofi csoero 6.uarono.nyunn 3HarHbIe 6oape, corJracHo ,Ileronncuy, crrl{TaJII{ He ycrpaueHlre IIoAAaHHbIx, a noAAepx(aHI.Ie paBHoBecr{s counantnoft crpyKrypbr Seo4alruoro rocy4apcrBa B .nn>>.

qeroM.

B erou cMbrcJre rro3r,rqlrfl crpeJrerlKoro goficxa He MorJIa He npuBrer{b oco6oro BHlIMaHHff r'rerorlllcqa. On o'rrrleruJr, qro eIIIe B 1648 r., [oJryqtrB npr.rKag BceMH ltoJrKaME <<qepHbrx nroAeft Hs ro-

po4a nu6uBarb BoH>>, <<crpeJIbIIbI cralrw, qro-Ae I{M rIepHbIMH JlroAbMH Aparrra ne yuerl!>> 6o.nee roro, qacrb crpeJrbrloB [pucoeAr.rHr{Jracb K TeM, xro rpa6n.n 6orarue ABopbr sHarn. A 1682 r. crpeJlbqbr caMr-I BbIHy)KAeHbI 6u.nH 6urs qeJroM <<Bo BcrKI{x HaJIo-

c

s

rax H Bo BcgKnx B3gTKaX Ha nOJIKoBHHKOB CBOI,IX>, [pHqeM BMeCTe c Hr.rMlr Bbrcrynr,rJrI{ rr coJrAarbr. <<I4 6oxnnM nonyqeHrleM Te x

crpeJlblrtr, nHrIIer aBTop, urnx 6oap>.-

-

B3BoJrHoBaJrI.Icb

Ha croJlfloBux 6onr-

83


Llepxaccxue, 6esyclonno,

rroHHMaJrr.r

Hcrlrnnyro ttpfiqlrHy HapoA-

frofo Bo3MyureHnq B crotrrqe, KorAa nocJle cMeprn @e4opa r.r yraepxAeHng Ha qapcrBe MaJroJrerHero flerpa crpeJlbqbr, coJIAarbI, nocaAcKlre rroAu y6eAr{Jrr.rcb, uro <6onpe gaBJraAed'rl{ BceM rocy-

B or.nnqne or MeAseAeBa, Jreronl{ceu tlepraccKr.Ix He yKa3aJr fipflMo Ha BHHy <<BepxoB>, Ho npI.IBeJr cBeAeHLIs, noKa3blBarorrlue ero Hnrepec K noHIiMaHIte npnqunu ronQ.lnxra. Ec;ul yqecrb, qro 27 anpeJrs KHq3b ,(. f. t{epxaccxl.tit 6esornyuuo HaxoALIJIcs y ilocreJrr{ yMnpanuero @eAopa Arenceesl,t,Ia, coo6uleHlle JIeronI.Icqa r{epraccKux, rrro rocyAapb cKoHqarcfl <flepeA oeuepHaun> (r. e. oKoJro 5 qacoe nono.nyAnn) 3acJlyxl{Baer npl{craJlbnoro BHI'IMaHl{ff. He cryuafiHo roBopr,IT Jleronnceq n o roM, qro HapeqenHuft na rrpecroJr nocyAapb 6un <<ueuruoft> 6par yMepuefo qapfl, <or pox{.4eHlrq ero l0 JIer>>, TorAa xar HgaH A.[erceesu.I, nocaxenHufi ua lrpecroJr no rpe6oeaHlllo BoccraBllrnx, 6u.u <6par ero rocyAapeB 6o.nnurofi ... or polKAeHHfl cBoefo 18 (a ne 16!-Asr.) ner>.

AapcrBoM>.

llpusuanue 6essaxoHHs coBepIIreHHoro 6onpauu,4BoplroBoro flepeBopora He no3BoJII4,'Io aBTopy JleronHcqa o6pyruurrctt Ha Boc'

craBlul{x c o6H,{HHI\,Itt <o6rti.{eHl{ffMl{>> u 6panrrc, teu 6olee, uro Llepxaccxne, BHAIiMo, He BbIcoKo IIeHI'IJIH f pynnnpoBKy 6orpuua Aprauona Cepreeeuua Marneena, 3axBaruBlllyn BJIacrb noc.ne flepeBopora Ir pa3rpoMJIeHHyIo BoccraBIIJHMIl: _no xpaftuefi uepe n cnucre-y6urux BoccraB[rI.IMH <<xyAoPoAHHft> MarseeB yKa3an JIeronr{cueM [ocJreAHI,IM B psAy 6onp (aaxe nocJle Hapuurxunnx!). Jleronnceq tlepraccxltx He npecJleAona.n ny6lt'tqucrl4qecKnx qelefi, fio AaBan noqyBcTBoBarb oTpl'IuareJlbHoe orHoIueHI'Ie sb,Icuero 6ofpcTBa K CBapaM I.{ pacnpqM <BepxoB>>, K aAMItHIicTpaTHBHOMy

<Her{cnpaBIeHlrro IIpaBblx AeJI>>, BbI3bIBaIOUIHM rHeB nOAAaHHbIX H r.{AyrrrnM Bo BpeA rocyAapcrBeHHblM HHrepecaM' fIoHHMaq I'IAeIo

B paMKax I.{AeOJIOTI{H a6coltornsua, poAonureftruaa apucroKparnt He cryqaftHo o6pasoeala BcKope rpyr 6.rruxafturttx cnoAellxHl.{xos 4aPf, flerpa AneKceesnqa 6.

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t Cu.

6-9

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fZM.

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(3i6e.rrnncrufr cnucor);

|DJI.

Co6p.

H' E. 3a6eanna).

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Nb 20. I1.57.

-Kapron (llcxoa(gepHsrureecxufi); fllB. Co6p' OJIAII. F.355/6924. JI' 55-57 JI. 686l); baH. ee.S.Za. l. +f+-lOt o6. (-flcxoacrun- ll);-EAH. 32.1.1. 696 o6. (6vrvo.nuncrnri); fHM. Mya. 3257. {1.517-518 o6. (Eoatnucxuit). 2 f[l6.'Ilbroas*ra i953. 4". 155 n., opxruna;I. Onucau: As6eres C. H. trL.

l_.4

crnfr

flonropoAcxne Jleronltcu

3iioapo6uee cru.:

XVII

sei(a. Hoaropo4, 1960. C. 257-261-

,[tepraqe-na-Cxon E. H.AntorpaQ M.-f'

Poua-

oAnoro H3 cocraBuTe;reir Cn6upcxoro JleronficHono cBoaa //-ApeBHep^yc1982. C' 79cKar -pvKonucgaa xultra u ee 6HrosaHlre n Cu6npn. Hoaocu6upcx, 102; il-sopeqKa s H. A- Cu6npcxuft leronncssrfi ceog .(nropar ,'o,'oBuHa XViI';.). Hosocn6rpcr, 1984; EorAaHos A- n. JIeronncHLIe u ny6.nuqucruqec*n. ncrotnsxu.,, b. 123, t a M x e. flpruoxenne. C. 80-82' 100-101' a flo.a.oo6see cu.: 6of AaHos A. n. "ryeronscnue n ny6,'tut'l,uctusecrue scrounsx".L. C.68-71; raM >xe. flpu,noxeuue. C.3l-32; 6eao6poea O. A., BonAanoe A. fl. Aaruxos Au'u,peft fxoe,leaB'r.-HccreAosare"ItrroBa

84


cKEe Marepganbl ,4Jrs (Cno_Bapr ,K-ntrxnsKoB H Knn)rnocrtr Apessefi Pycu>

TOAPJL T., 1985. T. 39. C. 3Z-Sa.

.---u

C_p.:

ll

_Eyragos B, I,I. Mocroacrue Boccraguf, ronqa XVII sexa. M., Eor,(aHos A. fI. Jleronncnue B3Becrufl o cMeprn -M.,

1969. C. 152 u ca.;

Q-exopa n qoqapeHur{ 1981. c. 197-206.

flerpa

Anexceenuua

//Jlerolacn

r

xposnKu ea 1980 r.

_ -u tlg4po.Qu_ee cM.: Qlur.*ey Slavic _8. O. Peter and the.Boiar Aristocracy, 1689-1700 Studies. 8 (1974). P. 274-287, llCanadian/American


Sna6a

7

,,Soruoanoo%n" 14 oo a6mo! (

?h,namuil, Funcku,il,-Ko/cato6

)

Bepurnuofi <<poAocJloBuofi> Anoprucxofi ncropuorpallun s Pocnpol'I3BeAeHI'Ie noA HasBaHI{eM: <fenealorun sereHHofi or CornopeHut MHpa $aun.lnu, HecpaBHeHHaro ApeB' l. Ile.tl cocraBJIeHHF Hocrr.rn BpeMeHH poAy... Kopcakon-Pr{McKHx>> ..leHea.nOiuu> 6lrna KOHKperHa: cOqHHeHIle AO;IxHO 6Un_O Ctarr apryMeHroM a 6opt6e Mo-cKoecroro ABopflHcKoro poAa KopcaxoBbrx 3a npH3HaHUe uX Apeaneftilero ilpoHcxoxAeHllfl H 3a oT,lleJle' Hr.re gmro poAa or MHOlKecrBa Apyrnx poccttftcxnx Kopcaronux,. Aflq rrero ABopflHe rIpocHJII'I Ilx <or qloxepoAHblx l(opcaxonblx orBepcrarb no Hx nopbae u ilo crapnH€, - Pnrracxul'Iu-I(oacaronr* nucarb> 2. Ho no 6orarcrny Ceoero coAeplKaHHs <<lenea.no"npaAo Bbrlura AaJIeKo 3a paMKH o6uquux <poAocJIoBHux pocnucefi>' run> craila BbIAaIoqLIMct [aMgrHIrKoM pyccxoft ucroptl'IecKofi MbIcJIH' flpex,qe Bcero nopal(aeT MaCUra6 saIvIHcJIa sroro coqHHeHI,Ifl. uapr* Asroi npl,I3Haer, rITo Bce rIoAH, paBHo 6orarue u y6orne, H 3eMJreAeiIbIlbI, BeAyr ceofi poa or AAaIrla n Enu, T. e' paBHbI tro ."oan n'p"poAe.' Ho AaJreKo ue raxAnfi MO>Ker npocleAurl cnoft poA or npapo4nre.rrefi qenose'IecrBa' nocK-oJlbKy peAKo y Koro Bce gTy np"a^r.r 6trnu locrofiHH socnoMfiHalanfl. <<leuea"Ioruq> peuaer BeKoB rly6l cKBo3b po4 PNtucxt'Ix-KopcaroBblx Bo3BoAfl sa4auy, * Aad"y. Bnpouet,r, co6crse'Ho Pllrrlcxne-KopcaKoBbl floqBrslorc* B noBecTBOBaHI{LI JIHIIIb Ha nocJIeAHeM' 3aKIIOIII',ITeJIbHOM gTane. I.[aeHoe x(e BHHMaHue aBTopa 6uno cocpeAoTorleHo Ha aHrLIqHoM

cnn XVII s. cfaro

gTarre qeJroBerlecKofi ncroPnH. vsroeHl\,r MoMeHToM <<feneanoruu> SBJIff1OTCfl npoilcxoxAegne' no.u,Brlrr.r H HacJIeAHe fepax.na-lepKyJleca. Bocupnnuuas nepcoHaxeir rpexo-pllmcxofi uuQonoruu B Ayxe cBoero BpeMeHH, KaK cJIaBHbrx HCTOpI,IqeCKIdX .lrnu, o6oxecTBJreHHbIX noToMKaMI,I, aBTOp BbI'

flBJrser reHerr.rqecKyp cBqsb MelKAy .IiPrylecor,a u lOuurepou itiou"t.", 3eacor'a), 3areM Carypuor"r (f,sycortr, Kpottou)' crpoHT

86


.<qapcKy_!o> Jrr.rnuro

-or Cary,pHa K UeJrrocy, Apycy, Hunycy, beAQery, Horo, CnQy n, iraxoneq, A4aruy, cBoAt aoeAlruo aHTr.rqHbre u 6u6teficxr,re npeAanlrs. OrHcxneafl <HcropnqecKyr,o ocHoBy> JrereHA o noABr{rax fepry.neca, aBTop o6paulaerca 9K CaMbIM paSrI,IrIHbIM, nI'tCbMeHHbIM, MaTepHaJIbHbIM H TOIIOHLIMI_ qecKriM <AoKa3arenbcrBaM> ero floxoxAeunfr, noApo6no paccKa_ SbrBaer o cblHoBbsx cBoero repoq LI MHotOqECJTeHHbIX <qeCTHbIx .$auu"rrr.lRx, elKe ecrb__poAax, Koropbrfl noBeJrr.rcg or cbrnoB fepryJrecoBhrx e fpequu, Vrannu, Cxnenz, ,[,aquu, a llpyccax, s JIniae, o flo.nue>, AaBag cBoefo poAa gHqr.rKJIoneAI{n [c[oJIb3oBaHH, aHrr.rqHofo uuSa n eeponeftcxofi reuea.irorzu. Oco6oe BHriMaHte aBrop- yAeJrrer cnny fepxyJreca I(opcy, nocenuBnreMycr Ha ocrpoBe Kopcr.lxa, paccKa3brBaer o6 nciopun u reorpaSnn ocrpoBa, flponcxoxAeHr.rfi orryAa purr,rcxofi Awlacrlu O.lasaeg H o Bcex cJIaBHbIx, no ero MHeHLIIo, JrIoAtx sroro poAa _ or nepBbrx KoHcynoB Ao HM[eparopoB pnua. ,[l,a.ree <fenea.rorns> g6paqaercfl K xr'r3Hu uoroMKoB Kopcaxou-pr.rMcKr.rx s Bocroqgoft Eapone tl .rrurrrb B- 3aKJlroqenue xoporxo roBopur o npseeAe Hx

.Jrrocy, Hnrrrnpo4y,

{rpeAcraBr.rre.nefi s Mocxogcxoe rccyAapcrso. B- ornnuue or 60.ns{rruHcrBa ABopffHcKr,rx po4oc;lonnft Toro BpeMeHr.r aBrop noApo6nefi_ rUIAU OCTAHABJII{BACTCfl HMCHHO HA AHTI,IqHOM IICPKOAC, -O6PAEOM

npno6qaa qnrare,rq x 6orarcrsaM ero I{cropl{fi, [oArIepKHBag cBflsb ricr-opar.r H KyJrbrypbr ApeBHefo Cpe4useuuoMopbq c pacrlBeroM Hosofr qr.rBuJrr.r3arlnu Enponn. O rr,rocxoscrux paucx""lKopca. fioBbIX <<fegea.norufl>> roBopHT vpeeeuuafiHo JraKoHI'IqHO, nOcBgIIIafl orAeJrbHyro crarbn roJrbKo SHaMeHHrOMy vruaruw crenanonnuy, saqr.rHareJrro 6olrt6q sa Puncrcu,r-Kopcarionux, noru6rueMy Bo BpeMg BoccraHas CrenaHa pagusa. cos4aHne croJrb o6ruupuoro rro TeMarr.rKe H B gHaqr{rerbnofi qa€Tr'r oplrfriHaJrbHofo noBecrBoBaunr rpe60naJro peAKoCrUOft epyAH,Ilur,r n orrotreHHbrx HaBbrKoB pa6oru c .llnreparypoft. He4apou €BTop nucaJr n llpe4nc.noBnlt, rrro HeMaJroe BpeMg xuggl,r csoefi 'LI3HypHJI HaA KHITaMH, [pe>I(Ae qeM yMbrcrun ce6s B cl,rJrax ollt_ carb I'Icropl'rrc poAa He KaK cJraAKocrrroBecHbre H yKpalrreHHble JIo)Kbro 6acrtz, Ho KaK r.rcrunHyro npaBAy, TrrlareJrbno noATBep)KAeH{ryrc ncroqHVKaMH. ts <<Co,{HcreH'r,r rBoprloB no a.nQanury, or Hr.rx xe co6pana KHHfa cuq>, IroMeIIreHHoM cpa3y nocJle gar.ltasafl <fefieaJrornu>>, yKa3aHbI 65 anruqsEIx H HOBbIx aBTopoB, qbII COqHHe'HI'I' IoCJIy)KHJIH LIcroqHI,IKoM grot"o gaMer{arerbHoro HcropHqecKoro

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qro

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nnu

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caros-Pnr{cxnfi, npex4e 6Hstlft rccyAapcKoro BeJrr.rqecrBa croJrbHnx> 5. HccreAosanrle Bcex apxlrBHbrx cseAennfi o qJreHax $auunww I(opcaxosux, HocI,IBrIrr{x e XVII B. HMeHa na <Ll> (npu nocrpnxe-

HHE o6H,rHo AaBaJrH HMfl, rraql{Har,oqeecq c rofi xe 6yxru), rroKa3aJro, qro MoHaxoM HruarneM, 6yayurur,a Mr'trpononnToM, Mor crarb

rreroBex-l4nts, A.nercaHgposnq6. Os-ro KaK pa3 He' sa6Hr s <fenearofl,In>, BMecre c ero AeAoM LI npaAeAoM, cbrHoMr Hnanou, BHyKaMfi flerporvt, IOpuerr,r n An4peerra, K KoropbrM Lr' AoJrxHbr 6u.ru 6urr o6paqeuu ypoKa qecru H cJraBbr PuucxnxroJrbKo oAr.rH

I(opcaxoeux.

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Jroxlrrb, rrro noAo6Hoe coqr.IneHr.Ie MorJro 6url coeAaHo Ao llerpal). B AeftcrsurenbHocrlr 6yuara, Ha Koropoft sanucauo cotruuenne, 6uroeara e Pocculr ao sropoft [oJroBHHe 70-x u B Harra,re 80-x roaoe XVII e.7. flapa4HHfi 6enosoft cnncor <<feseanoruu>> 6H.r ebrnoJrHeH rpynnofi rea,rnQnqrpoBaHHbrx [epelucqr.rKor, o4uaxo Hruarnft, nepnuft npr.rBbrqKe He[ocpeAcrBenuo ttpnuuMarb yqacrne B cos,u"aHr.rrr 6e.losnxos co6crseHgbrx coquneHriri. nanucan cBor{M xapaKTepHbrM noqepKoM 3arJlaBne, cn[coK L.IcToqHI,IKoB, TeKcT o HOgeftuefi ucropnx Kopcaxonux n crr.rxu Ha ux rep6u, T. e. Haqar'ro H KOHCU KHHTN.

Vcranognenne aBTopcrsa <<lenearorfiu> no3BoJrser noHsrb 3ro coqI4HeHHe KaK OpfaHHqecKOe llpoflBileHl.te paSBw'rwf, pyccKor'r ]rcropnuecrofi MbrcJrH H KyJrbrypbr noc.rreAseft rrerBeprn XVII s. B xoHTeKcre r,rcro pI.IKo -ny6n uqncruuecKoro rBoprrecrB a l,zIt:r' at us, Pn u croro-Kopcaxosa <<feHearornff> yxe He Moxer paccMarpr{Barbcq KaK HerITo oco6oe, npI{BHeceHHoe I,I3BHe, orAeJrbHoe oT TeHAeHuuft pyc-

cxofi xnsHn, ue cnoftcrBeHHoe <reuHoft, HelpocBerrlesnoft crpane>>' KaK cKJroHHu 6urut xapaKrepH3oBarb <<npeAnerpoBcKylo>> Pocculo HeKoropbre He BecbMa npocBerrleHHble HcropllKra. Bnpoueu, He ro,'rbKo aBTopcrgo <<fenealotflE>>, Ho H TBoprlectso ZrHarHq B rreJroM ,u,o nocJleAHero BpeMeHH He rroABepf ad'rocb TrrlareJrbHoMy H3yqeunn

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qncne ero co6crseuHnft) noAr{epKHyro nepeMerrraHbr c poAaMI.t <qepHux JrloAefi>, o Koropblx cocraBureJlb nHIUer c 6onsurnu yea-

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6oxAas nroAeft or crparxHoro nJIeHa. B xecroroft 6opt6e, roBopI4JI Vrnarwir, BbI Mr.rp <6paruu u cpoAHI{KoM BaIIJItM. corBopflere, pa' Aocrb, BeceJrqe a 6eg6eAcrno npnuocnre!>> B ro rpeur, KorAa xau Cernu-fupefi 6pocnn <<Becb KpbIM>> Ha pyccKl.{e py6exn, nblraflcb <<npoJloMl{rl Ee,nropoAcKylo qepry>>,

Purracxnft-KopcaKoB pacKpbIBaJI nepeA gaflopoxuaMl,I sHalIeHHe Hx

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cror?Kocrl{ B rJra3ax Poccuficxoro rocyAapcrBa: Bbr <MHp n rIrIu[Hy x(eJraHHyro nopoAe poccnftcxofi opyx(HeM Barrrr,rM Kpenue coAeBaere!> HegapoM rrapb Anercefi Milxaft.rrosuq nocbrJraJr B 3anopoxcKr.re noJrKH o6pas cBrroro MlrrponoJrltra A.rexcns-<<Baurero eAHHocTpaHHnKa, qepHlrtoBcKoro poAI,rMIIa>>, [pocJIaBJIeHHoro MI]poTBoprta AJrs rceft Pycn. Ho crpelaneHne poccr,rflH K Mr,Ipy osHaqaJro

6opr6y c <<Jrrorefiuruun BapBapaMr.r>, c OtrouaHcxofi lloproft r.r Kpurr,rcKr.rM xaHcraou, rpe6oBaJro npecetrb Hx sJroHellpr.IMnpldrr,ryro

Aeftcxoe crpeMJreHne B pyccKr.re npeAeJrbr. Ilpusuean 3anopo)KrleB K cBffureHnofi eorlue c <<6ycypuanaMn>; Vtrlr.arufi roBopI{JI, rlro nporI.tBHLIK Moryq, Ho eAI.IHoAyrune poccnficKr,rx BoHHoB noMo>Ker nu npeesofirn crasHefirrue B Hcropr{u noAsnrn. ToflrKo re, qro r.rAyr Ha Bpara <<eAHHbIM cepArreM, eAHHoKr Ayrrrerc>>, Mofyr coKpyur.rrb <<Jrroraq opyx{Hq conporr.rBHblx>, ocBo-

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seMeJrb rroA KpbrJrbrnrn poccnrZcKoro AByfJraBoro opJra.

BHnonHHe Mlrccltrc a 3auopoxbe, orKyAa <<crpaurHufi Kpurtay araMaH I,IsaH Cepro rroBeJr cBoI,Ix BoHHoB s 6oft c <<araprrHanan>, PnMcKr.rft-KopcaroB BepHyJrcfl B [ycrbrHb, Koropyo K BecHe 1675 r. Bo3fJIaBuJr. Or groro BpeMenr.r Ao Hac AorrreJr HanucasHuir nrrr TopxecrBeHHHK, npu cocraB,'reH?rn Koroporo l4rn aruit I{crroJrb3oBaJr He roJrbKo pyccKoe flerocq[creHne (or CornopeHna *rupa), Ho n Aarbr or PoxAecrsa Xpncrosara. Becsofi 1676 r. LIrnaruft AoJrx(eH 6un cueuurb rnxyro o6nrenr Ha Co"roeeuxnfi uoHacrbrpb, nepex(LlBaBurnft nocneAcrBnfl crparxHoro pasrpoMa, yqnHeHHoro B HeM uapcKnMu Kapare"'rflMn rrocJre BoccraHnrr (16681676 rr.). Pnrr,tcruft-I(opcaxoe noflyrrlir AoJr)KHocrb oKKJrecHapxa (uepxonnoro ycraBqllxa) u [pr{3BaH 6un ycrpaurarb <<pa3HoMbrcJrlte>> B o6pa4ax, nocJryxuBlrlee BaxHbIM Morr,IBoM BoccraHllr. rrpoMbrrrrJreHHr{K>>

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pa3trcngBrrrero oco6esuocrr.r craporo rpeqecKoro neHufl BpeMeH kloasr^a 3.naroycra r{ HoBoro AQoucroro, qepxonuofi My3brKr.r <n cep6ax, u e 6o.nrapax, s 6eropycc[tl>, HorarII{I{ <<crapbrx MocKoBcKHx rpe6unroe H npexHr,rx neBqr{x nepeBoAoB>. B paae pac[eeoe (nanpnMep, Ha rerct <<IIpuLIAHre IIoKJIoHLIMca...>) rvlysuxa LlrHarwg, HcrIoJIHgeMaq <HecKopo, co cJIaAKoneHI4eM>>, BoSBbIIIreHHat r.r MorrIHas, craJIa IoAJIITHHEIM crlMBoJroM pacIIBeraloulefi Poccltlt, BxoAr{T B rrlrcJro coKpoBnq uupoeoft KyJrbrypbr. B nrone 1680 r. Pr.rucxnft-KopcaKoB 6u;l upueaaH o Mocrsy, rAe BogrJraBHJr rroABopre CoJroseuKoro Mouacrblpr H [priHrJr yqacrr.re B o6qecrsenHornor[ruqecroft 6opl6e. Ero AaBHo 3aAyMaHsas <<feseaJrorr{r> ngcaJracb HMeHHo B 9To BpeMfl, KorAa n 6opr6e rrpr{ABoprrbrx rpynfluposox MnrocJIaBcKI{e (po4crnenunrn <DeAopa n l4eana Arerceesnqefi no rvrarepu) 6unn omecHenbr Ha nropoft u.ran. .[,uro B roM, qro MarocJIaBoKHe a l(opcaxoabr npolcxoAHJII{ or o6qero [peAKa, n [pocJraBJrqs cgofi poA nporcxoxAenr.reM or pr.rMcKr.rx KoHcyJroB r.r rpeqecKl.Ix 6oron, Idrwarlaft oKa3brBaJr noAAepxKy Hr{sBepruyrblM npaBr.rrersna. He cnyuaftHo r.rMeHHo s 168l1683 rr. <<n 6oapcrnx cnrroKax nncaHbr oHra l(opcaxoBbr, a PuucxlrMr.r He nucaHbr>. 3aro c [pr4xoAoM K BJracrlr rrapeBHbr CoQlu (Murocnaecrofr no uarepu) yKasoM or I rrcHq 1683 r. Qaunnua Pnu-

cxux-KopcaKoBbrx oKoHqareJrbHo yrBepAr{Jracb B Pocculr. OAsaxo V'rsatuit HaKorAa ue 6u.n qrnu-ru6o KJIeBperoM, He oKasbrBaJr xouy-.nr.r6o 6eeoroeoporrnyro roAAepx(Ky B yilIep6 co6crBeHHbIM y6ex4ennanr. Tar, s 1682r., He npr{HuMafl B pacrrer npornno6opcrBa uapeBuu CoQrn n narpuapxa Voarwua. oH 6Jrr.rg-

Ko corpyAHr.rqaer c raKr,rM 6nuexnu K flarpuapxy qeroBeKoM, KaK rasaaqeft. u nucareJrb Taxos MaxaprencKr,rft 16, a s 1683 r. craHoBHTcfl apxHMaHApHToM flpecrr,rxHoro Cnaco-lpocJraBoKoro MoHacrbrpff. HasHaqeHHHft 7 ceHrn6pn 1684 r. apxnMaHApr.rroM qapcKofo poAoBoro MoHacrbrpq Crnaca Ha HosoN.r n Mocxee, PuucxuftKopcaxoo BKrroqaercq B noJreMuKy, 6olrno sarparr{Baroqyo nosurlr{n BcecnJrbHoro KaHrrJrepa B acnnus lolnquna. Pacnrupenne fonuqunHM cso6oAbr Bepo[cfloBeAaHr,rfl Ha KaroJnqecrBo [o3BoJlflJro rocyAapcrBy 6o.nee aKrlrBuo upr.IBJreKarb Ha c.nyx6y He rofibKo npeAcraeure.nefi safraAHo-eBponeficxux peJrufr.ro3Hbrx MeubrlruHcrn (nonlaonaBlrr[xcf s Pocc[u orgoclltentgofi ceo6oAofi), Ho r,r KaroJrnxos.22 rraaq 1684 r. Knfl3b Bacunnft y,an pa3peuleHr.re Ha crpor.rreJrbcrBo xpaMa Crapoft ry,nevecrofi o6qnuu

B CroJrr{qe, Bbr3BaB BOJTHy npOTecToB co cTopoHbr rlepKoBHocjryxure.nefi. .[na paeucHeHnr [porr.rBopeqnfi uex4y pyccrofi u pr.rMcro4_ [epreaua Pnucxufi-Kopca,xoB rrepeBeJr c Jrarr{HcKoro KHHry l. KaccasApa <(O pa3JrrrqHbrx ruryprfiqx, n o ycraBe, H o rruHe BerIepH> c flpr{Jroxenueu <r{nna Mrr]k larnncxofi, cnperrb nI,ITyprnn>. 3a ,nep_eBoAoM nocJreAoBaJro <<Boao6nnreHue Ha nrorepaucrinft xarexfignc>> 96

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crBo B IIoxoAe Ha <<floranblfl Tarapbl)> nplluecer Poccul't ]KeJIaHHbIfi <rry6oxnft I,I HeorbeMJleuttfi unp>. B exse'\,rnrspe <<Cnora... BoIrHcrBy>>, BpyqeHHoM aBropoM IlapeBA.lexceesHe, Ha ltoJlflx npocraBJlenbl TolIIIbIe ccbIJIKI'I Ha CoQle ne ncTosHr.rKH. Bce 6n6;reft,cKlre reKcrbl [pI,IBeAeHbI no-pycc'KH c rpegecKItMI{ rlaparrerqMH. V,InrHsat, qro MHoroqacreHHble otttlcKIt Crenennoft KHHrH LIMeror eAnnoo6pagHoe qJIeHeHIte Ha creneHI.I n rJraBbr, HruarNft HaIITeJI yuuQnuupoBaHHyto Qoptnty rollHblx ccbIJIoK Ha pyKonncuuft rexct: <Crenenl 10, rnaou 2 u 4>>; <<Cteneul 6, rJraBa 50>> n r. A. I4MeHHo raKyn Qopuy ccbIJIoK Ha noJlsx ucnoJlb3oBaJI sareM aBrop <<Ct<uSct<ofi ucropl{a>, crogeuuft e Qenpane 1687 r. cpeAr.r cJlyllrareJleft l4rnarus. 9Hepruuuo Il cx(aro ocHoBHbIe MbIcJI]I <<Crosa... poccuficxotr,ty BotrncrBy> pasBr,rJr Pnrrrcraft-KopcarKoB s <<CfioBe K npaBocJIaBHoMy Bor.rHcrBy o noMolrrl npecBflTbla Eoropo4lzlrbl>, npol{sHeceuHoMy flepeA orpoMHbrM codpauueu soficx Ha rroAMocKoBHoM nore. <<Hoeuu I4epauJreM, poAoM [36paH'HbIM, uapcKLIM cBq[IeHLIeM, ssblKoM cBrrbrM, JrroAbMr.r o6Hosreuns>> HasbIBaer I4rsarnft paro6opudB, yxoArulux s ouacHHft Ir rpyAHblft noxoA. flo4uepxunafl BeJII{q[e r{ cBsTocrb r.rx MHccHH, oparop pucyeT pyccKHe [oJrKH [peeMHHKaMn <Berxaro Vlepawnt> s Bugaurnftcxofi r.rMnepun, KaK <<r.r caMo npaBocJraBHoe Be.rnxopoccuftcxoe rocyAapcrBo-xpe6nft caMblfl Sorouarepe>. <<Korrbe> l.t <<creua npaBocJlaHuue raxAufi nons Poccnlr BLtr>>, roBopHJr Purr,rornfi-KopcaKoB. On nAer <<Ha Jlrorbrr qecrHaro -Kpecra loc,noAun HeHaBr,rcrrwru rr Ha [p]IoHbrr Bcex xpncrol{MeHaTblx JrroAeft cynocTarbr, pa3opIrTeJrI,I r.r M}nIr,ITenH>, c'nacat cBolo )I{eHy u Aereft <<or pacxauletkrfl a rIJreHa araps,HcKaro>, uro6rr <<or 6ora AaHHbrM xpa6pcraom yKpornrb crpeMJreHrae araprHcKoe, 98


gocfirtrl.lrb ltrcrod irx HAI Hbi yrorobdurerr. Tax, coqetaq 6oroclioi' cxuft vr [crop[qecKHft noAxoAu, I4ruatltfi socflurblBan y BoI'IHoB cogHaHr.re MupoBoro 3naqeHt,tfl nopyrleHHoro IiM Henetxoto Ae.na 2{. Bupaxaa ycrpeMJIeHLIa poccuftcxoro ABoptHcrBa, PuucxnftKopcaxoo craBr{Jr B cBoIIx <Caosax> 6oree uacnra6nue ucropnqecKHe 3aAaqn Pocctu.l, HexeJII{ KoHKperHo [naHLIpoBaJIo npaBI'ITeJIb' crno Co$rr,r n fonnquua. Teirl He Meuee oH cqHraJI seo6xoAuuuu noAAepx(arb 9To IIpaBI{TeJIbcrBo B TpyAHbIft uouent, KorAa B 1688-1689 rf. HeAoBoJIbcrBo ABopffHcrBa yMepeHHbIMI,I nJIaHaMI'I sofrsu Ha rone H [porr.rBoAeftcrsue upu4sopnoft oflno3llqnl,I [ocraBnJro efo Ha rpaHb naAeHnfl. Onacancr, q'ro no6eAa 6oapcroft onno3rirlr.ru npr.rBeAer K cBeprblBaur.rn 6opl6bl nport{B flopru u l(pu' ua, I,Iruarufi nucryuun c flpKlIM ny6;tHIlucrnqecKllM <<CsllAereflbcrBoM>> eHAaroueftcff flornruqecroft poJIH I{ 3acJlyr qapeBHbl CoQln 25. l{ noc.ne cBepxeHarl [paBr{TeJlbcrna CoQrr, KorAa HoBoe [paBrireJrbcTBo, KaK r.r cJIeAoBaJIo oxllAarb, oTKa3aJIOCb OT aKTI'IBHbrx BHe[ruefioJrlrruqecx[x Aeftcrsufi , PnucxHfi -l(opcar<oe iIpoAoJI' xaJr MyxecrBeHHo orcral{Barb Heo6xoAltuocrt 6ops6u c ocMaHcxo-rpurracxoft arpeccnefi. B saqane 1690 r. oH BpyqLUI qapflM Llnany n flerpy csoe <<CfloBo us6pauuo or 6oxecrseHHblx rucattui,t u or nosecrefi oreqecKgx o PoccuftcxoM UapcTBHn> (useecruoe B ar.rreparype KaK <<HcropnuecKoe l,IgBecrnet ) 26. Bos4as xBaJIy AByM qapflu, l4ruarufi BHoBb o6parH.tcn K pyccrofi ucropalr. OH noxasaJr 3uaqeHlte Mer{rbl pyccKrix;rroAeft o6 oxouqarerrHofi no6eAe HaA KpoBoxaAHbIMr.r opAaMI{, MelITbI, cnoco6crsosasneft Bo3Bbr,rrreHrirc Poccuftcr<oro focyAapcrna. PacxpblB 3HaqeHr{e BeKoBoro nporu,no6opcrna Pycu c <6ycyprr,raHaMI,I>, aBrop cnpaBeAJrfiBo yTBepxAaeT, trTo HbIHe rJraBHar onacHocTb HapoAaM HcxoAr.rr He or BaocaJrbHoro I(pnucxoro xaHcrBa, a or ero xostl{Ha urrrnepnu. fIpuoe4q (cBuAererbcrBa> 6orocroecxoft - Ocitaaucxoli nr,ITeparypbr r.r Aax(e raftsue cBeAeur.rfl H3-ga ocMascxoft rpaHl{qbl, PHrvrcrnfi-KopcaKoB yrBepxAaJl Heo6xoAr.utrocru n cnoco6nocrr Poccr.ut B coro3e c trJreHaMr,r CssqeHHoft Jrr{rri, KyAa sxoAr.ul[ Ascrpl{s, Beseqns, Pe.m flocuoJrnra n Poccur, HaHecrri cMepreJlbnuft y.nap arpeccopy, HaBeKr,r ooso6oAr.rru Enpouy or crpaunoft onacHocra. Ocrpaa ny6nnuncrnqHocrb <<Cfloga ns6paHHa>, KaK o6lrurlo, conpoBo)KAaJracb rlqareJrbHocrbro B pa6ore c HcrouHI.I'KaMu, TOqHbIM lI III,ITaTaMI4, CCbIJIKaMI'I n flOfl CHeHI.{fl M LI. Bosuo>Nuo, y6ex4euna lrlrsatun noBJrnffJru Ha MoJIoAoro flerpa, cpasy xe nocJre noryqeHnff caMocrorrrerlsoft BJracrrr npHHqBuero peueHlre o HaqaJre Asoscxrx roxoAoB (1695-1696 rr.). Ho B HaqaJ're 90-x roAoe AesreJrbHocrb apxr.rMauApl{Ta <<AoMoBoro> qapcKofo MoHacrbrpff, nMeBuero uocroqHubrft Aocryrr K rocyAapflM, 6H.[a seclrua He uo HpaBy npanuaureft or HMeHr{ flerpa qapuqe Hata,Iotn I(upr.nnonne u ee poAnqaM Hapu,u1111411una. Becuoft 1692 r. Purracrrafi-Kopcar(oB,norytrr.rr nogerHoe Ha3HaqeHr,re B Aocraroqgo orAar'IeH'Hbre or Mocxsn Kpas: oH cra,'r Mr{TpoIIoJrHToM cu6Hpcrnnr n ro6omcruu. 4' 99


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6eaosaq pyKonucb <fe'earornq> 6urra onxcaHa H. fI. Jlnxarn. A. E. Jlo6aHosa-pocroBcKoro. vqesnri coo6llu,n o Hefi e cneqnaarsofi .crarbe (<leue-anorun>^4Bqplg {opcaronr,rx//C6opnnr< ^ ctarefi s vectr,{,. <D. Ko6ero. Cn6., 1913. C.9l-l'14). Aaiee c"'reaii pyKorrclr Sareprnncb, I| Jtr{rrrb EeAaBHo ee yAanocb o6uapyxurr a I_l,eurpa.nrnoM rocyqeBHM B Jr[qHoM co6pauuu

AapcrBeHHox ap-xnse

peBonrorlurr r{ corlnafir.rcrr.rrrecKoro crpoureJrb-

^Oxrapprcxori 4.728. Co6p. 3xrunero ABopIta. On. l. KH. l. j\ib 22. XoA erofi 6opr6u, naqarofi erqe s 1667-1668 rr. H npoAonxaButefica 4o .^^^2 Iodu-x ro,rloB, orpaxeH B apxuBHbrx lloKyMeHTax: Pyccxan ucroDnqecxaR 6u6rrnoreKa (PI4E). Cn6., 1907. T. 21. Cr. 83, 420; U|AAA. O. 2f0. paspn,qHufi

crsa

100

r

CCCP.


Ipmae. Ou. 9. MocroBcrafi cfor. Cr. 6?4. Jl. 79?-.802, g5&-g57; on. L KH-r.rrn^ tl^-cutlcra. 6K-7. Cnncrn 15 u 16; on. l8;'Cron6qu poAocJtoBuux pocnnceft. Ne 39. JI. l-10. Nb 38. a. I n np. Eoapcxae

3 Clt.: CnncoK nurl poAa Kopcarooux, Purrlirux-KopcaKoBLtrx u xunaefi ,(,ougyxo.aux-KopcaKoBElx-c KparKliMr{ 6uorpa-Qu,recxur,ru cieAesr.lsrur.l. ClI6., ig93. & Cp.: II|AAA. O. 210. On. 18. Ns 38; on. EK-2. 242 o6. o Apeaura poccuftc,xaa suoanoQnra. M., !770. .q. VU. C. 4lT u ap.

l.

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_ 6_ Cra.: I$A.qA. O. 210. On. l. DK-3. .II. l9l, 305; EK-4. JI. 3b5; EK-b. rr!. 289; on. 9. MocroBcKrri cron. Cr. 357; 366; 379. tI. II; 878. "rI. SO; ebe. 1{:^!. !rI. ?05r 297:. aF\ Yr_I. fl., 82; 846. tL I. JI. 263; e5. .t. +g; pzn.'cno., 1886. T. r0. C. 122,375, 385, 466. 7 B pyxonucu 8 su,q,os 6yuann: l) l. l-2, l0l, 104- <fo.nosa

ruvra> IV rr{na, rnna !,uanoroft Nb 474, 477-1678, 1685, 1687 m.; 2) n. 2A, OZ-1OO, 102-103 : lep6 AvcrepAaua c nr.rrepauu EP, cxo4eu c !,i.rarroeoir Ne l2Z1678 r; 3J .tr. r3-+ npoaunqufi c Jrr{repaMu AI, noHrparraapxoii pR; - Ceur ruyra> IV rarra c xonrparrlaprofi BD, runa '!,r.ranonoii ! + _A-7_ <forosa

Nb

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JlrrepaMr

ll-20, 24-26-fep6 Aucrep4aua, runa ,[,uauoeofi Ne 138-167g, f676, 7l a.2l-2{ -3-7,9!, 91-96-ro xe, c nnrepauu AI n KoHrpauaproft AI, runa .[,uanoaoft Ns 157-1678, 1682, 1683 m. cx<inen c II|A,[A. 6. tgt. Koneq 1670-Haqarro 1680-x ro.qoe; 8) n. 28-36, 39-58, ry q6^6. <D-3.xe, c KoHrpaMapKoft PBI (auratypa),'6ntgox runy ,{,naHonofi eq-gq-ro -181. Ne 157, runa fZM. Cnd. <D-2 6) a.

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Ee.no6poaa O. A., Hrsarnft Punrcxufi-l(opcaxoa |ITOAPJI. JI.,' 1986. T. 40: Cu. <flosecrb o _c_o3AaHr.ru Kpecrouaposcrori"o6qexurenrioft nycrbrnn>, 'Boponux: lfIE. Co6p. Torcrosa. lan-Ir-$jq-Hy-ry B_ Koulre XVII s. Mariapuenr Q. XVII. 66. fl. 146-156 o6. 1: l-EjI.. C_o6p. Oaur.rnxuxoea 748.4'. 186 a. (opnranaa). tr 0

12

lHM.

fI.

Cnuo4a,nrnoe co6p. 214 (opunusaa).

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i: cu.: !ilE. Coaoseqroe co6p-.-277 1282.'4.. 513'a. (opuruuaa). r0 3 a 6 ea u n-ll A. AJrr ncropnu, alxeonoruu r.r crar'-Mireplraau crnKn r. Mocxebr. T. l. M., 1862. 3Zl. tt D_A-H, Apxanreaucxoe co6p.C.162. 4'; JI e 6 e A e s A. floaeuuqecKlre coqrHeHr'rfl xvll BeKa nDorsB..ilg!9pa\llqresus s o6qecrse EcropHrr H rpeBHo"

creft.polcuficxux (I{OHAP). 1s84. Ki. e. OrA. t. a. i:Vi; t'-{2i"" la CM.: JIe6e.q,es A. floreMr.rqecKne coguneHur... ('ny6amaqus tro

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o6.-108; fHM. rlyloncroe

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$fA,qA. Caponcroe. c:6pr_23-7. [L'-l5l-228 (asrorpa(p, vepnoour). I-,,,1, l4M. Cr.rHoA.alruoe co6p. 423, 425, 93, 428, 426 tr gp. <rruHbr>.

Cp.:

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4.II. Xrlrue u saseqaHne cesrefiueno narpuapxa llO.[An._M., _1879. T. 47 (2-e us4.: flauarnura .(peBHeft nucbMeHHocru. 1880. Bnn.--II). I4rsarurc [paHaAJrexar B gToM c6opriure xurue, flocaasue AQanacuro Xoir'roropcr<ouy u saBepuaIoxue c.nx* 'oAua npo6ou s ta6ruqe Ha[HcaHo>. .fl,yxornoe saseqaHr.re I,Ioarnnra ]r cJreAyroqr{e sa M,ocKoBcKoro kloaxnua

HIrM

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C.uuo4anrHoe _9o_6p._lugg-z-,- pyxonucr lg; gya,oscroe co6p. 302. _ 1464 1464 JI. -':^lUM. o6., 169-123 bo.; sRH.'n. l. a. eo. ,i.. zdf,. -(;;io.paoi. --23 EorAaHoB A. fI. Ilarragruuxll o6ulecreeuno-no.nzruqecrofi Mbrc.lr.r B

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2e fHM. Co6p. 3a6e,rusa 263 (nollnHHux croaa). Cp. aerorpagr,r l4crouuna: fHM. t{yaoecxoe co6p. 200. JI. 339-340, 351-395 o6. (uepnonur<n); IEJI. Co6p. Tuxonpanona 634. JI. 185-212 o6. (6enonrxn). 30 ABopeurat H. A. floclauue Mr.rrpononnra klrnarna a Kpacnonpcr 1697r.//ApxeorpaQnn u ncrorrHuxoBeAeHue Cu6upu. Hoaocn6upcx, 1975.

c.

167-176. sr Cu.: Crpoes fl. M. Cnncrn HepapxoB n HacrotreJlert uoHacrupeft Poccuficrua qepfsn. Cn6., 1877. Cr. 144, 3i7,'338 u .rp.


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CoQlu no coBepueHcrBoBaHHro 3aKoHoAareJIbcrBa, nooulpeHrln roproBo-npoMbrrrrJreHHofi 4earertuocrll, lrpeceqelnto aAMr.rHncrparr.rBHbrx snoynorpe6lenuft KaK ecrecrBeHnbre Aeftcreltn <<npaee4noft>> BJracrra, a He B KaqecrBe ycry,nKn ropoACKOMY HACCJICHHIO CJIYX(I,IJIFIM I{ IOCAACKI,IM JIIOAflM, IIOKASABIIIHM cBoro cr4Jry e MocxoscroM BoccraHnn 1682 r. Mex4y reM caMoAepx{aBr..re KolHr'ro cI{JrbI H BHOCI{.IrO pacKoJr B pflAbI BoSMox{Hbrx npoBaJrr,r MeporrprrflTrrf,

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I

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B ornn.rue or gToro <<npaBJreHlre qapeBHbr CoQlu,-,no cJroBaM Kyparnua, co BcflKoro [prrJrexHocrb]o r{ [paBocyArieM - HaqaJrocb rr Ko yAoBoJrbcTBHro HapoAHoMy, TaK qTO H[KOrAa TaKOTO MyApOro npaBJreHnff s PoccuficroM rocyAapcrBe He 6uno; t,t Dce rocyAapCTBO npfiIIIJIO BO BpeMfl ee ,IIpzB"TI€HLIff rlepe3 CeMb JreT B qBeT BeJILIKoTo 6orarcrea, TaK)Ke yMHolKHr'ILtcb KoMMepIIHq r.I peMecJra, H HayKr{ [oqarl,r 6urr narnucKofo lr rpeqecKoro qebrKy... r.r ropxecrBoBaJra rorAa BoJrbHocrb HapoAHar>. Ho cerosam 6lr"ro nosAHo. (Deo4amuafl peaKIlnq, HaKo[ItB cHJrbr Bo BpeMfl <<MtrJrocrnBoro>> rlp aBJleHr.rfl , neperlrJra B penl{TeJrbHoe H acryn"lr eH Lre. Xore.n LIJrH HeT MeAgeAes orAarb ce6e orqer B KoMnpoMHccHoM ll5


xapaKTepe AeficrBHft cosln, oH Aonx(eH 6ul novyscrBoBarb eror xapamep Ha ce6e. V'IeHHIIa Cuueona floloqxoro He MorJIa He IIosutrrarr rocyAapcrBesHoft Heo6xoAI'IMOCrn AXaLeMI'IIl' HO He OTBa)KUnaCb BbrcrJnrrlrrb nporHB <MyApo6opqes>. Cl'IMnarnsnpya Me4-

coslr He oKasaJla eMy _orKpblroft noaAeP_)KKH^B Cnope C r{ ero KJIeBperaMH: B pa3fap 6opr6u Canlnectpa narprrapxoM -cxaga.na B pa3roBope c HIIM, qro <<Ao rex-Ae Mecr' KaK 6yaer Codflr xusbr Bacr.I.nufi (B. B. lonuqus. - A e r.), c cnyx6u ero He ornycrrrr)>. flpoceeulennufi rssgt fo,'tuqun - Brop_oe JIHqo B npa' fleperll4cblBarcs o MeAseAeBe c reT' BI{TeJIbcrBe peteHTcrBa -Aaxe MaIIoM Masenoft u npncJIaJI yrleHoMy KHIIry l{HHoxenrus MosacrblpcKoro B noAAepxKy ero B3rJIflAoB. Ho t't oH He [oxeJIaJI ccofurrca H3€a MoHaxa c narpl'IapxoM, Koroporo n r.ny6une 1ytl]fi [rpe3HpaJI "'. Ha noIvroqr MeAeeAeBy npHIITJIH crpeJlbubl, caMoeomgo co6upaButuecq y ero KeJIbH rlo Aecgrb H rlo cro tIeJIoBeK, trro6u c.rtyIIIarb npocBerl{TeJlt H trpu neo6xoAllrrlocr[ <<ot6uearb>> ero or noxyrueuufi narpl{apxa. B no4aepxxy Cunlnecrpa BbIcrynHJII'I u nocaAcKHe JrroAr.r, orKa3[,IBaBIIIHeCfl npI{HI'IMarb <<uy,lpo6opqecxlle> o6rrqavr B cBor{x npnxoAcKl{x qepKBax. 3a u1evr, I{SJIoxeHHbIe B KHHrax MeAseAeea, 6oponuct [pocBeureHHble JInAI, TaKI'Ie KaK Hsnoresrnft Mouacrupcrlrri u,fl,lrnrpufi PocroscKuft. Hacryn;re' Hr.Ie pagyMa Ha rIosHuHIl <ruyapo6opueB>> pa3BI{BaJIocb, TaK qro ca' MI{ oHI{ ltpHsHaBaJrH, qro <<aqe 6u ue BceMoryqan AecHHIIa... He npenflJra, peAqHH 6sI ocranzcfl TBepAo croflIrle B BocrotlHoM orlre[peAaHHoM 6.[aro.recrnu> (rar oHII HsBpailleHHo ToJIKoBaJIH cBoK) nosrqnn) 28. Cropottttnx pa3yMuoro cnopa, Cn.nrnecrp [pI.{HIIHnI{aJIbHo BbIcTyrraJr npoTHB lrorroJlb3oBaHLIq B 6Opn6e cI{JIbI. KOrla K HeMy npuurJrr{ JrroAlr, noA6nsaeN{He lllar.nonnrblM Ha $Ltsnuecxoe ycrpaHeHr.re flerpa, <<yuenuft cTape[> orfoBopl{Jl llx, xorq H He HaAeflJIcfl Ha MLJIocepAr.re rex, KTo pBaJIcfl K BJIacrH sa cnnHoft loHoro qapg. <HaAo6Ho neperepl[erb>>, foBopIrJI MeAeeAee, gHag, qro <nepereplq-Ae, oflpnqb"-xyAa HM, Koropble 6unu sa cropone... qapeBBeAeBy,

xAarb Heqefo> 29. Tax u cJrfrunocb. 3a yvacrue B nepeBopore Ha cropone <nerpoBqeB> narpl{apx BblroproBaJr ce6e roroey Cnnrnecrpa. O6tan.nesnufi BropbIM nocJre lllax.losrroro <<rocyAapcrBeHublM trpecryIrHRKoM>, MeAseAee 6exa.n n Aa.neruft MoHacrblpb K HryMeHy, KoToporo oH B cBoe BpeMr o6.naroAerenlcreosan. Tor JIacKoBo [pItHsJr 6.naroAere.nq u HeMeAJreHHo BbIAaJr ero BJlacrffIll. Crpaurn4aoftne ubre flbrrKl,r uo cpaBneul{ro c Apyrnr,rIa o6eu-He cJroMHrHx(ecroKl,Ie yrreHoro. flanaqn He cyMeJlr,r npeAbffBl{Tb HseMbrMr,r eMy Hr{ oAHoro o6sunenr.rff, Koropoe ne 6u.no 6u no.rsocrbro otrpoBeprHyro Cn.nruecrpou. Jluurl co3AaHHe <Cosepuanns>> H yqacrue B gaMbrcJre . uepBbrx e Poccnr.r noJrr.rrr.rqecKr{x rpaBlop MoxHo HbI,

6rr.ro uocraBlrrb eMy B BHHy, Ho erqe He npnrxJro BpeMg AJIfi Toro, [pocJraBJreHI,Ie qnena qapcioft ceMbu KaK

qro6u paccMarpnBarb

rroJrnTr.rqecKoe lrpecrynfl eHne

il6

30.


MeAgeAesa fip[foBopuJlu r crr,tepruoft Ka3HLI, He MorI'IB[pyq o6sfiHenr.re. Ho on eule Hyx(eH 6ua <rray.apo6opuau> xI'IBbIM, qro6H go BceycJrbIIIIaHIle o6tssuru o6 <orpeqeHHI'l> npocBerHTenfl. Olgaro H B TeMHI{IIe, B caMblx HeqeroBerlecKllx ycJloBl{flx, <<B tKoBbrx Mo)KHo ,upe6uearz>>, LI3oJII{pogaHHHfi or Bcex lro4eft, JII'IIIeHHHft cneqnaJrbHblM yKa3oM 6yuaru n qepHHJI, Cnlrnectp cTpauI'IJI <<nry4po6opqee>. flocre roAa 3aroqeHl,Ifl ero BHoBb noABeprnu ncTfl3aHr,IflM H Ka3HHJII{ KaK <<rIepHoKHI,Ix(HnKa>. Muc.nnrenb-pallno*raJrlrcr, npoTHBHLIK cyenepnft 6un y6u't no o6snHeHHIo... B KoJI' .qoectge 31. <<My4po6oprlaM> He cyxAeuo 6uno ocrauoBurb l{cropnlo. CtpeJrbr pa3yMa, 6porueunue MeAeeAeebIM B Mope HeBexecrBa, He [polraJIH. OAnH ea ApyrI.IM TepsJII4 cBolo cI.IJIy n BlrvtflHr4e IporI'IBHI'IKII pyxHyJla noAAepxn' {rpocBerqeHr{f, npoIIIJIo eIIIe HeMHO|O JIeT - LI locy4apcrneHBaBuraq rrx rBepAbrHa poccuftcxoro narpl{apurecrBa.

flafl ueo6xoAnltocrr npocBeIIIeHI{q iloryr{nfia oQnqnanbHoe npnflo o6nxsoBeHllro ory 3acJlyfy nprnllcaJll{ qaprc. ,Ha Cuaraecrpe xe uepKoBb Ha cToJIerHfl rrocraBHJla x.ueftuo <<JIarLIHcrByn-

sHanrre.

ilrefo> eperuxa 32.

NPI4MEtIAH14q

r 06o ecel{ 3roM cM. AoKyMeHrbI: lI4M. 9yaoscroe co6p. 302. JI. 182U|AAA. @.27. llpuxag Tafisnx Aen. Ns 245. {1.2-3; N9 143. Jl.2; /I. 2; Axrn Mocroscxoro rocyAapcrBa. Cn6., 1901. T. 3. C. 494, 313, 427,508; Pyccrar ncropuqecKaq 6u6laorera. Cn6., 1904. T. 23. Cr. 434. 440,

182o6.; JG 181.

483, 500-501, 489.

ocHoBHbIe Qaxtul 6norpaQnn MeAeeAesa 6ur[ I{3Becrflpo3oposcrarl A. A. Cunusecrp Me4eeAee (ero xuenr u .qerreJlbHocrb). Cn6., 1896 u un. 4p. e qfA[A. @. 27. J,.lb 187, 7176 r. JL 94 o6.; Q.79. Cnourenuq c floar.l:efi. Nb122. 1668r. JL196. 06 OpAune-Hautoxune cM.: faraxruo$oe H. B., r{r.rcrqKoea E. B. A..II. Opann-Haqoruu-pyccrufi AHrJIoMar XVII s. M., 196l u ap. { Crr.r.: Epafi;loscruit C. H.: l) Cr-ur,eecrp MeAeeAes... A"rrercan;,pa

2

C groro Bpeuenr.r

{rbr ncropxKarvr:

flpoeopoacroro. JPeu.l//Xypna,r MUHl'IcrepcrBa HapoAHono npocBeureHufl (XMHn), 1897. Ne 10. c.385, 32; 2) Ilucrr',ra Cn.nreecrpa Meareaeea//.fla-

n{rrHr.rru ApeBHefi rrlrcbMeHHocrl.r (nAn). Cn6., 1901. T. 144; Konanes A. I{. ,flucrrrra Cia,nrsecrpa MeAeeaesa Cunaeouy IIo;roqxouy // Bonpocn cowlanbxo3KonoMrrqecKoft Lrciopnu n rIcroqHItKoBeAeHI'll nepno.qa Qeo,4a.lneua s CCCP.

M.,'

1961.

VnAoJIbcKI'Ifi B. M.: l) O.repr cnaBqHo-pyccroii 6n@"rr'rorpa$nn, O. Buqxoea u A. C. Burtopoaa. M., 1871; 2) Cnasnecrp scroMeAeeAee, orerr craB.HHo-pyccxoii 6u6nnonpatpuu - llf{'teuut' s- O6uecree A. C. pvt4 tr ApeBHocreft poccuftcxux (qOI4AP). 1846. N--!; --Q-g-p '{(nnru xriprn.trroecxofi- neqaru, ugAasuue s Mocree e XVI-XVII ns.: "osa CeoAHbIft 5 Cp.:

.c AonorHenusrrrlr A.

KaraJror.

M.,

1958

u

n,p.

florpogcxu-tl .A. A. .Ilpeenee HoBropoAcKo// Tpyau XV Apxeo;roruqecKoro cbe3Aa c HosKHnroneqa'ropoae.' lgll r. T.2. M., 1916; Kllceaes H. n. O MocxoscxoM T. 2: HccaeAosaHlrr n Marepllanbl. M.' ra'nrlu XVII sexa 6O

tnirorparpulr cM.:

.ncroBcKoe nlrcbMegHoe HacneAlre

//KHLIna. .1960. .f o,neH'reHxo l. fl. Eelopycu B pyccKoM KHnroneqaranflnllLaM tr(€, dvl., 1966. T. 13; cp.: Ocres. flaugrsur pyccrofi AyxoBnoft nscbMesnocrn XVII eera. Kaganr, 1865. C. 138.

nT


1 lI4M. CnuoAaauuo_e co6p.- 441231. trt. 2 u c,r. .(anropcxrii er<s.); fnE. Co6p. Iloroausa 1622. 11.75-82 o6.; DorAaHoe A. fI.-K no.neunxe xonqa 60-Ha,{ara 80-x roAos XVII s. o6 oprauuaa[ar.] Bbrcuero _vue6uoro saBeAeHHt s Poccnri. I4cro,rHr-rxoseAqecKr{e 3aMerxu f I vccneloBaHur no [croqHHKoBeAeHuK) HcroDr.rr{

CCCP

XIII-XVIII

8Cu.: EyfaHog B.

1969 u .qp. e Cna.:

s. M.. 1986. 14. Mocxoecxue BoccraHnr KoHrra

XVII s. M..

EorAaHos A. fl.: l) Heresa_ecrnoe coqlHenr.re Cu,ruecrpa Megpauer uapeBHe CoSue ll Marepua.nr,t XVII BHCK

BeAeBa: noxBaJrbHafl

<Crylenr r.r Hayquo-rexnuqecrrft rtporpecc>.

2)

<Du,'id,rorNx.- Hoeocu6r.rpcx, l97g;

Cn;rruecrpr MeAneAeaa naHefr.rpuK uapesHe CoQte 1682 r. | | llauarnuxn Kynblyp^br. Hoeue orxpurug. ExeroAnHri 1982 r. .r1., 1984 (c njfurnxaqueft). r0 Crrr.: f o"renrreHKo f. l. Vxas. coq. C. l17; nci]-I.-C[6.. 18A0. T. 2. Nb 925. 11 Crrr.: EorAaHoe A. fl. ,rlureparypntre naHefrrpxKu KaK ucrorruuK q3y-qeHq4 -coorHorxeuus__-c-qJl -!_npaBr.rrer'rbcrBe Poccuu neplroAa perenrcrBa Co$su llM_arepua;lr,r XVII BHCK <CryAeHr r4 HayqHo-rexsilqecxufi nporpecc>.

LIerapua. Horocu6rapcx, 1979. 12 O6 yunre"rflx cM.: CrrleuuoBcKufi M. H. bpartx.Il.rxy4r,r. Cn6., l8gg. 13 Coq. MeAseAesa <<Xne6 xusorssrft> u,rr-r <Masna> cu.: fl4M. CNnoaaas!_o! c!gp. 4401299. Il. 125-135 o6.; fE/I. Co6p. Vn.qo.rrbcKoro. 482. [1. 5-15; UIAAA. Co6p. MfAMl4L. On. 4'. Ne 3221702.- il. l-41; EAH. 16.3.13. ,II. 2 o6.- 9 o6. u 4p. (ony6;r. flposopoacxuu, c. 450-452). EnQlruua <<floxa3asue>> crrr.: EAH. 16.3.13. n. l-2 (ony6.rr. flpoaopoacxuu, c. 430-434); <Boynr;rerue> cu.: fl4M. CusoAamsoe co6p. 567, 683, 433. ra Crrr.: EorAaHoe A. fI. XpotorpaQeu boro;rena A4auoea IITOAPIL

JI., 1988. T. 15

41.

lloAnocnr,rfr ax3. <<Ksr-rru o ilraHHe xfle6a >xtlsorHoro> qapeBHe Codte

cu.: lHM.

VII/995.4'.717 fln. (ony6r. $parr'l6urapno flioflp03opoBcKufi A. A. Cullnecrp MeAeeAes. C.577-593; |LIM. CuxoAaarsoe co6p. 346/310. .I1. 384 n cn.: 4401299. JI. 99 u cJr.; bAH. 16.3.13. Il. 82 u, c.rr.; I[IE. Co6p. Turoea 3240, 3245; |EJI. Co6p. VuAo.nrcroro 481; 3y6oacxr.rft. fI. Konrpnepcnr. Ilo,reMu,recxoe coqr{HeHr.re XVII gera// nAn. cn6., 1888. T. 74. r7 Cp.: <Axoc>.Ilaxyaon. lIIb. Co6p. Toncrosa Q.1.334. trl.82 u cl.; 6AH. 16.3.13. JI. l0 u c;t. (ony6,n. flpoeopoacxuru); I4nuoreuruft Mouacrsrpcrufi n salqury MeAneAesa. lIIb. Co6p. floro4uua 668, l. [1. 2l u c"r.; fI4M. CunoAaJrbnoe co6p. 294. 11. 274 u c;r.; fbJI. Co6p. Vsao.nrcroro 481. V,u,ouemopaa Tpe6oBaHur uarateneft, Cunrnecrp s nrae 1688 r. Hanr.rcaJr rarxe <<I(nury, rJrafoneMyro qepKoBlococraBHr4 K r.rJIH r.rgbscunreJrb>, fHM. qyAoscroe co6p. 3opoBcKr.rM, 16 Cp.:

CusoAa.nruoe co6p.

c. 452-538).

283/81. 94 ;t.

ia

Or

<IIpaseAnoro orBera> MeAse.{esa coxpaHr.rdlcr orpbrBoK qepnoBr.IKa: CnnoaarrbHoe co6p. Y1294. JI.395-395 60. (ony6.n. Ilposopbrcrr.rr'r). <I4sBecrlre ncrrrHuoe> cM.: raM xe. Il,375 o6.-386; fE.|I. Co6p. VnAoarcxoro 1325. 103 n. u Ap. Ony6n. C. A. Eenor<yponuu (tIOtrIAP. 1885. Ku. 4).

fHM.

1e lI4M. Cuno4a;rriroe co6p.4401299. 17. ll4-122; 452. Il.5 o6.,7, ll u Ap.; OcreH... C. 20. 20 Cu.: Arrn lOxnofi u 3anaasofi Pocculr. T. V. q. 1. C.267. 287-290.

193-200; III .nsn xu:r. kl. A. Cs. AuMurpzft Pocroncxnfi u ero rperraa (16511709). Cn6., 1891. C. 180-182, 186-193, 200. llpu.noxeuus. C. 12-13 u Ap. 2r Ocren... C. 114-116; IIposoBcKuft A. A. Cu;rleectp MeAeeAes.

c.'255,237-238.

o @eAope lllarrosl.lroM n ero coo6uruuxax. Cn6., I. Cr. 551, 632 (cp. m. 331, 378, 618, 631, 639-641, 676, 680, 683), 520 (cp. cr. 561, 606, 609, 623), 552. 23 Cn.rrnecrpa MeAseAesa <Coeeplauue KparKoe Jrer 7190, 9l n 92, B HHx xe qro coAercs Bo rpaxAaHcrBe>. IIy6.n. A. A. llpo:oponcxoro//tIOHAP. 1894. Kn. 2. Ora. 2. C. l-197. 3ro ryuuree u sau6oree IIO.IIHOe rr3AaHUe COrrXHeHU.', nOJIeMUKa O npOgCXOXAeHnu KOTOpOTO Benacb Ao HeAaBHero BpeMeHH: EorAaHoa A. II.: l) K ucropun rexcra <Co22

Poaucxune AeJra

1884. T.

118


/

8epqarrf,fl KparKOrO) llAccnelOaawrfl^..no_ [cTorIHI{KoBe.4eHItIo lrcropuu CCCP

06 aBropcrBe <Co3ep[aHrt Adorrr6prcxbro neprroAa. M., 1983; 2) K nonpocy Kparxoro JIer 7190, 91 n 92, B Irnx xe qro coAetcfi Bo rpaxAaHcrBe> //

lau - - i. xe. M., 1987.

o C*., 6'orA a no s A. fl.: l) Jleronncllble II3BecrIit ga

cMeprlr-OeAlp-a 1980 r. M., l98l; A.nexceeanua llJleronucx rr xpoHHKr{ 2) Har-aaO MOcXOeCxOTO BOCCTaHLIfl 1682 r. B cgBpeM^exHrrx JIeTOIIIICHLIX cotlnsesnsx //Jletonucu l{ xPoH}tKIl ga 1984 r. M., 1984; 3) Pocnrcl <u3MeHHHKoB-

r.r Bo[apeHrrr{

flerpa

B,occraBIIrHx 6;il ;'iy"n"* .rIp.q,eft>, Ka3HeHHbIx fl cocJIaHHbIx no-rpe6oeauuloro6u;rero. M., s-";,e t66Z i. TTmoiionuie o6urecrsoseAH Mocxsbr-Jleiuncxovy_ 1982; 4) llarrahrnuru o6qecrBeHso-uo.nl.rruqecxoft MbICJILI B Poccuu KoHqa n',.9!-t-XVIi seia (;ruteparypuure raHerIrpHKIl)'^M., 1983; EorAaHoB A'nocna p n n S. Bl lvtdcxoBcxoe soccrafine {OAZ r. rJra3aMH Aarc6oro | | Bl4"--t 3. c. 84 n cneA. 1086. -isNbgy.: Eyranos B. H. Mocroscxne BoccraHltq... C' 245 u cneA. 26 floaDo6ilee crra.: r a M x e. C. 363 u c.neA. IIur. flo: Apxna KH. O. A. Kypaxusa. CII6., 1890. Ks. I. C. 62' 04. H. l. Hcropux qapcrBoBaH'r flerpa Beanroro: T' I' Cb.: Vcrptnos -C. '?? aiS_fSO; C u u p u o'e fl. lioaruu, narprrapx uocxoocxnft. M., Cn6.. idbb. iriei.'c. i3s-23b u ap. 28 Pogstcxsne aer-a... T. l. Cr. l4l-142, 146, 251, 545-546, 607' 630; B*opottexcxl{e aKrH' Bropoe H. H., A.nexcaHApos-AoJIbHI{--K {. Cs' noooi.*. fsSO. Itn. l. C' 73-7ti; lllnsnxurt V' A. -O. ,[,uuurpnft Pocros' crdii... C. 194-207; Ocres... C. l4l-142 n sp. 2s CM.: PogHcrHHe .u,e;ra.'. T. l. Cr.595-722' 30 cn.: EorAaHOe A, fl. lloJrrrn,{ecKatr rpaBlopa s Poccnu nepHoAa pe'

,regrcrBa CoQu.r AlerceesnH // I4crounnxoaeAeHl'Ie ore'IecrBeHHott llcropug' l98l ----3ir. M., 1982. flerpa Be.nuxoro: T. 2. CM.: V crp a,,ro s H. f. Zcrop_lrr ua*qgrgoBa-H-I'Iff gyAoscxoe co6p' 98/300' Cn6.. i$'8.-C. {S, 90;-Ocieu... C.'77; ll4M' J7.248 06. n MH. Ap. sillo^po6nee bero cyAt6e crnl.: EorAaHoe A. n. Cn,'runecrp MeABe' aee llBI4. i988. Ne 2.


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C uueseu MocKoBcKoro ABopflHt{Ha croJrbHr{Ka An,qpes Heanosnqa JlbrgroBa cBq3aHo yrBepx{AeHue Hosofi rpoprr,ru Hclopnuecrux coquuenrft. Jlnqsocrt n rpyAbl ero, oKagaBrrrne gHagrrreJlbHoe BJITIrrHr.re Ha craHoBJreHue pyccxofi ncropr.rqecKofi nayrz, npHBJreKaJrn BHI{MaHIie raKI,IX KpynHbrx yrreHbrx XVIII XIX g., xar - HaqaJra B_. H. Tarnulen, fI. 14. Puqxos, f. O. Mnn.nep, H. M. I(apausun, H. lI. PylrsHqee, EsreHHft Borxogurr-rHoB, Ho nonyqr.urfi AoJrx(Hoe

ocBerqeHr.re Jrl{rrrb B nocJleAHee npeuR l. A. U. JIHsrog pog,rr:t.cfi., no-Br{ArrMoMy,

a 1655 r. s Mocree. On K MHofo!rurcJreHHoMy r.r aKrltBHoMy n c.nyx6e poAy. Ero ore[, Heau OeAopoBr.rq, cnyxzJr <npn qapcroft cserrocrr.r B npr.rHaAJrex(aJr

nepeAneft H B )Kurbe>>, rrorb3yecb AoBepHeM qapa Alexceq MfixafiLrcrroJrHFJr MI{ccHr{ no JrrrHr,ru npnKa3a TaftHurx .qe.n. B 1670 r. H cbrH efo <<B noJrKoByro c.nyxdy nocneJr>, noryqr.rB IrprlABopHbrfi qrs >KrrJrbrla. Vxe c HaqaJra 1670-x roAoB, HapsAy c rocyAapeeofi c.nyx6ofi,

roBuqa: He pa3 oH

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narpr{apuero 6oapzua, a c r{roJrfl r. Bo3HraBJrsJr saxHbrft flarpnapuufr paspaauufi nparas. O ero nlnrreJrbHocrr{ cBr{AereJrbcrByer ror Saxr, uro narpr.rapx l4oarnu JrrllrHo orneBaJr ero re,ro B qepKBIt BseAeHLIg Ha XrHHoge 17 asrycra 1684 r. IIo rpaArauuu ceMbfl Jlusnoga uMeJra recnufi xonTaKT c o6nrare.lqr,ru narpr,rapuero tlyAona MoHacrblps. B ro epeus Poccl.lricxoe rocyAapcrBo roroBunocb coBMecrHo c Peqrro lfocno;lnroft orpasurr HoByro BoJrHy ocuaucxofi arpeccfln B Enpone. tlepuor:r ryueft HaBHcaJrr{ HaA rox(Hbrrrau py6exauu lo.nxu Omouascrofi nrr,ruepuu Lr opAbr ee BaccaJra Kpuracroro xaHcrBafporta rprny.il e 1672 r. Bepuar cBoeMy -colo3HnqecKoMy AoJrry, Poccl.rs BcraJra Ha ornop arpeccopy. O4naro BoeuHbre HeyAaqr.r H xone6aHus B noJrr{Tr.rKe Pe.r[ flocno.irnroft npnne.nn K ToMy, rrTo Bcfl rsxect 6opr6u c cyJrranoM, xaHoM rr Hx Mapr{onerKaMlr Ha Vrpaune.nerfla Ha Poccnficxoe focyAapcrBo; B KoHrIe roHqos Peqb. I-locno.nura HaKaHyHe pelrralouux 6nro 6pocnJra cBoefo corosHuKa r{ gaKJIrolInJIa cenaparHuft unp c HenpnflTeJreM. Bepoaruo, A. 14. .Ilusfloe yqacrBoBar e 6opt6e, saaeprunnureftcq ocso6oxAeHneM pyccKo-yKpa[HcKuMr{ softcrarvtn qenrpa llpa120


tlnrrpnH. flo rpafinefi 3la-HI'Ie crptnqero HoBoe Mepe, oH s 1674-1675 rr. noryqaer (x6ropoe HocHJI n ero oreu), a yxe n 4exa6pe 1676 r. crauoBl'Ircff uapcKIIM croJIbHI{KoM. B c.nelyrcqeM roAy, KorAa orpoMHaff ryBo6epe)KHoft Vxpannu-ropoAa-Kpenocrl'I

HaqaIa reHepaJlbHoe HacTy[JIeHHe Ha npocnn Ha3HaqeHufl B roJIK 6onpuna u JIHsros vl. Vxpaun6, A. B. B. fo.nnqusa. C 4eyua napaMI'I [I{croJleroB u ca6aefi, "oegoarr B conpoBoxAenul{ AByx KoHHbIx cJlyr c opy)KHeM H o6osuoto qeJroBeKa c A;tnusofi nuulaJlblo n 6ep.uuueM, yqacrBoBaJl oH B ttoxqAax 1677 u 1678 rr. uo4 tlnrupl'In <<c rplr$Ay I'I Ao orrycKy>' a gareM 35 ueae.nr BoeBoAcrBoBaJI BMecre c orlloM o Bepxueu n DeuKo-KpbrMcKafl apMLIf

Huxueu JIoMosEIx e neuseucroM Kpae. C;ryx6a IIoA HaqaJIoM BblAaloqerocff rocyAapcrRsHHofo Aeqre' ns K'r.ssn Bacu.nnq Bacurtesnqa folnuusa Aaila Jlus.noey uuoroe. fparrrotnuft, noJlyqI{BIrInft xopouree AoMalxHee o6pa:oeauue

ABopsHr.rH npHBJIeK BHI{MaHI'Ie [pocBelqenHHoro BoeBoAu. B cBI{Te fonuqnsa AHapefi I'Isauosnq yrlnflct MbIcJII'lrb Ha BbIcoKoM crpa-

TerLIqecKOM ypoBHe, BLIAeTb 3a BoeHHbIMI{ CTOJIKHOBeIIpISMI'I U COIO3Hr,rrrecKHMIt HeypsAIIqaMn o6que I'IHTepecbI h saxHefturue nporn'

Bopeqnfl crpaH u HapoAoB. 3Aecr, B noxoAax' npuo6trlu.rtcs oH It K gaHtrTIrM lrcropl{en. OsuaxolvlHeurncr c npIaHaAJIexaBIIIHM fonuqusy (u 6ryeuIltrl flpu Herra) c6opunxou noqru He HgBecrnblx rorAa e Poccn[ LrcroplrKo-[y6.rruqacruuecK]Ix co.InHeHHft pygcKoro BoeBoAFI_ H rHeB-

uoro' o6.nuqnreJln TI,IpaH utr KHflsfl An4pen Muxaftroau'la Kyp6cro' ro, Jlnrg.nos BsffJIct AonoJIHHTb reKcr nepeBoAoM us6paunux uecr Xponurn Ma[es Ctpnftroncroro. B Mapre 1682 r. oH saKoHqHJI nepenoa H nepepa6orKy rflaB groro BaxHoro colluHeuna, o6paqeuHoro K upo6nerraau 6opt6u cJIaBsHcKI'Ix crpaH c xaucKo-cynraH-

crofi arpeccneft.

B yc.noeuax o6ocrpenur 6opr6n <B Bepxax>> I'r^HapoAHoro HeAoBoJrbcrBa HaKaHyHe Mocroscrom) BoccraHus 1682 r. HaqI{HaIo' ulero l{cropHKa He MoTJIH He BOJIHOBaTb Ll BHyrpl,InonurnqecKHe npo6;rertru. <<I4cropna o BeJILIKoM KHff3e MocKoBcKoM> Kyp6croro 11poH3BeJra Ha JIHsrosa cHJIbHoe BneqarJIeHI'Ie I'I BnocJIeAcrBHI{ craJra Bax(HbIM LIcrovHItKoM ero rJIaBnoro rpyAa. Bepoaruo, JIusJroB rrorroJlun.n <<C6opHnr Kyp6cKofo> nepeBoAaMI'I uacrefi Xponl.lxn ArercaHApa fsausnHn: <O o6uqasx uapfl I'I Be_JI-I'tKofo Kus,sfi l/roar,na Baclrnresl,tqa>> u <<OnucaHlre qapcrBa Moct<.oscKoro>>

(xn. u. 3 r.r l) 2. ' B7,pasrap MocroncKoro BoccraHnq croJlbHar JIHsfioB oTKJII'IKHyncs Ha [pIr3bIB npaBl'IreJlbcrna CoQru n Fo.ituqusa u yqacrBo' BaJr B ABopsHcKoM oIIoJIqeHHIt s Tponqrolvl noxoAe (xorx unoc.ne4crBr.Iu peAKo y[oMHHaJI o6 sroM BnoJIHe 6eccragnol{ Mepollpnflrun). floore <yrlIIIIeHHff> BoccraHug oH npoAoJIlKaJI ocraBarbct B croirnqe n Aax(e orKagaJlcff s 1683 r. or oqepeAHoro ornycKa B nonb3y roBapnilla. flpauunauu roMy MoTJII-I 6url n 6e4nocrl (ou BMecre c orqoM cJIy)KLJI Ha AoxoAbI c He6olltuoro oruoBcKoro nouecrra), H 3ausrlte yrIeHbIMI'I TpyAaMH' t2l


B uor6pe 1686 rl JIHsros 3aBepurr{Jr nepeBoA KHr.rrH Cnuona Crapoeo.urcroro <<.[,nop uecapfl rypeuxoro> (KpaxoB, 1649) Bax(Horo coqI,IHeHLIfl , CoAepXaBUIeIO CBeAeHr,Iff O nOJTHTHTIeCKOM yCTpoftcree, eoeHHorl opraHusarluu, Qnuancax, o6uqasx H HpaBax Ocuascxoft EMneplzr{, o ee croJraqe u xr.r3Hu cyJrraHoB. ToJrsxo aa Bropyrc noJroBr.rHy XVII s., B ycroBnqx Hapacrauun o[acHocrn croJrKHoBeHna c floprofi, a Poccr.rn notrBr.rJrocb rrrecrb lrepeBoAoB KHI{rr{, no pa6ora An4pea HeaHosnqa BbrAeJlflercfl cpeAr.r Hr{x Har{6o.nee rBopqecKuM [oAxoAoM K TeKcry.

JIHsroe coKparrraJr csoft ucro'rHaK, AonoJrHsJr ero o6runpnnun BcraBKaMH, n3MeHqfl garoJIoBKlI, AaBaJI co6crseHHbre KoMMeHTapI{H LI TOJTKOBaJI TepMHHbr, CTpeMqCb CAeJraTb CBOrO KHHry MaKCHMa,'IbHO qlrrareJ'rro, npn6lusnrr ee coAepx(aHne K coBpeMeHno"4ocrynnoft crn. Ero nepeBog craJr cBoero poAa pyKoBoAcrBoM no H3yqeHHn MoryuecrBeHHoro [por]rBHrKa, HoBaff softHa

c

KoropbrM HeorBpa-

ruuo npn6nHlxa.nacl 3. Hecuorpx Ha ro, qro B cpaxeHirflx Ha Vr<pauue rroJrKr.r Hosoft perylnpuoft pyccxofi aprlar4 noKasa/'nr cBoe rrpeBocxoAcrBo HaA arpeccopoM, rocyAapcrBeHHbre Aerre,'r[ Poccnlr noguMar'rr{, rrro B florlrrnqecxoft I,rso,'rsqull, flpu coxpaHeHl,rz yrpo3br c saltaAa, npoAoJllxeHr{e 6opr6u c floproft 6u,ro upessuuaftuo onacno, xorfl nocJre yAapoB, loryqeHHbrx B KpoBaBHx 6nrsax 1677 u 1678 rr.,

Ocuascxas r{Mrrepnfl BoBAepxI,IBaJracb or aKrHBHbIx Aeftcrsafi Ha Vxpanue. Haxoueq, He HaftAs orKJrHKa y coceAerl - enponeficxlrx MrIp c Aep)KaB, Poccns noula s 168l f. Ha KoMrrpol,rnccnuft floprofi. To.nrxo rofAa, KorAa MoIIIb ocMaHcKHx apnanft o6pyruuracr Ha cnauleuHylo Pnrvrcxylo r{Mrrepnrc repuancxofi HarIlrH, Peqr flocnoJrr.rry H Beue4uancKyro pecny6tuxy, KorAa coeAr.rHeHHbrM aBcrponoJIbcKHM eoftcxar\,r ruurb rIyAoM yAaJlocb cracru Beuy, a [o3x(e nolscxnfi KopoJrb fn Co6ecruft norepneJr coKpyu[reJrbnoe nopaxteHLIe, 3anaAHble cor,osHr.IKI,I BCepbeS ocoSHaJIH ueo6XoAurrlocrn

o6reArneuufl Bcex cHJr AJrff ornopa arpeccur,r, H peBaHrrrucrcKr.re ycrpeMJreHr.rfl rrrJrrxrbr, [aeqrasurefi <<BepHyrb> ce6e pyccrue H yKpar.rucKr{e seMJrr{, 6u;rn yxpouleuu. KorAa .IIHsros 3aKonqr.rJr B

rol,

pa6ory HaA xuurofi (1686),

eAr.rHcrBeHHoe ycJroBne BcrynleHr.rq Poccnu B coro3 nporr,rB afpeccopa saKJrroqeHr.re <<Beqsoro MHpa>> c llonrurefi 6u.uo Bbrno,'r-

- Bo rJraBe orueno.- Ha c,'re4yrouqnft roA porMrrcrp Auapefi JIHs,ros pflAa cBnrbr uraBgoKoMaHAyroqero ABLIHyJTcfl c apuueft folr.rqnHa B roxoA Ha Kpuu. flpeo4o.rrenaa 6ecnpnuepHbre rpyAuocrn, pyccrfie softcxa [poIrIJrI{ 6o.rrstuofi nyrb no Bbr)KxeHHoft creun n... Bce xe BbrHyxAeHbr 6u.nn nepuyrbcs Ha3aA. Xors noxoA pyccKnx softcr BEil3BaJr naHHKy r Crarr,r6y;re u cnyTaJr Bce nJraHbr llopru, a Kopnyc larpnnH Polaanosuqa Hen.[roesa n <<rpo3br 6ycyprvraH> fpnropnn l,IeaHosr.rsa Kocarosa pasMeraJr Eenropo4crylo opAy

il

cnaJruJr Ouaxoe, MHorHx HeyAarra flepBoro

rloxoAa rroBeprJra B yHbrHr.rea. Jlusrog 6un cpeAu rex, Kro no nopyqeHnn npaBr.rrenbcrBa crapaJlcff noAHsrb .Ayx paro6opuea. On t22


c HarpaAaMH B KueB, K BoeBoAe Byryp,rnuy, HeoAHoKparHo Ha fipors)Kenun 1687-1689 rr. BcrpeqaJrcfl c HoBbtM yKpaHHcKnM rerMaHoM 14. C. Maeenofi. Tu{arqrlHaq [oAroroBKa HoBoro [oxoAa onpaBAaJla ce6g. B 1689 r., onupascb Ha BbrABHHyrbre AaJreKo Ha ror, xopouo yKpeflJreHHbre r.r Boopy)KeHHbre KpenocTr.l, pyccKo-yKpar{HcKHe BoftcKa BHoBb ycrpeMr4Jrr,rcl r llepexony. IlorpnceuHafl Eepona ua6;rrcAana 9To ABI{xeHLIe otpoMHofo qncfla rrexoTHblx rroJrKoB no 6esso,a,Hbltt crerrqM, B oKpylKeHI4Lr N{a,rrrqeft cran KoqeBH}rKoB: pyccKHe <<IIIJrH KaK BoAa, He ocraHaBilwBafl.cb, Tor'IbKo orcrped'IllBaJlllcb>>. BLlurpae HecKoJrbKo cpaxenar?, pyccKue KoJroHHbr BbrrrrJr14 x llepexony. 3aqnrrlaBrxafl opAbrHr{eB or peryJrflpHofi apuur,r crenl 6u;la lo6ex4eua. flpo4euoucrpr{poBaB Kpuuy Bo3Mox(Hocrr Hoeofi apMuu H sanepeB opAy 3a flepexonou KpenocrsMr.r, [ocrpoeHHbrMr,r noA npr.rKpblrr.reM noxoAa, lo.nuqun )r(AaJI, KorAa <xaH KpbrMcrofi yuner rrncarbcs noAAaHHbrM qapcKr.rM>). Bcrope B opAe, xusuefi Bo MHoroM ga cuer rpa6ex(a, HaqaJlltcb roJroA rr 6onesHr,r. Ho fonuqbru yx(e- He Mor BocloJrbsoBarbcq pe3yJrbraraMr.r cBonx ycunuft: r 1689 r. [paBr{rerrbcreo Co$rn naJro- Knssl 6Hn 6es cy.ua o6nnHeH r.r cocJraH. Axrusnr,re 4eficrana Pocclll.r [porr,rB Ocnrailcrofi r{MnepI,IH npeKparuracl 5. B rsxgroe BpeM_q [portBeranufl <<M3gor,rMcrBa BeJrr.rKoro r.r Kpax<?r rocyAapcrBeuuoft>>, sa6seHuq HHrepecoB Poccau npassqefi sbpxyurrori r.r ropx(ecrBa <MyApo6oprleB>>, B roA Ka3HH MeAseAesa n B roA noqernor? ccu.nxll s To6ontcr Vrsar*ts Pn*rcroro-KopcaKoBa Anapeft HsaHos[.r JIHsnos pa6ora.n HaA csoefi r.[asnoft'rnnrofi. 3aneprueHuas ,IlHenoebrM B 1692 r. <Cxuecxaa ucropr{fl> pacKpbrJra Hcropr,rqecKoe_ 3HaqeHHe 6opt6u Pycn, cJraBflH, Hapo4oa'Bocrouuoft, IOxnorl u I{enrpa.ntuoft Enponbr c KoqeBHr{KaMn. Orpouunft ucropuqecrufi Marepr.raJr BBaJr K Halpfl)KeHulo Bcex cu.rr B peulrreJrbHoft cxearxe c arpeccopoM, K yHr.rrrroxeHno oqaros sofiHbI, K ocBo6ox(AeHnro eBpo[eficxr.rx HapoAoB or ocMaHcKoro nra. KHnra noqrr{ na 800 crpaHr.rq 6u.ta ocHoBaHa Ha H3yqeHuu qeJroro prAa pyccKttx u r.rHocrpaHHhlx tlcroqHr,rKoB. I4s oreqecrBeH_ Hbrx coqr{Heunft JIng.noB HcnoJrbgoBaJr raKr,re rpyAbr, xax CrenesHafl KHlrra, XpoHorpaQ pyccxnrl B peAaKurrr l5l2 r., <<KasaHcKr.rft Jreronr.rceq>> Lloausa Inaaaroro, <l'Icropnr o BeJTHKoM KHs3e MocKoBcKoM)> An4pea Kyp6cxoro, Her{sBecrHbrft s noArr.{HHnre Jleronuceu 3aroua 3aceruua, >Klrrprfr, Bo3MoxHo, pa3pflAHble AoKyMeHTbr. Cpean HcrorrHr,rKoB <<CxnQcxofi r4croprin>> 6rr"n r.r ne.rarHbrft i<Cnnoncnc> (Kuen, 1674). Ec.nu KparKocrb r,rsrox(eHuq yKpauHcKoro r.sAaHufl He no3BoJntla JlHsrosy qacro onnparbcff Ha Hero B cBoeM paccKa3e, To npneMbr r,rcTopr{qecKoro noBecrBoBaHraq u paccTaHoBKil ccbrJroK Ha r.IcrorrHl{Kr.r s <<Cr.IHoncnce> 6unn 6nvern pyccKoMy

e3AuJr

aBropy. _ Cpear.r r.rHocrpaHHbrx r{croqHnKos A. Z. JIHsros oro6pan nan6onee ilonynspnbre rr aBropr{TerHbre B efo Bperufl Ecrop[qecKne rpyAbr, coAepx(aBr.une o6urupnbre cBeAeHHx o6 ncropl.il.r 6opr6u cJraBsHcKr.rx HapoAoB npornB op4lrncxori tr ocMaHcKofi arpeccnn, t23


BblAeJrsBlnlrecr 6JrecrflrrlHMH Jrr{repaTypHbrMu AoCToHHCTBaMII, OC, BerrIeHHeM co6brrr.rft c fiparMarHqecKHx no3HrlHft, o6paqenuerrl r ryqruuM o6pasqann aurn,rHofi r.rcropr.rorpaQun. OannM lls ocnosHux <€xraScxofi r{cropnu> craJra <Xpounxa Capuarun Ee'IcroqHHKoB Anexcau4pa fsaHsHHE B nepeBoAe r.rsBecrHoro noJrbponeficxofi>

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o [poncxoAqrqux B l,tupe co6urusx. He 3,'raq Bo,'rg Tarap r.I ocMaur a HcroprqecKrl cJroxnBrrrnecq o6croqrerrcrsa xnsur.r HapoAoB npuBeJrn K cMepreJrbHofi 6opl6e Ha py6exax or Asosa ao Alpnaruxu. Bnpaxaq HaAexAy Ha cKopoe ocso6oxAeuge HapoAoe BeHrpnn, Eontapnn, Mo.nAaB:,zrln, BaJlaxun, Cep6nn, Xopearnn, A.n6aHn fi fpe4nv or ocMaHcKoro I{ra, npu3blBar MHorIre crpaHbl rroAarr> cBoHM nopa6oqenuuu 6parrru <<noMoulb rE coo6o4y>, An4peft Hgauosuq orHroAb He npr.r3brBaer K yHr.rqroxeHnro <<afaprHcKoro ceMenr.r>, K roTaJrbHofr <sofiHe 3a Bepy>.

He ncrpe6Jrenne <HeBepHbrx>, a o6ys4aune afpeccopa-BoTnaQoc KHHrr{ Jlnsnoea. Her ucr<ouHo snoAeftcKnx HapoAoB, yrBepx(Aaer ero paccKas. BeAr r.r BeHrpbr, u 6o.nrapu, rr MHorr,re HapoAH flogoJr>Kbfl [pexAe 6u;rtt <<cruQarvnt>, a 3areM craJrrr xeprBaMr.r <<cKuQogrr, HylxAarorrlnMficq

B garrlnre.

Ocso6oAureJrbHafl

nofiHa, noMoIIIb 6oprcqnucs npornB saBoeBareJleft napoganr uctopr{qecKr,r onpaBAaHa, noKa3brBaer <<CxrQcxar Hcropns>. Ho anrop nopuqaeT TepplrTopHaJrbHbre 3axBaTbr, Ha KoHKperHbrx npfiMepax noKasblBaer ru6erlsocrb HapyrxeHfifl MexAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB, B ToM ql{c,'re

u c <6ycypuaHaMH>>. Pyxoao4croyacr npe>KAe Bcero He npeAB3flTbrMH HheflMfi, a KoHKperrrbrM r.rcropnqecKr.rM MareprraJroM, JIHeros He BnaAaer B nptlcyuIae MHoTI,IM [oJrHTHqecKr{M TpaKTaraM yrorrriu. On BHAI{T cJroxHocrb rr,rex4yuapo4nofi cr{ryaquu u ueo6xoAHMocTb Boopyxesuofi 6opl6sr c cLIJrbHbrM arpeccopoM. OAnaxo Auapefi LIsaHoBHq cyMer yBr.rnerb H Apyfoe. Couacso <CxnQcroft llcropr{H>>, cnpaBeAJrr,rBuft uupnufi AoroBop KaK cr.rJrbuan - TaKoe )Ke opyxue, apMnq. KoHe,rHas no6e4a Ha4 <cxnQaMu>> 9To Mr{pHoe cocyqeCTBOBaHre HapoAoB. 128

-


To.nrxo noA.rrEHnufr r{cropnK Mor HgBJreqb raKoir ypoK n3 BeKosofr vepe4u KpoBaBbIx BoftH, BpalKAH nJreMeH H rocyAapcrB, Llcropr,rn repouqecKr.rx [oABr.rroB H crpaluHux pasopennft. I4uesno 6naro4apn r.rry6ane ocMbrcJrenl{fl HcropnrrecKnx Qarron Knnta JlHsroga npno6pe.na 6onuuoe 3HaqeHLIe B ncroptln pyccrofi o6dtecrseHnoft MbrcJrH, craJla Heo6xoALrIrra qHTareJIflM. Muoxrecteo pyronnceft <CxuQcxoft ucropl{H> He coxpaHnJlocb, Ho N ceftqac uctoplIKaM r.r3BecrHo oKoJro 30 ee cnncroa, 6olsutl{HcrBo Koroprilx orHocr.Ircfl K KoHrty XVII n nepeofi [o,'IoBI,IHe XVIII n. B npocrux KaprouHbrx nepeflJlerax H B KpelKHx Aocxax, o6tq' nyrLilx goporofi tucsenofi xoxeft, 9K3eM[JIspbI KHLITU Aoporo qeHr.IJrr.rcb coBpeMeHHr,IKaMH. I,IsaecrHa Aax(e cyAe6naa tqx6a no noBoAy npuHaAJrex(Hocrn cn[cKa <CrnQcxofi HcropHH>>, xoropufr ts nepBbre roau XVIII s. oqeHllsatcfl rIotIrLI n l0 py6.neft! Pyronucr.r KHnrH JlHsnosa 6HJru s 6n6rnorexax rocyAapcrBeHHblx Aeffre,reft u ABoprH, Hcropr4KoB I.I AyxoBeHcrBa, KynqoB I.I fipoMbIIIrJIeH' Hr{KoB, pacnpocrpaHrrr'rncb s Poccnn H sa ee npeAeJIaMLL Ogr,t coxpanurncl e MocKee n llerep6ypre, Teepn n flpocnao.ne, HoBropoae Be.nnrou u Bn,rrurcce, e Catuape u flapnxe. Krirra Jluslona, craBulafl oAHtIM LI3 nonyJlflpnefiurnx HcropLIqecKux coquHenr.rft Ha py6exe AByx BeKon, o6na4ana MHorHMn npnsnaKaMn uayuuoir rraonorpaQnn, BnJIorb Ao cncreMbl ccbIJIoK Ha ucrotrHr4Kn c roqHbrM yKa3aHr{eM roMoB H crpaHl,Iq. Cne,qyq ga HrrrarueM Puucxraira-KopcaKoBuM, HcropI{K floAqepKHyJI sHaqenne cBorlx HCToITHHKOB, yKa3aB Ha HLIX B 3arJIaBnH H [epeqHCIHB B Har{aJre KHnrH (e pasAe;re <Knurn ucropuft, or HI,Ix )Ke cnq HcropHfl coqHHncfl r.r Hanlrcaca>). Tar )Ke KaK u l,lrnatui1 An,qpefi Hsauoeraq crpeMllJrcs ynaQxunpoearr Soprr.ry ccbIJIoK l.t o6patu.n npr.rcraJrbHoe BHHMaHlre Ha pyKonLIcHbIe HcroqHHKH. floutltrlo Crenessofi Kurirrr (na roropyro oH ccblJlaercfl rlo o6pasuy PulrrcroroKopcaxona), Jlu3roe Haqar nocroqHHo yKa3rrBarb Marepuafi, B3qrHft r.rs XponorpaQa pyccKoro, BbIAeJIHJT B cBonx ccbIJIKax raKl{e uaMqrnuKrl, KaK <<3aceKnH Jlero[Hcelr>>, <Xntng cBtrblx> (9erlr'rMnueu, c yKa3alrneM MecflqeB), uKyp6croro Hcropila>, I,t JII,IIIIb Kasascruft Jrerorrl,tceu npoAoJIxaJr Heo[peAeJIeHHo Ha3bIBarb <<Jlero[ncueM)>, <<crapblM JIeroII[cqeM MocKoBcKI4M>, ue uaft4x elty oco6oro garilaBr4fl. Baxso orMerltrb, qro LtcrorrHLIKoBeAqecKat MHcJIb JIHg.nosa rrrJra B oAHOM pycJre C noI{cKaMI{ naTpHaplxefo JlerolHcHofo IIeIITpa, Cu;rrrecrpa Me4aeAeBa, HrHarHq Pnucroro-Kopcaxona. Eule npe,Acror,rr BbrflcHl,Irb, KaKoe BJIHsHue oKa3aJII{ Ha aBropa SQrnQ-

cioft

ncrop nE> Llcropl{xo-ny6nuqucrl;IqecKl,Ie [poI{3BeAeHI'rs MeAeen <<Cosepuanne KparKoe>.

.r.eBa, TaKpre KaK <<I,l3secrl,Ie ucrnnHoe>

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ATfl YTOIIHCHHg I{ UCNPAB''ICHi4'I IJHOq3blqHbIXi XOTS I{

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ua pcrBnr.r>>.

rax npanocraeHofi BrisaHrr.{ftcxofi nMIIepHr.r; KaK rOCyAapcTBa, BbrHecuelo ocHoBHyro Tff)KecTF, 6ops6u c HarrrecrBnflMll KorIeBHlIKoB a Enpone, HMe,ro rny6oxne KopHn n pyccxoft 14nefisoe o6ocHoeaHr-re BHeurHenoJrnTr{qecKr{x 3aAaq Poccnn

AyXOBHOTO HacJreAHr{Ka

6ulecrseHHo -rroJr lrrurreo<ofi u uc.n n. He4 a p orra Hcro pHKr,I -ny 6.n uqucrbr KoHrra XVII s. eAr.rHoAyrrrHo rtpnBoArr B cBonx corrnHeHusx <<npeApeqeHu,s> o6 ocso6ox(AeHrll{ poccr.IflHaMr, B cor,o3e c yrHeo

TeHHbIMT{ HapoAa

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Ka noJruTltxn lo,ruuuHa,

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AB

B ero 6,ruxafiuree

a cropoHHLI oKpyx{eHlze,

cxoAHo orrpeAeJrflror f,'raBHbre 3a.u.aqu Poccnficxoro rocyAapcrBa. CHna sosAeftcrsns peuefi Puucxoro-I(opcaKoBa Iz nonyflqpHocrb <CxuQcr<oft t,tcroprlri>> onpeAe,'IqJILIcb He roJIbKo I{, Mo}Ker 6bITr, He croJrbKo r{x coAep)Karentnofi r;ry6nnofi lt 6;Iecrsulefi "turepaHogofi Qoptr,tofi, opueHrl.{poBasHoft Ha lxupoKylo rypnofi Qoprr,roft

- 6,rilsocrlp BbIpalKeHHbIx HMI'I B3TJIflAOB O6qnU Maccy, cKor'tbKo H KopeHHbrM HHrepecau poccnficxoro ABopsHcrBa, roproBo-flpoMbIIIIJICHHOTO

H

ACE,]ICHN'.

<<CxrEQcrar lrcropllr>> tBHJIacb HoBbIM IIIafoM BnepeA He roJIbKo e o6nact[ ucropHtrecKoft MbIcrH, Ho I,I B craHoBJIeHLIu llcropl'IqecKoro ucrorrHuKoBeAeHlrs. A. 14. JIHsfloe He npIlBe"'I B cBoeM TpyAe

paSlrtltU,reHUft, aHaJIolHqHblx BbIcKa3bIBaHI'I<<feHeaJrorHn>> Puucxoro-KopcaKoBa, so 6o.nee uy6oro I' IIOCJreAOBareJrbHo peaJIn3oBaJI Te xe MbICJIH B [paKTHqecKoM IaccJIe' AoBaHww. Bc.neA sa HrHarreM oH yAe"rser AoJIx(Hoe BHHMaHHe lrpoI,IcxoxAeHlrK) cBolx HcrotIHI,lKoB, npIIBOAI'IT B KH]Ile CAeAeHI'Ig o6 LICTOqHHKOBeAqeCKI{X

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aBTOpaX [CTopUqecKLIx coqHHeHnfi, Aaer Ha Hvx roqHble ccbIJIKH It qacro yKa3brBaer, orKyAa re, B cBolo oqepeAb, 6paln I'IuTepecyrcu,rte ero Qaxtl. Bpaspes c o6uqaeu 3anaAHo-eBponeftcxoft ncropnorpaQun, roeMy, BIrAr.rMo, orAaBaJI AaHb Lr lArnarnfi, JIHsros us6eraer <<ilox(HbIX> CCITIJIOK Ha HCTOqHI.IKH, KoTOpbIe OH CaM He BIAeJI, I"I yKaSbIBaer LIMeHHO Te KHHTH, OTKyAa OH nO3aXMCTBOBaJI r'rCrOpnorpaQuqecKne cBeAeHI,Is. Bo.nee crporuft or6op ncroqHl'IKoB N cseAeHufr H3 HLIx, 6o.ree KptlTurlecKoe orHorueH[e K 9TI'IM cBeAeHI'IgM I'I Itx nocJIeAoBaTeJIbHoe, Aera"IIbHoe, nepeKpecrHoe corocraBJIeHI'Ie oTJIIt' racropxlo)> or <<feuealoruu>> I'I reM 6o.lee Apyrnx npon3BeAenrft XVII s. OpnrnHa,rrHocrb, Hepaspa6oraHHocrb B J'II.ITeparype [ocraBneH' unx Pnucxnrrr-KopcaKosHlr{ Il JIbIerosttl{ lpo6neu 3acraBJIflJIa

qanr <Crnscxyro

130


o6oux aBropoB rrocrosHno o6paularrcfl K peKoHcrpyKrlr{H co6Eilrr.rfi no KocBeHHbrM cBeAeHr{rM, paccbr[aHHbrM Ha crpaHr.rqax MHo]KecTBa He cBs3aHHbIx Me)KAy co6ofi rrcroqHuKoB. Ho ecnn anropy <<feHeaJrorulr> flprlxoAnJrocb, rJraBHbIM o6pasou, cBoAI{Tb orlr cBeAeHHg B pffA, B xpoHoJrorfiqecKyro nocJreAoBareJrbHocrb, ro JIHsJoe croJIKHyJrcfl c 6olee cnoxHoft ea4aveft peKoHcrpyK(r{H HcroprrqecKoro $arra. llpune4eu Jrr{rrrb oAr.rH np[Mep rarofi pa6orn. Bosrr\,rervr KoporKoe coo6ulenne r.rg reKcra <<CxuQcrofi Hcmpru{>: <Jlera 6770-ro yMpe rlapb Caprax cus EarueB, no HeM xe o6la,qa Opaoro qapb HMrHervr Beprafi. Ceft sJroqecrnBbrft nocla nocJroB K BeJrr.rKoMy KHfl3ro Alexcau4py fpoc.nasfiqy, floHy](Aarlu1n eno u npoqfix rHsseft poccniicrnx c BotrHcrBoM HX xoAHrr{ Ha roftny c co6orc>. 9ro6u Harucarb sry Qpasy, Jluenony HyxHo 6uno o6paTHTb BHHMaHr.re Ha coo6qeHne Crenensofi KHI{rH o roM, qro <Ar.raBofi ... Haocrpr4 6eg6oxHlrx rarap HyEHrLr xplrcrr,raHoM, Aa Bor.rHbcrByr,or c HHMLr>, Ho noe3AKa KHfl3r Anercan4pa Hescxoro B OpAy orBeJra or pyccKrrx NHqseft <<HyrxAy> yqacrBoBarb B Hx 3aBoeBaTCJIbHbIX IIOXONAX.

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x 6770_,6771 rr. OAsarb tsoccraHne Ha Pycu npornn nnAeft xaHa Capraxa, npeArrrecrBeHHr.rKa 6epxe, Aarnpyercq r{croqHnKaMu 6770 r. VuurunaR, cKoJrbKo BpeMeHrr HyxHo 6ulo sa no$AKy rarapcKoro nocoJrbcrBa K pyccKaM KHs3brM, npne3A Hescroro s Opay u orlpaBJreHr,re orryAa Ha3aA, Jlue.non w AarvpoBaJr cMeHy xanoB 6770 r. Sror npr.rMep HarrqAHo cBr.rAereJlbcrByer, cKodrrb orpoMHafl pa6ora 6tt,r,a [poBeAeHa aBropoM, BoccraHoBnBrxr.rM Kaprr.rHy co6trrnft e o6rurEpHou pefuoHe sa HecKoJrbKo croJrerr.ft. O pesynbrarax ee AoBoJIbHo cKa3aTb, qTO Aa}Ke B TaKHX Cr'rOlKHbIX BOnpOCaX, KaK, Harrpr,rMep, Hcropur MycyJrbMaHcKr.rx AlrHacrnft, cee4enun <CxnQcroft rcroplm>> sarracrylo [oATBep]KAarorcr coBpeMeHHbrMH HccJre;lOBaHI.IgMIl r{rH qBJIflrOTCrr paBHOBepOflTHbIMn C HHMr.r rI{[OTe3aMr.I. Tpyanee oxapaKrepu3oBarb B KoporKoM oqepKe pasuoo6pasve TBoprIecKLIX [pueMoB JlHgrosa. Craxeu roJIbKo, qro oH H3yrILUr orHocffulr,recf K npeAMery cBeAeHHfl pa3rHqHbrx coqr.rHeHnft 6o.nee nry6oxo, qeM Hx aBTopbI. JIHsros HeoAHoKparHo orMeqaer ourn6xn lr [pornBopeqnBbre cBeAeHr.rq, coo6uraeir,rgre Ha pa3Hbrx crpaHllqax I,I B pa3Hbrx roMax coqugeunft Toro r,IJIr,I r.rHofo Hcropr.IKa, yrraTbrBaer Aaxe oco6eggocru LIx orx.nonenufi or HcrLIHbr. Tar, Maqeft Crpufiroscruil. AarwpoBar'r 6rrny y Cxnrx Boa 1333 r. <<Hnaarr 6urn 136l-10>>,-flonpaBJlser KoJrJrery aBTop <<CrnScroft Hcroprru>>, ortrerusurnft s Xponnxe cMerrreHlre xpoHoJrornn AeffreJrbHocrrz KHq3s O.tlrepAa ua l3l o6naes rocoJ'rbcrBaMa Mo>l<Ho orHecrr.r

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30 .ner: '<la6o Crpufixorcxltft nurxer cefo KHs3fl O.nrepla r{Myqa 6paHl c BeJTnKHM KHfl3eM MocKoBcKr.rM fluunrpueu l'Ieauosuqelvn nera 1332, ero xe rocyAapcrBoBaHne HaqaJrocfl rro rn3BecrHbrM poccnftcruu Jlero[HcrreM nera 1362-10>>. Ho, nonpaBr.rB Crpuftroncxoro Ha 30 ler, Mbr ronyqfiM BpeMff 6firebr s 1363, a He B 1361 r., KaK B <Crn$croft ucropnn>! Oxaaueaercr, Jlsrs,roe yuel, qro. paccKa3 o 6ilrse [oMexIeH a XpoHnre paHbII]e, rIeM paccKas o softue c ,[,unrpneM, HaqaBureftcs BcKope nocJre ero BoKHr)Kenus. Orcrc-

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B cepeAllue 1690-x roAoB, Kor,Aa qapr lletp Arexceesnq ctarT ocso6oxAarbcfl H3-IIoA otteKu 6ogp, arrueHble Aeficrsgs Poccfilu e flpuuepuoMopbe soso6Hosl,utucr. Basofr uoAroroBKI'I HoBoro noxoAa Ha HerpntreJlfl cra.t paiou ,Il,ona. B' 1695 r. trIHsros nonyqun BaxHoe Ha3HarreHr.re n r. Koporoqx. OH AoJI)KeH 6H.[ o6ecue.Iiltt HacryrrantuyIo apMI,Io npoAyKraMu, co6pan c 24 ropo4oB I'I Hanpanur cyAaMH x Aaony oKoJIo 6000 qetgeprefr rrayru, 13000 qeteepreft cyxapefi, no 3000 ueroepreft oBcflHblx Kpyr u ronoKHaV6lepeus Becb aror flpnltac or BoAbI, orufl Il ;rro6oft nopun 6tt.lto AeJroM HeJrerKnM. Ho eule rpyAHee oKa3aJlocb noJIyrII'ITb HaMeqeH' HbIe 3anacbr or HepaALIBbIx Ir BopoBarblx BoeBoA. He [penblllatcb <nocyJlaMI{>>, oH 3aBeJI CfleqI,IaJIbHbIe TerpaAI'I <<HeTqI'IKOB>, eOa6yAnB nporLIB ce6s seuanyro s;ro6y. 9n-epruunaa AesreJtbHocrt Jlug.rtosa no cna6xeHKIo apMnu 6w.rra BaMeqeHa, a B AgoscroM noxoAe 1696 r. oH craJl TJIaBHbIM HHreHAaHroM pyccr<oft apMHLI e Boponexe. Ero 6op!!a c Ka3HoKpaAaMI{, no-Br.rA[MoMy, BbI3BaJIa HeAoBoJIbcrBo._ fIoA npeA.lorou <<crpoeHnfl I.I [ouI]HKI,t co6opuun qepKBI{, rITo B 3eeuuropo4e>, iloco.nrcrnfi npI{Ka3 nbITaJIcg oro3Barb croJIbHI{Ka I{ ToJIbKo BMeIuarer'rbcrBo pyKoBoAcrBa Paspn4Horo npllKa3a [osBoJII'IJIo,Ilnsloay npoAoJlxarb LI yclretuHo 3aBeplxnrr pa6ory. Ho crolrHoBeHue c <<xpaxefi rocyAapcrBenuofi>> He npou,'Io llcropl'IKy AapoM. IIo nosnpauleHltn Hs Asoscrofo noxoAa oH rqr(ero sa6oren (;lenocroponnnft napaJII{q c norepeft peun) H BcKope cKoHqaJlcflorAaB Bce cHJlbI cJIy)KeHHlo Pocclll't.

t32


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//flpo6ae-uu_ acropnorpaQru. Bopouex, 1960; 2) 06 aBrope H. JlHsaose // Boupocr,r counaJrbrro-eKolrounqecrofr Eeropr{tr u trcroqEEKoBeAeEuf, rrepuoAa Qeo,4aarieua s Poccuu. M., 196l; 3) Pyccrrfi ucropnr A. 14. JIuenoB u ero xnura <CruQcKar ucropr{r> // Becruur rcro-

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pnu rr,rupoiofi Kynbrypbr. 19.61. Ne 1; 4) <CrtQci<ax ucropfn> A.'14. Jlusnoea w Bonpocbr BocroKoBeAeHun llOwpxu no Hcropnu pyccKoro BocroKoBeAeual. M.,

1963; 5) <Cxu$cxaa Hcropus> A. H. /IHsroBa n rpyAr,r [oJrbcKr.x ucroprrKoB XVI-XVII nz. llTOltPlf. M.; JI., 1963. T. l9;' ' 6) I4cropuorpaQira E XVII sexe ll klcropuorpaQna ucropun CCCP c lpeBnefiuux BpeMeu .r,o Benaxoii Oxra6prcxoft counanucruqecxofi peBonrour{H. ue4. M., 1971. f.n. 3; - 2-e 7) <Dopruupoaanae HoBt{x upuurltrnoB ucropf,rrecKoro [oBecrBoBaHnr. SrroAt'r no, pyccroft ucropnorpaQuu KoHqa XVII s. llPyccxat nnreparypa ua py6exeg,ayx onox (XVII-HatraJro XVIII s.). M., l97l; 8) lrlAes cosuectuofi o6opoubl rpaHurl Poccuu n flonruru n pyccroft ny6anqucrnre aropor? IIGTIoBI{Itbl XVII a. llPoccua, floarua u flpuvepuouopbe B XV-XVIII nn. M., 1979; r{ncrn'i<osa E. B., JIyKllrreB M. n. K 6uorpaQnu aBropa <Crn<pcrof Ircropr{r> A. H. Jlbreaonall AE 3a 1986 r. M., 1987; Xa'tarpan P. l. ApueuuR u apMsHe s <Cxurpcrofi trcroptru) Axaper JlHgaosa//Becrnur o6ulecrBeHHbrx navx AH Apu. CCP. 1978. J\& 6: ero xe. Pyccxaq trcropgqecl(at MbrcJrb n Apuesnr. Epenac, 1987. C. 253-259; EorA anos A. fI., f aa.t' xuft A. H.-Jlsrenos Annpefi l{sauornq IITOAPII. JI., 1985' T.39. C. 80-83.

Onucauuq <C6opuuxoe Kip6crono> cltl.:-i.lepenucra Asana fpoenoro r'r AnApes Kyp6cxoro. .II., 1979. C. 250-315. O Xpoxuxe Crpufiroecxoro n ee nepeBoAax s Poccnr{ crrl.: P o r o s A. ?I. Pyccxo-noJlbcKlle KynbrypHble cBt3! B -g-rlo{y

Boepox4euua. Crpnfiroacruft n-ero XpottuKa.M., t-99_O_iAnnaro6 M. A. Pycixaa ucropnvelcxar MbIcJIb u 3ana,q,Has Erpona. XVII - nepBat ueraepru JlH3noBa It XVIII nera. M., 1976. O noaeuure BoKPyr coorHoIIIeHHs reKcroB

Kyp6croro cu.: f naArufr A. V. d4cropnt o BeJrnKoM KHt3e MocKoBcKoM> A. M. Kyp6croro KaK ucroquuK <CxurpcLoh lcrop-llll>^A. L{. .Ilueroea llBcno' Morarenbxble ilcropltqecKlte AncuilnnltHbl. JI., 1982. T. 13. 3 Cnncor rnurr.r c co6crBeggopyqsoii ganuclro JlHsroaa cu.: fI4M. CusoAanbHoe co6p. 460.

I

r flo,upo6uee cru.: EorAaHoe A. n. <I4crusuoe Ir Bepnoe cKa3aHue> o 11aMsrgttK ny6auqacrnrn floco,ltucxoro npuKaKpurtlcr6r"r noxoAe 1687 r.

ucrosHuKoB no lrcropl'ru pyccKoro cpeA// Ilpo6rer'abr H3yqenafl napparuBHt[x HeB€roBbr. M., 1982. 5 floApo6gee crr,I.: Ea6yuxusa I' K MexxyuapoAuoe 3HaqeHlre Kpnucxnx noxoAoa 1687 n 1689 ir.//H3. T.33; Hepnon A' B. Boopyxeuuue cn.lru Pyccxoro rocyAapcrBa s XV-XVII ss. M., 1954 u ap. 6 inr.: H n * o.n a'e s C, 14. OeuAlrfi e pyccxofr nur-eparype XVII nexa // Pyccxan rrnreparypa. 1985. N l. C. 208-210.

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Чистякова ЕВ, Богданов АП - Очерки о русских историках - М,1988  

Чистякова ЕВ, Богданов АП - Очерки о русских историках - М,1988

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