Issuu on Google+


W


KOPOTKHE fIOBECTH

H PACCKA3bI

BACIAAV\IA

OCOKIIH

erloAbr o x-vAoxHl'IKAX H NUCATEJIflX

HsnareJrbcrBo <COBETCKAfl POCCI'IIIT

ItlocKBa-1969


7Cl

o-75

Bacunuft Huxo,naesri,r Ocoxun xrrur <BacHeuoR>> - aBTop<paccxasbr <fiustb 3aMeqarerbnrtx ,nroAeri>), o Dvccxotr.t nefisaxe>, <Xy,{oxHllxrr 3etr.rrH Cltorencrorl>> tr' 4p, (cepr.ra

B uosofi KHnre <flepcrenl Beuesnrliuoaa)> qnrareJrb no3uaKoMlrrcfl c 3rro.(aMr.r B. Ocoxuna o Eeo[paB.(aHHo sa6ulrbrx pyccxllx xyAoxnar(ax r, flucareJ'rgx u c raKr{l\{u coobrrufl

M

r.I H3 x,r.l gH

u

r.r3

BecrHbtx geRre,reri rrcKyccrB a, Koropbte

pucyror nx c uonoii, floqru HeBeAoMoli paHee cropoun. B-oc-

HOBe BCeX 9TTOAOB

nHcb}tar aocnoMuHaHr.lr

MeHrbr, pa3brcr{aHHble aaroporrr HS.iIaHHtX.

B

r,|

.4pyrue AoKy_ u peaxux

apxlrBax

Kusra B. Ocoxsna rax 6u npnfJauraer qtrrareJrr 3arJrrHyrb B rny6untt Hcropuu po4uofi crpaHbt, oHa 3acraB,,rrer IroAyMarb o roM, KaK ngo6lutna rajrarrrauu poccnt, rax 6epexno u ,rrc6osno cJreayer orltocnrbcr K lracneAr.rrc pyccxori Ky,'rbrypbt.

XyAo>xnux H. A. ABAKyMOB

7-3-2

200-69


oHilcpll|lblq Srumu nuecanu Hau taonuK, KaK eoaopnr, HaJrcu"t u npe1noqrurerbto apaeoa-nodonuttx, c Koropbtx 6oLau cail'rc sep{btt euqe cunouedwux apaeos ce6e

Konuu a ezo ITtLpgwrce.

<llpoaaauco oul ooseaacu.t odnamlot rcarcofi'ro ceKperapb, gsuaa ce6a e Ad.aecunoaod rcapurcargpe.Orcoxugro 6ot eao nsbtKg...> 3ro aocrcnu4aHue npu-

-

utltocb Kcraru: n3bLK 46lecunoaa crcopo lailo.4K HQBCK.

Peneprgap plJccKoeo rearpa Ho 184i, eod.

opo3llbtM coJllreqHbtM yrpoM 30 nHBaptl 1763 rola xHBorIHcHbII\tH TodnIIaMU crel(aJII'tcb MocKBItqIr K yrI'IqaM Eorburofi Helteut<ofi, Crapoft a Hoeoil 5ac'raanuum, flot<poa' xe n MrcsuuKott. I( aecETH qacaM Ha rJIo-

s( at


trlaAu 6aa3,Ile$oproncKor-o ABopqa, pacrrrHyBrrrucb Bepcrbr

Ha ABs,

BbrcrporaJracb necrpafl rrpoqecc[r. Bnepe4n rra orpolruofi KoJrecur{rle BocceAaJr baxyc c rorosoii Ko3,rra, c pofaMu, yKparxeHHblMrr Kr.rcrflMn Br.rHofpaAa. Jlomagu, uapt)KeHHbte rr.IrpaMLI, >K4ailv ero gHaKa. 3a Eaxycorrl crorrJlr CaTI,IpbI, a AaJIbIXe BLIAHeJII{Cb MaCKI,L cM

Hapo4__yKagbrBaJr na.[brIaMr,I Ha HeBr{AaHHoe 3pe,'rrrtrle, . Hexorop ue Kp ecrr.t,rlrcb, Apyrfi e [JreB a Jr r.rc b.

erJrcfl

Baxyc BcraJr, HarflHyJr noBoAbfl. <,Tnrpu> Apornyd'Ir.r, 3ac6pyn, H KoJrecHr..lua rpoHyxacb. tt roT x(e [,rHf pa3Aad'rr.rcb nporr3llTeJrbutte cepe6prrcrble 3Byxz rpy6, nucr Qnefir, Apo6l 6apa6auon, seori flnrasp. 3arpblf a,'IlI, 3 ailJIflCailv M acKH.

3BeHeJra r.ix nptrqyA,rruzaa

<<Xapu>> B MacKapaAHbIx KocrloMax Kaprex<HHKoB, co 3HaIreHeM Ir3 l4lpa,'IbHblx KapT, 3aTflHy,'I14:

Llepail, 6y6uur, IrHXrl, xe,ryAal Bcex Hac pa3oplrnrr Y\ JtLrwuB Hac nponnTaHbfl, rJraAoM noMopl.tr,lH.

KorAa Kapre)KHtrKr.r

cMoJlKdrrn,

xop

nbrHr.rq-Kpr.f B,.rsK craJl

npeKoMArIHO rrlaTaTbcfl, cKaHAHpOBaTb raKT pyKaMa:

H

pa3MaXr.iBaTb

B

l4uofi c floxMer'rbHbrr\r n6ou u c po]Kelo pyMrHori Illaraercs u cau, xar-6yaro Eaiyc nuir6fi,

IZ nruecro, uro6 a 4enax no,resHlu ycneBarb, Ou nogxy BoAKoro ri3Bor,rlrr ganusari.

Xoxor n KpnKv, oAo6peHgfl 3pr4TeJrefi BbrgblBa,lra Hecr{acrHafl, )KaJrocruaa eurypa llpan4sr. Kosursq, oHa nJre.lacb co cJIol{aHHbIML BecaMH rIpaBocyAIIs, H <nJlyrHerrncareJlH)> rHadrrn ee n 6unu ilo rop6y AeHex(HbrMr.r MerrrKaM[. 3a ueri tx-/rH KprcqKorBopbr. OHu 4py>sso HecJrr.r 3HaMfl c HaAlrrcbto <<JaBT.pa>>.

n

BCe IOHLIMa,I14

Hrru 6uqonl Poccan

_

9TO CMeIOTCg HaA BCeHapoa-

eorornrori.

<<Maurepa4>> gaMbrKaJrcr <<goJrorblM BeKoM>>.

Ha ronec-

Hurle ropxecrBeHHo Bo3Bbrr_uaJrr{ct 6oraus MaHepna a 6orHnl !,o6pogereJrb B oxpyxe_Hrlu paficxax crapueB c JraBpoBr,l-

MH BerrKaMH lra Jrbrcr{Hax. Xop orpor<oB B Hr.rcrraAarourdx 6e;lOCH€)KHbtX

OAetHHflX, C 3e,IeHbIMLI BeTBTMA B pyKax,

rr]ecTBoBa,[ 3a KO/'IeCHLIqefr u

ne"ry:

E.laxelrnt BpeMeria Hacrarn. I,I ncrrsu .niqolr poccrlo o6lrncraltl.

I

TaK s

XVIII s. nMefloBaflacb xapra

rpeQ.


Mocxsa u paHbrue BilLa;l'a rrbnrrHbre speJruua, r{oropbre nprrBr,reKaJru eABa Jrr.r He Bce HaceJIeHI4e: xpecruufi xoA BoKpyr KpeMJreBcKr.rx co6opoe, BbresA uapefi Ha 6orouonle. Ilo lorAa tto y,{HIlaM qI4HHo I4 uepeMoHHo TIJIbIJII{ I{ IIJibtJIrl nonbr B rlogoJroqeHHbIx plI3ax,

MeAJIr.ITe,'IbHsle 6onpe Ba)KHo I{apnnu 6narolenue LI THIIIUna. A Bor renepb rro Mocxee fipbrraJlli roJIrIbI er{e HeAaBHo oroBcroAy foHr.rMbrx cKoMopoxoB. Euno Ha qro no-

HecJrr.r

cBoH nbrrrrHbre 6opoau.

CMOTDETb.

Ha noeopore Heueurofi ynaqlt r Pasrynnto B ror'Ire

cKpoMHo oAerblx naocxeHqeri BbIAed'IsJIHcb ABoe. OAHH as HLrx cronr'r e Anr.Iunoft 6oratofi ury6e

c 6o6palttt It rRxerrofi, c 6o6pooofi x{e oropotlKoft ruanxe. Eo6pu ornuttcKpHJII4cb cuexurixll. t{cea,rn cepe6poM - Ha HLIX BeceJIo JIoBeK caMoAoBoJIbHo rlocMarpllBar BoKpyr. I4nble, fipoxoAfl MIIMO HerO, K,llaHgJII,ICb, a OH JIHIIIb I,I3peAKa yaocTal{BaJl

-

IIOOXON{HX JICTKHM KHBKOM IO,'IOBbI.

Ero co6eceAsnr, coBceM Mo,toAofi, rJItlAeJI Ha Bce ufipo' Ko pacKpbrrbrMn rJIa3aMH, BceMy yAIlBJIlffcb ll paAyncl. Bu.' coxne, saxoAuBrulie sa KoJIeHa 6orfopru [I d'IaAHo cI4Aeeuuft KaSraH, onoqcauHull nopryneeft, Hso6ruqafilt B HeM qer'Io' BeKa

BOeHHOTO.

Illrarcxuti HafHyrrcr K HeMy:

- Cnyruari-Ka, secnn!

OHlIcfiMblrI, Hy

qro 3a qelyxy oHfl

no-

Xop leircrol,treJlbHo [oAxBarH.II'{To-To uenoo6paauntoe, HecrpoftHoe, HeIIoIlflTHoe. Mo>xito 6uno paso6parl'ntluru o6puaxa cJIoB fipo KaKyro-To BbInJIbIBII]yo Ha 6eper co6axy' Co6ary 9ry cnpamtrBa,'Iu rpo o6pnAu 3a MopeM' a oua or' BEqAJIA:

t\lnoroe xy"'lbl raM Aocroirllo,

f

6r,I paccxaaarl.I To YNleJIa'

Ecnu 6u carlzpbl nerb t clle'la. A renePr fl neru He xeralo, Tontro Ha llopoKli t lloram' 3a uopelt xall, xaM, xaM' xaM,

Xalt, xalt,

xarll

xaM, xaM, 3a MopeM xaM' xaM' xaM'

3saerut JIH Tbl, OHltcauuu,-

BeJrbMoxa,-

npoAoJl>Kan gsarHutfi

Be4l cuullua, BJIaCTeH CoBblcoKl'lx KOTOpylo Xepacxon no noBer'IeHHI'O MoH cruxl{' paccra3blBarb 6lt'la 6axon saMeHI'lJI, AoJIIKHa Bor onu,.. OH sauenraJl Ha Yxo toHoIuH: t{To 3TO H MOA H He MOI{ BI'IptilI,I'


3a uope:r.r noqerHbre JrroAu IIIell flasar He sarur6arcr. ;'Iroall or Hux He notn6arct...

3a lropelt nroAbMH He ropryror, Co xpecrrru rarr roxiu He cAr:lparcT, Aeperenr, Ha Kaprbt raM He craBgr,

Bor

npo>Kt.rBerub B nepBonpecro,'tbHofi Mecflu r.r yBtr-

Ar4txb, KaK Bcs

gra MHrxypa o6flerr.rT. Cxopo noo6rHHfllor xapu ceroAHrrluHefo (<Top)KecTBa MUUepOrt>>, I{ TOrAa He g, Cyuaporon, a 3eJro BbrcoKorrapHrrfi urujloxoBeurareJrbHbrri H 6naroualrepeHnbril nuvra Tpe4naroncxl.rfi, araAeMrrK oJroKBeHUr.tH, TO 6H[lb KpacHopequfl, BorlrAeT s Qaaop. fy6u A,rexcaHipa Oificllloeuqa A6.recunaoBa qyrb rpoHyJra HeBoJrbHafl ycMeruxa: CyuapoKoB n ryr He Mof yAepxaTbcs, qro6u He 3aAeTb AaBHero cBoero conepHHKa, rroSTa Tpe4naxorcxoro. Ho flAoBnrbre cJroBa Cyuaporoaa He MorJrLr HcrropruTb eMy Hacrpoeung. A6.necniraoB, KaK H Bce BoKpyr, oT AyIxIr Hacr'IalKAaJrcfl spennuleM. He xoren oH Bepurb, qro qepe3 Mecflrl Bce tagMeHxrcr. Msoro HaAexA Ha lloBbrri o6pa3 npaBJreHltfl BceJrflJra focyAapbrHn Exarepnna AJreKCeeBHa, KOrOpyrc oH yxe HMeJr cqacTbe JruueSpeTb Ha KopoHar{nu e ceurr6pe nporrrJroro, lZ62 rola. MacrapaAou <<Topxecrra Muuepou> saxaHqriBa,'rprcb rpaAurIHoHIrble ttpasAHecrBa n Mocxse. focyaapuus o16r,reana B cTo.rtIiIIv.

Cueno u Aep3ocrHo B3ornra oHa Ha npecroJr. HapoA oxuor gee raxoli )Ke Aep3ocrr.t It cMeJrocru n npaeleuuu. Ona uaqa.na cBoe rrapcrBoBaHfie KaK Magepna'- 6ornss yyApocru,* BeAb Bce 3HaJrH o ee AesreJlluoli nepelr4cKe c SpaHqyscxrMr.r lpocBerure ns.vn. V cefi,{ac A6nec,lloon roroB 6n"'r KptrKoM paAocrr.l npuBercrBoBarb rocyAa_ AaJr

pbrHro.

Cxopo r oHa caMa, KaK ryrre3apHoe coJrHrle BecHbr, noflBvracb Bo f,'raBe MacKapaAa. tlacrux xponeli apraMaK Jrer_

KO IAPIIEBAJI NOA HCX, KOCfl KPACHbIM IJIASOM HA HCBHN,AHHOC

creqeune HapoAa. Ou_6yaro Br.rxpeM xoreJl yHecru 6nucra_ reJrbHyr,o Hae3AHr.rqy. B Aanxe A6necnMoe noiepn.n Cyraapojxanno, nPeAuoqe.n orotlru o ciopouy. T1"3: xoropufi, ArexcaHApy Ne_OHucutroBr.rqy xoreJrocb yBr{Aerb urvrnepai-

pl.rqy no6"rruxe. Ha r,rrHoBeHHe eMy rloKa3a,rrocb, qro xoJIoAHbIe, Ho flpeKpacHbre fJra3a rlapHubr ocTaHOBWnWCb lra HeM H3ynriyoule, oH cMyruJrcr H cMerrraJrcq c rornor?. Aod'recrrMoB

I

rrurb

HeAaBHo paccraJrca c apuueri. Cepxan_


roM noA HaqaroM Qe.rrlAuaprua,ra Ca,rruKoBa npoAeJraJr oH He.nerrnli, so no6eAosocuorft rryrb Ao Eep.iruna. flpnur.nocl no6ugarr [I B xapKnx aeJlax, He rrocpaMufl oH qecrr.t pyccKoro IryHAr.rpa. B ernx noxoAax co,'rAarbr nposBaJrr4 cBoero xpa6poro,

u 4o6poro cep)KaHra Onucuuuxorfl A6;recuuonv ldcnoJrurrJrocb Bcero BoceMHaauarb ner. C rex flop nposnr.rqe Ouscuuuq BcroAy raxrr{Jrocb 3a yAI.IBHred'rbHo or3brBrmBoro

qeM,

I-IHM, It HocHTeJIb ero He o6uxa,rcg: ,'IOe, OT AyrXH HAyrrlee npo3Br.Iqe.

gro 6H,'Io xopouee, Tett-

I-Io6eArz;rv B cerlrlrJlerHeri softue flpyccur.r BepnrEH pyccKne softcxa.

H

BorrrJrr{

B

croJlHuy

Ho ocxope 6unn oto3BaHbr ll -pacQopnar4poBaHbr: n 4era6pe l76l roaa yMcpra, He ocTaBr,rB HacJreAHr.IKa npecro,'Ia, qaprilla E,'ulsanera, tra rpoH BcrynuJr cbrH ee cecrpbr,

flerp III,

IoKJToHHLIK npyc-

cKoro KopoJrn @pr.r4puxa II. Bce nepeueHlrJrocb Bo MrHoBeHne oKa.

pa

III

flpo anop fler-

oAr.rH Hs coBpeMeHHnKoB paccxa3blBaJr:

<<Tyr rsAopHble pa3foBopbl c HeyMepeHHbIu nurueu 6utJIH CMe[IaHbI, TyT IIOCJIe CTOJIa TIOCTaBJIeHbI nyHlx I{ noJloxeHHbIe rpy6xu, npoAoJI)KeHI.{e nbsHcrBa H AbIM or Kype-

6onee rarott rpaKrl{p, He)KeJI}I floxnana npyccKoMy KopoJlto, rorAa rox' Mo [epecraBlueMy 6otru gaurrM HenpI{flTeJIeM, H yHI'lxeHHe xpa6pocru poccnftcxux softcx-cocraBJIflJII4 Aocrol{Hc'l'Do npno6pecru nrc6resne rocyAapeBo>. (Texcr npHBoAHrcR Ao-

uur ra6axy [peAcraBJlrnn AoM rocyAapcrnri...

cr'roBHo.-

B.

O.)

Hapoa u oco6esso coJIAarbI, rqxKotl qeuoli Kynl'lBlufie uo6eay fl xAaBuHe o6nerqeulrq, BosHeHaBI'Iaenu flerpa III. Bor nouelry oHI{ TaK rIpI{BercrBoBaJIn BcryfinBruylo_Ha npecro.n nocJre saraAo,rnolt cMeprll qapq ero )KeHy - ExarepuHy A.nexceerny. C;ryx o ueft rax o [pocBellleHuoft ltouapxnHe ycu,'reHHo pacnpocrpaHflJlcfl cpeAl4 rnapAeftcxnx oQuue-

pon. Carnpuqecxufi KapHaBaJI <<Topxecrro MuHepeu> o6,'ruqaJl nopoKl{ u xax 6at o6euta.n <<6naxennu BpeIteHa>>.

Cepxanr A6necnMos 6n,r pa4, qro rlonaJr Ha KopoHauHoHHbIe ropxecrBa a Mocxey. 3Aecr-ro I'r Bcrperl'{Jlctl oH c npuexaBrrrunn us flgrep6ypra no cJlyqarc npa3AHecrB cBoHM ciapunr sHaKoMqeM -- nucare,rem A"nercauApolr flerponaueu CyuapoKoBbIM.

Beie.no BcnoMHHaJIIl onu 1759 roA' TorAa A6necuivtos, He3aAotro Ao rofo nocrynnBlllufi ua soeHHylo c.llyx6y, utlc-


aucxo ft KaH qed.rr p Hr.t. Ka gqen s Cauxr-flerep6ypre. llepeueuar HaAoeBrrrr{e Ao oAypr4 KaHrleJrfipcKue 6yuaru, A6recuruos HHorAa orBoArrJt aymy rariHorl nepenrcrofi cruxos. flo,rrsyacu orcyTcTBr4eM HaqaJrbHHKa, oH noTr{xoHbKy AocTaBaJr 3apaHee 3anprranHbrrl e cron )KypHan r-r [oAKJraAbrBa,rr efo noa 6yMarH. llorou, AeJIafl BHAr tITo [epenHCbIBaeT qHpKy"'If p, rrLrJrcfl

pnq

KotlnlrcroM

Jrerl 6 -KaM n

HaxoAr.rJracb B

cnLICbIBadll HpaBHBIIIUeCfl eMV CTI.IXI.

3a raxarlr 3arrflTaer\,r r.r sacrar yB,'reKllrerocfl rouorxy crposor.rHcr(nfi Har{a,'rbHr.rK. A6necl,tvros c VAoBoJrbcrBlreNt c[LlcbrBa.[ rofAa 6acsn Cyrraapoxona <<)Ky-rn n nqeJrbr)>.

rrli

Oco6eHHo HpaBr.rJrocb e[.ry HaqaJro,

r

oH

c

ylroeHaeM BbIBo-

AHJr CBOr.{M KpacHBbrM ar(KypaTHbrr\t [oqepKoM:

llou6acxv

Cnoxv " I,l cxasxv' Cxaxy.

Hene*rr X'i'ru

Bno"rg.nu n Hayxn.

Ho ryr Ha 6yuary ra BrrptMb Brlo,rrg... rrer, ornroAb He xyK, a rpo3Hbrri, BoJrocarbrr?, xopouo sHaKolulrii xynax. 46Jrecr{MoB OIIeIIrI{JI. IJa sero TJIflAeJIO H OpaJro CBHpenoe Ha-

I{ad'rbcTBo, KpacHoe or rueBa ir BoAKH. fo,roga Bop()qaJiacb B HeJIenOM, HanOJIOBLtHy CnOJISIUeM napI,IKe, C KOTOpOfO cbrfia.flacb He To nbtJlb, He TO MVKa. - B Hayxu Brror3,'ru xyla! - 3aopaJr xprr nJro H pasAe,rrb-Ho cefi naoHcrp v yAapilJt KyJraKoM rro croJry. He cAo6posari OliAoiecalrony, He narHosair xo.noAuofi, a Mo)KeT H_apecTaHrcKr{x por, He [pr{KJrroqHcb oAHa cJryqarluocrt. .4,oxuAasct Har<asa{Hfl, BcrIoMHH.rr oH nDo r,re)Kaulee B ero cyHAyqKe nHcbMo or 6arrorlrKll, 3axyAaJroio ra.nuqcKoro ABopfl,HwHa. Hacraa.nxa, KaK Aepxari ce6q cbrHy B

flzrep6ypxe, 6arroutKa flpoctrJt Haeecrurr ero oAHoKarrrnrrra, rpa$a Cyuaporona, Hbrlre AocrocJraBHofo [r.tury. <Aner-

CAHAPYIXKO,_ IPICAJI POASTCJIb,- OH BCAb NPI4E3X(AJI KO II{HC

Ha rBoe pox(AeHue, Kpecrrrrb re6q cousnolan. Hanotrulr eMy cMr.ipeHHo, qro po4u CynaapoKoBbrx u A6necuuoBbrx _

I{sApeBr're KocTpoMcKHe H qro npa6a6yurra ero ,4oBoAHrce ABoropoAHoft reryurrofi Moefi MarvulKH>). KoHevHo, po6r<utt AnercaH4pyrrrKo H noMbrcJrr.rrb He Mor saf,ftu K cBoeMy KyMtrpy, cJraBa KoToporo, KaK eMy Ka3aJrocb, o6,'rerera Becb MHp, Tenepr xe oH, -ene npeoaonen po6ocrl, l0


Bce )Ke ornpaBnJrcfl-Apyrofo sacTyrrHHqecrBa r\iotJIo.

6url

He

Kar xe xoxoraJl cnsrenuHuii nuur! A6necr.rMoB, eqe He orlpaBnBruucl or po6ocrr.r, crpyxHyJr He Ha uyrKy. CyiraapoKoB, eABa AocJryrrraB ltpo oKaguro c ero 6acseft, unenuy.n BApyr ce6s no xr{Bory rr saKaruJrcff raK fpoMKo, qro B [IKany qro-To ga3BeHe,'ro r.r Ha uyM s xa6rHer rorqac npn6exa,IIa xeHa. Cyiltapor<on ro,rbKo H cMor fipolr3necru qJreHopa3Aed'lbHO:

- , Hy, Mkrnarr, KpecrllraqeK [pnexaJI,- ]I cHoBa 3aKarbr3a o6eAom, Bbrrrr4B HeMaJro, Cyuapoxon 6ecnpecrauuo

Ba"rIcf

rpe6onan cuoBa

cHoBa nepecKasbrBarb npo oKa3vro. A6.neAa 9To 6pocalocl B fJra3a a KaxAoMy,uro Cynnapoxos -6Hn neo6urqarlso rrqecJraBeH. Euy anHo-noJIbCTIIJIO, rrTO IOHO[ra IIOCTpaAaJI r.rMeHHO [r3-3a ero, CyMapoKoBcKIrx nupureft. Os nocnan cJryry K crporoMy Harra,'rbnaKy Korlnlrcra r.r Becb Ber{ep qlrrar A6recnnnosy cBoI{ crr{xl4, AoKa3brBafl npr.r roM, qro rrutrrer He xy)Ke JloMoHocoea. Oco6eHgo HanaAad'I oH Ha TpeAuaxoncKoro, Ha3bIBafl ero HeBexeri a BaBIrcrHHKoM. C rex flop B saHflTr.rsx Korr]rficra ,reii6-xaunascxoli xaur.{

cI4MoB saMerllJr

rreJrrpur.r npon3orxJrn n3MeHeHfifl: crporufr HaqarbHHK yroAHHTIAJI NCPCA HLIM U BCCIAA OTNYCKAJI K CIO CHflTCJIbCTBY rpaQy A.nercau4py llerponnuy. V Cyrr,rapoxoea A6,'recnN{os BbInoJrHqJr ceKperapcKHe o6xeaunocrz, Ho 6onrue scero

sarruMaJrcfl nepenncrori

ero crrrxoB Ha6e.no. flovepx

Cy-

MapoKoBa 6un se axrr xaxoii pas6opuunuft, oco6euuo xorAa rrhcaJr oH, oxBatreHuuft nopuBoM BAoxHoBeHr.{s. OrpoltHbIe KJIflKCbI, IIOXOX(I{e Ha [yfoBliqbr MyHAHpa, qepHHJtbHbIe 6pusru a uenoo6pa3r.rMbre rroMapKr'r o6nnruo ycHaqa/Iir py-

KonHcb. OAHaro AnexcaH4p Onucunrosuq He xa,/IeJI FIH BpeMeHn, HH rpyAoB l{ ycflerxuo pas6upan Barr4eBaryro pyKy Cyuapoxosa. OAHaxAu B ropeHKy, rAe Onncnublq Kopnefl na4 6yua-

raMtl, Bolren Cylrapoxon c xeuoft. OHHcnrraH.I rIoJIo]KTIJI rlepeA Hr,rM To,'IbKO r{TO KpaCLIBO nepenl{CaHHble IiM CyMapoKoBCKHE CTI{XH.

Hy, qro s te6e roBopI.L'I, HeMogKa,- o6parancn ou r x{ene Ir xdrlorrHyJr tto lreqy A6necur,tosa.- Onncuublq, KaK BcerAa, nocrreJr BoBpeMs. fl sa HI.rIvr npliMeqato: 6yaer u n OHucuuuqe csort rorx! ,[,a xar ]Ke IIoA,'Ie raKoro BLrrt4r4, KaK caM Cyuapoxon, He crauer cruxorBopl{eu n ou?!

Xa,ra

ll


oAHoro roJrbKo, rrro He Aocrafl oH erqe Bxyca B BoAKe. 6eg goAxr.t, rroAH-Ka, Hanlruu uro no.nyuure!

A seAr

ru, flerpoenu, BuAHo, AocraJr. Bunun sce n o6 - A caMoe AoHbIIITKo cryKHyncfl, H Hoc orroro y re6n crair Kpacuuii Aa ro.ncruft.

I{

sa accau6neqx MHe rrepe3 ro crbrAoHe ro qro raHrleBarb. Hy, 6yAer, HeMoqKa. Hoc y MeHs roJrcruft or poAH- a He or BoAorIKH. He sa reM ff npr{ueJl K KpecrHr.rKy, te.nefi, qro6u raqrbcfl c ro6oft. Aocrasaft-xa, 6par lo6esutrft, ceolr EI,IprIrH u qrr{. Bor n xeHyuKa rrocJryrxaer. OHa y meuq 6orluafl r,rcKycHurra roJrK B HameM peMecre pa36ymxa croqrb c ro6oft,

ouParb. -floposoneaurnri

or 3acreHquBocru

A6.necnMos Haqan 6H-

JIo orHe_KlrBarbcfl, Ho CyrvrapoxoB u cnyuarb He xoreJr. AlexcaHAp OH}IcanaosHrr r.r BIIpaBAy rrolucbrBaJr. Cyrvrapoxon, oxa-

3brBaercr, aro gaMerlrJr, ToJrbKo BI{Ay ge noAaBaJr. ,[,e.narr Heqero; BoJIHyflcb H SannHatcb, npoqel IoHoIla enertn o6 [3MeHe .nrc6unaori Motr Apaxafturae yrexr{> - <<Coxpunxcfl H carnpy <<noAtsqllft BAecb 3aKpur>. CyuapoKoBy crtrxu [oHpaBHJIHcb, AoJIxHo

6urt, notouy, qro flBHo [oxoAHJIlI

]Ia

ero coqnHeur{s, oH rix HafleqaraJr B cBoeM xypHaJre <Tpyaonto6usas lrreJra>. Ho ro.nrxo BbrrueJr )KypHaJr, rar .neft6KaMnaHcKas KaHqenflpnr ABr.rHyJracb c no6eAosocHbrM MapIrIeM B flpyccnro. C uerc yrueJr rr Onucuruuq.

Bor o6o Bcelt

3ToM

u

BcnoMlrHaJIH Bcrperr.rBrullecfl Ha-

a Cyuapoxon. Cepxaurqro norepqn B npa3AHuqnoft ronrle cBoero noKpoBHTeJrq. OH He ycrreJr ero pacc[pocr{?b o MHoroM. Boeunaq )KLr3Hb, noxoAbl oropBanl{ ero or JrHTeparypHbrx HHrepecoB. A y3Harb HoBoe o flr{reparype oH crpeMHJrcfl x(aAHo-H or Koro )Ke, KaK He or Cyuapoxona, BcerAa Ku[eBrrrero B KorJre Jrr.rreparypHux crpacreft? Ha apyroft AeHr A6recnlaos y3nadrr, uro CynnapoKos aHexa;l B cro!'rr{qy, a Hayrpo oH caM Ao,rx(eu 6un nepuyrbcn B KaHyHe MacKapaAa A6nect,tMoe Kont4ucr oqeHb cox{a,'IeJl,

NOJIK.

rpa roAa

rflHyJr oH apuer?cxyrc nqMKy. B nonry oH 6ecnperocJroBHo l{cnoJlH}rreJltultrr,l cnyxaxoii, HenoAKynHo qecTHbIM, rIpOCTbrM H AyIXeBHbIM rrefloBeKoM. Moxer 6orrt, noeroMy, BbrxoAfl B orcraBxy s Kouqe 1766 roIa, 6bur oH eu6pau or cBoero [oJrKa AeJrefaroM B KoMLIccno no cocraBJf eHt,t]o raK Ha3brBaeMoro Hosoro V"ro-

Erqe

npocJrbrJr

x{CHHfl,

B gront Vnoxegur Poccllg ucnbrrblBaJra l2

Heord'rolKHyr,o He-


o6xoAIiMocrb. Koreco rocyAapcrBesHofi MarrrrrHbr, HenorMagaHHoe u pas6utoe, eJIe noBopaquBaJrocb c rlpeBeJrr,rKlllr, KaK TorAa foBopuJrlt, cKpbrrroM. XlrsHl B crpaHe reKJra no co6opnorrry Vnoxeuuro 6o.uee qeM croJrerHeii Aasuocrn. ,[I,ecflrKt4 u coTHr,r qapcKr.rx yKaSoB HaKonriJrr.rcb c Tex BpeMeH qI{HoBHr{KH caMn He MorJrr{ B Hr{x paso6parscq. KaHIIennpuu o6pocnu nayrunofi o6MaHoB, B3ffroK a oonoxursr. .[,ecflTrr,'IerarrMr JrexaJrl4 uepaso6pauHble AeJIa, xoAarau pa3oprJIllcb, yMr.{paJrr{, a AeJro He ABr.rf aJrocl. AoxoAuno Ao CMCIUHOIO: BHOBb HA3HAqCHHbIE CCHATOM BOEBOAbI HC 3HAJII,I, KaK exarb B yKasaHHbrfi r.ru ua BoeBoAcrBo ropoA, r.r HHKTo,

B TOM

I{ CeHaTOpbI, He MO|d'ILI CKaSaTb, fAe OIt He 6uno Aaxe cBeAeunft o qr{cr're ropo,qoB B

qI4CJIe

HaxoAl,rrcff. crpaHe.

A.nercau4p Ouucttl,rosnq 6un cqacrdrlllB, r{To eMy BbI[aJIa B raxoli-ro crerreHrr co3AaBarb rocyAapcrBesHufi garon. CrpouHurl, 6eeeecrHHli qeroseK, npHexaJr oH s Mocxny a 6un AorryqeH n fpanoenryn naJrary Kpenrn, rAe HaqaJrr,rcb gaceAauris no aupa6orxe V;loxeuus.

AoJrs

Cnepuyroft rpy6ouxori AepxaJr csofr Haxas a A6necnMoB. MHoro rpyla oH IIoJroxlIJl, qro6lt ero cotIIlHHTb. K cuacrrro, gouHcrnfi HaqaJrbHHK 6un y Hero renepb rIeJIoBeK ryMaHnblfr, a oHu BMecre or r{Menu ns6npareneti-rnap' A,efiqes cocraBJrrJrr.r npoeKT o nocna6neHnn rflx<Koft conAar' crorl c.nyx6u. Kpecruu, KaK cocr'IoBlle <<noAJIoe>>, 4o nu6opoB He AorycruJrrl, He I{MeJII{ oHLI 14 cBonx rlpeAcraBtlTeneft. 3ro c ropeqblo 3aMerltJr A6necnMos. Ho eule rsxenefi elty 6u.ito BHAerb epax4e6uoe orHoIIIeHHe AelyraroB'ABopflH K npoerrlpaBa rIoMeuII',lKOB Ty KO3JIOBCKOTO AerIyTaTa - orpaH[rII.ITb A6.necI.IMoBbIM npoeKT BoBce He Ha KpecrbflH. floAassult xe BaqHTbIBaJIcfl r He o6cyx4a.nct: oH KaK B BoAy raHy.l. Pa3or{apoBauHrtil, cluuaJl oH AJII.lHHeilUrue qreHnfl <<HaKaaa>>, Ha[HcaHHoro Exatepnuofi, flpas,(a, BeflJIo or Hero ceo6oAonrc6figHna AyxoM QpaHqyscxoro SulocoQa Monrecrue, c KoropblM qapuua flepeIIHcbIBaJIacb, KaK n c Bonurepou, Auapo n Pycco. Ho 'rro roJIKy 6u,ro or stofo <<Haxa3a>>, ecJrn cH Bbrpa)KaJI Jrlllxb ryMaHHbIe I'I,u,eaJlbI II He KacaJlct HHKaKux npeo6pasoraunft nnyrpu Poccult. Kar ra oxl,r.ua,q Anexcau4p OHLIcul,tosltq, gaceAaHnq KoMuccuu BcKope cour!'rr{ Ha ner, 6flaro npeA,'Iot flogBl{dttctt: eoftHa c Typ[neli, orbesA MHoflrx AenyTaroB B apMl.rrc. Komuccttg Bce xe flpocyurecrBoBana H B cneAyloqelt' l3


1768 roay. Aesma fi xapq, xorrr n cKyAHbre, etrAaeanficn. Ho A6necnMosa, tlplrBbrKrxero K TpyAy, rflrornJro 6esAente. florouy os 6un Heo6ulqafiHo o6pa4oeau, KofAa y3Han o rlepee3Ae a Mocxny Cyuapoxona. ,[,ena Anfl Hero y AnexcaHApa llerpoazua Hafig,yrcn. Cyuaporon nepeMeHraJrcg. Cnsrue c Aor'rxHocra AHpeKropa Poccnrlcxoro rearpa saMerno paccrpor{/ro ero r{ noc6aszro cnecb. OH o6prosr u nocrapeJr. Ho no BpeMeHaM TycKueloquft esop ero olxnBJrflJrcrr: oH ocraJlcfl TaKLTM xe nrc6ureneu KpenKoro cJroBrla. Cxasltearacb xe,'rrrb Muoro rlepexnBrxero qeJIoBeKa fi ltcrnHHo xrrericxafl MyApocrb. TpoexparHo pacuer'roBaBlrlrcb c Osllcllutrqel{, oH ox{r{BJreHHO SaroBopHJr:

Hy, qro g re6e roBopr.{/r, KpecrHrzK, TorAa Ha Ma[rKe- <<Topx<ecteo paAe Mr.rHepnu>>? flousurun? BeAt ponuo uepes qerbrpe Mecsqa Oennqa trarua HaqepraJra yKa3. fl nouHIo efo Hasy6ox, H6o rorAa Bpau{aJrcn B npaBnreJrbcrBer{Hux c$epax. floa 6apa6aHqvraau efo Ha nJrorrlaAflx: <<Xenauue H BoJIr HaIIra ecrb, qro6u Bce 14 KaxA,urfi r{s HaIII?IX BepHOrroAAaHHbrx eAltHcrBeHHo npr.urexaJrr.t csoeft AO,rIXHOCrr.r, yAarflrrcb oT Bcex [poAepsocTHbrx H HenpncrofiHbrx pagruraruesafi... Mu nocrynnM yxe no sceft crporocru SaKOHOB, H HeMr,rHyeMO npecrynHHKH noqyBcrByroT Bcro TrrXCCTb HAIIJCTO TFIEBA>,

Tlt sHaeul, Kro rro[aJrcfl noA aror yxas? Oeaop Xur-

poBo, rrro pa3fJrarxaJr MapbflxHyro raftny qapHrlbr H ee npeJIecrHLrKa fputuxlr Opnona, a cuJrbHo rroAlruB, npo6otrancn Aax(e o roM, qro fpuuxa Ao6r,rBaercfl pyKr.r uapnulr... Hy, qTo Tbr y)Ke He cMeerubcq r.r He nrrJrr.rub c paAocTbro Bo Bce

cropoubr 6yprana? flocrofi, nocrolt, Aa rbr, 6par, Hrarax

u

noceaen?

Myruuulr

cBor{MH rJra3aMr.r Cyruapor<on pasfJrfiAeJl

vl

rryrb Bbrcr)'nr4Brrrylo ceAaHy Ha BucKax ABaAr{arr.rceMr.rJrersero A6necEMoBa, H efo HeBeceJrocrb. Muoroe orKpbrJrocb Outrcl.lrunuy_sa Aectrb.ner. Pacxycr{Jr H oH lnqertlepie qapcruyrcqefi Muuepeu. Onsrl nocrynnJr oH r CynaapoKoBy nepe6enart ero Hepas6opvuoure 6yuaru. Euna y Hero H cBor rafivan qe.nr. Ecnvr paHbrrre ct{orpeJr A6necaMoe Ha co6crsenHsre crLrxil KaK Ha pagBfierleuHg, 6e3Ae,rIKL It co3HareJlbno noApaxa.n cyrraapoKoBy, To Tenepb oTHolrreH[e r( cBoeMy coqHHr.rre.rrbcrBy craJro y Hefo nsoe. He yAaJrocb coAericreosarl rlorBneHr.rto Ha cBer 6naropoAHoro rocyAapcrBeHHoro sal4


Kor{a,- HaAo 6br,'ro 6oporlca

On nu6pan cauuri

c

noporarvrn ApyrrrM nyreM.

eAxrari BHA no33r{r{

HX TOTAA HA3bIBAJII', CKA3KZ.

-

6acnu, unu, tiau

Coxeru noBcloAy HaxoAuJrr.rcb s nso6unufi. flo-npexuervry rJraBHbIM 3dlroN{ ocTaBaJlocb cBHpenoe KpenocTHlrqecTBo, nJlyroBcrBo cyAeficxlrx KproqKoB, Ka3HoKpaAcrBo rtllHoBHI4xos. MeHsnocb d'rr{qo ropoAoB u 6orarux ycaae6. PsAol,t c BeTXHMTT XpbIUaMH TepeMKOB BO3HOCnd{HCb BeJii.rKOJIerrHbIe

SpoHrouu sAauuii c

Ko.rrouHaMr.r.

Kncrbro gHaMeHltrbrx xyAolKHr{KoB,

3a,ru

paclucbrBaJlxcb

a B yca4l6ax no-[pe)K-

HeMy saceKanr.r Ao cMepTn KperrocrHbrx. Erarepuna Bo BceM MrrpBoJrr.rna ABoprHaM,

pac[yqeHHocrb

rex fleperxJrlr BcflKHe

a pas6oil

n

npeAe,'IbI. flopxa

KpeCTbgH, HX pa3OpeHI.Ie 14 IOJIOAHaR CMepTb CTaJIH flB"'Ie'

3narofi, BepHee, cepe6pxHurl reJleu, py6nl c uao6paxeuuelr Exarepr.rHbr, no6eAso 6nucran ua[ Poccnerl Qa.nnurlnoft ynu6roft Oe.nuqu raK HasbIBaJt Erarepuny BocxoArrqufi uecsq rros3rlu-.Ll,epxannu. 3a

FrlreM saypflAHbrM.

AeHbrH noKynaJrr.rcb r.r [poAaBaJrr{cb Mecra Ha rocyAapcTBeH' uofi c,'ryx6e, HenpaBeAulte cyAeficxue peIxeHI.Ig, qecrb xeH' uruHbr, sce. 9ro6nr Ao6uts AeHbrr{ nrc6uu nyreM, MHorltc MaJrorrruyrrlrae JrroAr.r nycKaJrr{cb Ha aBaHTIopu. B FopoAax npoIr,BeraJrr{ firopHbre AoMa, MoIueHHHrIecrBo. Tenept A6,re-

cr4MoB BclroMuHaJr xopoHalluoHHttIi MacKapaA c roplt<ofi ycueruxoft. Cynaporon oKasaJrcr npan! Macxll noo6.nnsRnu

6ucrpo, a r{g-noA HLIX flpord'IflHyJla HenpHKpaIIreHHafl xI,IoHb, orBparnreJrbHafl Kpenocrsas AeficrBLIreJIbHocrl. Osncllltrtq

xopouo 3HaJr ee, n y Hero qecaJlncb pyKu: Hanilcatl 6lt ca-

rrprr!

Ho nncalr HaAo He ral(, KaK npo$eccop oJIoKBeHIIHH Bacwnwfi I(upn.n.nonav TpeAnaxoecKuft. Ero sNrnesarllll c.ryor I]epefpyx(eH IIepKoBHo-c,llaBsHcKoH perlblo Il He I'IMO' BepHo rflxeJr. /vlnxaar Margeesnq Xepacxoo roxe 3rIIM rpeur.rr. TopxecreenHo rr gByquo [uca,{ Muxal't.no Bacu;rseellq .IlomoHocoB, Ho o Marepusx BbIcoKLIX: BeAb oH yueuuftl llucarr xoqercfl flpocro, Ho BbInyKJro, uto6n xax4uft rpa' lrorsuli [pocroJrroAuH nouffJl Ir 3arIoMHI{Jl. B ypunxax or c.nyx6u A6necnn'tos oAHy sa apyrofi coqr4Hger oAHHHaArrarl 6aceu, no or3blBy coBpeMeHHI'IKa, 60-

Ii ITAAKHX, qEM I,IHbIC CYMAPOKOBCTNE. BACHLl 2Tw aBTopy yAaJlocb ony6.nvlxorarb orAeJlbHoft xsuxeqrorl e 1769 ro4y. ACE AOXOAIIHBbIX

OAHa He HI,tx HasblBanact <<l-lpaeAa n Jloxr>>.

Jloxl

ual5


cTodrbKo cTaJra AoHHMaTb

rror[Jra B cy[.

.

flpaBAy, qTo ra He BbtAeplKaila u

V flpaeAu crpsnq[x nery,

Dpena caMa B npuKa3, Taula II Jlo]Kb K oTBeTy,

,Iloxo, spa coolo 6e,1y, Hefiaer K cyAy.

flpouu p.n_lln afl .Ilox{b <<rroA rroxpoBr.rreJrbcrBo Bcryn}rJra K caraHe>>. CaraHa ycnoKor{r Jloxr, o6eqas BbrHrpbrrx Aer'ra, a HanpaBHJl B CyA fl6e!.Huwa. f6el.ltnK, Ha [epBbrx nopax, KaI( Hu RpnJrcfl, KaK Hn K,leBeTaJr Ha npaBAy, HHKaK He Mof BbrropoAurb .Iloxt. Vxe gecb,l npaBocyArrs KJToHHJIlIcb B cropoHy flpaog,u, Ho ryr B pyKax fllensut<a:iro-ro oflecuyro: oro cBHJrHcr o x.ny6ox rpa qepreHr<h. H nponsorrrJto qyAo. CyAbH

Bepurn,rr.r Aero raK: y [IpaeAn Bce or[rrrb, IIpo4arr 14 sa 6ec,recrue B nnare)K gce JIxe orAarb.

K rofi onncu Kptoqxu npr{KagHbl I(ax nnnxy, tlp-anay o6iynn,nn E CrO

npucrytruJrn,

C HOr LO rOJIOBbr. Aoporyro

H npaBAy Ocra-sr.url-t-

narvro!-

Hy u 6n.'r xe

odpaAoBaH qepr! Co6pan orr B

AeHb BeceJryro III{pyruKy,

Ha roefi AJrs cero

ro,r

)Ke

yAaqHoBa KoHua

Ha crapocru u calr nonptrraJr rony6{a.

3ra

ea6asHafl 6aceHKa rawta B ce6e MHoro coJrr{ rr FepIIpoTHB cyrqecTBoBaBrrIHX IIpaBolopflAKOB, HaCKB03r, Jrx{r{Bbrx r{ npoAaxHbrx. .Iloxb BbrcrynaJra sAecb KaK BCeMO_ ryrrlufi cr{MBoJr. CflrvrsoiluseH z o6pas Harori flpa'a4u, xoropafl TaK r.r crofl./ra [epe,( rJrasaMr.t B BtrAe o6esAoneuHofi n pacrepffHHoft xeurqunu 6acun A6necuillosa <<MHeHr.re Ko3ra o csaAl6e craporo MCIqAHI{HA> HC MCHCC ffAOBHTO BbICIVICI,IBAJIA AHOC BCCbMA paclpocrpaHeHHOe 3Jro TOproBJrro AeBr.rqbefi r,oHocTbro H Irecrbro. EcnH e u.epnofi- 6acie ouy[rar'rocb BJTHffHHe CyrvrapoKoBa, ro e eroii [peABocxflrua.[ocb nofBJreHr.Ie BeJrnKoro, HcrnHHo HapoAHoro 6acsonucqa !4saua AHApeeeaqa Kpbr_

qa

JroBa.

l6


I{[!?

I(O3€a1,

HOqnera,

Vnr.r4e;r, KaK Ha ABop npoexaJ'la re,rera. 3a neir fioroM 6epnnHl, ueu cuAeJr xeHt,lx, crapnnnuri Merqaur.ru.

r 4 raru, HanocJreAr.r, flpuexana 4 C uenecrori I,I cra,ra y

or

KorficKa

BeHqa

Kpbr!'rbua.

bOIUJIa HeBeCTa B .4OM: CTa!'l nr{p L1 CTaAa nJItCKa.

Beuepenqarr oxpaHHa Mocxnu, 3aABopKr-r, HeyKd,rro)Kne B oxuax MeJIbKatoT ofoHbKH 3TO ABfiraroTcfl, caAqrcfl 3a cToJr rocTn. Ho ry,ua )Ke AeJrcfl Harrr [pr.rflreJrb, repori 6acua? Her, oH He rroBepHyJr licKarb isoli noBosKH...

x./IeB..,

I(osen ua nuo.'lrup,

{ax Hnuluri d H ryt xe c nbrHbIMIr ro!'rKaJrcn.

Ilo6pe;r lr uex lio.Aeri nporpanc,

Tau ro.ntxo

KoseJr a pa3r,IflAeJr Bce KaK cJreAyer. psAou AeBoqKoii-Heiecroft oH yBaAar,r craporo ceAo6oPoloro )KeHHXa. \ pewwn roraa Ko3en cbrrparb c npecrapeJIbIM cedllaAoltoM-6ofaTeeM rxyrKy. n,o orsara HaeBIUacb, Ha-

c l5-nersefi

I]I'IBIU[Icb' BAOBoJIb HaIId'IgcaButicb

tt noBeceJlItBIIIH rocreii

pa3HbIMH 3a6aBaMI4, Ko3e"ry peur.tJl HUXa.

<<rro3ApaBHTb>> )Ke-

Ilgauearus K r{euaxy, cKa3ari <<34oposo, 6par,

Xesscs>>. XeHux, He paccepaqcr, UTBeTCTBOBaJ'I, CMefl Cfl

<Kosen,

f

ru

:

6pe4uur ,roxr: 6paroru 6url ros,ry Hlil\{aJro He noxox>. TBepAurir Bce TO }l(:

^o3er'r <He cyu.lerarlcr B Tot\{, qro rbl c AByMB rroraMrr,

A

crail, xeHfiBulucb, trlo,roAoil,

Ho rH seat yx rerepb c ceAbro 6opoAoft, rar{ oyAeub, lroxer 6Hrs, Tbt cKopo B c poraMr.r)>,

Or cxpouHofo OHzcaMbrqa, nolKa,lryfi, m4xro H He ox(HAa,1 TaKoft npblTa 3TaKoro octpoynlHbro, roMopl4 crr4 qecKoro u rrecKoJrbKo <<BoJrbHofo>> (npae4a, B Mepy) [oBopora. He4aporv Cynrapoxon, KaK paccKasbrBaJl KHrrsl Baa6o"rr-

cKrrr.r, oAHa)I{AbI BOCKJIl.rKUy.n: <<flo4lt

ro

Oszcttir,rbrrl Aa)Ke c*agKr{ HaqaJr

I 5 e p,l IB

u

H

gKllnaxa. - Bn1xphtroro

x

Tbr, fioxaJryr?, Haril-

nlrcar;!> G;;',,

; ;;;,


rtro

cyMapoKoBa, B orJIUqI,te or ero <<IIpHTq>>, HosporHqecKHrl xapaKrep.) Cxasxa A6,recnMosa <<Xesarltt? xsactyH>, <Kaproqsuft o6tvlalt>> paso6naua.nu npaBIareJIbcrBeHHbIx .IHHoBHI{KoB, IIo<(cKaSKH>

orr.r H

oUpflBIIIHX a3apTllble I'lrpbl

H fpeBIII{X Ha }IIIX

pyKkr.

oflnrb-Tal(fi BbIci\{euBaJI [poll3lo"{ cyquHosHl.rxos. I4urepecuoft 6n.na cKa3Ka <Ocrputii Aeficxux <<C,aonecsuft cyA>>

orBeT qepKaca rocnoAl4Hy>>. 6oapnu yBul.al B oKoIxKo 6eAuo oAeroro, qpe3BblqaHl-lo xyAoro uepxacal. Or seqero AeJIarb oH BbI3blBaer JIaKes H BeJruT IlpuBecTH [rpoxo)Kero. Xononcxaq Dvt(a Ceepx sorr.i'6erus*a Cxsarfina 3a Banrarbl l{ nogena B [a.[arbl.

Bonpuu BBoJIIo reIIIHr ce6s <<6eceAofi> c sllultlu. On crporo cnpaullBaeT ero, KyAa ror IIIe,'I U qeft oH c"lyra. tlepxac orBeqaer: Cryra n nana

x,

Hay

6oral KyAa [rllnn Aopora.

He uan fl AeHbfoB, He uan calofoB, A nonex ullHu rPe6a Cryurarn xne6a!

flpoAonxeufle a KoHIIosxa

6acHI'I

xa,u,Hocra 60rarees:

-

flo cux cdtoBax norpe6uo 6 cAenaru

tHeBHoe o6.naqentte qecto:

Be,nert qero npfiHecrb

Eerugxre Ho

tyr

ecrs;

6eao scero qePKacY 6Pecrr.

B rom xe 1769 roAy HarIIrHaer A6flecnMoR corpyAHl4-q-arb npocnaBJIeHHOrO npocBerHTeJlg HUxOnas, tr4ea' x(ypHaJre B HOBLtqa Hosurona <<Tpyteul>>, 3aKpbITOfO npaBI.{TeJIbcrBoM B anoeJle cJleAvnulero roaa. vxe ' 3naxoucrBo c HoBI'rKoBblM cocroflJlocb rlepes CyMapoKo'

ueHHJI Cyrr,rapoxoea I'I B3flJI 9nl{rpa$oM AJIn cBoefo )KypHa,'Ia crporlKy I'I3 rofi caMol? cyMapoKoBcKoft 6ac'

ea. HoeHxoB

nu <Xyxu u rlqeJlti>>, c Koropofi ilpolt3olueJl

I tleprac-con.(ar-yKpauHeu, B

y

A6lecuuona

AaHHoM c,lryqae-orcrdsHofi

co,'IraT.

l9


Ka3yc. Crpouxa sByqafla raK: <<Osu

pa6oranr, a Bbr Hx rpyA tAare>. H xors 6acHn ery Cynaapbxos e cBoe BpeMr Ha;tpaBr.rJr roJrbKo flporuB Tpe4lraroncxoro (roropufi, Rxo6u, KaK npox{oplunuli xyK, noJrbsoBaJrcr rpyAaMr.t Apyrux, ro ecrr nven), crpoqKa, B3flTarr Hosnxoetri\d, gByrlara cMeJro H ooflaqaloue.

Ha o6noxxe 6u.ull aso6paxeubr KogJroHoraft Barx, ocJrnrrafl fo.noBa, 6porueHnan MacKa (aru6neuu caraptr) n

rocnoAr,rH, B3MaxHyBIrIuft :,:.ar, qbLtMIt-To roJIoBaMII rnorofi. JTa rraJrKa fi ecTb fpo3Hoe opy)KHe caTr.{pbr, He ulaAflulee

nlr 6para, nu cBara. A6necuMoe xHJr g 6eAHocrH eJre sapa6aruean ua - or xne6. EecnoKofiJra efo saBrrcuMocrb CyuipoxoBa, Koroy!rt u caM xn,T renepb rre B rrpnMep cKpoMHee flpex{Hero. IIpocyuqecrooBarb roJrbKo ;'rnrepar]pHbrM' rpyAoM 6uno se-iocyAapcrBeHHbre MblcJrrzMo. flogru nu6o ganana"'ru AoJrxrrocrn, rax .Ilonouocon, CyuapoKoB, Tpeduaroacxnfi, ;rr.16o cocroflJrr{ ua soeuHoft cnyx6e, rar flepxannu, .{,ut,trpneo, rn6o uaxoAu.nucb npa BeJrbMoxax, xai MoJroAoii'Kpirnoo. OAonncqu, npaBAa, upn noAHorueHHH oA rlapcxori cbuo"

"

BedlIbMOlKaM nOIy_rIaIH HHOXAa nOAapKI{, qan(e BCerO ApatO-

Ho A6,rrecuMoe nlcrirgbrx oA He nucan. Kro 6u cran flJrarr.rrb eMy sa carrpu? AnercaHAp Oiuczrraosm, uro6u KaK-ro npocyqecrBo, l,l cHoBa Barb, yxoAHT Ha BoeHHyro cnyx6y, a6o AeHexsbre Ae_ LyMapoKoBa c[JrbHo i,, ,K roMy BpeMeHH IIOUIaTHyJrr.rcb. ll ro,'rbKo o6ecneqns ce6e 6onee u-eu cxpouHoe, Ho rlocroqHHoe Mecro sx3eKyropa (rue,rxono qHHoBHr.rKa Xo. sqiicreeHHoro ynpaBJreHun) noA HaqaJrbcrBoM BoeHHoro ryoepHaropa ApxapoBa, oH HaBcefAa orrrllcr,rsercfl or ueHHbre KaMHr.r.

apMHH.

I4cno,uHsn Ao,rrx{Hocrb, A6necnMos orHroAb He npepbrBa-

er rBopqecrea. Ho renepb ero carupbr

He nerlararorcg.

CrpaHa oxBar{eHa lroryveri_oceb6oA,rrentnori 6opu6oft KpecTbsH IIoA BoAnreJrlcrBoM flyraueoa. I{arua Hapo4uoro rueBa [epeloJrHnJracb. Bo

rrue

uoqeri rloJrbrxaror noMerrlHqbn

yca4t6u rI ogaprrlor BuceJrul{br co Br{epaluHr.rMlr rocfloAaMfi_ MyrrHTeJtnMlr. Or6pocun [ocJreAr{r]e ocrarKr.t noKasHofo cBo_ ooAoJrroor.rfl, npaBrrreJrbcrBo ErarepnHu II cBHpeno pacnpaBJrfl eTcs

c

BoCCTaBIrrr.rMH.

Carupa pacrxarbrBaer rpoH, ona r{3roHsercs. tr4 A6,uecalroB gaAyMblBaercfl HaA TeM, KaKr.rM o6pasom Mo)Ker cJrV)r(r.rrb HapoAy efo TBopqecTBo. 2t)


Mexay reM ero JIHqHafl xH3Hb cKflaAblBaercfl Bce 6olee rfl)KeJro. XanoeaHHe oH noflyqaer rpoluoBoe. Bnpouelt' oALrlI oH eure KaK-HH6yal npoxopMllJlcfl 6H, tto y OHucllruuqa fiorrBJrflercg ceMbr: xeHa I.t pe6euox. Ha xou H KorAa oH )KeHuJIcff, KaK cJIolKKJIacb cyar6a ero xenbl I.I Aoqepu' cerluac, fiorlTIt qepe3 ABecrH JIer, TpyAHo BoccraHoBI'{Tb. OAHaro nonyflqpHblft s Haqare npounoro BeKa nl{careJlb Hnxonafi Flonesofi HanIrcaJI Aa)Ke IIeJIylo nbecy o roM' KaK )KeHHJIcfl A6necnuon. B te BpeMeHa elqe coxpanliJllicb KaKr.re-ro >KHBbIe qeprbl eroro co6urus. l4e nbecbl npaBAHBo I'l rporareJlbHo Bblcrynaer ertcortrft HpaBcrBeuHnfi o6.nltx OHltclnrnqa. flonenofi-paccKasblBaer, KaK H3 noeAHHKa ga o6naMexAy A6recnltoeblM I4 nanuu{en' AarIHe Aesnqreii pyNori rrbrM ceKperaperu CynrapoKoBa aHTeJreM

uau Ouncurtltq.

euxoAl'lt no6e- XyxoauM

ConpeueHullKn yltoMrlnalor raKxe n o roM, qro Bce cBon cKpoMHbIe cpeAcrBa A6recuMos ynorpe6la;I Ha Boc[IiraHI'Ie eA"Hctse""6ri aou"pr, Koropyrc ilpsMo-raKll o6oxa.n. CaMoMy eMy npaxoAl-IJlocb cHocI'ITb yHnxeHut, nunl 6u oAera r.r cbrra 6ufla ceMoq, o6pasoaaua Aoqb. .Iletolt, Bo BpeMr ornycKa, y$xan oH B_ryJlbcKoe HMe' nr.re CyrvrapoxoBa, KoropblM ynpaBJIsJI HeKITR reHepaJI-MaI{' cottllHnop Cyxorun. 3narHrte roc[oAa c uenxofi courrofi

TeJIeM He IIepeMoHnJII'Icb. A6recuillog Ao,'IxeH 6u.n riflrb

rcnolfipuroroBrqrb H n. OAus Hs roctefi Cyxoruua acno-

MeJIKHe xogqftcrseHuble flopyqeHl'Ifi,

pa3JrrzBarb nyHln I,t r, [tHHaJI BIIOCJIeACTBI'IH neCeHKy, cotIIIHeHHyIO KeM-TO I',I3 toc-

reli n,tu

npB)KLIBaJT:

6e,raa PY6aurxa, A6necnnog Caruxa,

Macrep nyuruerofr, He curtt curoti.

Ecnn xe <Macrep nyHruenoft> He npoRBJIflJI AoJIlKIIoro Ii Bce )Ke <<cbITH,lI CblTOft>, TO eCTb HeCKOJIbKO rle' pecnailruBaJr rlyHur, err,ry (e uyrKy, rouevno) rposllJlu I{akagariuert: <<To'Ae 6yaer nopxa!>> Ho Har, sueuueft 6eso6lrAuocrlrc u 6esponorHocrblo A6necuMosa cMeflJIHcb Jtuulb re, KTo He 3Han efo KaK cJIeAyer, a 6wnu u raKne, Koropble 6onnncn:- o6u,[,lt oH Mof It He cnycTHTb, ero <<BHpIIIH>> }I{IJIH AO OOJII'I. OauH rnapAeeq, paccKa3blBaJl?t rearpanbnoMy Kpl'trl'tKy r.{cKyccrBa

2t


rrporxJroro BeKa M.. Maxapooy, rar 6u.t paBAocaAoBaH Ha Hepacropoluocrl A6nec[rMoBa npu pa3.besAe, qro ryr >Ke npocrrJr SHaKoMyro AaMy [epeAaTb ero HeAoBoJrbcTBo BoeH. Houy ry6epnaropy Apxapoay. <<He cxaxy, rin sa rrro Ee cxa)Ky,- orBeqaJra c y.nu6xorc AaMa,_ He ro A6JecuMos TOTqac BMecTO KapeTbI noABe3eT BHOIIIV)>.

B

1777 roay ynrep Cyuapoxoe.'Hecxonlxo nosluee Ho-

BItKoB Bbrnycrr{Jr noJrHoe co6paune Bcex ero coquHermri. K ns. AaHHIo ,.6un npnnoxeH cyMapoKoecxafr noprper co cri.txo-

reopHofi noArrncblo Xepacroea:

Uso6paxaercfl nororrcrBy Cyvapoxoe,

Ilaprquri,

n,rarueuuuii u-nexsuii ceir rnope{, Korop_bti canr co6oti 4ocrur flepueccKux roKoB,

Euy Pacuu

rroAHec r.r

.Ila$ourei

ueueu.

Xors serzKae rrucared'rn @pauquu-ApaMarypr pacau Oacnonuce{ ,IlaQoureu, rupaxaacl no_xepacKoBcKt4, H <IIoAHecJrr{)> Cynraporoey <(BeHeII>>, Bce xe A6necfirvroe co3HaBaJr tlcruHHyro qegy rnopeuafi (<napflulero, rrJraMeHHoro H Hex(Horo>> neBrla. A.rrexcaiap OHncraruoetzq npeKpacHo rrogaMaJI' gro crl'Ixa ero ocraHyrcs AJI' noroMcrBa TIaMtITHI{KOM trpolxJroro, a He )KI]BbIM I.TCTOqHTIKOM XyAOXeCTBeHHOTO HacJIa)KAeHris qararener? tl rearpaJrbHbrx spxre,,refi. OAerue

n

B HHCIIAAAIOqIC CKJIAAKAMI4 TOrU APEBHI,IX PI,IMJIgH, NO Ci{CHC II TOpX(ecTBeHHO IIepeABaraJrr.rcb pyccKHe

MeAJrr.rre,rrbHo

KHssbfl H Boarrbr cyMapoKoBcxr.rx ApaM. flponeuocu.rra oun HarrbrirleuHbre

peqr. llonepnrr a ro, uro iepon XIV eera

roBopHJrH fl3brKoM JraTeparopoe XVIII u xoAr4lrLr B aHTHr{Hbrx OACqH].TSX, 3PHTCJIIT HHKAK HC MOIJII4. CO ECCfi OqCBUAHOCTT,IO

oco3Har A6"[ecu[ros ueo6xoAtzuocrb co3Aanr.rr ucrrlrlHo pyc-

cxofi, acrzHHo HapoAHori nlecrr. De3 rrpHr{pac rroBeAarb o xngHa tz 6otte, qyBcrBax r1 rroBceAHeBHbrx sa6orax npocroro HapoAa, npex{Ae Bcero Kpe. crbflHr.rHa orpomHoii BalKHocrH saAa,ra! Bunonsedue -BorTearp ee rrpu6,rusr4T K TbrcqqaM H Tbrcflr{aM pyccKt4x 3plrreJIeu, cAeJraer ero ltoHflTHb]M, 06uleAocrynHbrM ra ,rrc6atr,rutvl. 6yaer nponoBeAoBarb BbrcoKqe rryBcrBa I lo.ou MoxHo cI\{er,lHBOMy t4 ranaHTJrHBoMy pyccKoMy npocTo,troAr.rHy. Yl'laK, He Ber'tbMO)KLt, He qHHOBHLIKI, He MeI[aHe nr'ru fop_o_xaHe, a oAHI{ Jrr.rlub My)Kuxu 6yxyr tepoflMrz ero nlecu! IllecrHaAuarb rrepBbrx Jrer )r{HsHH ,i yOorori xoc"porcxori 4epeneHbKe orrra ocraBr.rJrlr HeasrnaAl{rl{Hfi c.[ea s na. usru. Vx KTo-KTo, a oH-To 3Haer, KaK coJIoH xpecrtaucxnfi 22


nor Ha noJlflx, KaK ropeK noAqac xJIe6. Ho oH 6yAeT [HCaTb KOr\{HqecKyro nbecy, BepHee, onepy, noroMy t{To raM 6yaer r\rHoro ga6asHnx [eceHoK u npu6ayrox. OH paccra>xer o BeceJlbtx, HeyHblBaloulllx, HLifAe He re' pflrouluxcs pyccKax MY)KHKax, KaKI'lx BHAed'l cpeAl'{ KocrpoMcKHX coJrAar-seM,'rrKoB B ttpyccKLIx noxoAax. flrorguxn' qyAOAeIl, MacTepa Ha Bce pyKH' OHI.I B IIOXOAe cKJIaAbIBa"IH 3aTefi,lrrzBbIe cKaSKH I]po To, KaK co,nAaT npoBe,'l Iaxie caN{oe BCeMOryUlyrc cMeprb, SacraBHd'I ee 3a,'Ie3Tb s rop6y ll IIOBe' or,'r ry rop6y Ha eltcoKlrli cyx. Tarofi caMoro qepra npoBeAeT, He TOJIbKO Ka[pH3HyIO KnqJII{By}O CTapyXy, He xe.{aloulyro BbrAaTF, Aoqb 3a rlpocToro N{y)KHKa. A eor l,t clo]Ker. Ou,runou u AHtota rtoJII]o6u,'II.i Apyr Apyra, Ho Marb AeByIIKI{, Oernsts - 3arpane3Hafl ABopflllKa,

*

xoqer BI{Aerb AoqKy roJIbKo ga [oMeu{urou. Orell

iNe

ee, AHxyAuH, x(e,'Iaer 3lrfl-KpecrblHl'lHa, Bce y.naxueaet

npoaynnori xHTpoyt\{Hblfi Iue.nlstlx (Da.nAeft, oH xe Kc,'IAyH' oH xe H cBar. C ruyrxantt, npu6ayrxavn, t4spflruo rlo)lilr' BuBrrrucb npr.rHolxel{IdflMH, o6tR[aJI oH AeJIbue - u Bce ocraJI

I,ICb,II,OBO,T

H

a II Or't

bI{bI.

Tax eogHl4x y A6,recnrrtoBa HecrolKHulfi gaultce.n rlbecbl' Ko,'IAyH, o6uaHn{ux H cBar)>. A6lecnlron orlepbl <<Menssnx necHrr

FI

-

ra >> 3H a KOIU bt M H C AeTCTB a KOCTp OM CI(H IU I'l peueHbKu, peqeHbrH>, <3eul RHHqKa-RfoAKa>'

r{d't <<llen nU n

MH

:

<<BsI,

<<Ka6u 3HaJIa, xa6u eeAara>, HacblrHJI efo cJIoBeqKaMIt KocrpoMcKoro roBopa. flonyuunocb npou3BeAeHue, I{oropoe TaK II npOcfiTCfi Ha HeXATpyllO' HO 3ByqHyIO H nO-CBOeMy MeJlO-

Ar{qHylo HapoAHyio My3blKy. Kax, e caMoM AeJIe, He 3anerb, qHTafl 3Ty rlbecy' KotAa MorriB FlanpaurBaercfl To ll Ae"ro? A6necnir'tos yKa3ar cKpH-

nauy CoronoBcKoMy MeJ'IoAHI{, Koropble ror I'I noJlox<}l,t FIa Horbr, nBHBIuHcb raI(HM o6paaolt nepBbIM H AaJIeKo He nocJeAHfi M KoM[o3HTopoM <<Merlsilra>>.

npocroHapoAHltrl. A6necaMos BblcMel'lnaer )Ke BpeMs cHMnari'I3Hpyer [poAyBHOMy KOTOPbI Ii XI,ITPO H AAYB AET IIP OCTA KOB :

fsu,'{ nrccbl

cyeBepl{e LI B TO M CJI

bH I'IKY, <<Crureuuo, npaBo, KaK

g B3AyMaIo: roBoprr, 6yAro Meilb' Huua 6es KOJIAyHa croflTb l-le Moxer, H Yx-Ae MeJIbHI'II( Bctl'

roti se [pocr:

ouu-Ae 3Halorcg

c

AoMoBbIMH I4 AoMoBble-To

Hr.rx Ha MeJIbHIiuax KaK l{epru Bopoqalor." Xa! xal xa! I(ai<ofi cyu6yp uennr! A R, Kaxetcfl, caM xopenHofi MeJIbHIIK poAr.urcq, Bblpoc H cocrapl'IJlcs Ha MeJIbHI',lUe' a HH oAHOfO AoMoBoro cpoAy B rJla3a He BHAeJI. A Ko.[H MoJIBI{Tb MarKy-

y


[paBAy, TO

KTO CMbIILteH U BCe KOJTAOBCTBO ryT.

ropa3A OSMaHbIBaTb, Tar(

BOT u

iltHoro scsxoro ecrb c6polyi Haronapuearcr BoAy, Peuterou Beprrr nrr-rpqHaM

I{ xaoyr

rar<au odrliasou.

Kax u as rDeuHbrfi!> ...Onepi foroBrrJracb K nocraHoBKe. A6necul,roB rrpuHlr[laJl CAMOE ACfl1'CJIbHOE YqACTI4E BO BCCX TIPHTOTOBJICHIISX _ CIIIE B ryJrbcKoM r.rMeHrrH cyrvraporoea 3aBeioBaJt oH TeaTpaJrblrori qacTbto.

20 nuzapa 177-9 rona BsBtrJrcfl 3aHaBec, AporHy,,ro cepArle uHHcr.rMbrqa, H oopa3br, poxAeHlrbte r.rM B TBopqecKl{x paAocTflx u M_yKax, oxI4JrIt, HaKOHeU, B lrrpe aKTepoB. Kouuqecxas

onepa <<Me.ntuar-KoJrAyH, o6uaHqnr H cBaT>> TaK noHpaBHJracb ny6nnxe,,qro craBuJracl e Mocxve 22 pasa [oAp;A, r [Ierep6ypre_ 27 pas. Eue 6u oHa He noHpaBr.rrracb nocJre

xod'roAltbrx, pnropllqecKrax

xa,rw

rpareAnfi, roroptre xoT, tr r4so6pa_

<<6esyMHbre cTpacTH>, HO OCTaB,'rff!'IH 3pr4Te,,rfl paBHo-

AyrxHbrM ceoeft ucxyccrBeHHocrbro... <<Me,'llultx>> oKagaJrcfl nepoor?, no-Hacrorltqeuy pyccroil, y,apo4nor? urecoft-onepofi o xltsHrl, BceM xoporuo as'n6crsori.

I4so6paxenaen rporirenluoft ;rrc6nn Oraniuosa u Aurcru

rlbeca noKa3brBaJrar qro H caMbrM rrpocrbrM JrloAqM ceoricr-

BeHHbr r,ry6orne It HexHbre qyBcrBa- Ha cqeHe noAMr4raBar,t Ir rlpH[JrflcbrBaJr cJraBHbni uenlslrr (raroft Hr,rrAe He nportaAer H Bcex supyvnr!), <Du,rauoH [eJr cBoro neceHKy npo ro, xaK xoAr.rJr rloA Beqepor ua flpecno as BcexcBflTcKofo cer,ra, AHrora npocroAyrrlHo MeqraJra, (Derusts ra AuxyAHH npeKoMHqHo npenupaJrrrcr. Bceri eroli yAueHrentnoii- xueoiru Ir HarypaJrbHocrn paHbrxe se 6uno Ha rearpe nepBaq pyccKafl KoMnqecxafl onepa flonoea <<AHrcra>, -xorr n florlBu_

Jracb Ha ceMb JIeT paHbrlle, Ho He o6nagana rdIaBHbrM[ AO_ croHHcrBaMr <<MennuaKa>> cauorl o6u,uegsoli lr - noesaefi canaofi uacroaulerl, 6ee npnxpac, KpecrbflHcroft xusHn. Buco-

Kar

IIpa_BAa rrcKyccrBa

qlr,rn

<<MenbHr.rKy)>

a xyAoxec"sensnli peaJrnsM o6ecne-

AoJrfyrc xH3Hb. B 4pamarlrqecKoM cJroBape sa \TST roA 6uno Hanr{caHo: -<Me.nrurr>> flBultcfl eAea rn ue nepaori pyccrori onepofi, alresmefi croJrbKo BocxnTr.rBurHxcs cnexrareios (spnre",ieir) H nJrecKaHHa (an.no4ncueHron) >. Ho lrlr ga6trna npo aBTopa... Canr A6reclMoe, KaK oH 24


nepe)xnBaJr ycnex cBoero Aerr.rqa? Csaqana os 6u.n pacreprH. Ou He ox{r4AaJr noAo6soro ycnexa. <<Aa ru Jlrir aro,

<<fl-c>>, Osucauuq?)> - orBeqaJl oF, - cflpaur.rBaJru ero. cKpoMHo noTyrrr.rBrrJr.Icb... Kasanocr, <<MenrgnK>> HItKoro He gaAeBaJI , n Ha aBTopa

HrrKTo He onoJrrrr{Tcq...

Moxer 6rttu, rar

Kaganocb g A6.necH-

MoBy, Koropuft ueural ttonpaBnrb cBoe xuTbe-Ourte npoIIeHraMr.r co c6opon BepoqrHocrll, y Hero 6u"na xa- noc eceft Kar-To AoroBopeHHocrb BJIaAeJIbIIaMH TearpoB. Meqru arlt BcKope pasBerJrlrcb Bnpax. <<Me.nlsux>> BApyr HaqaJI LIATH Bce per{e, a noroM coBceM corrreJr co crleHbt. flpulnopulte Kpyrfi, TaK Ha3brBaeMoe Bbrctuee o6urecrso, cocrosBllree norITH Ha[oJroBr.IHy Ir3 r.rHocrpaHrleB r.rJrH oHeMeql{Brrlnxca, o$paH[y3I{BIIIHXCfl pyCCKr4X IIOMer.ql{KOB, BCKOpe CTaJII,I HanaAarb Ha r4 ee aBropa. flrecy Ha3bIBaJrn myxuqrotl, cogAassofi B Hapy[reHue 3aKoHoB, 6yaro 6u HenpeuenHblx AJIn Hacrofl-

o[epy

rllero HcKyccrsa. KunsrIrJIHcb I.IHbIe H3 nzcarenefi Ii KpI'{crapofi [ceBAoKJIaccuqecxoft IuKoJIbl. Ouu npexpacHo cogHaBaJIIr, qro <<MenrsuK>> Moxer o3HaMe-

TLIKoB, npuBepxeHqen

HoBarb noflBJIeHI4e noAo6nux eMy rlbec, a cBexLITeJIbHaf, Ha'

poAHas crpys yHlrtIToxHT pHropHKy.

A6recuMoe, HalporlrB,

llx

co6crseHHylo Berxo3aBerHyto

6ul

aOco.nnrno y6exAeH B npa-

BHJrbnocru cBoero nyrn; [epBoHaqa.ulHufi ycnex <<Mellnltra> BooAylxeBr.rn efo Ha HoBbIe BeIrIn. B 1780 roAy oH HaIMcaJI

orreperKu <Cqacrle no xpe6nrc> d <Crpautunt4>>. flocneAHqs 6Hna flpuypoqeHa K orKpbITLIto s Mocxge Bonluroro IIer poacxoro rearp a. fI oro m [ocJIeAoB aJII{ KoMeAI'tff floAlsqecKafl rrr,rpylnra> H xoMllqecKafl orlepa <<floxoA c HerlpeMeHHbrx r<naprnp>. Onu o6naaana 6onaruofi o6nrlI,trenrnot't cxnorl. Onepa 6lt.na noctaBteHa u rloJlbsoBaJlacb yclexoM, Ho BcKope raKx(e 6rlna cnsra c penepryapa. llo scefi soporrrHocrl{, t-ts-sa csoeft car[puqecxoft Hanpas.neltHocrl'I gTtl <<

rrpox3BeAeHLrfl ocraillacb HeHaneqaraHI{bIMH. Ilorepn g"rn namefr JrnTeparypbl. 06 onepe oAIiH HB spnre.neti nucan: <<CoqrrHl,rreJlb noKa3a,'I... noapo6Ho Bce coJIAarcKHe Hyx(AbI, I{aK

rrcxvcnruntltcg no cefi

qacrI,I>>.

[] lz8l roay A6recuNtos no npr.IMepy HoBHKoBcxoro <TpyrHr> r He 6es [oMouu4 caMoro Haronaq l4saHoe]lqa HaqaJr r.r3AaBarb

cnyxaqnx K

xypHaJI <<PascKa[Iur sa6aeHltx

6aceu,

qreHHIo B cKyr{Hoe BpeMn; I'IJIH KOrAa KOMy AeJrarb Heqero>. lloAsarorosoK ero rracLIJI: <<Crnxamn u npogo!o. B Mocrne, a VnNnepcurercxoft runorpaQuu

y I{. Honu-

25


KoBa, l78 I >>. 3ra MaJleHbKoro pa3Mepa KHn)r{l-tua - BABoec MeHblre <TpyrHn>. OHa, roHevno, He MotJIa cpaBHHTbcfl lKypHaJroM Hosuxosa.

Cogepxauue ee s ocHoeHor,l 6es-

o6uyao. BltcMenealorcn uleroJrIr, Morbt, KoKorKI{, BerpofoHbl,

Ho Her-Her Aa H npoMeJrbKner B <<Pa3cKaurnHa cyA BHAHO, KpenKO HaCOJIHJI OH B CBOe

Kapre>KnnKr.t. Ke)> caTHpa

BpeMfl 6e4Hnry A6"recnn4osy. Bcrpeuaercn r.r flBHo aBro6r.{o-

rpaQuuecruft uarepua,r : <<Llnrareln uou! HaAo MHe paccKa3arb BaM Heqro fi npo caNroro ce6s. tr4enoJrbre nocJlyrrrarb, co usoli cryrtr.urocb Bor TITO:

BsauMoAaeerr HeKTo, KoeMy AoJIxeH q nocfirbHoe qprcJro xo4Ruefi MoHerbr, nocerri,'r MeHr e Moeft KBaprnpe u 6es AaJIbHIzx oKoJrl{qnocrerl rpe6onan or MeHff on.llarbl, c caMbrMn TeNIH BbIpa>KeHlIflMIit, KaX rOBOptlTCg, <(BblHb, Aa nO,'IO)Kb>>.

Ho sacrar MeHfl B TaKoM noroxeHnn, qro f rrHIIry AJIfl Bac paccr(a3br, a AeHer xonefixn Hery, H s c Mor4Mr.I AoMaIIIHHMI eABa-eABa nr{Talocb... Ho, o4naxo x, 3To He omoBopKa, a 3ANJIATVTb AO,'I}KCH: AA 3AIJIATHTb.TO HCIICM.

fl, He aHafl, gro il.rge AeJrarb, nprigyxAeH 6un ero ynpa. rrrrJBarb, oH He cord'ratrlaJrcfl... ff sssr npr6exuqe K rlocJreAHeMy cpeACTBy: KyrrH,l Ha noc!'reAHlre cBoH AeHbfr,r AJIfl Hero [HTLrff, yM I,I CepArIe yBeceJrflIorqero, cTa/r ero noTqeBaTb; oHoe HecKoJrbKo nonefrcreosaJio B Molo flonmy: esanlroAaeeq cefi no HecKoJrbKr4x BbirraTbrx HM DroMoK craJr noBece,ree... I4 uaqaJI o6xoAarr,cR co nnHofi 'no,racKoBee, a fl toBopr4,l, qro cKoJrbKo l{r.r Tpyx(ycb, Ho, no HecqacT?Ilo, Bce MoL TpyAbI, BCe npeAnpBrTl/tfl BcrpeqaroTcs oAHoro roJrbKo HeyAaqerc.

flycroi, nixpu.ran

oH orrffrb

c

cepAr{eM...

H rorqac' clazar

UHC BOT KAKI4C CTI.IXI{:

To sor re6e

sonooc.

Kro s 6e,(riocru 'sosboc. Tb xax oH Hu rpy4ilrci,

.[,a 6y4yuu qecrHofi B fiocrynKax Bo aecr csofi Rex

qe,roBeK,

He laox<er oH IluKaK o6orarnrrca.

A ror. v

fioero B onroce qecrb.

flycxaefcn B yraqy. I-y n.ro sceiAa Aosorrno

lo u pel[fi

ecrb_,

Tbl MHe Terlepb cBolo 3alarry.

floAo6nue paccKa3br, a raK>Ke [epeneqaraunue A6necsB nepepa6oTaHHoM BHAe ero CKa3Kr.t <<flpar4a r Jloxu>, <Ocrpurl orBer r{epKaca rocnoAnny> He rrpounfi uoBbrM 2&


A6"recfinroey AapoM, He npocrunn eMy n raKtrx crr.rurKoB, KaK <<PagmultIt.neuue>>:

llpan,uofi xHTb He scRKHfi qrurcrr

Xorr nepseiiurir? sceM To roJrri 3pau: 6-es,uenbnnr 6orarurca, ^TO

)I{e qecTerJ, ToT yoof,

LI raurlx, rax <<flpao4unrrrl

V

cyA>>:

6eAnoro 6oraq nacuarHo ornqJ't ,'raBKy.

To 6eAnlrfi c npocr,6oro ro!'rKHyr'rcr e u'arucrpar... .IIer c uqrr, Tacr(a,'rcfl raM fi xuguu 6un rre pa4. flpuurrro yx, HaKonerr! jigrrrb ror'rbKo Jre3rb B yAaBKy,

Kro-ro Lt3 craJrbHbrx caHoBI,ITo pbrKHyJt Ha a6,'rec[MoBcxuri xypuaJrbqr{K. I4 nouecrna Osuclrnrtru raKoe r43BeilICHIIC:

<<floqreusrte Corpax4ane!

Co

ucreqeHr.reM roAHrrHoro

BpeMeHr,r npepbrBaercrr x(ypHaJr paccKasoB 3a6aBHbrx 6aces!

floc.leAHqq HeAeJrfl, nocneAuuri ll celi .irzcroqer. He saquIrlafl ce6s, norpe6uo ilpI,IMoJrBLITb, qro B BbIAaH-

Hbrx IIo qHcJry HeAeJrb B roAy JIEcrKax, cofpy6r.{Jl lrHoro, Ho corpy6u.n roJrbKo oAHHM Br.rAHMbrM rropoKaM; a 6flaroHpaB[e noJIafaJI [epBbIM npeAMeroM, rITo6bI ero npoctaBnTb. Cxo;rr 6n,'ro clrnu ncefi, K rrucaHbro

l'I

npr.{Jrexa,'1,

c,noso AaEHoe cBoe Bo BceM c,qep)Kan, Xypnana onoro no gBaublo:

Enaropasyuuro crapancb yroAulb,

Hesexecrso xe cuM npxBeJ

x

HeroAosauuro!

Bce paluo Haqa,tlt o ceM cyAt.rrb: floporn florrqJrtrcb cnoefi ryuroro: Pascraulr.m rAe 6 nona.n, cJroMHTb erlry B rarou cJI] rae qro x naqarr?

ryr

uerc,

florpe6uo 3aMo,rqarb,

OHoe yvit HeHo il ecrb Bcero oKoHrIaHI4e>. I'Irax, cKoJrbxo OuucHnruq HH TpyAl.rJrcs, Bce efo rpyAr,t, <<BCe rlpeAnpljflTKF, BcTpeqaror oAHoro ToJrbKo HeyAaqerc>. HeyAauerc MarepHaJrbHoii, noroMy rrro A6necIlMoB TBepJ.o BepHJr B rBopqecKr.rri ycnex <<Me,rbHHKa>> u cnoKoilHo, yBepeHHo roBopHJl, rrTo ero nbeca He yMpeT. Kax Hn KpenHJIcfl rlrcaTe,rrb, a a oH HaqaJI cAaBarb. Tairr{bre H sBHbre ue4o6poxeJraTeJrr{ He AaBa,na eMy noKofl. <<3ror

A6,recnMos HaAoefl cBoI{MH My>xaKaMI.i>>, - [oroBapHBaJr Koe-Kro. A rpanaeuoe ceMfl cyAericKHx KplorrKoTBopoB, 3a-

27


KiieitMeHHbrx B <<lloAbrqecKoii ttHpyrrrKe>, Qopuennuu o6pa:lotlt Her4cToBcrBoBaJro I{ noKJrs.locs sary6ars 6essaulururoro

.(paMarypra.

Coecel{ [ocrapeJr copoxa.neruufi Ouncnuuq. K eroruy BpeMeHu, npn6nusnreJrbHo K 1782 ro4y, orHocr.rrcfl eAaHcrBeHHo sHaxol{Hri HaM ero [oprper: MoJroAoe JIHuo, neqaJrbHbre r.rra3a, coBepIUeHHO CeAbIe BoJrocbr. B HestrnasHoli Hrulere xan Ouucl.lmorq l7B2 ro- l7B3 Abl, cBLIAerenbcrBoBaJILt coBper\{eHHrlxlr. fIncareJrio, rra Koroporo 6pocanu Kocble B3r,'lflAbt BeJrF,rrroxH, Bpsn nu KTo

pelxn,'rcfl [o-HacTorrqeMy noMoqb. Or HHurern, or

He-

rlpecraHHbrx oropueuaft 14 pa3oqaposauuit 6ecqacrHur.i OsucuMbrq cKoHr{aJlcg B Haqa,rre 1783 roaa. 6sr,no elrv sccro

40 .'rer. ...Ho qro sro? Tycxlaa 6apa6anuan apo6l H rulcK Qnei.ir l{aA ryillail-

urtlr llerep6ypiou. 9ro lliser I ycrpatoaer 6ecxoueqrrtre I13HypHreJrbHbre MapruupoBKH pyccKr.rx eoftcx no o6pasuy npyccKr.rx. uoJrAarbr _ B qy,tKax, oQauepbr _ B Tat(r.tx x(e HarIyAp_eHHbIx napuKax n Kocax, KaKHe Hocnd'nr

pas6arue uun

reap{eliqu Opuap"*a II. Vuu,ras My3brKa, ylrr,rnr,rrl MopoCf II{I]II AO)KAb, CCPbIC, BbITflHYTbIC IIO PAHXHPY TPOMAAbI

KaxeTcfl, BCe 3aMepJro H npeBparueHo B orpoMHyto yHbIJIyro Ka3apMy. Ho Her, ua nerep6yprcxoii cuene B3BnBaeTcff 3aHaBec, rroflBJIffeTCfl pyCCKafl [oJrrIrIKa, MeJTbHHI{a. orpaAHbre cepAuy npocropbr AaJrbHr.tx JrecoB, fi 6araryp-Bece,'r bq aK, HeyMHp alou{l.tri iuenrHr-r x I por,r3HocllT npocTbl e c,'roB a pyccKoro KpecrbflHrrHa. I4 epare.ntr, oxBaqeHHbre crpacrHbrM nopbrBoM nto6sn x uopyrauuor? uapqMr.r orrl.rsne, Kp[qar <<6pano>> Ben[KoJrerrHbIM orer{ecrBeHHbtM ta.nasrann, 6ecAOMOB,

n BerruoMy xapaKrepy poAHoro Hapora, rBopqaM srofi ntecu H My3brKn. _ I-IpralopHas KJruKa pacnpaer.rnacb c rroJrycyMacueArxuilr

clrepruor? cMerre

flaanou I. Ha rpou Bcrv[aer

<<n,rerunebrft

urirb;ru n ,,rHrIe-

rrep A.nexcaHAp I. Apacroxparufl r{ 3Harb a3bflcHflrorclt rroQpaHuyscxu. A noer Mepsnrxoa cBr{AereirbcrByer: <<Me.nr,HHK>>-9ro pyccKas [rapoAHae nbeca, <<Koropar npeAcraB;'rf€TCfl BesAe: o 9puuraxe, e ny6nnvHbrx r.t qacrHbtx rearpax._ KoTopyro Bce IIor{TH 3HarOT Har.r3ycTb>. I-{apn cueunrcr qapeii. flaAarcr z Bo3ntrKaror Mr.rurrcrep-

crBa r{ MHHHcrpbr. MeHgercq nHK crpaHbr. Ho HeusMeuerr ycnex <<MenbHlrKa>>. 14 n xecroxafi sex Hnxonas flalrnua ueucrosurfi Buccapnou EennHcxr.ui 3arBJrfler: <<A6recnMoe tJl


Hanrrcal fipeKpac]lbrfi HapoAnbtti BoAeBnJrb <<MenluHx>>, npolrgBeAeHr{e cronl nrc6nMoe HaIrIItMu AeAaMH, elqe u rerlepb He floTeprrBruee cBoero AocTorrrrcTBa>>. flanuo KaHyJrH B BeqHocrb rlapr.r B sarueft HHHe

csernofi u uoryueii orqr.r3ne. Ho ao cnx nop pa4r.ro BpeMrr or Bpeil{eHr.r nepeAaer Hecraperoqyrc oflepy A6.necuMoea <<Menrsnx Ko,'IAyH, o6uanulax H cBar)>. Mu or AyIrrH Bece/'rr.rMcfl, cJryIxafl ery rpaquo3Hyro, ocrpoyMHyr,o, ro H 4elo 6puexyuyro Heucrpe6rlrbr[.r onruMHsMoM Beulb. I4 uuclenHo 6naro4apllna Onnclrlrrrqa, xoropuri cyMe,r rtpoHecrr-r xnBoe o6asufie csoelo <<Me.nruuKa)> qepe3 TyruauHyro ur.ny cro.nerufi.


EPATbfl qEPHEUOBbI Eepeea Bottau nopasu,tu uac... Bce npeKpacHo... He notlce,u uacaadurocn opeHueil Kpacot oreuecreeuuod npupoobt.

f,

Vepneqoa

l8l9 roay KaHller'Iflpafl Casxr-flerep6yprcKofi axaAelililz xyAoxecrB noryqr.rra nficbMo. B senr coAep)KaJrocb rrpoueHr.re JryxoBcKoro MeulaHr.rHa lpnropua, cbrHa rpfifopbeBa


or

QepHeuona, uecrHaAIIarH Jrer I{a3eHHbIM ytleHI.IKOM aKaAeMUfi

poAy,

o

3arrncfleHrrr.r ero

.

AxaAemnqecKoe HaqaJlbcrBo paccMer,'Iocb: He xBaraJlo aKaAeMLIfi yr{urucb MeIIIaHe Ir3 BaIilTarHbIx

eqe, uto6u B

ropoAoB Poccaficxofi zunepzu! 3Aax uoxHo cKargTbcfl Ao 3aquc,'reirun n poccllricxfle xyAox(HnKr.r ,rnq <[oA,Toro coc,rroBrrr>, KpecrbflHcK[ix 4ereri. tr{, He ot{eHr, Toponscb, aKaAenrufl rIocJIa,'Ia orKa3, rlpficoBoKynl4B, qro gaxaHcl{ti He HNteercfl I.I BOSpaCT npOCrrTeJIf HeAOCTaTOrleH.

H orKasa, Mbl Kpoue srHX AByx AoKyMeHToB - nporueuufl He pacrroJraraeM AaHHbrMrr o AercrBe r.r orpoqecrne fprropun

tlepneqona. 3aro Hs rrpoueHr.rfl Mbr 3HaeM, qro y Hero 6un crapruuft 6par EnrpaQ, roropuri noMofaJr orrly rrr4carb HKoHbI v y.uilil fpuropur pucoBarb, a rax)Ke o6yra,r ero pa3HbIM HayKaM <<3a [re[MeHHeM B rOpOAe HIiKaKOTO yqII,IHrIla>>.

3Aecr HcropnqecKrie HcroqHriKh HecKoJrbKo pacxoAsrcs. roBoprr, qro n JIyx npnexaJr HgsecrHHft TorAa pyccxNft JrHTeparop, KoJrneKqr{oHep H flyrerIrecrBeHH]rK n. n. Cnnntuu, tlpororfin ,r)Kerla B oAHouMeuuort 6acue Kpu,roaa fi BbrcMeruHufi ga xBacroBcrBo flvrurssuM B snr{rpaune <<Co6paHae HaceKoMbrx>>. CrnoHsufi K npeyBeJrnqeOAUH as Hrrx

HrrflM rr Aax{e BbrAyMKaM, oH, oAHaKo, cAeJraJr MHoro Ao6pux ,neJr: ocuoBa,'l xypHaJI <OreqecrseHHble 3altEcKH>>, HanncaJr

pflA KHHr o cBolrx nyreruecrBusx no Poccr.rn uo>xanyft, naa6onsuas eto 3acJryra TAJIAHTOB.

-

r.r

AlrepnKe,

Ho,

BbrABHxeHr4e MoJroAbrx

Cus ranuqcKono ABopsHlrua, r.rMeB[rrari yca4l6y Eoropoacxoe 6,r[s faornua, CsHurNH no6usan n .Ilyxe y cBoero l{epHeuoBa r{ no3uacrapr{Hl{oro gHaKoMofo - I.IKoHoruIcua KoMHJrcfl c pr{cyHKaMr{ ero cbrHa fparopur. Eyayun qeJroBeKoM or{enb epyAupoBaHuuu, CnuuraH noJrbgoBaJrcff aBTopfireroM B TofAarrIHHX xyAoxecrBenHbrx yqpexAeHr{gx. floaroMy efo peKoMeuAau[s r{MeJra Bec Anq Ara4eur.ru xyAoxecrB, n fparopufi t{epueuon 6un npuuar B qr.rcJro yqeHHKoB. fipyrre HcrorruriKa cBrrAereJrbcrByror, qro, HecMorpfl Ha orKa3 aKaAeuuu, fpzropari ua cnoli crpax H pHcK, Ha cKyAHure c6epexeHufl orua n 6para yexa"'r n ltrerep6ypr. Tau ou rlonar'rcfl Ha rJla3a npeglrAeHTy aKaAeMHrI OneHnuy, cyMeJ'r

noKasarb eMy cBoH orrbrrbr

u Ao1uncn

B KoHue KoHrloB npaBa

[ocerqarb JreKrIHH. Sror 4oxyiueHT HaM Kaxercfl 6o.nee noxolKHM na HcruHy: oH foBopHT o6 orpouHoft Ile,reycrpeM,'rerrHOCTr.r xyAOxHHKa, KoTopat conyTcTBoBa,'ra eMy Bcro )Krr3Hb. Ho xax 6u rau uz 6lrno, B KoHrIe 1819 roaa lpnropuri


9epueuoa oKa3aJlcr Bocnr.rrallHuKoM aKaAennrr.r. A roAa qepe3

rpl{ K HeMy npuexaJr u Hnrauop, xoropuft, r.t oro y}K rorrHo, oblJr npuHflr B aKaAeMr.{rc 6naroAapa xoAaraftcrsaM CsuHtuBa.

Cypoeoe

sro 6suro

BpeMn Arrs r.rcKyccrnal llporpeccypa

aKaAeMr.rn cocroflJra rroqrn crrJrorub H3 trHocrpaHrlee. B 6onrIIILIHCTBe CBOen xyAoxHaKr.r 6ecranaHsue, opAHHapHbte, 3Tr{ BbIXoAIIbT a3 qyx[x KpaeB TqerHo Ao6HBarncb npn3lraHr{rl y ce6a Ha poAr.rue. 3aro noA KpbrJrbrr.uKor{ uapcxofi ce}rbr.r,

qJIeHbr roropofi cr{nbuo oqy)KegeMnJu.rcb, oHlr qyBcrBoBarr.r ce6r upenocxoAHo. B gactl,ryre l{HocrpaHueB KpbrJlacb oAHa H3 npxrruH orcraBaIILIff Iiauero Hso6pasnreJrbHoro llcKyccrBa or JrHTeparypbr. Ilogaus rr npo3a ycunuauu Kapar,,reriHa, Xyxoscxo.o,"baTIonrKoBa u lror'roAoro flyurxuua yxe c6pacueana c ce6s BeTXHe Torl.t Jro)KHofo Kflaccl{rlH3Ma, y)Ke BOCneBaJra npe-

KpacHylo poAHyro rptrpoAy, HerroAAeJrbHbre qyBcrBa r4 rrepe-

nnAeii. A xusonucb r.t cKyJrbnrypa [o-npexHeMy, aro 6uao s ApaMarypfuu XVIII BeKa, cJraBHJra 6oros fpeulrn n Paua, Koropbre cqr{TaJrr.rcb uenpensoligeFrrrblMH

)KHBaHfiq

KaK

o6pasuauu Kpacorbr.

flocne ycneurHoro oKoHqaHr{fl aKaAeNrlul xyAoxHHKi.r o6uquo orrrpaBJrrJlr{cb Ha [recrb Jrer B l4rannrc. llpoxun raM croJrb 3HaqilTerbHutri cpox r{ yBJreKrrrncl aeftcrst,trenlHo BbIcoKHMn o6pasqauu HcKyccrBa anrnqHocrtr u Bospox4eHHf,, HaCJIaArIBr.IItCb KpacoTaMn npHpoAbt, oHrr Bo3BpauIaJIr.tcb Ha poAnuy <<pyccKuMr{ r.rraJrbflHuaMn>. ,[,axe MorHBbr poAuoir IIp prpoAbr rrr{c a Jr fi oH l.r oTHbr He rro-r{TaJrbfl Hcxrr.

Heo6rrqarino x<ecrKne rpe6oaauun, Koropbte npeAbflBJrnaK3A€MI{fl K BOCTILITaHHUKaM,- pa6CxOe cJIeAoBaHIre aHrHqHbrM o6pasuau, 6ecxoseqHan Myrurpa B rxryAnpoBaHun aKaAeMHqecKHX pUCyHKOB CO CflenKOB, BCe 9TO, KOHeqHO, a'IO

cKoBbrBaJro x(r4Byro rBopqecKyro

tlepneqosux. ayuy 6parlea

l-lo oHrr caMoorBepxeHHo clrocfiJ[r Bce: r{ cypoByro yue6ayro AlrcuurrJrrrHy, r{ [oJryroJroAHoe cyqecrBoBauue. A r{To xuir}r oI{II B[poroJroAb 3roM corufteBaTbcs He npHXoAr{Tcff: ecTb - BFplropr.rri cBnAerer'rbcrBo, rrro ntlTaJrcff qepcrBbrlru KycoqKanau 6e,roro xre6a, Koropbte npilMeHflnl{cb rorAa A,'rq crupaHIIfl pr{cyHKos.

Aa

oH JrH oAtrn...

Be4t Hr.rrarofi

crnnesAuu

AKAACMI{f HX CMY, HI,I APYTI,Illt BOJIbHOCfiYIIIATCJIflM HC

TI,'IA-

TUna.

_

O6yvanrynficn qepe3 copoK Jrer B aKaAeMr.ru lrlnsn

EQr.rtronnu Penus exre 3acraJr HeKoropbrx u3 aKaaeMrrqecKrrx :r.2


npo$eccopoB qeprJer{oBcKoro Bpeil,ter.r u, ilprrrp eBrr irxcfl n a cr}r rr,rx x.re6ax ri He xeJraBu]lrx yfrrn e orcraexy. <n,o6pee Bcex, BcnoMrrlafl Penulr, Hetreq He$,S - 6h",ryBepeirriocrbio, Kax eeneneRuHtrir -ra,'Ianr, orr 6un o6ontrues qro ero 6ororeopnr. B sevepHet\t K,rracce oH rroffB,{R.'rcrr oco6eirso ropxeirneuHo r{ peAxo. Bucoxo rrecfl roJroBy, co 3Be3AoH Ha fpyAlt, Bbrxor.reHllblli, oH oe,tuuecrBeliHo nDoxo,{.HJl no repxuert ilJrorrlaAKe uaA auQurearpoM prrcyroulir..i. pososHe Iu,eKLI crapHrIKa ropei'rIt or Bocxurqegus co6or:r, onvuleHHbre r,rraga Haqero He BrrAe,ur. Olr KuBa.{ no-uapcKH udnpaeo u HaJreBo, eoo6pa>Nan, qro no cropoHaM urnanepanrr cronr yTIeHHKH B HeMor\r yAr.rB.neHnH or 3Halrelrltroro I{e$$a. A re B 3ro BpeMs, rprr3Hbre, noTlrble, cMaxHBaJII.t yronb c pr.rcyHr{oe urefintrtr.rn ruap$aun, yBJ'reKaflcb pa6ororl, ri coBcet{ ero He SaMeqaJIH>>.

flpo axaAemriqecKoro npoQeccopa Bu,r,reeanrAe paccKaGblRaJ BocnlrraHHtrx C,qacrsoH. Bun"resa"'rbAe rroAxoAl{.r.r K pucyloll{eMy yqeHrrKy, rrpoBoAHJt naJrbrleNt rro KoHrypy r{ rBepAHJr:

Oqesr .xopourol Oqenl xopouro! -Koraa yqeFrHX Bo3palKad'r, nfo$eccop yliprrr\ro rroBropn.n oArro;

uer, o uer! OqeHl xoporuo, oqer.rb xopouo. - O galreqan yqeHul(, Mue Kaxercn, ryr HaAo --Bor * 14 noAaean rorrpaBurb, Aa rr He peuarocb. npo$eccopy yro.rrb.

- Ax Her, He lporarlre, 9To y Bac oqeHb, oqeHb xoAa KaK x(e, rocnoAlrH npo$eccop! flpournuii pa3 Bbr - fOBOpHJil{: TO)Ke OqeFrb xopouo Aa oqeHb xopouo, a fl cTo Aesqrurri HoMep rroJryqrrJl, calrorft noc.teA+rrrrll Il uHe crbrArro nepeA roBaprrttlar{rr. -- Ax, qro Bbl, qro eri! .!l no,lrrrro, y nac 6uno oqeHb, poruo!

oqeHb xopouo, Ho y Apyrux eqe dlyque, Bor H Bce! Her, x0pouo, xopouo, trpoAo"qxalire, npoAonNaftre. B oreer ua npocn6y noKa3arb.qnn o6pasua uro-nu6yAu ceoe Bn,'rneBaJrbAe orroBapHBa;1cn râ&#x201A;Źt{, uro pa6oraer .rrr.rur, Ha focyAaprr-Hr\rfleparopa, caM ]Ke r,re sroxer no 6eAuocrH uMerb y ce6r lpor.r3BeAernrn npo0eccopa BnlneuaJrbAe. I-lpoQeccop LIIalrulnr, nplrii no6opuliN axaleMtr3r\{a, yq fl,1;

14ssonore nficat'b ltocvure, {loc!,ue, rax, uro6lt uary- flpoqecrb py-'ro r\{ox(rro 6ur,,to, qro6tr iliycKVJbr r{ MorrlaJrbrft{ 2

3aKa3

!4ii

Ag


flcHo 6brr'rrr FrapacoBaribr, qTo6br Bce HaJrHqo - HaqrzcroTyl BeA6conmso nporrrBono,'rox(Froe roBoprl,r npoSeccop t{I1If :

D,a qro raM Mlroro pa3foBapr4Barb, Harypa -Te,To nor- n coqHoe [,rrco, Aa, corrHoe nrsco. tlro? I{y, IIHIUr.rre efo raK, qro6u olro y Bac coqr.rrocb 6u... floHuuae-

sro-ecrb Te:

coqH,rIocb.

o,rrruyrc noAAepxKy oKa3 aJro tlepHeqonn M Bo3HnKIIIee 1820 roay O6qecrBo rroorupeHr.rfl xyAoxHriKoB, Koropoe ocraBlr,To no ce6e Ao6pyrc c,taBy, B qacrHocrl,t, Bbtr{ynoM y [olvrerrlr4KoB psAa TaJraHr,irr.rBbrx xr.rBo[acueB. IIo xoAaralicrny Caanlr.rHa or{o rrpHfJracr.rJro AJrrr 3aFrrrruii c lpuropaeu onbrrHoro rpaBepa O. C. fa,rarrnososa. KorAa crapuruft tlepHeuon rioJryqtl.fl or aKaAeMr.rrz 3a ycnexu B xyAo]KecrBax cepe6paHyn MeAaJrb, o6qecreo 3aquc,'rrir'ro efo B cBoII nauclroHepbl c elrnflarori e)KeMecrrqHo rrrrruAecrrrr.t py6,reii. Ecnu 6rt ue ora lroeroqb, xyAo)KHr.rK BprA JrH BbrAep)Kan 6tt znu sapa6oran 6sl vaxorxy, KaK lrHorr4e r.r3 HenMyu.(rrx BocrnrraH-

e

... E

HTiKOB.

Kcrarn roBopfi , HeKorop bre apxHBHbre M arep rar'rbr ytrol'vrr{Halor, uro lpHropuri nognaxoull,r o6ulecrBo c pHcyHKarufi 6para, sapyqrrlcs rroAAepxKoli l.r, xor4,a e 1823 ro.a,y Haxanop npu6u,r, o6ulecreo nopyqr{Jro na6.rroAart 3a }ruM r.r3BecrHorry BHAonHcrIy M. H. Bopo6reey. flpa BCeM 3rorr orleBrrAHa orpoMuafi po,lt CeuHtrzHa B ycrpoftcree cyAr6sr tlepueqonux: oH BcfiqecKu peKoueHAoBaJr 6parlen o6u{ecrBy, oH xe 3aKa3aJI Tor'rbKo rrpHexaBrxeNly HuxaHopy rtepeprlcoBKy cocraB,rrelrrroro HNr <<Co6p a uua or!'rrrqHbrx rip or43BeAeuuri pocurricxr.rx xyAoxnHr(os r.r rro6onsrrHbrx orer{ecrBeHHbrx ApeBr{ocreri>>.

or

I(ax

6paru Bpet{fl, ceo6oAnoe 06 groM paccKa3brBaror BbrrroJrHeHHbre aMH B

npoeoAr.ir'rv Hepa3Jryqlrbre

sanqrarl?

orrrycK aKBapeJrri l,i pucyHKH. Co ceoricrgesHorl nv Aparo]l,eHrroir Ans l{cc,'reAoB ared'r rr aKKyp arrrocrbro tl ep Heuoebr nolueq a -

Jnl fioqrn KaxAyro cBoro pa6ory l,aroil,

[cro,[r.reHr.rfl

rI

ira3BaHpreM cprrcoBar{Hori n,tecrnocttt: <<I-{apcroe câ&#x201A;Źr'ro)), <<flaprolono>>, <llerponcxnfi ocrpon>>. tlepueqonu BcefAa ocraBJrsdrrr{ qer{Hyro npfirrr.rcKy <<c Harypu>>. TarHu o6pa-

3OM, paCCMaTpHBafl AX [pOlr3BeAeI]Ufl, Mbr coBepmeFrHo KoH-

IiperHo npeAcraBJrfleM ce6e, KaK BbrrJrnAeJro ro rrJrrr unoe l,Iecro e[te Ao n:o6pereuua $ororpaSuu. 3uan ux cKpy. nyJre3Hyro roqr{ocrb, orpurlarer'rbrloe orHorrJeHrre Ko ecsxori [puynpaueHHocTr4, ne np]rxoAr.tTcfl cor\{r{eBaTbcrr B nonl.rer?,tc


mer? AocroBeprrocrr.r

14306palKeHLIrI,

Koropoe

flB,rrflercff,

Tar{HM o6pasolr, /(or(yMeHToM BpeMeHr.r.

kI"rax, BMecro roro qro6tr orAbrxarb lt pa3B,rreKarbcrr, 9epueqonu ece cno6oAnoe BpeMfl orAaBa,rut .rrro6uuolry acI{yccTBy, efo coBeprxe}rcTBoBaHr.to. Bnpoueu, pa3Be Bcrr ux AO IIPCACJ'IA HACbIII{CHHA'I TBOPqECKAfl XH3IIb, OCTABJICHHOC IlMr{ ofpoMr{oe HacJreAHe ue y6eN4aror B ToM, qro AJrfl Hrix orAbIX 6lr,r se orAbrx 6eg noucNoB HFrreDecHoft uarvott lr ee IrpaBAriBoro oro6p axeuun... Venexare,rtHo, c 6o,rluroli norbsorl A.nn ce6s [poBeJrH oHr{ Jrero 1826 ro4a, ornpocuBrxr.tcb B AoJrro}xAaHHyro [oe3AKy no poAHor? I(ocrponacxori ry6epHr.rra. Cy6cra4npoBaJro 3ry [oe3AKy, AOpOTOCTOqUyn IIO TO|AalxHHM BpeMer{aM, onsTbraxu o6ulecrBo, a orHroAb He aKaAeMHs. KaxAtril ns 6parten o6ngrrsa,'rcs Harrucarb nagAuaSr r{ craAo. fle4aurnuune 6partr rorqac xe Haqarn <<Xypua,rr>, roropuft BeJrH r.t n 4anlHeitruux crpaHcrer.rsx. K cqacrblo, oH qacraqno coxpaHHJrcs. I{uraev ero, Iz nepeA HaMr.r Bo3r.ruxa rcr o6p asbr xyAoxt Hr.rKoB-rrarpr{oroB, He roJ'rbr(o n"lrc6ne sHbrx B nprzpoAy, Ho r4 xpoBHo aa6ornulrrxcfl o coxpaHHocrr{ rraMrrrItHKoB KyJibTypbl:

<<)Kanl, qro MaJro Aopoxar rpyAar{lr Ha[rux npapoArrrcJrefi,- rniuer fpniopufi npo .a,pesunri Bar'r, nocrpoeHulrr? <<A,'rrr 3aurl{ueHIlfl cBoefo oreqecrBa>>. Dolor ero - florouNtt 6ee oco6eHuoii saAo6socru. Mlr nocrapaeMcn ece, rrro Aocror'irro oco6enuoro BHnx{aHHrr, HapticoBarb, xorq rreKoropoe 61'ler Ire cro,'rbKo )r(r'rBorIHcHo, cNo.rttt<o rocroIaMflTno, uo

g IIO,Tararo, qTo N{oxiHo coeAHHHTb

OAHO c ApyfHM, H Ar.rrI Hac Mox{er 6utn no,resHo xar{ To, TaK H Apyfoe>>. B noc.leAHeli $pase cKa3brBaercR oco6eHuocrb BsrJtrAoB

xyAolKHr.rKoB Ha cBoFo 3aAaqy. Hcc;reA,osarenu norararor, uro QoplrapoBalrnl.o arux Bgr,'rffAoB Bo MHoroNr coAeficreoear

ux

<<6,raro4ereJrb>)

Csrrrlrzu, ynopnlrri co6upare.tt poccnft-

cKI.{x ApeBnocreli 14 rro Harype ceoeir cr(opee yveHr,rfi, uenr xyAo)KH14K. cUnrarct, qT0 Bbrrrod'rr{e}rr4e 3aAaqH coeAI{Hr.rTb

neirsaxuyro )KIrBoIIHcb c ucropuuecxoii 3acyuuJro Kltcrb tlepueqonnx, npeBpara,'ro ux B xyAolKrir4KoB-.d,oKyMeHTor'rr{cToB, a He B xHBOnHCil.eB B quCTOivr CMbtCJre 3TOrO C,'IOBa,

Hto xe,

Ao,'ifl npaBAbr B arolr, r,rox{er 6brrl, ecrb, xorff

Mbr yBHAr{M B HeKoropbtx H3 HX [poH3BeAeHHfi qclroe BbrpaxeHrre cso6oAHoro xyAox{ecrBeHHoro Ayxa. Ho, AaBaE or{errKy TOMy HI'IH I4HO\{y "ry[Uy, C!']eAyeT nOAXOAHTb L{CTOpHqeCKH a paccMaTpHBaTb, B KaKHx yc,roBr4flx npoxoAl4,'I pocT AapoBa35


iillt, !(aX OTilOClt"lIHCb i{ ila:iilartL.iililO }tir.tBOI]nC[t COBperIeil!ililiil. CettHlltH B oAltt)t\t rt.j .)li\:ptraron c bollraltu yAoBJterBoperrr{erl nncaJr o J(aprnlre I{rlraropa L{epHeuoea <@paHuyecxarr raJrepea n Sptrnrax{e>>: <<Bor rop}rrecrBo x{r{Bonl{cn u nep-c-rreKTtrBu !>> I(apriltra era 6r,l;r a npe,t,craBJler,ra MJraA[ru rl us tlepueiloBbrx Ha KoHKypc no oKoHrIaHHu aKaAeMr4r.r [r yAocToella 3o,loToli nreAa"lH BTOpOIO AOCTOuHCTBa. TaXyO Ne ot{eHKy no,'ryqrrra pa6ora fpuropnn L{epueuona <Boeuuan rar'repefl B 3lrnrsenr ABopue>.

XapaxtepHo, qro ConHluH, To.rbKo qro BbrcoKo orIeHHBnpousBeAerrHe HuxaHopa, ryr xe, oAr.raKo, Ao6aB.rrfler npo Herc: <<K colraneuHro, oH npilcTpacreH 60,rture x nefi3ax(alvt>>. i\{sr xe He orAaAHM npeAnoqTeHHR HH roMy 6pary, Apyrorr,y. I-{errHa A,'rfl pyccKoro rrcKyccrBa Aerred'rbHocrb In fprroplrn V.epHerlona, aBropa Hcrop[qecKux ruHoro$ufypHbrx nollnOgutlHii, (ettHa pa6ora a nefigaxucra Hnranopa t{epHeIloBa, a eu{e qeHr-ree ux yAuBHTeJrbHoe, He pacTopxltMoe

uHIi

Hr.rKaKr.IM r.l cuJIa MH

coApyxecTBo.

Oxosqns aKaAeMtrro, gepneqoeur e 1828 foAy noJ'ryqriJru 3Barrte xyAolxt{Hr(oe XIV Kr'racca. 3gaHr.re oro, KaK, BnpoqeM, u nn6oe Apyfoe, Koropoe nprrctsanBaru BbrrrycKur,rKaM, I{e AaBaro lrrrKaKux npae. Ho 6paruu Ha nepBblx nopax noBesJro:

lpnropun

3aqHCd'rH.rrH

na c"ryx6y s uKa6u;er

B€r'rlrr{QCrB3>, I-laxauopa Ha cpeAcrsa

o6uecrBa

ero

oTnpaBH.4n

B nByx,lreruee nyrerxecrBr.re ro Kasxasy. <<floqerHar>> c,ryx6a f puropur Llepueqoua, roropufr oTllblHe cTaHOBriJrcf npHABopHbriu xHBoIIllcueM, HaJIataJIa Ha

llero oco6yro orBercrBeHHocrb. Tenepr oH KaK 6u He nplrHa.4,'rex{ar ce6e, a Bceue,'ro froAqHHs.rrcfl rIp[xorsM Hni<o.nan I.-Bxycbr xe <<ero Be.[uqecrea>) 6br,'ru rpafrue orpaHr.{ueuu. L{apl crlnraJr, rrro xyAo}Ksurl AoJrx(Hlt aso6paxarr roJrbr(o BoeHFrbre napaAbr, cl{orpbl a yqer{nfl. OH rpy6o u OC3AAPHO BMCIilIIBa.TCfl B TBopI{ecTBo TIoAqHHeHHbIx eIlIy MacrepoB. floAo6no roMy, Kar{ oH pacrpaBnflilcfl c o$uuepaur.r

3a

HerrpaBHJrbHO, <<He

I]o

ycTaBV)> npaur.rTyro nyroBr4uy Ha

iuyHr.r{pe, ToqHo rar( }r(e oH rro3BoJrrrn ce6e yHHqroxarb KapTlrIIL,r, ecJIIl oHLt B qel.l-lt.r5o, no efo r\{HetIlt}o, orcryrIaJILI or odpasqa. Tax, uanpnrrep, oH co6creeHHopyr{Ho nepeqepKHyr -<<Bo-euHlq Ane rprrrypu Ha rra6pou<e fplrroprra t{eptre[oea rareper e 3HNrneNr ABopue>). I IarpeuraponaBuacr] !16K c"rl€;l)/€r Ha uso6paxeHI,ILI BCeBo3.rro;r(Hbrx Bocrrrrbrx <nepuner{Tns> (o6pasuoM B arol\t or36


Horueillrr cqr4Taercn ero Kaprr4Ha (napaA flepeA 3ltunuu .Lnopuorn>), fparopurl Hepneqoo yAocTor{Jrcfl sL,tcoqafruero 3aKa3a <<flapaA ua l{apuquHoM Jlyry 6 oxrn6pn - nucarb l83 I roaa [o cJryqao oKoHqanr.rfl BoeHubrx Aei,tcrsuia s Uap-

ctne flofllcxolr>>.

6ulu

<<BoeHHsre A,eilcrenr>> se qeM I.tHbrM, KaK cBupe[btM rIoAaBJreHr.reM FrapoAno-oceo6oALIreJrbHoro ABH)KeHI.{R IIo,'lfl '

KoB, crpeMr{Brur.rxcfl c6pocuru nro pyccKoro qapuaua. Huronarl I nuurno rpasAHoBar'r uo6eay. Ha l{apnquuorvr Jlyfy

cocrofld'rcn ropxectneuuuti tvlole6eu fi uepeMoHua.nulluit riapaA eoiicx. Bu.ra sscqeHupoBaHa Bcrpeqa rocyAapfl, ttKo6u ronrxo qro rrprrcKaKaBuero Ha 6oesoM KoHe u3 BoeHHoto rloxoAa, c xaperoil HMneparpr{qu. Jfto6osarbcfl croJlb AocroIIaNlflTHr,iNl 3peJII{UI0M npH|JIaIXanlICb BCe 3HaT]lble fierep-

6ypxuu.

flo

mmc,rn uapn, xyAolKHHK AoJIX(es 6u.n B nepBylo oqeHecoKpyIxI.{MyIo cuny s 6necraqyn 4ucr{rr rr J'r rrHy rla pcKr.r x noricK, rop )KecTBeH Ho AeMoHCTp l{pyrcu-(H x

pe4r uso6pa3r,rrb

cBoH BepHonoAAaHHlrqecKue qyBcTBa [peA <<cBeTJIbIMId>> Oqar{}r rocy.qapq. OAHaxo, BHerrrHe 6eso6uAHutri r noxopHuft,

qapcxufi xrlBolt]rceq

npecJreAoBaJI coBepIxeHHo Apyrylo ue,rr. En,ty na.no 6uno ne,'ra Ao eoftcxa, oAeroro B oAuI-IaKoBbre urlHeJilr rr 3acrblB[rero no paH)KHpy c TyflblMH o4Hoo6pas-

HblMIt

nltualut. Ou Bocno,'rb3oBa,'Icg

peAKHM cflyqaeM, ,Iro6r,t

EOCCO3AaTb [paBAHByrO )KnByrO faJleperc CBOI.{X CJIaBHbIX CO-

BpeNreHHHKos.

A

uafi6oJlee cJIaBFItIMU a3 HHx

olr

rtoquTaJt,

t(aK noKa3blBamT callble cHJrbHbIe qacTH ero rpaHAtro3Horo rroJrorHa, pyccKrrx xyAox(HI.rKoB H fiHcare.rreil. Os ,[ax(e HaIIHca.n or4enlHlrfi arrc,r. (craaurnii BnocJIeAcrg14LI unpoKo npynnonoe aeo6pa)KeHI.Ie A. C. flyurrnna, rony,'rqpnbru) - B. A. )l(yxoncKoro u H. l'1. fseauua. 9epI,l. A. Kpr,r.nooa, HeuoB pa3AeJInJI .ryn6oer [I yBax(eHue I( HHM llepeAoaoii

qactr

HapoAa.

lopnuo npuHrrJlcr t{epHerlon 3a AeJIo. Onsrt-rart{ scnourrHaeurb, qro B ero pacnoprxelluu He 6u.no ult Qororpatprrri, Hn rpaBlop, uu xaxux-.nH6o Apyrux noprperoB rllIl,

Koropbrx or{ 3aAancn noKa3arb. BepHufi cBoeMy, pa3 HaBcerAa ycTaHoBr'reHHolly r\{eToAy, ou pa6ora.n ToIbKo c HaTypbt. ,IIuurl oAlroro xyAolKHI{Ka, 6yAyu{ero aBropa <<f sfleHnfl Xpr.rcra HapoAy>, A"rcrcau4pa LIeaHona, xoropuit flpucyrCTBOBa.II Ha IIapaAe' a flOTOI!{ Bblexar'l 3a rpaHHIIy' OH [I3O6palr.r,r saoqHo. OAsux oH tilrcalrr r flerep6ypre, Apyrnx B MocKee. O4ua eny cile[[a.'rbno no3lrpoBa.{fi, Apyrue, 6o-


,ree 3aHgrble H,rIu 6o.ryee BbtcoKorIocraBiIeHIlbIe, 3aiIe,rarJflJrrcb r{M Bo Bpelrn clyvar?ulrx Bcrpeq Ha y.nnqe. 3a ueIioTopbr MLi oH He3a MeTr{o A"ryfl HI,IX

cx c

FI

a6r'itOAaJr, IIpoxa]KI.i'-n a,1-

6espas.{Hqr{brM BtrAoM MHMo gl.rx, a cahr scMarpuBa,,rc,q B JII4tIa, $r.rrypu, IIo.{oAKr.r H MaHepy Aepx{arbcrr. LI ryr )Ke -vKp aAKoli Ae.l a;r riap a riAa ru Hrre Ha6p ocxlr. 'faN, B reqeulze rrflTr.t JIer Bbl[o,u{r{Jr LlepHerlon ABecrH

,{Ba4tl216 Tpu noprpera. trIs xyAo}r{HnxoB 3Aecb 6r,rnla: rsopeq <<flocneAirefo Aus flonrnen>> K. 6prcr,roB: rrpoc,'iaB,rrerr-

irrrri cxl',lunrop n xreAarbep O. To,rirofr; aerop

Kaprlrnbr

IinHy-BuAotrilceu fl floxapcr<ouy

Maproc,

<<MeAsuir 3lrurii>> xlrBorrucerr @. 6pyax; cxy,rlliop B. Aenryr-.&la,r ltnoecKrrrii, ltocraB ltBtI]]rtt e noc.ne,qc rBfi u ltaNr nritnK i'Tnaily Cycauuny e l(ocrponre; yqHrer'rb 6parler t{epnerloBbrx M. Bopo6reB; co3Aare,lb fiallflTHr.rKa Mn-

n

Mocr<ee cKyJrbrrrop

lI.

nepertri xyAox(II[r{ KpecrbflrlcKoro 6ura Ir ranar{rnr.tssrii nefigaxucr QoHoe A. BesequaHoB H MHorrre Apyrfie. Cpeait rtr.lcare.reli, KpoMe ynoMflHyrbrx, HaxoAr4/rrcl !,euuc !,anu4oB, nosr H. Kyxo,'roHlrx, n. CeuHtuH c x<euofi. fpynny aKrepoB cocraB,lrfld'ru fI. I(aparurwn,tr4. Cocuaqxuir, B. Acenrona. B uucne o6ulecrBeHHbrx Aesrenefi HaxoAUJrHcb npe3r.tAetrr ATaAeMHH xyAo)Kecrs A. OreHr.ru, ocHoBare"Tb O6urecrBa [ooupeHHn xyAo]KHr:tKoB lL Kuxr.rH n Apyrue. Onupaact Ha ceori leopuecxuli onr,lr, LlepueuoB yr{e,To paspa6oran fi [racrepcKu paclo,To]Ktr,'r rpynnbr ,rn4eii e noprrAKe, sarrflTor.r rrlrn Bo Bper\rr fiapaqa. flopnaox 3Tor orl BOCCO3Aa!] nO HX BOCI1ON{UHaHAtIM, C,'nIqafl paccKa3br o/lrinx Ir Apyf[x v AaluBaflcl yrouneullfi. lJs,ruuHe roBopurb, KaKyro orpoMHyro rleHHocrb npeAcraBlrfl,ira BbrrioJrlreHHan lpHropueu tlepireqoBbtM Kapruira,

(aKIl M IIpeKp acHbl Nl M aTep I{ a,'lOM [OCdttyX(I]JI a OHa Ar'Ifl IIOTO NI KoB: HCropnKoB, xyl,ox(HrrxoB,,rrnreparopon. 3a npulrepal{u xoAurb rrer,aJrer{o. I(oraa HaNr Hyx{Fro r.ltrerb [peACTaB",renr.Ie o roM, KaI{ Bbtr,'ttrAe,T, oAeBaJrcg, Aep}Ka,Tcg flvuxng. uu

o6paulaeucr x tpparuerrry fpynnbr .rerurpex .&{u ax4alr, uro flyruxun 6srn cpeAuero pocra,"rrireparopoe. xyAouaB, c noABux{}tbtM,irr4rloM, o6paltnenunM BbrotqnMr.rcs 6areu6apAaMy, HocttJI rpaAuqaoHuuri qunHu4p n uaHe,rib, Aepxanin cao6o4uo, o6paqancn co BceMu fipocro. KoHrpacr 3ro[ry 3r{crraHci.tBHON,ry, HenprrHyxAeHHO Aep)KaBrXCr{ycfl qeJroBeKy

cocraB,rrfler ctonquri pnAou ryvnur:i Nra/rorroABax(Htrri Kpsi,'lon. Benurrrfi 6acuonucerd c,toBrio 6u cxenruqecKu cr\,{orDrlr lia BCe nponcxoArir{ee, norpyx<eHlrtrfi e cBoH pa3r{blu:neHrrn, ii8


6uru r{oxer, o6paau po)KAaroq}rxcfl cerlqac

6acen.

t{epneqon 6nHsKo sua.u flyurrana. Coxpar{rrd'racb sanr.{cKa Anexcaugpa Cepreeeuua c o6pauleHueN{ r( fpuropuro ua <<rrr>. 3ro eilie pa3 y6e>x4aer Hac B 6o.qnurou cxoAcrBe floprpera c opHrilHa,rroM. XyAoxecreeHuafl KprrrnKa oqeHb Bbrcor(o ouellu,'Ia npotl3BeAeriue. KorAa ouo 6u.no npeAcraBd'reHo eule B nepBo' saqa,'ilsofi aKBape,rfi Ha aKaAeMr.r,{ecxoii BbIcraBI(e 1833 roAa, florrBLrJrcq raKori or3brB: <<Tyr Her BbrMbrcJroB, KoropbrMH il'rerrrler Hac tio3gltfl I,t HSflIqHOe T.TCKyCCTBO B BbICIIIeM I\{Upe; HO 3aTO HCTLIHHat OTAe"lKa TaKOfO AOCTOIIHCTBa' qTO eABa JIH KTO CpaBIilITCfl c HriNr B oroM poAe plrcoBaHrlq. Kaxercq HeBepottrttbIM, IITo' 6u eoAsHorMn r{pacKaMr.r Mo>KHo 6u,ro cAenarb ro, qro cAe,'Ia,rr r. tlepueqoe... 3pnre,refi MHoxiecrBo, u Bce HaplrcoBallbl nperpacuo!>> <<3ro 6yaer [por]sBeAeHre, or3btBy Apy.' - BTopttr 3roMy BMecro 3pHTereu rori, [o"rrHoe yMa, AyIxI4, I]cKyccrBa... BCe nopTpeTb! coBpeMeHHbIx ,1I.|{...- pa3yMeeTcfl, He ocKop6are.rsuux, oAHaKo, A"III HpaBcrgeguoctu!>> fIoA <<.u u qa lt u, ocxop 6aredltbHbl MH AJIr Hp a BcrBeHHocrH>>, Kprrrux B coorBercreun c oSnuflar'tbHbu\Iu B3f,qflAalvtu cBoero

BpeilreHu [oApa3yMeBa,r npocroHapoAbe, KpecrbflH. i{o xyAo)KIlr{x cyMeil .uoBKo o6orirn STor 3aflper: oH IIoKaSaJI cBoe-

orua-MeuIaHfiHa; I{pecrbflHuHa O. CnenyuxuHa, Sacr'IyBrrero n pfi 3il a H l,rff I(a K rlo3T-caM oyqKa ; KpecTbsl-ll'lHa-BepXo;'i232 fI. 'fenyuxHHa, yALIBI{BIIIero BCIO cTo,lilqy reM, qro IioAHr{d'rcrr na unr{Jrb flerponaeroBci<oro co6opa. CoeepueuHo uHaqe, qeM xyAolxecrBeHllaff KpHTirKa, orHeccrr K ilo,'rorHy Hnxo.ryari. Ou sstcxagaJl cBoe FIeyAoBoJIbcr' Btle TeM, qTO f,'laBIIOe BHIIMaltl4e >l{HBOrIl]CeU COCpeAOTOt{Itr'I He ria cqeHe Bcrpequ i1apfl c xaperori uaptlubl, He Ha napaAe noircx, a Ha gpr4Te,rqx. Aa n ern cyry6o <<rpa)KAaHcl{ue>> Jrurqa He BbII{a3aJII4 Aonxuoil 3altHrepecoBallHocru I( Top}liecrBy, oHIr cnoxolluo croflT, 6esyuacruo c[lorpflr l'la npollcxoAflrr{ee I{ Aa)Ke xax 6yAro neperoBapfiBalorctl o cBolIX

ro

N{r4

!,€;'I2X.

floxa nponcxoAl't,Tll sTIl co6btrua, l{uxaHop nyrelxecrBoBax [o l(anxasy. Ba,rAatl, MocKea, Kypcx, Craepono,ru, raKoB 6lt.n efo Boeuuo-rpy3tiltcKan Aopora, Tu$nuc cennefi s lrapuipyr.'HecNo,rrxo cor pltcyHxoB al(BapeJllto, nepox{

TaKoB 6t l,r

uror ero

ttoe3AKlt. <<BcqKafl I(aprl{lla

H. tlepHeqoBa AoKa3blBaer, qro oH 6onee n 6o,tiee ycleBaer'..

eo


OrAelxa nJreHnrer[,Hafl, Ktlcrb JIerKafl It flparrrHar, KoJloplrr xr.rsorl H csexuli... !,ericrsne ,ryueli ero Ha 6.ryHgxnx u oraaJreHHbrx nJraHax BbrpaxeHo orJIHqHo)> -- TaKHMH 6u,rn xypHaJrbHbre orsbrBbr. 3a <BnA Tu$nnca> xyAox{Hplr{ noflyqnJt 38AI{HC AKANCMI,IKA.

TpyaHo ltepeoqerrHTb xyAoxecrBer{Ho-nosHaBareJrbfloe c Koropblx rroroM 6una cAenanu

3HarreH[e arux Ha6pocKoB,

HuxaHopou 6ontruve Kaprr.rHbr. B nureparype roro BpeMeHu, oco6euso B [pexpacHbrx crr,rxax u npo3e flyurrnrra lr .IIep. MoHroBa, no6unapnrux B rex )Ke Kpaflx (Jlepuonroey AoBe-

6urt sa Kaexase HecKo,'rbKo nos4uee), Bbrcry[a.rya B"IIeKyIrIafl Kpacora cHexHbrx ropHbrx xpe6ron H rrJroAopoAr Hbrx AoJrHH, TeMHbIx y[IeJII-rfi tr ulvMHbrx llpuqyA,'rr.tBbrx roPOAOB. H-O epnrentHoro [peAcTaB,'reHHfl o npl,IpoAe 14 srHorpaQllu Kasrasa pyccr(ar ny6.tuxa He HMeJra, He cqnTarr

"rocs

xpaftHe Mad'roqr{cJrenHbrx H cnyuaftnnx KaprHH M.

s

<D. Anerceena.

tr4aauor-ia

f"nepo o"a-noa*urro""Jracb c BilAaMu l(anxaaa Booquto, coBeprxr.tB yBJreKareJrbHoe u o6croflTeJrbHoe nyre[recTBfie c c.aMEM XHBOIUiCTIeM rlo BeJrHqecTBeHHb[\r oTporai.l rop, I]o .TIHKHM AOpOraM, MLrMo CKaJ], Carlefi H pyr{H craptrHHbrx Kpefiocrefi. PaccnaarpuBafl aror cBoero poAa )KHBonHcuurri AuenHrx, nerep6yplxllbr, He cxoAr c ruecra, no6usantt s Kapra,'tHHl.lu u Kaxerwu, A1xasuvr t4 Ha pyccxo-rypeuxoii

rax 6u

f

pa rruue.

llo sceri BepoflrHocru, flyurxnu 3aKasaJr nna4ureuy tlepllel{oBy nu4 !,apnaJrbcKoro yqeJrbfl, noroMy qro r{a 9ro1\{ IIpoHgBeAeHnH HMeercfl [oMerKa xt4Bon]tc{a: <<flucasa 5tr,ra I{aprlrHa AnR flosra A. C, I-lynrKrrHa>>. A oqent BosMo]r{}to, rrro xyAoxHHK, crpacrlto .[to6l.rsuuti crtrxu rlogra, cfleulja,'Ibno Harr[car'r AJrr Hero srot neilsaN u noAapnJr el,ry. Taxoli TotlHo neirgax BHcedt Ha creHe oruoft tig Kot\IHar noc,relrrefi nyruxaucxoli r{Baprr.rpbr. Cmorprtl,r rra rrefo a BCIloMlttiaerr .IIepuoHrona:

B

r.rry6oliori recnnue ,4,apsn.ra,

fAe poerca Tepex ao rrl'.ie. CranurruaR 6arius croq.ia. gepiren rra uepHofi cKa.re.

Tyr ua cxaae Aericrnnre"ruuo uso6pa)Keirbt pyur{br crapHuHori KpenocrH. Crr,ruHoe Bneqar"rrenHe ocraBJIfler gTor neilrsax: BeAb r\,tbt 3lJaeM, qro 14r\t ,tro6osa,tcs llyurxrrH, TocKyfl B xor'roAloM qonopFror{ flerep6ypre lto r.aJreKoMy Kanxa:y, 40


no cBo6oAo"'rrc6uBblM cblllaM rop. A eule Han{ HpaBLIrcfl sTor flefisax( noroMy, qro olr KaK 6br c6,lrlxaer [IyurrHHa u "rlep-

rvroHroBa. B cauou AeJre: To, uro uso6past Jt xyAo)KHUK H qeM rracJralKAaJrcn flyuxr.rH, .Ilep,l.routoe. A uexolo- BocrreBaa pbre I43 qepueqoBcKux aKBapeJlefi, nanpuuep nu4 I'oplt, orlel{b HanoMKHaror nosAHeiluHe JrepMouroBcKr.re pucyHKLt.

flo Bo3BpailreHnu c Kaeraga, e 183l-1832 roAax, Hnranop I{epHeuon cocror.r'I Ha cnyx6e npu <<ltlcaarneecroit noMHccHr,r 14 rrocrpoeHlru A,rexcasApoecxoft KoJIoHHbt>>, a B cJreAyroqeM foAy nocrynr{,rr K uonopoccuftcKoMy reHepa.ryry6epHaropy M. C. Boponqoey. Ao 1836 foAa xyAoxrrllK HaxoAHJIcfl e Kpuny. C rulare,rruocrblo [I TexFII,IqecKIIM Ma' cTepcTBoM, npl.Icyull.IM KaBKa3cK[NI aKBapeJlflM, BbInOJIH]IJI oH u MHox(ecrBo xuBorrncHbrx 3apucoBoK l(puua. B saqa,re 1836 roaa 6paru Bcrperl'IJlficl. OHs pemH"nlI ilo6usaru Ha poAHHe r.r noexaJllt e JIyx. flepeltu AeJIoM oHH oTKpbr.nH TaM My)KCKyIO IHMHa3HIO, fiaMflryfl, KaK Ttlxe"l0 rrpnxoAl4Jlocb I4M caMHNt 6es o6pasonauus. flocerltnfi olllt I(ocrponny, IOpleneu 14 poAHHy KHfl3fl flrvrurpr.ra flox<apcxo' r-o-ropoAox flypex. OuapooaHHble poAHbIM flosor'IlKbeilt,

ero npr{poAoii, [aMRTnHKaMLI crapIIHbI Ii soAqecrBa, 6e3rtcriyclrori xrI3HbIo r{apoAa, 3aAyMaJIn oHI.I HoBoe fpaH/r(Ho3lloe

[oJIHyIo tt no4po6Hyto fiaHopa\ry - co3Aarb pyccliotl peKH LI or.ILeJIbHbte Kaprultbl ee 6eperoe senfixoli ropo.r,oB ll ceneHuii. OHr nanncaJla npouerrue B NlrlnncrepcrBo l{Mneparop' cKoro ABopa, yKa3aB uerb nyrelxecrBtrfl. flo Aelnxarsocttl rrarypbr t{epueuonu o cy6cu4ttr.r He [poclr,'Iu - 3ro noApa3yMeBaJrocb cauo co6olo. MuutrcrepcrBo ornpaBI.{"'Io uHpKy,'Ilp Ha r'rNrfi rrpesnAeHTa aKaAeutrn, B Koropoll 6eccrpacrno asna' rano npocl6)/ xyAo)KHHKos 14 Ao6agrfl,r'lo, tITo IIpIrHflJlo iuepbl <<no cHa6xeulrrc t{epueuoBblx orKpbrrblMlt npeAnHcattLInMIr 4,rn 6ecnperrflTcTBeHHoro ucilo,,THeHt{n t.tx flpeAnpatrlrfl>>. I-Innarux Aerrer Hr.r Mr.rHl{crepcrBo, Hn aKaAer'Illfl FIe AadrH. I,l "rurul nocu,rbrtyto, KaK BgAHo oqeHb He3HaqlITe,'IbHyto iloMoulb oKa3aJ'ro onrrrb-TaKH o6ulecrso noou]peHHfl xyAoxrrirr(oB. Orxaglrsas ce6e so oceu, QepHeuoBbr B reqeHHe rrecl{oJrbr{r{x r,recrlueB cxottu,'iH eure KaKyto-ro cyltuy. Ha rrpeAnpr{srlre

BCe 3TU CpeACTBa I{ynHJIn OHI{

B

PUI6UUCXe (<TllxBlll{l(y>>

6o,'rrruylo "fro/Ii(y, ylpaBJlleMyto napycoi\'l u Bec.ryallH, rrepeo6opyAoeanu ee na,ry6y noA Aor{HK, HaHfl,rlri xo'vaug,y. floxa Bce sro ycrpar{BaJlocr, npll6un x HI4h,r us .Ilyxa lt,iraruruii irrecTliaAUariIal€TIIHfi 6par flo,ruxapn, Tolxe rotoeHsluttiictl ql


Bcry[Hrb Ha repHucrbirl nyrb xyAo>KHriKa, n Aurou tr4nauoc, xpenocruorl KocrpoMcKoii nol,leurllurrr, orrryuleHHtrii <<na sapa6orxH>. 22 t$aq lB38 roaa (<ruxBrrHKa)> r{eA.rreurro ABHHyJracb B}rH3 rlo rerreHlaro. Bce qerBepo Boopyx(r{,'Ir1cb KapaHAau:auu. Ha 3apaHee npuroronneHHuri pyd'roH nrzcqerl 6ylraru A.nrruoir cBbrrrre TpexcoT Tpr:rAuaTr.l caxeuerl oHH cTaJrv 3aHocr.rTb

pe,rle$ o6onx 6eperoe H Bcero Tofo, rITo HaxoAr.rJrocb ila Hrrx - crpoeHurr, AepeBbrr, xna[6uu\a, V san6onee [puMeqa-

TeJIbHbIx Mecr ocraHaBJIHBaJIHcb, BbIXoAHJIn

3apr.rcoBru.

Tar

na 6eper, 4ena-

noflBnJrracb ptrcyHKu, npeBpaqeHubre 3aTeM B Kaprr.rHrr <<BHA ua Bo,rre or ceJra fopoluqe Kocrpouc_x_oi_ry6epHr.r_[>>, <<B Kocrp oue>>, B KocruqeBcKtr x f op a x >>, <<Ha Bo,rre n Cnna6zpcxoli iy6epHua>> u MHoro, Mnoro Apyfnx. OHu eHnolllunu neftea)Ku BeJrIIqaBbIx, nopoctililx neconr'XlrJrrd

<<

ry.neli, orKyAa orr{pbrBaercs rrlrpoKoe pa3AoJrbe Bo,'lru, o 6ucrpux JraAbflx Crenasa PasuHa. Osu noKasa[rvr [p[qyA,'rr.rBbre, HrrKofAa Ao roii rropbr He neo6pax<aoIIIHecr rreqepbr HaNsefi Bo.nru. OHE socnern 6ecxparirure crenn H pocKorxHble ,ryra 3aeonxts. OHn ganeqar.ne.nH nce HaroMrlHafl

BrlAbr cyAoB, To nJraBHO CKOJIbSflrrlr4x rro BoAe, To HecyulHXcs Ha KpbrJrbrrx Berpa B 6yprc. Sanr-e-qareneH pr.rcyHoK HuxaHopa gepuei-iona <<B l(ocrpoMe>>. XyAoxHlEN croflJr Ha er,lcoKorl rope rrogaAr4 Kocrpouu, H eMy oTKpbrBar'lacb Bcrr naHoDaN,la ApeBHefo pyccKoro fopoAa c ero MHoroqIIc,'leHHbu\fH caAaMLI, ABOpaHCKIZMTa OCO6UnKaMH, npocreHbKr{Ma AoMHIxKaMa, qepKBauu.,IIuiIo 6o,rruo-

IO TOpTOBOTO ropoAa, Hepa3pblBno cBfl3aHHOrO C rUl.rpOt<ori pexoli, gro Bor'IbforHo Hecer cBou flcHbte BoAbI, salleqar"ireno xyAoxHr.rKou "uro6onlro. Ou 6epe>l(Ho nepeAa,r ece noApo6HocrIr orxpblstuer?cq flepctreKTHBbr, Koroparr oxlrBr'reHa qeJroBeqecKriiun Slrrypauu nepBofo niraua: KpecrbflHi{a, He crietua r.rA,yx{ar no BoAy; rpyflna nrcAeli, or.q,btxarctt{ilx noA pa3BecHcTbrM AepeBoM. Xoqercs paccKa3arb eue o6 oAHoM yAuBrire,rrbr{o:d rrpoH3BeAeHHa

3Tofo

qrzK,'ra

o co3AaHHoM l,IeaFroeorHr nuyrpen-

HeM BHAe Hx nepeABr4xHoro AoMa-,'roAKr.r.

flepeg Hat{H ABe orKpr]rrbrl,r npoxoAou. V oKHa HaA npaxo,uoroii K AocKe 6ymarofi cxnonuacs fpuropr.rr?. Os nornnAlrBaer B oKHo rd cprrcoBbrBaer rrponrr,realou{ar? MHMo JlaHArua$r. OH BbrcoK pocroM, y Hero N{rrrK}{e qeprbr Jrr4rfa, BHI cyry6o Aouaursur?: oAer B AnnHrrono,ruji Kor,ruarbr, pagAe,rreHubre fiepefopoAroil

c

xaJrar, Ha roJroBe Hoquofi r{oJrrraK; BHAHo, eule gaHHuaercn 42


€fr)


yrpo. CJreBa, 6oKoM Ha cryJre cr.rAur rollorua. Onupancr ua cfirlur{y cryJra, oH qr{Taer Kr{ax(Ky. 9ro flonrlrapn. Bcl ero rro3a Bbrpa)KaeT HeTeprreFlr.{e: Br4ArrMo,- o}r x{AeT He Aox(Aercg ceoefi <<cMeHbI>>, oH roroB Torqac Bclioqnrb u 3aMeHIaTb 6para. flrasaHr're tlepHeqonbrx npoAoJrxaJrocb Bce ,'rero. Vxe Bonry cKoBbrBa,no ,rIbAoM, a JroAKa Bce nJrblrra n nrnrna. t{epHeqoBbI Bo r{To 6u ro HH cra"lro xoreJltl Aoiiru Ao cauoii Acrpaxauu. VI npttut B copoKa ceMrr Bepcrax or rree c.nyt1p1aocb ueue6exuoe: JroAKy oKoHqarefibHo 3arepJlo JIbAalrrt. flossrlnucr npo6ounu, npor.t3orxJra aBapltfl. Ha nouoqs noTyfo, a Molrer 6urr, AocrreJrn Kpecrbflrre. Ec.nn 6u He ol{n - roAKe [r oqeHb xyAo np]runocr 6lt BceM Ha n noru6,'rn 6r,r ueuuerlurae pHcyHKr.r. I{epueuoou coruJrlr ua 6eper. OHn ropnuo no6.naro4apnnu cnacare;refi a rroAapr.rJrr{ KpecrbflHaM JroAKy co BceM ee cHapn)KeHr.reNr. Mecqq [pox{HJrr.r oHL B Acrpaxauu, npnBeJrr.r B noprlAoK pncyIrKH. Kor,qa ycraHoBHJrcs cauuufi nyrb, rpouyJrr{cb B o6parHyro Aopory r.r Jrr{urb B HaqaJre sHBapfl npu6u.nn B

CTOJTHUy.

t{epHeu,onu He coMHeBa!,r?rcb B rorlr, qro pa6ora nx 6yAer olleHerra rro 3acJryfau. I-luxro Ao Hr.rx raK uupoKo H rro-

,{'po6tro

ue aso6paxan flosorxts. [pyrne

xyAoxrrrrr(u,

BepHbre aKaAeMllqecrull o6lrqaflM, rrficaJla'{y)Ke3eMHbre BI,I[hr, r'ruurb ri3peAKa Kacaqcb npuropoAoB o6eux pyccKnx cronnq - crapofr u Hoeori. flpuropoau eru [eo6r4,'roBaJrr.] no,(crpr.rxeHHbrMu Ha <at,rnuxnij>> MaHep aJrilefl.Mv rroMeulr{qbnx yca4e6 c HeHS6exHbrMH Kodrro,HHaMu H poToHAaMU, r{BeTHHKaMn rz 6ece4xaufi, MpaMopHbrMH cKyJ'rbnrypaMlr llcnxeft ! 4yypou, paccraB.reHHbrMu no rrapKaM B qr{HHoM nopflAKe.

A

9epHeuoBbr co_Beptua,rru orreBaAulni ans Bcex la,rpuornqecxnfi noABLlr. Tenepl xaxAufi ruor y6e4arbcfl, r{To fi HaIla oreqecrBeHHarr lptrpoAa noJrHa croeo6pasuofi rpacorbr, cofperoft n oAyxoruopenHofi ttaMsrgr.rKaMH repouqecxoro npou,'Ioro, MortrBaMa 6ee6pexur,rx noreft, Ber{Ho [IyMnrqHX JrecoB, seo6r.grsux peqHbix [pocTopoB, cypoBblx rop. HesaqeM rryrelxecrBeHunKy exarb B HHbre Aar'reKr.re geMJIrr, KofAa rre MeHee [peKpacHbr n Berl{r{ecrBenuu 6epera poAHoft Bonru, rrro BorHyroqeft cepe6pssofi neHrofi co'eallsri,ra xoaoAusrir ceBep co :uorlntrnr roroM. llerep6ypxr{br yAr.rBJrnr'rrzcb rpoM aAe rrpoAe,'raHHoro rp y4a. Bparta 6es r,o_Hqa BbIHaMaJrfi Bce r.roBbre H HoBbIe pncyr{xu, tta6pocxl.t... Kasa,trocb, r.rM KoHrla-Kparro ue 6y4e-r. Ho, 41


KaK rllr cTpaHHo, Hr{KTo He npeAraraJr nocoAetcrBoBarb Aai,i(e ux ,l{3AaHHro. llpuurnocl o6parnrlcn K uapro. ,<locyAapr aNrneparop,-coo6uaa xypuaJt <<Cerepuaa IlqeJra>, noprSenu aKaAeMHI(on t{epnerlonnx - paccMorpen qro6ut ontrcaHlle n pHcyHXu 6HnH usAaubl B cBer. n no)KeJraJr,

,-Tto6nrenu r.rgflurHoro, KoHeqHo, orIeHflT n noAAePxar rpyA Aoctofisux xyAoxHHKoB, Koropble c nocroflHHoil penuoctlto H CaMOOTBep)KeHI{eM COBepIXA,'IH eAUHCTBeHHOe B CBOeI\{ poAe

flyTelrlecrBr.re, Koropoe o3HaKoMLIT Hac l{opotle co MHofuill}] CIIIC HCHCCJICAOBAHHbIMH tIPE]I.il{CTAI\tU, OTHOCRIIIHMI4Cfl TO .;

rialrero

oTeqecTBa>>.

'..Ho,-

3aMeqa,'I eAuHcreeHHHii AopeBo"'Ilouuongr'll:i uc'

c"rreAoBareJrb rBoprrecrBa tlepHeqoertx fI. CtonnsHcxttfi,* raK KaK rro)KeJraHLIe uMrleparopa Hnro,ras I He conponoxAa'

Jrocb He ro,rtKo xaxann-nn60 accHrHoBallueM Ha HSAanile' lto Aa)Ke rlpocrblM noAapKoM, To, Kolter{Ho, <<.nn6llreJlH II3Ruliloro>> HaIIrJIu, qro rpyA qepHeuoBblx, MoNier 6url, n tpall' AHO3eH, HO TpaTI,ITb Ha II3AaHHe ero AeHbrH Bo BcflKOM C"ryyqae He ctonr. Bce seAl SHad'lH, qro ecJIH l'IMrIeparopy Hnro-

,'r3ro

I

uro-uu6yAb [oHpaBHTcff, ocraHoBKH

B

AeHe)Kllolrl

orHoIIIeHlIrt He Mox(er 6url; ltllnacrp tfnHaucoB, ycJly)KrrH' eHri I(aHxpHH, HailAer BcerAa rpe6yeuote cPeAcrsa... Tueruo ux lte HaxoAllJlocb>>. xyAoxHr.IKn HcKa"'m noKpoBHTeneil Pyun"rucl Bce Meqrbl 6paroen -9epHeqooux. Ho cAasarb-

cr

oHIt He xoreJIH. I4cno,rleya cBoe fipaBo BocnHTaHIIHKoB s l4ranuto, 3axBar]Ie flo.nurapna n Aurona lleaHosa. B Puue npo)KuBana KonoHllfl pyccKHX ir(r{BorrucueB. Bcrpeurnurncb c I{HM}I, repHuii cBoeMy Mero/ry

aKaAer\{!Ia, oHII fioexad'Iu

llllcoBaTb BCe npl'rMer{aTeJlbHoe, [OJIb3OBaTbCtl KaX(AblM Cr'Iyrraeilr galeqarJrerb sau6onee HHTepecubtx coBpeMeHHHKoB, fplrropuft nn[Ier Kaprt4ny <<Pyccxue xyAo]KHIlKH s PllMe>. y >xnsoilHci{r,rx pa3Ba,'rHH pH}lcxoro Kontlses oH aso6paltraer

c r{arypbr rflaBy pyccxoft KoJIoHLIIt Kpnnqoea, xon$epeuuceKperapt AxaAelttitr xyAoxiecrB fpttroponttua, >KuBolll{crtrg A. ['lsauoea, Aiisasoecxoro, EpyHu, cKyJlbnropa f]nntenoBa rr i,rHorr4x Apyfux, scero 6o,'Iee rplrAqarrz qenosex. Kax lu n <<Ilapa4e na l]apnrlbluou r'ryry)>, A,r'In Hel{oropblx xyAoxieAi.tHcrBeilHoe Hx rloprperHoe nso6paxeHlte. rurKoB - 3Torer\t Bper{eHeM lllrca't neftgaxu. Ho rnaellbt]u Huxauop 3anflTueM 6parren 6llna HeusneHHafl pa6ora HaA Kaprl4llaNIII rro BOJIX(CKril\{ 3CKH3alvt. XyAO>XnrKtl B cBoI4x IUacTepcl(ltx BricraBJrfl./tr{,

[o

cBlrAereJlbcrBy oqeBI4AueB, <<BIIAbl pyccKHe,

oio6ellno Bonrn>>. Coner axalt,eMHLI B orltere o AeareJlbHoc'rlt 45


xyAox{rrr.rKoB rrr{ca/'r : <<VqeHrre so O,rop eHIlr.rH AuBHJT r{cb, BrrAfl To,rrbKo ro, qro rrpeAcraB,rflnn nopr$e.rlu 6parlea tlepueuoBbIX, flpoexaBlurzx Bo,rry r.r 6Hsrurrx n TuS.tnce, I(punry u

Ocrser?crux npoBaHqlrsx

H

aursx

!>>

fl,anruefiurnfi nrapurpyr QepHeqonux KpacorrHo npeAcraBJrer{ B orqere AxaAelrua xyAo>KecrB: <<tr4e Heanodrr [epefipaBuJrr.rcb e AnexcauApuro. Oruo4a AO,'IX€HCTBOBa,IO HaqaTbcf apTItCTLIqeCKOe cTpaHCTBOBaHI{e HeyroMLrMbIx xyAoxHHKoB tro reM MecraM, Koropbre rax 6oraTbl 14 ITCTOpHT{eCKI{MIt BOCIIOMHH aHI.If MI,I, fl Op fi rI.IH aJIbHbI r,t It KpacoTaMH rrpapoAbr, r.I ocTaTKaMr.r ApeBHHX IIaMrrT]r[KoB. Cua6xessue Merir,rerou-Ann oco6trM ltpeAnucaur.rena ry6epHaropy ropoAa I(anpa, focnoAa t{epueqonu, Aocrr{rFryB Posettu, orttpaBuJrr4ct Hunou o Kaap, OcraHas.,rusaflcb i{a KaxAoM rrrary, pHcyfl BonpeKH Hecrepnr.rMoMy sHoro asplrKancKofo coJIHrI,a, oHH c xaAHocrbro co6wpanu Bce ro, qro IIO qEJII' 14X NYTCIXCCTBIIg I{M KA3AJIOCb TIPI{MEqATC,IbHbINI. B oxpecruocrnx l(aupa llx o]KaAa,rr a 6ont mas xarBa

nllpaMr.rAbl npn [eN4e, arr.r naMrrHHKH-]IcnoJrHHbr MlrHyBturix Tbrcflqe,'rervft, mnoloul.rcr'renHbre ocrarKr{ Apenuefi apxr4TeKrypbl, pasnoo6pasHne,

rryAHbre sllAH o6oraranll .nrc6onurrHuti noprSeJrb HaIIIilx coorer{ecrBeHHtrKoB. Bocnanesue r.riag, 3rKAeMr.rqecKn cBHpencrBylorrlee n Elunre, ycxopr.iJro orbe3/I t{epaeqoeux ns I(azpa. tlepes nycrbrHr.r Cyeqroro nepeureilKa oHH Ha[paBHJrr{cr, s narecrHHy r] nocJre AByxHeAe,'rbHofo yror\rureJrbrrofo crpaHcrBnq Aocrr.rfJrr4 HaKoHeu 14epycanutia, rAe LIMer'Iu Hecqacrbe "rtI{IlHTbcf cBoero MeHb[Iero 6oara. Ceqron rpaA co BCeMH oKpecrHocr nu,m: VIopAairorui, l4epieum MopeM, BuS.ueemonr, Hasaperonr, I(anepnayMoM, @aeopol'r,

TnnepuaHcrrrM o3eporr, 06.rracrb Apenneri Cnpi.ru, sano,riresHarr pa3BaJII4 HaMI,t IleKorn,a IIBeTyrqrrx ropoAoB, - cl(od'Ibr{o eAEHCTBeHIIT'Ix, CaOeo6pa3Hbtx I\{aTepr.railoB, cI{o,IbKo 6naroroseriurrx BocnoMr{gaHnfi, ci<o.nlxo cHJrbHbrx sneqarnenrrrt

AJrfl oocnpnnuuHnoli Ayruu xyAo)KHltKa! OroHqarentsuli 9epHerloBbrx .rre)KaJr uepes CeH-Xan A'Axp, Berlpyr u Cinr.rpHy Ao I(oncrauruHonoJifl, rAe oHu AorroJrilu,lru HoBbrr,nt npno6pereHr4flillri cBoro 6oraryrc KoJrJreKr{r{n. Cxono nsrnCOT I'ITHACCgTI,I PLTCYHKOB, CH'ITbIX C HATYPbI H 3AKJIIOqA}O. rrlax B ce6e gnAtt Mecr HJrr.r Hcropr.tqecKLlx, HJul Lr3BecrHbrx no csoer2 xrlBonlzcHocrl,I, tIflaHbt,' apxfiTeKTypt{bte cHtrr\,n(u, KOCTIOMbI, A, HaKOHeII, tIyTeBbIe SaMeTKH - BOT pe3y,'IbraTbl gaMeqare.rlbHoro nyreuecrBHr Llepneuonux>. Eparu cHoBa n flerep6ypre. Oun noxyAe,rrlr, flocraperlr:

nyrl

rto


rieAapo[{ lrporxJla A,'rrr r{rrx cMeprb llo,'mNapna, 6o.rlnrne naAelxAbr Bo3,'raraJrr.i oHrr Ha lrero. 9epneu,osu B Aopore oKoHqaTerTbHo a3Aepx(a,ti.icb, ocTaTI{Ii AeHef yu,'IIl Ha BblKyIi rrs Kpenocrnorl Heeo"'rn AuroHa llsaFrosa. CHosa [pfiulJlocb odparqarrcn x uapro. tr4s orqera coBera ar{aAeMrrur or 5 uan lB44 roaa y3Haetu: <<locyAapr tr4uneparop He H3bTBLIJI Bucoqatiuefo coLI3BoreHurr nr'i na npv 6aBKy x{a,rroBaHbfl aKaAeuury fpltropttto, Hlr Ha rroxa,'roBaHue 6pary ero, HuxaHopy, 3BaHHfl xHBofiucqa Ero Be,raqecrBa, c [cnpaIxHBaeMbIM coAep)KaHLIeM, a HgBoJurJr orogBarbcfl, qro ec.[u AxaAeuus HariAer Hx 3acJrylKriBaloq[ruH fiooupeHl,Ifl, To Moxer, no ee ycl'{orpeHll}o, Ira3Haqr.rTb rrNr AeIIe>KHoe Bo3Harpa)KAeHue H3 cyMMbI, oTrlyc' xaeuor? efi sa nooupeHue xvAox{HHKoB)>.

Axa4elrna enAa,'ra xaxiornry [o rbrcqqe py6neii. Ha qro xe ynorpe6unu LIepHeItoBbr oru Aenlrn? Ha upno6pereHl'Ie Aolra? Ha o6saeeAeHlre l4N{yqecrsoNl? Ha pasn,leueriss? Ha ycrpoilcreo, HaKoHeiI, cer{eliHblx oqaroe? Hnuyrl ue 6una,ro: Ha Lr3A,aHr{e sa csoli cqer BHAoB Bocroxa. Bcex AeHer xsarr.rr'ro Jrr.irrrb Ha Bbrnycr{ qerblpex rerpa4eil c nurorpaQupoBarrribrMr4 pr{cyHKaMu. 14 ongrr no,'IyHuqee cyulecrBoBallue, orlgrb H3btcKaHrre cpeAcrB A,'rr npoAoJr)KeHHfl Ae,lla, 6e3 KoToporo Fre r\.{brc,'rHTcfl }Kr.t3Hb. Onsrr npHXoALITcfl exarb B klranurc <<4,'rfl coBepueHcrBoBaHvx'>>, v6o ro,'IbKo Ha arlt.x yc,'IoBHtIX aKaAeMfirr BbIAaBa,'la AeHbru <<Ha npo' e3,ti

>>.

Ha eror pa3 nyrefiecrBue llpoAo,'I]Ka,'rocb HeAonro. HaA Enponofi paspasr.r,'racb rpoBa peBo'Iioquil lB4B ro,c,a, B xyAo)KHI,TKH rloJryqr{,'IU rrpHKas HeMeAJIeHHo Bo3Bpautarbcii.,[yru[Ter'rb Bcex H BcrqecKltx peeonroqatl, Huro;laft fla,rxlts, cMeprenbHo uanyrauHstii eu{e npn BocuIecrBI'I[ Ha npecroJl BoccraHr.{eM 4era6pucroB, }I rtoMbtcJILITb IIe xoredl, qro6 xroHu6yar fl3 ttyreluecrBytoultlx noAAaHHbIX 3aAepxa.Ilcfl 14, He Aail- 6or, 3apa3IIdTCr peBo,rrcufioHHblNlu l4AeflMIi. Bce xe AuroH trInauon, [o,ryq]iBlxt4ii x ronty BpeMeHu sBaHne xyAo]KHvrKa, Ha ceofi crpax il plrcK ocra!'tcr s tr4ranuu. Bepnyrlcn oll, itaK <<IIgt\{eHlII,tK>>, y)Ke He cNtor Il yMep Ha uyx<6uue e 1863 roay. flo nosepaueFlllu t{epHeqonu BIIoBb o6tteaior lloporu KaHrIeJrqpLIH eto BeJIHrIecrsa. Ho qapb l,t AyMarb o HHx He xeJIaJr. Bnpoueu, oAI4Il pa3 oH o HHX BblcKa3aJIctl. fiocerue KaK-To aKaAeMuqecKylo BbIcraBKy H yB[AeB Kaprl'II]bI 6p:ttles, HHxonatl <<zsBo,ta,t Bbtpa3urbcr ilpo axaAeMuxoe lpn-

47


ropr4r n Huxanopa t{epHeqoeux: <<Onrr He Bi:rrxoArrr H3 cnoefi iuauepn> (n. H. llerpos. <<Marepua.lbt ri ficropr.ru r.{Mrrcparopcxoil AraAelnlr xyAo)riecrB>), rou III, irp. 2l i ). 3ror AoKyr,{egr rreo6trqaiino r(pacHopequBoe cBHAe- anoxu, y6ur'icreeuuafl xapal(TepucTelbcrBo Hr{KoJaeBcxoii ruKa cai\,roro uaprr. .[,a, xopouoearrHtiri Cxa.uosy6, cBHpon:lr:r col4acfoH c oJloBflHHbil\ut f.{a3a}IH, I{e fipIl3IIaBar HLtKar{oro scKyccrBa, KpoMe Boer.tHoro. Bor noueuy, o4o6pnn saAaHue aKaAex{Hr.r fpuroparo t{epueuony uanucarr <<hapaA rla {apHqutnorr ,ryry>, oH yKa3ar, qfo6u 3ra Kaprlrila BbrloJrnaJlact no o6pa:uy no,roren rreMeqKofo 6aranucr.a Kpnrepa. fiueonnce{ 3ror HecKasauuo rropaAoBaJr HesaAoJro nlpea rein Huxo"rarr, rroAap[B eMy ceofi orpouHr,ril xo"'icr <<Boeuutrri napa4 a Eepnnue>. 3a gro Kprcrep no"aylrr{J],. IIOMUMO Ha[paa oT i{apg, [oqeTHoe 3BaHIIe aI(aAeMLII(a poccailcrux xyAox(ecrB. OAHaro, KaK il{br sHaeM, fpuroprrii tlepHeqon He olpaB1a.l no4o6uux HaAexA, H6o eHr.rn{aHr{e cocpeA,oroqfl,n He r{a qapcKoii oco6e H ue Ha soficxax. ,[,a.ruHeiiuraq AesreJrbHocrb tlepueqooux sce 6o.nee u 6onee orBOpaqr.rBa.{a oT HHx npxcHblx r{apfl.

A lrexAy rervr, ec.lll.r 6u 6pdru noxe/raJrrj 3altrrMarr,ur I{cxJlroqllTerlbtlo BoellHofi xttsouuctlo, KaKux 6u tongxo noqec-reli HH yAocrotad'rucb oHl4 npH r.rx raJraHTe n 6ecnpaucirHoii rpyeocnoco6socra! Ho nolonnuru co6oft urepeiry

c1.-

xr.rx cKyr{irbrx 6alanucroB Tn[a Bunnesa,'rsAe u Koqe6v orir He noxeJra.[n. iJe pa6onencrny nepeA crlJtbHbn\rrr ruupa cero

yqn"'r Hx orer{, cKpoMuuli t<ocrpoltcnofi nKoHofluceq,

H er.o 6par nx EnrpaQ. Oreu u 6par, pasrun B Hrlx xyAo)r(ecrBeHuuir ranaHT, npI{3BaJru rroJroxtrrb Bce cnd'rbl r{ a ad'rra p b cdrryx(eHurr oreqecrBy. flpeHe6pera rr JrHqHr,r Nr ttorroutHrrK, crapruuft

cqacrbeM, orr,aJr*t oHr.t Bcro >ru{3Hb 6naropo4rrofi rle.nn: ocraBrrrb noroltKau KaK MoxHo 6oaee xyAoxecrBelrnblx aol(vrrterrroB

3ry

o Poccl.trt 20-50-x ro4oe 4eonrHaAuaroro cro,rernj,.

rpau4uo3uyrc gaaaqy

orBepxeHHO.

BbrrroJrrprr'rrz oHH

c qecrblo,

camo-

Cnona Hnxo,ryas o roM, uro t{epHeqoau yrrprMcrByrur, BbrxoAsr Hs csoeii rraHepbr>, npou3Ber'rr{ csoe 4eircroire. C re.r flop lrn oAua Kapruub UepueuoBbrx Ha ariaAer\,llr{recKIrx BbtcraBKax IIe Bbi3btBana "rrecrHoro o$rtqua.ntHoro (<He

oT3brBa-

A 6parr,n BCe ynopcrByror, Bce rre orKa3brBarorcrr or t!aAeli(llbr tl3AaTb Boi-IXC](ue KapTuHbr r{jllt xoTn 6u eunyctrrr,o t!.tlroclpupoeaHuHfr rrtln AIteBrrrrx tryreuecrslrn. Kan.'tHrpa45


rpnuecxu rreperrllcaB efo H cAe,'taB K Heluy MIIo)KecrBo ptlcyrrKoB, neAuocflr oun JTor 3r(3er\InJlflp rIoBoMy uapto A.ncr<carlApy II, uo He yAocrauBalorcs Aaxe o6uenplllllroro B TaKrix cJryqarrx [oAapKa.

Bce xosqnnocr. [Ipuuula crapocrb, 8 rrroHn 1865

rola

yMr{paer I'pliropraft.

r.tcrou1HJII'lcb cI'tJItl,

V Huxauopa Her

Ae-

rer ero floxopol{rrrb. l(a6uner ero BeJII4I{ecrBa <<cMltJiocrl4Blrr'rcr> [oAaqKy B rplrcra py6neii. B rlon6pe - 6pocu,r l87l roAa B AxaAeuuro xyAoxecrB Ha Hi\ifl rpe3l,tAeHra rIpHXOAlrr nrrcbMo, Hanl{caHHoe cTaptlggLot, Apo)KaI'IIell

nvxoii;

"

<OcmennBarocb yrpylKAarb Bac scenoxopueiirueto uoeii yqacrue B aKaAeMI4Ke t{epue{oee. npocr6olo - ilprrHflTb Bper.rn Haxoxycb s 6oru[]oll 3acrpyAHeHI'IIl B B uacrosuree ir(ri3HeHrror\{ cBoeM 6ttry. Heo6HxHoseHI{afi AoporoBI{3I{a Bcero, crapocrb r'ler MoI{x u cna6oe 3AopoBbe BblHyxAarcr ueHn o6parlrrbcr K Baueuy BeJIHKoAyIuIllo o xoAaraficrsc y Benuxoil Krrflflrnn MapnH HflxoraesHsl BttcoqafiIuero MHe noco6ns or focyaapn Huneparopa. A o 3arasax It B rIoMItrie uer', Bce r\,rou MarepnaJlbr co6paHbt c sentlqariul.IMll rp]'AaMlr c noxoiilrrtu 6parom, ro 6narocnoeeHuori pexe Bonre, n Kprrny, Ha KasKage, a [Ia.rtectflHe... Bce aro co6paurte ocTae'rcfl n sa6eeHntr, orqero I{eBoJIb}to Bxo)Ky B AoJItI'l. Cxo.'tt' 6nr ne,lsxo 6u,ro lroc cqacrbe, ecnu 6tt yAocrot4Jlcq Bpel\{ellHum noco6uell, a parHo tt 3aKa3oM tiaxnx-nH6o BI.{AoB 3al\'leqareJrbHbrx n PoccnH HJIri Apyfnx Mecr B MoeM poAe xnBotltt-

cr{... MHolo 6rt oxusltno Ayx uou, c KoHM foroB BCerAa rpy-

Ar{rbcfl, 4a6u onpanAaru ce6l n

npocs6e>>.

B erou nucbMe-Becb Hllrauop t{epHeqos c ero JIlo6ossto K poAr.IHe, x Bonre, ttMtt l{oropoit A"IIfl Hefo cBflttl,t)lllro lr <<6,rarocJroBeHllo)>. Ile rnnAn I'ta crapocrb t't c,ra6oclu, or{. KaI{ H B il{O"'IOAOCTH, AyMaer o6 OAnom O Bo3Mo)KHocrll nrlcarb xarue-nn6o 3ax.teqareJlbHL're BI4AbI.- Passe He c BllH-

MarrrleM H yqacTlteM cr'leAoBa'ro 6u npnc.nyurarbctl K rlpocb' 6e eroro crapnxa? Ho ornera He noc.IleAoBa,ro. rlepes HecKo,'tbKo HuxaHop upn6eraer K IIoc,'IeAHelly

"rer

cpeAcrBy-npoAaer 6ecxoHeqlto Aoporrie eMy qerblpe nopr$e.na c pIrcyHI(aNII{ 6para u co6crseuublMrt. Ou yruo,rner roJrbKo o6 oAsou: <coxpaHt'trb o6tunpHue rpyAbl... qro6lt ne lrorrtH coBcem norn6Hyrr B Heu3BecrHocru, a npliHecru noJIb' :+y>>. Axa4elrr{fl HagHaqrl.ra 3a HHx qerblpe rr,IcttqH. Cylrna 3ra Bbrr.rraqHBa,'racb B paccporrKy no 365 py6leii B roA: at(aAe tI

HrrecKoc\ il a q a,ll bcTBo

<<3,{p a

Bo>>

p

accyAllro

-

<<II

p eKJIO{ I -

49


riLie ,,teTa il 60Jle3iletIrioe cocToglil{e ocTaBueroca eule B }r(lrBbix aBTopa a,'ib6orroB He pyqaroTcfl 3a efo Ao,lrofieTue)>. Pacqer oria3aJrcl Aari,rroBuAlrnrr. ll rHBapfl 1879 roaa Hu-

tiailop LIepHeilos

cKoFrrraJicq, rreAonoryr{t,te

6ontueir qacrlr

o6cuarrsoir cytlubr. B cyquocrn c t{epHeuoebrM [poa3orx,rra ra )Ke rpareArra, KOrOpyio TaK. ocTpO H MyqtrTeJrbHo npl4rxJrocb rrepelKr{Tb )Kntso[Ilct1y AneNcau4py Opnoecxouy. pa3Hnqa saKdrrroqad'racb B TotI, rITo BHaqaJIe l{epneqonu He cMotJtH rIoIIflTb Becb rparrrsxr cBoero no!'rolreHr.rfl. JInAsn 6onee ypaBHoBeIueriHbrtr{, veu Op,roncxur?, nplreblKnluM Ae,rrrzrb nopoBHy H palocrr.r a rope, HM rrpnxoAr.r,'rocb noHaqad'ry He TaK Tyfo. Bnpouervr, ncropHn c OpnoacxrzM, pa3Bepuyiuraacn n 50-x ror,ax Ha rJra3ax Bcefo xyAo)KecrBeHnofo llerep6ypra, sacTaBHr.ra, BEAHO, TOpeCTHO [pr.{3aAyMaTbcfl t4 r4x.

C Op,roBcKnxr _ flo,rrur,

ir<e c,ryuunocb cJreAyrouree. BuxoAerl r.rg KpacaBeu, BeJII4KaH rr cilraq, qeJroBeK SeuomeuallHoft xpa6pocrt{, oH 6un o6nacxaH ABopoM ll oco6euuo goenHoit x"rlzxori Hrro,ras. floxa xVAo)KHaK [HcaJI BceBo3Nro)K-

nue 6ara,rull, ou 6lr,r s 6onb[]ori qecrtr. Tpy6aaypu ero cJIaBbr tteJa €rr] xBaJry. Jlerxaq Kucrb ero Bbr3brBa,'ra Bocropr fiyurxnsa. floor e <<Pyc,raue u ,IlroAnllue>> o6paqaercn K XyAo;rirJr{Ky: Eepu caor? 6ucrplrrl l(apaHAaxr

Plcyri, Op,roncxufi, uoul lr

-

ceqy.

Xyroxinury JerKo cxoAr4,Iu c pyK efo rycapcKr.re <<rroAI.I coBeplra,ilucb oHr,I B cpeAe npoxx<eHilofi uapcNofi BoeHrqrrgbr. Ho crouno xyAoxrir.rKy BbrcKa3arb He3aBilcllMocrb Ayxa, o6HaxLITb coilua.rrbHyro [paBAy, npor{BltTb coqyBcTBr.re K noJrbcKoMy HapoAy r{aK ero Bufli>),..relt 6o.tee, qro

Harra"{fi irpec,'teAoBarb, oco6eHgo IIoc,'te pa3fpoNIa rlor'IbcKoro ocBo6oAnrerrlnoro ABalKeHHs lB30 roAa- CproscxoMy npnu"riocb c-bexarb c xopoureri KBaprr.rpbr, nepe6partca B ,rraqyfy, paccrarbcfl c yuvxa,rluofi Ko,'ru-Iexu,lleft opyxus. EorarbrpcKoe sAopoBbe ero pa3pyrxaercr Ha fJa3ax tpyseri. OH 6pocaercr Ha irrero cBoeMy cooreqecrBer;Hr.{Ky Mopaecxol,ry u cyAopoMHo rrpou3Hocr.rr: ,.,fl Ayuaa, qro Hr.rKofAa re6s He yBrlxy, uofi Apyr, uofi copoAriq, cracu trreufl, BCfl HaAexAa N{orr na te6s, cnacg ueHr He or cMeprn, or xoropoii Mbr He yri4eu, a or yxacr{oro cocrorHurr AyIUu, or y6urlcrnenHofi TocKtr r{ orqarrHtrrr, KoTopbre Merrfl r\,ryqaT Bo cTo pa3 xy)Ke cMepTn>>. 5C


Mrt se 3HaeM nepexttBaill{fi

9eprre4osF,lx, KorAa I'IM IIe-

peAaJIH l\IHMoxoAoM o6poueuHoe Sallerlaill{e qa_pfl o rol\'l' qro oHH no-npexcreuy pa6oralor B ceoeli s{aHeP!. Mut He 3llael{'

tlepneuoe, rorAa fiorlbtrox loc,'re HeoAHoKparHblx Ao6urlcr llo]\{ouril ilol{flil: orBera ue 6yAer. Ho uu BttAIlM,- uapb I'I efo carpafibl He llpocTr.r,lu xyAoxHHKaM Tofo, qro oHI{, o'naLan TBOpqecKIli\I AapoM, HanpaBI,IJIIl efo He Ha IIpoc,'IaBd'leI]lle NlOIIapXuqecKoro pe)KI-IMa, a Ha BocrIeBaHI'le po4Hoil 3el\{,111 [I ee !la-

qro

HcrrbrrbrBaJr npecraper'IbIf.l Hraxauop

PoAa'


N EPCTE H

b

BEH EBI,ITI,I HOBA

oileuleHHr xyAoxeerBeH HOro Qonna 14cropliqecKoro Nry3er e }locxst,

[epenoJrHeHH cTapHHHbrlil.t nopTpc-

ranH u rpaBropaIf H. flpoxoirrlurl, [rano-co creH cuorpnT y;rudaro_


ll{uect AaMbr It KaBaJiepH B llapl{Kax, HaAMeHHbIe crapl(bl c TOlrKHMrr rroAxaTbilllH ry6aM14 rl B paclllHTblx raJIyHaMH ruyIIAr{pax, BHAbr HeI{SBeCTHbIX TOpOAOB I'l AOMOB, rAe flpoltcxoAl,t JI I.t Ka KIie-TO I,l CTOp Atl ecKl.I e co6 bITI.{g. uayunuil corpyAnlrK l\{y3er Xossiixa srof{ crapI.rHbI

- ucropl{H 4exa6pllcroe. KorAa 3HaroK M. IO. Dapauoncran [{sAarenlcreo AercKoil rt{Teparypbt roroBur'to K IIeqarl4 KHI'Iry A. I.{. feccesa <<Bo uy6ttHe cn6npcxttx pyA>>, no4o6parr, uJrJrrocrpaqalr x groii KHI{re o Aexa6pncrax il ux x{e}lax nonpocHJil.i Bapauoecxyto. V see ua yqere Bce saxopoHeHun

Il naMflrHr'rrl't 4era6pHc3a ux coxpauHoct'tQ. HgorAa fiplrxoAlrrcs npficyrcrBoBarb npu ropil{ecrBensofi n neqaJlbnbfi qepenonl.{H nepeHeceHl.{n flpaxa c bAsolp'rlaA6uula tta

rau. OHa pennocrHo Apyroe. 14

H_a

sror

CJIeAHT

Pa3 Aeno Kacarocb oAnofi MorllJIL'I:

" ;"'"i: ";.' - vbax"' l4tax, aro He caltoY6uficrno! Kncrr.r pyx... Beat oHLt r'Iex{aJII'l He Ha rpyaH' KaK - Ho groro rpe6yer 3axoponeHIie tto o6pnAau 'npaBoc,'laBllorl 6oxau Kopnyca. I(ucrn pyK MofJIIr H3MeIIHTb noJIoxeHHe or corptlcc-

uepKBr.r, a no

-

HHrr rloqBbt,

ocunansfi 3eMJltr. I(ax-Hnxax Mr{rryJto cTo c J'IHtrI-

snlr ler!.. Ho cauoe rraBHoe, tlro coBep[IeH]Io

O[pOBep-

raer fuflore3y o cavroy6Hilcrse, TaI{ 3To rularer-lb}Ioe' BAyMqilBoe H3yqeHI{e ero 6uorpaQrail, rBopqecrBa' fer, aror .{efloBeK He Mor rlocrylurl noAo6uum o6paaou!

floc,reAumn Spasy oHa npol'l3Hec,ra oco6esno y6ex4euuo. H usAn ua upexpacsntt axBapeJlbHblfi noprper IoHotrIHnosra, Mapnn IOPleaHa 3aIuerHJIa: Hacko.nlKo r 3llarc nxouorpaSu.Io' rlosT 6un calruu KpacHBbIM H3 pyccKl'tx, Aa, Iloxa.nyii, H sapy6exuux rllca' re.nefi. Kpacory n 6naropoAcrBo- ero JIHUa Mo)KHo cpaBnltrt!, noxanyr, ToJIbKo c 6aftpouoru. 14 noayuarr, ToJItJKo' eMy lle 6uno u ABaAuart.t Aeyx ner!

B roriue Qenpa.nn 1825 roaa Y Aorua Haputuxl'tublx' B Mocxse rla llpeuncrencxont 6y.nrnape, ocraHoBur'Iocb Ile-

cr{oJlbKo ,rterKl'Ix tloBo3oK, Kpblrblx l{3HyrplI MexoM' rIpuexanIIIUO BXOAI{,rIH B AOM, a JIOUaAH H [OBO3KI{ OTIIpaBT'IflJII{CI' B0

geop. TC}IH.

B

ocBerlleHrrbrx KoMHarax

3a urTopaMu

B ror eevep B AoMe Hapuruxuublx rraBa

3aN{eJ'IbI(aJIri

<<Cenepuoro o6-


illecrBa)> Aexa6p[cr l(on1parnri Oe4opoeHu PtrreeB rtrlra,'l cBoH n/raMeuHtre <<!,ymur>>. 3Aecl 6r,rn bAuH r43 pyKoBoA.lrTe.rrerl <Cenepnoro o6qecrBa>> EBrerrrzft O6onescNiili H apyr IlynrxzHa rio ,,iuuelo fIyurHH. Cpeau roc.reii sax"oAu,'rcfl

-tr4sal u ranauuit poAcrBeHHr.rr(

pbrrxKr.rrra

xo3rrurHa

Aoua Mrrxauna l{a-

Koure,ree. - A"uercasAD I{a apyrofi N<e Aeui oH BMecre c Apyrou cBoHm Iisarrorr l\upeeBcxHM nos6yx4eHuo AepraJr pyqr(y 3BoHKa y noA.be3-

Aa He6o,rluoro ABopflHcxoro oco6nixa s Kpusoxonenuou nepey,'rr(e. Flancrpeuy ApysbrM BbrrueJr crpoitHurl, u3fluuro

oAeru12 ABaArIarH,'reruuri r,ogorua c 6,reAriuNr JurqoNr no3T ,(nrnrpaft BeHesuruHos. 3Aecl )Ke K HrjM rro,u,oiue,l l{nxo,uarl Pox<aruu, xllerxaii TorAa B AoMe BeHeBrrrrr]ioBbrx, Bce uernepo cocroflJlrz B TarlHoM, Bo3Hr.tr(ueM ABa foAa Ha3an, <<O6lrlecrse ,rrc6onryapr.lfl>> ttepBoN{ pyccKohr Snno-

-

- neueqxo,t "uaean,lcruqecoQ-cxou KpyxKe. Oull ynirexanncr cxori SH,roco$ueil, HcKyccrBoM, nogsuefi, 6orornopunn fere.

I lpeAceAare,relr o6qecrea 6H,'r KHrrsb Bna4nrurip Oloescxafi. O6qecrBeHHbrx aHTepecoB oH cropoHri lcfl n B cBoexr

r'IHTepaTypHOI|{ TBOpr{eCTBe yBr'reKa,'rCfl A{LrCTr.rIl}t3MOna. Cex-

pera,per'r o6qecrea 6un

!,l,turpafi BeHeer4ruuos.

Koruenen B3BoJrHoBaHHo paccKa3a.n o co6pailrau y HapbIIIIKHHbIX, H OHt4 BeCb AeHb TOd.IbKO A TOJIKOBaJILT, qTO <<o [o,'rHTLrKe a o roM, qro ueo6xoAuMo fipo]rgaecru s poccHrr rrepeMeHy e o6pa:e flpaBd,reHrrfl>>. r aK nHCaJr MHOrO JIeT CnyCTfl B CBOHX r.r3AaHHbrx nrr rr.efi MeMyapax Anexcau4p Kourenee.

K

rzcxoAy uon6pr

rofo xe

n3Becrno o Brre3anHofi claepru

3a fpa-

lB2S roaa e Mocxse cra,,ro e Taranpore AnercasApa I.

Koue.[es foBopHT, rtro B Tor npoMexyror BperlreHLr, To yexAy rroJryqeHrzelr ugsecrflri o KoHqr{He Hl,rneparcpa AnexcalrApa u o npoacrxecrBrrflx 14 rcxa6pst, oHH uacio, rioqrn exeAHeBHo co6apa,aact y &1. M. F{apilurxuua. V sero cocpeAororrnBaJracb Bce AoxoAflrque Ao A{ocNnu c./rvxr{ n H3Becrnfl rr3 llerep6y_p_ra. O4rzu r.rs rrplrcyrcrsyroulrlx ua _ KHfl3b H. L4. 1'py6eqrofi, aar,roriHr rpacira ily^_9:!.Aax, r o..rcrofo, TorAa KoMaHAOBaBrIero KopnycoM, pacno.rbxieHHbrM e MocKee, 6pancn AocraBHTr, cBrr3aHgbrM cgocro lraqa,rbHuKa KyAa rrorpe6yerca. fIpe4,roxeuilnM 14 ttpeHr.rer,t He 6uno xouqa. IOHorire Korueneny Ka3a,,Iocb, rrro Ar,rf Pocclru yxe nacrynrrn senHxr4ri l7B9 roir. e^c_rl

fo EI

I10

BOT tracTa,'t AeIIb, KOtAa BltecTo cTpacTHo OxilAaeilrorr3Bec'r'IIE O H143Bepx<eHr.ru caMoAepxaBfifl npr{u,qo co-


Bcer{ Apyroe: o Bbtcrpe!'tax }ia CeuarcNoii ruloilraAl{ e flerep' 6ypre, o6 y6urux H palleHbtx, o6 apectax eoccranrutlx o$tt' rlepoB. tr4 crano scHo: BoccraHue noAaB.neuo. tr4Aer pacnpa' Ba HaA ero yqacrHzxantll. 3ro [pou3Ber'Io na BeHeetluluoBa ltorpfl caroIrIee Aertcrelre.

Ilorou Bo3HHK.rrId HoBbre cJIyxIt, cBnAereJlbcroyer Koue' JIeB: ro)r{Hafl apMvfl orKa3aJracb [pllcflfarb HoBOMy {aplo Hxxonarc I n uAer na Mocxay Ar'Iff npoBo3fJla[IeHl{tl ceo6oA' goi.i xoscrnryrlfiu. A l,nn coeAptHeullfl c Hefi Asuxercn tl(o' 6H ussecrHurl <n a6epaJrl4cr>> reHep a,'I Ep uo.noe. Jfuo6ouyapu cHoBa Boc[pflHyJIH AyxoM. tr4 qro6H osna' Aerb Bor4HcKHr\{ ucKyccrBoM AJIr He[s6e)Kuoft, KaK Ka3aJlocb uM, pacflpaBbr c [peAcTaBLITeJIfiMLr CaMOAepXaBI4fl, UapcKH' l\{il II}IHOBIII4KaMV I4 reFIepaJIaMH' OH}l AaX(e Haqa,'II4 ex(e' AHeBHo e3AIIrb B MaHe>x n QextonanbHylo 3a,'Iy 14 TaKIII\{-To o6pasou roroBuJtucb K AettreJlbHocrl{, Koropyrc ce6e npea' HaSHaqaJIU.

I-Io ru"rru AHI{, a uuxaxofi nxHofi api\{ItH, HI{KaKl4x soiicx Epuo,roea Ha yJrlrqax Mocrett He IIosB,rIsJIocl. Haqa,rnct, apecrbl rut{, [pHLIacrnblx K BoccraHl{Io l4 4exa6pn' Apyslq BeHeel,traHoBa He coMHeBa,'lHcb, tITo Bd'lacrqM H3' BecTHa

vx,

Te,'rbtrocrb,

KaN oHH CTIIZTaJIL{, aHTHTIpaBI'lreJIbcTBerllrafl Aen' a>K:nAar.H apecra. <<Mu, tttoroAelKb,- BCIIONIII-

14

)KeJIa.IIH 6strr egqrstMll i] TexI crflxarb r4gBecrHocrb 14 MyqeHl,Iqecxllfr eeHeq>>. flpanxre.rlbcrBy Ne 6rt.na oqeBLIAHa ax Hertpfir]acrHocrb K BoccrallHIo' I4x r'rar.rBHoe pbrllapcrBo, tITo JIu. Ho eAea pacnpocrpaHHJIl{cb

gaer Koue,'teB,- ltotirtr

c,nyxn

o

pacflpaBe HaA Aexa6pHCTaMI'1' ucnyranultit Klltl3b

OAoencxra ri 3 a gB It,l o JI HKBI,rAaIIuta <<O6ulecre a,t to 6ouyApu r.{ rxBbrpHyJI B nbt,'tarcnrufi Naniuu ycraB H nporoKoJIbI.

n>>

A ryr fopnxoe pa3oqapoBaHile -.[to6oel, oxeainno BeneeurllHoBa' x ceercxol? KpacaBHI{e 3lluartAe eule I{ 6esorBerHas Bonxosct<otl. KorAa npou3olxr'lo pelluTerbHoe o6lRcuetllte, oHa oTBerHrra, qro ioToBa 6url euy JII'IIXb I(pyroM' Il rla rpouraHbe noAapuna 6poHronltit nepcreHb, orpltrufr npu pacKonKax ropoAa fepxynaHyua s \4ranuu',,

B ceuin6pe 1826 roaa n Mocxey npHexarl flyut<ttu' Huxonah I, ecrynunruuh na npecroJl, <<MHJiocrHBo>) ocBo6orun ero I{3 ccbtJIKI'l e Mnxaft,'IoBcl{oe' KyAa ceMb "Ie'r Hasa1 ornpaBI4"t ero AlexcasaP L A,rexcau4p Cepreeeuu ocraHoBl4,rlcfl cHaqaJla y AflAl'l' noera Bacn,r[s Jllsoeuua llyuxtltta, a [oroM y Apyra cBoero Co6onescKoro. Vrponr 10 ceurr6pr HaBecrl'lrr, rlo3ra,


[o3i(paBr.lTb'c ocRo6O]KAeHrIeM A3 CCbrJ-rKH nDHUrrH qaartaeB, BeHeBur'tlr'on,_VlBaH KupeeBcKurl a Br.renrropcxnft. C BeHesrarr.rHoBblM flyruxuu aaeHo xoreJl nogHaxoMrlTbcrr. On c rrurepecona.. npouuraJt ero pae6op Kpr.rrr.rKH Huxo.ryar tIoJeBoro nepnofr rJraBbr <<EsfeHltfl Onernua>, Aa KpoMe rc,ro, oHI{ cocroffJrr.r c B Aar,rbHeM poAcrBe. l2 oxra6pn 1826^BeHesurfiHoBbrM roaa s Kpasor{oreHHoM repeyJrKe B ao_ Fte BeHesr.tfltHoBblx llyurxraH qnTa,r roJIbKo r{To Hanr{caHuoro <Eopuca fo4yHoaa>>. 6unu se,,rfixlrri nonlcrrfi nosr AAau Mu_uxenuu, Eaparuucxufi, My3brKanr a ueqenar Bneltropcrurl...,Ilareparop n lrcropzi< IIoroAaH, npncyrcrBoeanrilr4r:r rtpa rrreHHH, qepe3 copoK Jrer nltcar, qro KpoBb eto npllxoArrr B ABH;xeHHe nplr oAHoM Bocnor\{HHanun o6 erom

qTCIIIIH.

flyurxtul oqapoBail

^

BneqarJrHreJrbHoro

FJEHEBHTI4HOBA.

H

or3brBrrHBoro

BeceAu flyruxuua c BeuesnrflrroBbtl,] npr4Be.rru r o6orcnrioMy pel[enuro ocHoBarb xypHaJr <<MocxoscKufi eecrsHr>.r. BeHesnrauoB Ha.{es,.rcr npo[oBeAoBuro u n", ;";;;;;,.

uIeHHbre HAeaJrbr, peluarb Screrr.IqecKue npo6,reutt. A ue;r.:_ Ay TeM B,IIItTe"rybHbIe 3HaKOMbte ycHJeHHO ,*nonoru,o, o nor, peBo,{e BeHes[rnHoea n flerep6ypr, c reM qro6u orAa.itltrb ero or 3nHanAu Bo.'lxoHcrofi.'

*** flo yntrnoMy MocKoBcro-nerep6yprcxoMv rpaKry exa,trr ABa gKnltax{a. B oruo,lr cr.rAe,T Beirerir.rrunos,'s Apyrdpr Oirrru -ri ,

'lltuoBHHK H3 AenapraMeHra rDeaop Xor*nxos Opasuv: Doure. I locreAHH!i To,'rbKo qro BepHy,,rcfl a: HcpqraHcxu x pyAHI.{I(oB, KyAa conpoBoxAaJr KHflrr.rHro Tpy6euxyro, yexaB_ rlrylo K cBoeMy uyxy Aexa6pHcry.

6u;r 6u lraxoAnrbcfl B oAHoM gKr4rraBoue, Aa, flepece.rrflflcb B flerep6yirr lraAoJIro, Be3 HeMaJIo aerqeri, nportlB ero )Ke,naHlIn ganv_ bereBHTtrHoB paa

,Ke

c XoMnKoBbl\t

a.rrH

Bnpovelr, r.rHorAa Bce xie K HeMy rroAca.iri}r]11n"{,poAHefr. eaJcfl .\oMfKoB, a BperteHailH u Boue. Belteetrrfigos 6Hr'] Modtqa!'IHB rt leqanen. Ha Borpocbt cnyrllut(oB orBerra.r oAHoc"[oxHo, Ha rlpocb6y nouararb crtJxu-orKa30rr. flo BperrerJar\,t orAeprnBar tro,.rcrb 3Kt{naxa rr -5espaAocrHo fJrr{AeJl Ha rrr{trille re]!rHbre AepeB]IH, oilrior al p€_3 I{o-TocI{JI I,t B br e ilo f oc.r.bl, }t ycrbt e oc eHH fi e n oJrf . n.iuorAa r{3 Kapn,talla ceoero (topr,reuuoro tt'lyHAapa, sa:6


TCii;'rHBO paCIXt4TOrO tO,'Iy6bIMIl t4 3OJlOTbtr,lll V:lopaMI',l, oll qyryilAOCraBa.rr qacbr, K [enoqKe Koropblx 6st.n npHrpenJleH

nrrii nepcreHl. BeHesfirHHoB noAHocI{J ero x rJla3aM, AoJIro Br!'IsAblBa.rICf, XMypltJICfl H TIaKOHeU IIpflTaJI qaCbl I'l Halnyx0

'lacrerl'lBail MyllAI'Ip... JIHUo nosra cHoBa acqe3aJlo B crofl-

qCM BOPOTHI{KC, U PflAOIT,T CO CTIYTHI'I{OM BHOBb CIIAEJIA NPII' qyAdll{Bafl , HenoABH)KHas ollryp a.

Ha llocxoscxot? sacrase flerep6ypra, y lloJlocaroro ur.rar6ayua, 3KI-InaxH 3aAeplKa.rlt AoJIbue o6uqsoro. HasoiinNso-sex,rasHfi x{a HAap M cKuft poruucrp rpe6onare"rl bHo noflpocri,4 ilaclopra. oH rlr{arenbHo npoqHral 6yMary tseHeBIITIIHOBa, KOTOpafl rJIacHJIa, t{TO TOT rIepeBoAI'ITCfl no c,ryx6e a flerep6ypn, He6pexHo npocMorpeJl AoKyl{eHrbl Xouqxosa u Borue. Ilototr't He c[eu]a BepHy,'I naclopr Xounrony H, 3a,'IoxLtB sa o6ru,lar flac[opra BeHeellrfiHoea lr Boure, o6parnncn K HHM: A nac, rocnora, [pou]y cre,[oBarb 3a NrHolo. Bu -

apecroBaHbt

!

BcrpenoxenHLIfi XoltnroB norJlfiAeJl .Ha cBol'tx ToBapHruefi. FIb re 6lt.ltlt BHeIIIHe cnoKoiiHbl, a i{a "'II{ue Betresnrullo' Ba, K cBoeilly yAtIB"rIeHIrrc, XoMRxoB 3al\'leru.Il, Kax eilty IIoKa3a,'rocb, Aax(e paAocruo-s;ro6Hyto y.llut6xy' BeHesHruHoBa fipoAepxaJllt oKoJIo rpex cyrox B cblpoM

:

raynrBaxrbl. ,[lonpoc eMy tlHHHn reHepa,'r flotanon, Ha3HaqeHItblfi c.neAonareJeM rlo AeJly Aexa6pncroe. Cpaey xe tto BblxoAe H3 raynrBaxrbl Flaqa,lcfl y BeneeatnHoea cllnlHHfi KaIIIe,'lb H nepeMexamulltftcs osHo6' l5 napra 1827 roAa, qepe3 rpn c JIIIIIIHIIM Mecrlra noc'le apecra, BeHeetlruHoB vMep. XyAolxuux A$anacler sapncoBaJI nosra B rpo6y. Bonuucrute, KpacnBo pacqecallllble BoJrocbr ycradtlo naAaJII4 Ha npeKpacHltii eutcoxltft .1o6. Teno noara B ruFIKoBol,l rpo6y AocraBHJlI'I FIa ero poAlluy n MocxBy H noxopoHl{Jl}I lla KflaA6plue CltlIoHoea ;\'lo-

u xoJIoAHoM nol'leuleHun

HacTbIpfl.

Heox<llAaHuat u raHHcrBeltllo-Tporarerbtlaff cNteprb llo-

sra norpRcJIa efo apyseir tl roqHrare.nefr. flopasuJla olia Ilyurruria n Ae.nterira. ,II,enoeur flHcaJI flynrxr'rny: <trltt-

nufi Apyr, 6eAgoro BeHeeHt[tHoBa rbl yx(e, BepotlrHo' oil;laxafl. 3uan, cMeprb ero Ao"'lxHa 6u.na nopa3lrrb Tcott)>' IIymNlrlt, BCrtotltuHarcT coBpeMelIHHKII,. ropecrllo BocKJlllKny.'r no aApecy nerep6yprcxux apysefi llo3ra: <<Kax ebl noIIVCTIIu-lli erO VrtePerul >

" llo

r\'locxne r'r flerep6l'pry 6lrcrpo pa3Hecr''Iacb \loJBa o


6e.Tr{ [o3Ta-roHorll]r or crp acrnori,'Iro6Bn. Aanau yB,'reqeHHo fiepeltgcblBa,'tu e a,'Il6oMH craBII]ee xo.[,HTb B cnEcl{ax crurorBopeHue BeuesrrriHoBa <<I( uoenty ltepcrulo>>: Tn 6uLr orpbrr B r{ofrre nslnrrrort,

rr.i

Jho6eu r,lauraraii gexonofi, tr{ crtoea nHJtH TbI ttorrr,'rtuoii 3aneqan 6yaerur,, nepcrerrl uofi.

b,'Uu;"'

rror?' aepusrri'

ra,rro'r":'

?lpaHu MeHf oT TTXKHX parl LI cnera, H ro!'rnbl nuvroxuofi, Or eANoii xaxAbr cnantr noxuofi.

Or o6o,rrcrzre,rlsoii lreqror H or 4yurennoli irycroru... 'e.nu'nporuuran,

, o"ri

Mox(cr

9ro xro-sri6y4t rrlofi npax BcrDeBoxrrr 14 s ueilr re6n orpoer ilHoau; ' H cnona po6Kafl iro6osr

Te6e npouenuer cyeBeprro Cnosa r\ayqure.n*rrix cipacrerl, trI sHonr-rbr ApyroM 6lueurr iri, Kar< 6ura u rrHe, nrofi nepcreur eeprrurt. besnpeiraeHuo cKp brroro <<M orr.rJr brrori ceu bro>> Beues t.lruHo_ Ba cBrr3brBaJrlr c o6pa30M ,[IeHCi{Oro, HeseMHOr? uoSr-rrreqra-

Te,Tb, Ar4BHbIil roHorua BeHesr.iruHoB

rfix

B

BOO6pa)r(eHrlil

MHO_

coBpeMeHHilKOB Ipoue,'1 tio 3eM,,re co ceoc.fi cJ]aAocTFlocKop6Hofi r.r rotrHoft ,Tnpori. Cmepru ero nocBfirqa,{ncr, AectrTxr4 CTHXOB, B KOTOpbIx 6bl,'Irj <<,Ie6eAH>> H <<po3bl>>, <<My3bt>)

rr

<<

SJrTdpr{>>,

<<q

apbt >) H

<<}Kp

e5fi r.t)>. H

au

6onee

cerrTr.il\,reHTa,ry bI\{O-q.tlbte

HO IIaCTpOeIIHbIe ,TIOALI CO B3AOXOM BCTIOI{H}Ia,TIt rorAa crpoQbr er'rerHr{ )(yxoecr<oro: 3Aecr none,l rouollllr 6e:speuerruo

t{to cnana, cqacrue, IIe 3ua.rl oll B coKpbr,tu; nlijpe ce]i, Ho lrysul or uero ,utua rre orBparlrJ,rir. l,l [reJ']a]lxoJrrH neqarb 6r,t"ra ua rrerr ENero4Ho, l5 uapra, Apy3br BeHesHri4HoBa B reqerrlre MIIOTIIX JICT CKOP6HO, TOP>KCCTBE}IHO U MOfiTAJII4BO CI,I,[C,III 3a [oMuHa,lbHb]M cTod'roM. OAHO r43 KpeCe.T fi OAIZH rr3 npH_ 6opoa, flo o6brqaro, HeH3NreHHo crorrJrH nycrbre. Co6panrufiircr Ka3aJrocb: TeHb BeHeBHrHHoBa He3ir.rMo frpHcyrcrByer IVIC)KAY HUMT. 3TO YM],IJIflJIO U IIPI-IAABAJIO OqAPOBAHHE TA. I{I{CTBCHHOCTI,I.

58


22 mons 1930 roaa x 6uoruelry Cnuonony MoHacrbrpro npu6uaa rpyfiila pa6orriar<oo Haprounprlca.- B cBnsu co ffrocoM reppHTopnH MOHacTr,rpfl, ua roropofi Bo3Bo-

-qacTH KyJlbTypbr, nM nopyqa,'rocb oTbrcKaTL, MoftrIl\nncn ABopeu .ny Beneanr[HoBa r,r flepeilecrn ero npax Ha l-IosoAeetrque xnaA6uu{e. A{oru"ua 6una Hafi4eHa n pacxonaHa. floliasa"'rcrl

tuluKosr,ui rpo6. B Her{ JrexaJ xoporuo coxpaunrulrilcn cKe/,rer. AurpononoroB fiopa3u,'ru cr{r.rbrro g rapMoHLIqHo pa3ei{rufi qeper, MygblKaJIbi,ras pa3Brrrocrb na.ntuee. Ha'6e3brMfluHoM rraJ'rbqe tpaaori pyKrJ qepneJr fiepcrelrb. flpopoqecrBo nogra c6tt"rocu. Beuepou rofo x{e AuR ocralrtH Bclreeuri.rHoBa B cneqnaJrblro [puroroBaeHHoM rpo6y c Bog!,rox{eulrblMl{ Ha Hefo IIBeTaMU 6tr,rs 3axopoHeHbr Ha HosoAeBuqbeM x.naA6r.rUe,

rlle

noKoflTCfl NlHOrUe BbtAaorqr.recfl nucaTe"nlr [1 xyAoxiHI,IKr{. HecKolrlbKo d'rer cpeAa qacrlr t\{ocKoBcKl.rx d,rnTeparlrpoBeAoB rrpoHeccn cJryx, rrro rrpn Bcxpbtruu rpo6a pyxn noxoiinoro oKa3arr{cb He cr{peueHnbtMu Ha rpyArr, a nexaJIu BAo,rrb re,ra. Tax xopor{HJlu roJrbKo cauoy6iriru. flpeAlo.tto>xern{e o carrloy6uric,rBe no3ra 6trro eorcxasarIO

A uepe:

II B IICqATII.

flepcreHr BeHesn,,{Ho"; t;";" xpaHHrcn o gou;r,a.x .rIHreparypHoro My3en. TpyaHo nepeaai u BodirrreHrie, Koroporl HCnbITbrBaeIIlb, KofAa BXOAUIIIb B 3TO CKpOMHOe oAItoSTa]Kiloe 3nalrfie. ...BHecnn Syrnap c 3aBerrrbrN,r coKpoBnuei,,r. Tnxo orripbrrTacb KpbtIIlKa.

Bor on, BHe[rHe HLrqeM He fipaMeqarenlHuri 6pou:oeuii IlepcreHeK, 6es scqxux yxpaueHllii u neo6paxenllii, cnoerr,-, 6 r,r,u ec No.n tKo rrp H n Jr rogryir,r ii, ae(iop u u poe a H rr H ii. Aro HocIlJr ero B JrerelrAapr{oil4 fopoAe fepxy",raHyivre? ^llo,roAas KpacaBuI{a rlarpHuuaHKa, ynenuaHuaR

B

AIltr

npa3AHecrB BeHKoM r43 nbrrrlHbrx u 6.naroyxaonlrrx poe? Her, cxopee ero floAapn,tl ceoefi HeBecre, a Mo)r{er 6uit, r carr_oT{l{ npocroi:i macreponori qe.'roBeK, r(y3Her{. B 1706 coAy nptn pac(onKax 3acbrrranHoro ner.:]o],r ropoAa rrarrrdiru <<B Mori'rJre nlinuroft>> a 3TOT fiepcrel{b. on norian

B JraBKy aHT?tKB,apa, B Kod'tJreKlluro co6upareJlfl, a 3areM K npriexanurerl uil Poccllu r{rtfl rr{He 3uiranle Bo,rxoncNori. Bo3uo)rt.to, 3lrnau,l.a Bo.,rxortcxaq, 6rucrafl B cBoet\r 3lrar\'rrrfitroNt I,roct{oBCt(o\,t ca,1oHe, IJoctt.ila ero. flepcrerib 3Tor 60

_


rrleTeJrb n pocJI a BJrelr Hblx x,ly3blKaJlbHblx n xyAo)KecrBell tlblx BeqepoB, rAe sByqaru roJloca flyuxuua H llHuKesuqa, EapaTbIHCKOIO U BCI{EBIITHHOBA.

cB

<<flpo'lreuae Ha Mocrey no ttpuxoru cBoero Kafiplt3tloro aoo6paxeuug ABop Anexcalr4pa I, nerep6yprcKtlft cser a Vltailwto, oHa Heoxc4AaHHo trBrl'racb c fip]rcyqult eil eesAe 6recxorrr s csoti IIacJleAcrBenHuft oco6HflK Ha Tnepcxoil, rocrenpnunHo pacraxHyaurufi ABepLI He roJIbKo qstofi roJln.e XyAO}KHI{KOB,

aKTepOB, aHTI..lKBapOB, - neBUOB,cBltAereJlbcrBoBa,'r HcropuK pyccxoli lio lr sceri Mocrne,Jlureparypbr B. I(oruapoBfir{.- 3t-tHanAa Bonxoscxas ounqa/lacb peAKo ncrpeuarcqeficn B x{eFIUlI.IHax IIe3aB[cI{-npene6pexeHlteM II{OCTpaHrIeB

cBercKrMlt yc,'IoBltocrnmu. <<CeBeplafl KopuuHa> cMe,'Io nporuBorlocraBJlrd'ta flrt aprucruqecKyro cno6o4y. O6.naAarelbHtlua npeKpacHoro foJloca fi Kpy[Horo cqeHHqecKoro AapoBaHLIfl, oHa ItecKoJIbKo pa3 BbIcTyrlad'Ia B onepax Poccnsn Ha cIIeHax napHxcKllx It pHltvlcKHx reaTpoB; ee cqeHltqecKllrl o6pas B poJIH PoccHlll'IeBa TauxpeAa u XaHHu a'Apr fis ee co6creeHHoft orepbl,yBeKoeeq&,'In cnoefi rncmn Bprcn,roe a 6pyHu. [IyurxuH Il Mnq,xesll.], EaparrrttcNutt ti BaeeNtcxilfi nocssrunlt <<uapnqe My3 lI Mocrblo,

KPACOTbI>) BAOXHOBCHHbIC CTPOKI4; BCTPEqAMI,I

C HCIO B

CBOCM

Beiiuape AopolKLrJI crapr.IK fete>>. 3nuanAa Bonroscxan 6u.na crapue Beueotn'nuona, y Hee yxe poc llnrHaAqarulersuft cuu. OHa IIoAapHJIa no3Ty rrepcreHb KaK <<3aJror cocrpaAannR>>. KorAa IoHoIla yMI.IpaJI, @eaop XontRxoe, corractto ero BoJIe, HaAefl fiepcleHb Ha naJreq yi\{npaIoUIefo.

oqHyBll]l.Icb, R xenrcco? - cflpocttJl, - Pasee Inaea BesesllrutloBa Her,orBerr,t, XontsNos. NOJ''IH HJI IICb CJIC3 A M II. no3T.

tla-

Kax, u ttoqer'Iy Bo3Httt( Bonpoc o caltoy6ttt?cree noara? Bepcun o BogMox{Hou cauoy6ttticree BblcKa3aJI Aol(rop HayK B. H. Opnoe. $rr.nonoruuecr{Hx ' floer HaxoAfi"rcq e xpaftHe rpeBolKHoM Hacrpoerrult. B fioc.ireAHeM ero fiucbMe (x floro4r.rHy) ecrl raKne crpo!{lt: uff yxe Bbr[Ie nrrca,T, r{To rocKa 3a}lyquJla MeHq. 3Aecu, cpeArr xoJloAHoro, fiycroro n 6ea4yuruoro o6ulecrBa, fl -o.illIH>).

OAHaxo HII 3TI{, HIr apytne noAo6uue crpoKll He AoKa3brBanr eure canoy6tlftcrsa no3Ta, reu 6o,ree qro prA AoKyMeHroB xax 6yAro onpoBepfaer 3ry BepcHIo. 6l


<<.&{rr

ornenu ero y Hnxo;ln Moxporo fi TeJro ero ornpaA. Koruenee. Carrroy6uiiu, rax

Brlnr.i B Mocxny>>,- 3anHcaJr H3BeCTHO, IIe OTIIeBaJlH.

C,rreAoeareu'rlno, BeHesun*roB vMep <<ecrecrBegHoii c.ueprtrc>>. Ecrecrselruor? cueprr,io s AsaArrarl Asa roAa

?!

llonuraer,rct paso6parocn B noc,{eAHr.rx Mecquax ero xlr3Hr.t. Kcrarn, He coBCeM rrcHo, loqeMv BCe-Tar{}r oH Bbrexa,,r e flerep6ypr. C noslruenueM rro c,ryx6e sro He 6urno cesgauo. Ha oroM HacranBailv poAHbte, Aa6H orsreqb ero or ry6urentI{OII CTDACTH. A ior qro flr.rcaJra HeKafl f]onuua HfiKonaeeHa ,IIaepeH-

TbEBA:

<fonopt,'ru, qro oH 6exan l.ts Mocxeu, crpacrHo

^ JHIIAIIAY xe

TJO,'IKOI{CKYIO, KOTOPAfl XOJIOAHA

nrc6R

K HEMY 6U.NA, Mr,I

3HaJII4 Apyroe. O npHHa4.nexHocrr.r BeHeeraruHosa x o6xrec'rBy (Aexa6pucros.-8. O.) snanu e Mocxee r{ Koe_Kro lr3 cyAe6Hoii rradrrarbr, s oco6eHuoctu Jl...>> Kro raxas n. H. Jlanpeurlena H orKyAa r.r3uecrno 3ro rucr'lro? Ona 6u,ua 6nzsxori rrpxrreJrbnuu"eri A. f. Mypanr,_ eeofr, xeHtr gexa6pucra Hsxniu Mypanleea. .,!,orr,ta" y uac c6opn A,rei<caH4pu fpHroptenHr,l n9ot1^-,'rHXopaAoqHbre Uu6zpl>>,- coo6uana otra B rom Ne nactnae. ndvNa.,ra oHa rr c Bapeapori tr4eaHoeHofi .Ilaucxofi (He cnyualtHb""aro,Baer ee <<BapeHtrofi>>), n 4oue xoropor? na Moilxe n >KvJl berreBHrrlHon. [IpeLcraBJrrroulee orpounuil rlHrepec nr4cb]ro

ee

re I

enuHcreeHnr,rri pa3 6tr.'to ony6.luxoeaHo B KHrrB. BeHenurHrioe. flo,nHoe co"6paHne coul.luenali>,

<<4.

934.

IJo ec,ra o npr4jlaAJreiKHocrtr BetreearfiHoea x Aexa6pfic_ Tani 3uar'Iu <<B,Tacrr.r rrpeAep]Ka[{r.re>> B Mocxee, qro unl bro-

r,ro cnecrrrct c flerep6yprom? tr4 xro raxoir,IL? BuAruo, oH 6ltl xue, u JlaepeurreBa He xore,ita, no Bnor,Ille norrstuot:l rIpHquIIe, I{asbiBarb ero tto/,tHoto HI\,reHI4. KoumegTarop nrlcbNra, IrbrHe 3ApaBcreyrcqurl coaercxlrfi ucc,,reaoBareJrb rBopqgglu, BeHesaruHosa B. B. CuHpeHcNr.li, npe4_ [o.[afaer, r{To aro rpaQ ,rIalr6ep, oAr.rH H3 rr,rreiloB c.rreAcrBenrror4 KoMr.rccuv no aeny Aera6pucroB. B. B. CrurpeHcxl.rft, Tor-,ta eIr1e

BliAl{MO, PaCnO,'taraeT AOKy[,teIITAM14, IIO3BO,rIflIOIIIIlMfi

eNIV

yrBepxAarb, KaK oH [Huler, uro rpa$ ,Ilali6ep ,,He pas na_ [{e]iail'rfi Aar qyBcrBoBarb 3To>>, TO eCTb Vro cyAe6uor?-na,rare tt3BecrHa rrpr.rHaA,'re)KHocTb rro?Ta x Aexa6pucrau. 62


flocre oceo6oxAeHtte n3-noA apecra, [po]KI'IBafl s fle' rep6ypre y ,IIaHcxux H noceu{afl c.rryx6y, BeueaI'ITI'IHos tteo6rtqatiso MHoro saHlzMad'tcs noasHeft. B cvuluocru Bce ero J'IyquHe rIpoII3BeAeHLIfl (nX oUenl sblcoxo qellllJl Ee.;ttlttct<utl) nanzcaHbl 3a .u,Ba Mecflua 1827 rola: cruxorBopeHHfi <Tpr yuacru>>, <<K[n)Ka,'r> (sanpeqesiruft qeHsypofi), ttflo:r n fpyrr, <<K ntoeuy nepcrHlo>>, <<fiepraonpliHoil]enl{e)> ri Apyrlre. <<V gero s 24 qacax, I{3 Koropblx cocraBr'IeHbl cyrKn' He fipoflaAaer HI4 I\.{LIHyrbI, HH rIoJIl\{laHyrbl. Vtlt, eoo6pa)KeHIle Iz qyBcrBa a 6ecnpecrasHofi AeflTe.llbHocrn)), - cBHAereJIbcrBoBaJr XonaqKos.

A lrexay relt... A MexAy relt

ra 6rrn

ylKe cMeprentso 6oaes.

,rrc6oeanHcb

BeHeeurIlHoB nocfl€ apec' BpeMfl, KorAa Aaillbl

B ro

ero xpacoroii, I'I3gIqecrBoM'

xpyflKocrblo

(<<cronHo I.I3BasHlie I,I3 MpaMopa... c rpoMaAHltltu ro.'ry6urtlr f.rla3ailIH I,I pecHLiqaN{ID, nogT rax 6lt raflil Ha fd'la3ax. Hecoltseriso, oH y)Ke 6un 6o,nen qaxotxoti. tr4 noAn'ternl 3To He xro uuoli, KaK AIIpeKTop AenapraMeHTa, KyAa nocrynt.r,r Besenurl4HoB. OH orogearctl o HeM KaK o qeJIoBeKe'

IIoAarouIeM 6o,rtune HaAex(Abl. Ho tyr xe no6aeHrr: u9H c IIaMn, y Hero cMepTb s r,'Iasa'r.' orl He Ao,rro npo6yaer -(<Pyccxufi apxl4B>>, 1885, .lvs l, crp' 23)' cKopo yMper>. O tolt, r{To rtpoucxoAl4Jlo Ha Aorlpoce, MbI Mo]KeM To.nb-

Ko AoraAbtBarbcfl. Ha aolpoc, TIpHHaAJIe)Ka,'I JII4 oH K rariHony o6urecrey, BeHesHr[HoB orBerHJI, qro <<ecr'lII oH [I He rrpr.rHaA"IexaJl K o6qecrey Aera6pucroe, To Mor 6lt .ner' Ko rrpr4uaAne)Karb K HeMy>>. K erouy coo6qeHHrc flsrKosnepBofo 6norpaSa Berieetlruuoea - KoueJIeB KaK cxoro 6rt no6aerser: <<...oH He N'tor oceo6oAl'lrbcg or rtlxeJlofo BneqarJlelll{fl' [por.r3BeAellHoro Ha l{ero cAe,'IaHHbIM eN{y AonpocoM... Olt ue ma6un o6 arou foBopnTb, Ho BHAHo 6ltno, qro-To rflx(e;'lo€ ,rex{aJIC y Hefo }la AyIUe>>. 3a ce6s ltt, sa isoto rr cyal6y 6ecnoron"ncs os? BeAl ror x{e Kourenee yrBepx{AaJl, qro ;lto6oitlyApbl' a cJIeAoBa' Te,'rbrro fi Itx ceKperapl, roroeuJll'rcb pa3Ae.nurn cyAr6y apecToBaHHbtx, a KorAa aro ax NIIII{oBaJIo' 6unH r,ly6oKo orop' qeult. Aa I,t 3aqeM TorAa cosHa,'lcfl oH' qro JIerKo Mor obl rtpnHaAte)Karl x Aexa6Pucrana? A eor H Apyroe, He MeHee BaIKI{oe cBllaereJlbcrBo' B qecTl{ocrH H LICKpel]HocTll KOrOpOro coMHeBaTbctl He IIplIXo' Alrrcrr. Oao nputtaA,'tex{Hr fl. H. Jlanperlrlesoii:


pa3 roBopll.rtr MFr€ iltoJIoAofi BeHesr.rtr{lroB. qro 6urt c BaMr.r B Cu6upu, a He >xuru e flerep6ypre, uo Baperora BcerAa yrerua.nd ero a roBopuJra. qro elrle MHoro rureHoB o6urecrea He xoreJrr4 orr{pbrrb'cHAnurrie B Kpelocru, I.r Fre orKpbr.ltu. flo,ltnro ero rpycrHbre uIaga, ero pecHHIIbI, KaI(He eABa rlalxd'Iltcl 6u eue B Mupe, u rIoMHIo cJre3br, KOrAa Bc[o[,ruHara o pHreese>. Her, ue sa ce6n BoJrHoBa.rrcfl nosr! Moxno flpeAnoJro)KLIrb, qro 6ecnoxozncfl oH 3a cyal6y .nrc6auoir xeuquHu. <<Cxo.ntr<o

oH ro)Ke AoJrxeH

aBrycra 1826 roAa ueQy xu"4upuou

AoHocr.rJrH: <<Mex4y AaMaMr4 caMble Henpr.rMuprrMbre u BcerAa roroBble pa30pBarb Ha qacrH rrpaBr.rreJrbcrBo KHflruHr Borxoncxan fi reHepaJrbrxa KorioeHnrlHna. I4x-qacrsue KpyxKH cJryx(ar cpeAoroqneM Bcex HeAoBoJrbHbrx; a n-er 6paiu snee roii, xoropyio oun r.rsBeprar,or Ha ttpaBuTe",rbcrBo n ero

cil!r>. H He s cBflsH lrn c oflaceHfieM sa cy4l6y BonxoHcxoft sa. xoAnrcs eue He pacurneponaHHbre c,'iosa -BeuesuruuoBa a3 elo rrucbMa r 6pary Anexcerc or flHBapfl lg27 rol,a: <<MocxBy ocraBaJl fl, KaI( uantuoft,_ He 3Hato, KaK He co[IeJl c yMa>).

I-lenocpeAcraeHHofi npuuuHori cMeprr4 nogTa cqHraJracb npocryAa. flocne 6ana y JlaHcrux, pisropnueHuufi ranqantn, BeueBur[HoB nepe6exa.n qepe3 iuop ni crofi q",rnreni c erBa HaKl,rHyrofi Ha rtrequ uHHe,rrbro. Croqn cnntsuli xo!,IoA c tlpnMecbro o6uqsoir 4"r.rn llerep6ypfa cbtpocru. 14 Bor_-yHecuufi ero B Mor.a,'ry <<xecroqAfrniuir ru6, lnupax(eHHe A. IlqrKoscroro) Ho no no"oay 6o,resHH H cMeprr4 BeHesflrnfloBa ero [,rreMsHHnK Mxxaan A.Texceesuq BeflesHrHHoB [r{ca.rr B xyp Ha,'re <<Pyccxnil apxlr B>> : <<llpocry4Hrcn nvt fl,uutpuli B,ra4nuuporr.rq B ToM rroMefAe 6Hr apecroBau, r.r/rn noAeeprcfl ApyroMy r{axoT::-1"1 nty-lrz6yAl BpearroMy BJn{rrHH}o,- o6 aiona He coxpaHr.{Jrocb rorrHbrx ceuefislrx npe4aHurl, Koropbre orpaH!{qHBarorcn YKA3AHI{CM ItA TIiTUEHI{qCCKfiC YCJIOBHfl MCCTA 3AKJIIOqEHU'I, KaK Ha rJraBHylo npHqHHy oKoHr{are,rrbHofo paccrpoftcrea SAopoBbfl Moero Atr[rl... Karue.nt He noKHAaJr ero, npnunuan r{acrbre H cl,tJlbHbre 6onu e fpyAI.t)>. _ H Haxoseq, fI. H. Jlaep-eurbeBa, oqeHb 6ansxafl. ceMbc JIaucnnx, yrBepMAaer: <<OH 6un :ax,'rro,reH B rpn3Hoe n cupoe nolreu{eHne u, attfiga oTryAa, AoJrfo xBopa,l [r He Mor noceulaTb 6+


Apxns

KoJrd'lerr.rl r.rHocTpaunbrx AeJl,

fAe

oH

qucJrr.r,,rcfl Ha

cnyxr6e... floAoapurulbHocrb sanreir noJrr.rur.ru 6una npu.iuuofi ero cMeprr.l, n oHr{ orAaAyr 3a Hero orBer rBopuy HaueMy>>.

lposuoe, HecMbrBaeMoe o6sflHeHlre 6pocnn B Jrr4rlo caMoAep)r{aBrrro Anexcau4p 14eaHogHq I'epueH. cJroBa o BeuesHraHose:

I,l s

Heru 6Hnr.l

<<V>xacuaR, rrepHafl cyAr6a BblnaAaer y Hac Ha AoJIIo BCflI{OrO, KTO OCMeJII4TCfl IIOAHflTb |OJIOBy BbrIXe ypOBHfl, HaqepraHHoro HMrrepaTopcKI4M cKr4neTpoM; Io9Ta, npa)KAaHnHa, rubrcr'rHTe,'Ifl HeyMod'Innnltil pox ror'rKaer B Morl{,.ry.., A,axe

re, Koropbrx

npaBr4TeJrbcrBo norIaAHro, noru6arcr, eABa pacrrycrHBrur.rcb, ctre[Ia ocraBl.trb x(H3Hb... BeHeentnHoR

y6ar o6uecrBoM, ABaArrarlr AByx ,'rer>>.

Vhax, rparuqecKr.r-poMaHrl.tqecxan cyAt6a BeHesr4rnHoBa [oJrHa raftu n HeAocKa3aHuocrefr. CoeercxllM Hcc,le.u,oFareJrflM fipeAcrour BbrscHr{Tb HeMaJro o6croqre,'IscrB }Kr.t3HH H rBopr{ecrBa rrogra. B apxuoax 6u.to HafiAeuo pe3Koe bcrBen Hoe crr{xorBo peHa e <<PoAra Ha )>, a BTopoM Koroporo oAHo BpeMR cqr.rraJrcfl BeHesnruHoB, Ho BecKH.x AoKa3arenbcrB gToMy ser. <<Tafistrft> BeHeeHTHHoB - ToJrbKo oAHo H3 corefl, Mo)Ker 6bttn, ue N{eHee 3aMaHqHBbIX 3afaa HTr.rn p a B H Te,'r

Aox, 6o,ree 3aMaHqLIBbIx, i<paiiHe Ba)KHbrx Ae,r, Koropbte Ha.rJexirar pacKpbrrb Hatrrr.rM JrHreparypoBeAaM. Bor uexoropue H3 3TIrx

<<TafiFr>>.

Ao cnx nop ct{HTaercfl, tITo foroll co3HareJlbt{o cx{er pyKorrucb BToporo roua <<MeprBbtx Ayrx>>, xorl ecrb cBHAeA. n. Toncroro r M. I-1. floroAnsy,reJrbcrBo - ttlrcbMo rrro oH cx(ef ee rro ouri6Ke. lA pas pyKotrucb nolu6la, Mbr He Ivrox{eNr cyAHTb o ee coAepxaHaH. Mex4y TeM B apxr-rBax 6sraH e cBoe BpeMs uari,u,euu BocnoMr.rHaHHR "rrHu, KoropbrM nucareJrb twTail uocneAsufi BapnaHT, aa H HeaaBHo o6napy)KeHbr KJror{KH oAHoro HS pyKorrncHbrx BaphaHroe. BnonHe BepoflrHbr noAo6Hbre HaxoAKn u o 6yayurelr. CyulecrnyrcT rJryxue cJryxrd o roM, uro !,aurec, roroBrcb x Ay3rH c flyurxnHuM, 3aKa3aJr oco6yro Henpo6unaeuyn KoJrbqyry, unu 6poHro, fi HaAeJr ee [epeA no€AltHKoM. Bonpo-

co[{ grr.rM 3aHlrMaJrcfl rryruKr.rH}tcr B. B. BepecaeB, Ho cMeprb

noMe[raJra 3aBepr.rJr4Tb eMy pa3btcKaH]rn.

Llsytan 6uoipa$ur,o nbera fl. A. Kareunua, yAnBJrflerrrbcfl roMy, qro 3ror arrlteulrft Aexa6prcr ue 6un apecroBan npaBr.rreJrbcreoM Huronat I, Ao KoHua csoerl xrgHu TaK tl 3

3aKa3

246


He npocTnBruefo HH oAHoro n3 yqacTHHKoB BOCCTaHIfl. KTO. To cnac Karcnuua, BblrrepKHy,'r ero HMq Lg <Kpal{oJrbHoro>

cnncxa... Kro? Kaxas lKe yBJreKareJrbHaff, noJrHaff por\raHTr.rKr4 r.r rpax{,u,aHcxofr orBercrneHHocrn pa6ora npeAcToHT TaJraHraM, KoTopbre nonbrTaroTcfl IIpoHHKHyTb 3a noJrof HepacKpbrrux rafis acropru!


YqI4TEJIb NYll|KI4HA

axefi nonar lucbNro. Me,ruxonr B3fJrflHyB Ha KoHBepr,

Xyroncxnfi cpaay: or Anercau4pa I4eaHoelzqa Typreneea. HecouuesHo, BHoBb trpocr{T sa 6para cBoero onpeAe,'raJr

sil

3{


Huxo;lal, 3aoqHo rrpuroBopeHuoro K clreprHoil xastrn n o6peraoillerocfl HbrHe s Jlou,q,oHe. Tax u ecrt! A Bacnnnri AHApeeeHq u 6es HanoMunasufi cqHTaJr cBoHM r,oJrroM npocr.rrb sa Hero. Bo uus AasHeft apyx6n! Co6crseHHo roBopfl, ecrn noAxoAr{rb co ncefi iiporocrun 3ar(oHoB, To a oH, Bacunufi AHApeesKq Xyxoncxuh, Boc[HTared'rb qapcKoto HacJreAHr.rKa, xtneyurltii Bo ABopue, ecrb He Kro auori, rar <<sJroAeii)> H <<rocyAapcrsegHufi'npecrynHrrK>>, Aocrofiuufi ecnu He noBerueHnfl, ro vx. Bo BcflKoM cJryr{ae, cu6npcxofi Karoprn... 146o o roroeftr{elacs BoccraHr{u 3Har. 3sal H He AoHec. A gro paBHocnJrbr{o lpecrynJreHH}O.

O ecrpeue csoefi c KHfl3eM Cepreeu Tpy6eqxuru, o rol\t, ror y6exAan efo Bcry[uro e o6uecrBo r.r [pHHflTb yqacrue B uapey6uficrBe, oH,__noHflTHo, Hr.rKoMy He roBopr.rn. A Bor o6 A.ner<ca-nApe Mypaolene H Bcrpeqax c HHrr KaK

AalKe nucaJr. B 1827 roAy oH o6parlanca K uaprc c rreDBbrrl nHcbMoM B 3arur.rry Huxo,rlan Typreuena. I-Iuciruo sro uapb xoJroAHo BepHyJ'r 6es oreera, HO C yCTparlarculr.rM, JreAer{R-

ulr4r\,r B3rJrflAoM...

Mypaelene?

'

Tax uro xe,

co6crseHHo, nficaJr

oH

o

Bacunuft AHApeesuq. [oAHrJrcfl c AHBaHa H, rrorrJrorHee xanar (cefoAHs rrpr{KasaJr He ronurt), HatrpaBH,,tcrr B_ Ap_y_rofi xoHe[ orpoMHoro xa6auera K Macc[BHoMy urxa$y. Mparr,ropHuii 6rccr c.ilenoro louepa Br'- noaapox BeMcKoro- croflr Ha neu. PyxonHca u aocbe, Kax BcerAa, Jrexadrr.t B crporoM nopflAKe. Ha oepxuena Aocbe 3HaqHJrocb: <<3anncxa o Aer're H. 14. Typreseca>>.-B Har{aJre <<3anncxa>> oH nyHKr 3a [yHKroM crapaJrcr orBecrr4 or H. 14. TypreHena sce o6sanesan. A Bor H Mecro, aHTepecynuee ero celiqac. Xyxoncxufi q?rrafl BHaMareJrbHo, He cneiua: <B lBlB roAy, B 6urHoctr, Moro BMecre c ABopoM s Mocx_ Be, noggaKoMt4llcfl fl, He ltoMHIo y Kofo B AoMe, c A,rexcag,{pou &lypanbeBbrM.". ,{,ur _uepes ABa oH rrpnuer Ko MHe r.l cKa3a.[, r{To cyuecreyer O6qecrBo, Koefo rIeJIb ecrb DacrrpocrpaHeHr{e Bo3MoxHoro ao6pa B oreqecrBe, npeAnoixnn use 6nrl efo qJleHoM H ocraBnil y MeHfl <3e.neuyro l(unry>, B3flB c ueHs o6erqaHae He roBopnTb HrrKoMy o cyqecrBoBa3arraxHyB

Hrau 06qecrsa. fl rpoqr.rraJr ycian. tlenr O6urec"", no*u3aJracb uHe 6naroHaMepeHHoro: Ho r He Bcrynr{Jr B Hero, He rroroMy, qro6u fioqHTaJl efo npecrynrrbrrlr HJrH Bpe/lrrbrM,

Ho noroMy roJrbKo, rITo He xoreJl Ha ce6g nanararu uHi<aroti 3ABUCItMOCTI,I>. 6E


Aa, Hnxo.rrafi I co 3Jlocrblo BepHyn emy <<3anucKy>. )I(yxoscr(Hft oxHAaJI xyAllrefo. Ho eo HMff roBapl{uecrBa oll 6r,ln roros Ha x(eprBy. BeAt scel\'I coAepx(aHl{eu <<3anllcxn> oH xoreJl [oAqepKHyrb, qro Hurolafi Typreueo Hu B qeM He BurroBar, n6o xors H cocroflJl e o6qecree, Ho yexaJl 3a rpaHnqy etrle e 1824 roAy, 3a 14 Mecsqes Ao Boccranrs. KoHeq-

se 6uns u3BecrHbl, xar u XyKoBcKoMy, sHaKoMoMy AalKe c Mypaelenuu u <<3e.nenoit Ksurorl>. Het, cJIeAoBarenbuo, 14 pa3HHubl MexAy HI{M' Hble rleJrr{ 4era6pucroB eMy

Xyxoncxnrra, -

Lt

TypreHeBblM...

tlro xe eqe uoxer cAeJlarb oH AJII Hnxo.nas Typreueoa, Apyra rcsocrn? Ou eue pas 6yaer y6exgars I'IMneparopa

npocrnrb TypreHeoa t,t pa3pelxllrb eMy BepHyrbcfl B oreqePoccr.rro. Hy, a ex(eJIIl TypreHee 6yaer flpolueH' a no BosBparqeHuli cxBarlen? I{apu cnoco6eu n na raroe. Kro xe He 3Haer Bo ABopqe, KaK KoBapHo o6uaHyn oH Hexoropbrx AeKa6pplcroB, o6eulas noMilJloBarb' JIHIIIb 6u pacxan' nucl l.r noapo6uo paccKasaJlu o6o scel{ }r o6o ecex. flpn er6li uui.nu Bacn.nnli AH4peesnu no6neAuen. Ka3aJrocb, He xBaraer Bo3Ayxa 14 cBera. PaeAeuHyr nilorHylo roSpuponanHyn luropy. flyctuHHan,_saHeceHHafl cHefoM nJrouaAb BbIrJIflAeJIa HenpulorHo' .[leHl xMyp I4 cep' Kax rorAa... TorAa pa3AaBaJlncb 3Aecb 6ecnopR4ouuue Bbrcrpeflbl, xpsrtJlble aurpnxn, pxanbe xoseft. flo cHery me' TaJrr.rcb HescHble reuu. Xyroscrfifi BMecre c ApyrI{MH uape' ABOpqaMLI B y)Kace fipsraJlcf B oAHoH I.'I3 ABOpIIOBbIX 34.[-

cino, n

florou

cJIeAcrBlte, Aorlpocbl, KaSHb..'

flporr,

flpor{b

arn ustcnu! 3a6urlcR, yfitn e Aanerufi L 3a-

Mr,rp roHocrH!.. Xyxoacxnfi lteAleHHo l.{Aer K AHBaHy

KpbrBaer .nnuo PYxofi. OH crapaerctt BcIIoMHI'ITb

ro

BpeMq' KorAa

Mocxse, n 6laropo4HoM yHl{BepcurercKoM

yl{Hrcr B a Be-

naHcl{oHe,

qepa rpoBoaun e-npyxecKoM nHreparypHotvt o6uecree. Ons co6upanucr e1nuzu HoeoAesuqlero MoHacrYpfl' B- crapoM ga6pbilreHHoM AoMe. Bparu Typreuenu (Anapeft, Anq*'

canip,

Hr.rxo.naft), Mepsnnxoe,-Kalicapon, Boetixos"' OH

BHAI'IT I,IX KAX HANBY.

Cros c noaHsrbtMg 6oxa.naun, o6Hse Apyr Apyra 3a nJIeqn, Bce cJlyluaJla [poqI'ITaHHbIfi MepsrsrosHr{ no-HeMeuKll sAoxHoseHHuir ruuH Illun,'repa <<K paAocru>>. fllaueuulte cJIoBanpI-t3bIBaJIuMIiJIJII.toHbIcJIl{TbcgBpaAocTI.reAuHoI{' npocfl aBJIflJIH npaBeAHbIe AeJIa, He3aBHCI',IMOCTb npeA JIIIUOM ;;ir;;. B re aHu Xyxoecruft saql'rruBancr 14 crl'IxaMn Ka'


paMgr{Ha. Huxonaft MuxarinoeHrt uficaJl

6oAonto6aeo.

flo oroHqaHHH

naHcaoHa

rorAa cMeJlo rr cBo-

Xyroscxnfi, x

yAHBreHHro co-

KypcHr,rKoB, rrocrynnJr Bcero_HaBcero ceKpeTapeM

uo,'rrHbrx Aen. Xoren ocraBaTb Aocyr

ajs

B

eiHxrnfi

KOHTOpy c.noeec'-

Bcrope,- a 6u.no ero eeci{ori lg02 rola,_crup"* locrbro. -sa_ qHrroBHHK, crpunenurnr? nepoM sa coceAueft xouroprori, fiprMerr{Jr, uro ry6epHcxnfi cerperapt Xyroscxuit B qacbr, <ltpfiyroroBaHHbte AJrff cnyxe6uux ornpan.neHur?, Kponan crHIrrKH>. A oH yoneveHHo nepenl{cbrBaJl crlrx}r anuuhcxux rlo3roB toMcona n I pefl, noryr{eHHbre or TypreHeea. tlnuoeHzx, HenaiaAesruu? <6opoonucueB>, Torr{ac ornpaBHJrCfl K HaqaJrbcTBy c AoHocoM. Blrecro HaqaJrbHHKa KoHTopbr, Kussa,(o.rrropyxoro, npu_ HflBrrrero Xyxoncxoro ua c.rly>i<6y lto peKoMeHAaur.ra l4saua I rerpoBnrra (BJrfirrenbHoro^orua 6partee Typreueoux), cnAerr MoJroAori xapuepucr. On peruu.n npoaoiril cnyxe6*ry,o perr.rBocrb, [ppr3BaJr ceKperapn a <pacnyunn> er6. A a.,rs {e 6o.nlrtrjfi ocrpacrKH Hacrpovf.n fllrcbMo 3HaKoMoMy 9t npoxypopy fyzcxofrt qacrw Lt npocu.n ero <BHyruuru. Konai npoKypop, 3aJroxHB Hora ga Hory H no[brxr{Bafl cnraporl, saflBliJr' qro <<r,oHoIIIeCTBO SapaxeHo KpaMOJIOti a g rou'noBr.rHHbI r.rHble Hg HbrHeIUHr.rx coqlrHuTerefi, a npex4e Bceto KapausnH>, Xyroncrnfi ecnHrnn. flos;cas roJroc, oH pe3_ KO CKa3aJl, .ITO IOC'OAHH [poKypop Hl.trtero He cMblcr:rr..rT B HsquIHofi cJroBecnocrr.t. <ge ocxop6.neHue AoJr)KHocrgoro Jrr4r{4, HaxoAflIrlefocfl rIpI4 r.rcnoJrHeHl{ri cnyxe6uHx o6ssaH_ Hocreri>>, nunaauurl Hero,{oBan}reM flpoKypop rorqac )Ke Ha'apecr, Jiox(I,tJI Ha Xyxoscxoro AoMarrruur?

xapeTa AocTaBr.iJra ero,{oir.rorl.

u

nonu[efrcxas

!,eno uor.no KoHqxrbcs coBceM nJroxo. ,{,nr nporonxeruua cnyx6br HyxHo 6uno nucarb yHtlgr.rreJrlnue npocl6tr. onpaBAblBarbcfl, He cqnTas ce6g gaHoenuu. Ha ero oH rurr(ofAa 6u ue no[reJr. Orcraera ra3anacb Heas6exnorl. Kax pas B gTu AHH oH noJlyqHr nltcbMo or AnApeg Typreueea, HaxoAr4BuIerocfl yr{e

n llerep6yple: <<Tbr, Kaxercfl, He Mo]Kerlb He obrrb AoBoJteH caoefi yqacrblo... yeAHHeH[e, ,erKarl ,4on)K_ Hocrb... B ne_pcneKTuBe BecHa n AepeBHR. OxpyxeH fpeeu. r oMcoHoM, lllexcnupoM, flone n pyccot 14 n cepaue _ )Kap Ha cnyN6e

noS3tIH>.

Xyxoncxufi HarrtcaJr AHap"ro Typreneay npo cBoe 3roH Torqac xe nolryqnJr BcrpeBo)Keunurl orBer.

K.rrroqeHl4e, 70


TypreHeoa BogMyrl'Ino cny'{HBueecq' oH coxaJleJl o HeI{36exsocra orcraBKI,I Xyroocroro, Ho cqHTaJl, gro ror nocryrrr.rJr npaBnJlbuo. kl xo'ts npeAJIaraJI o6parurlcR x 6pary Anercau4py, c reM qro6nt nocoBeroBarbcr c <<uMeBIIII'IM cBs' sfi 6artouxbft>, Bce )Ke nuca!'I' tITo <<ecJIH ryr ocxop6urca qyBcrBo, ecnr.r 6yAer xorb reHb ocrop6neHnfl AJt.fl qecru>>'oH AoJrxeH ylirn co c.nyx6u. flpoure.n MecflIl. ExeAuenso rtoA oKHaMI'l MaflI{I'tJIa SI.y'

apecr He cHIIMaJlcs. O6epa KBapraJrbHoro HaA3I4pareJIs cnoroesHufi Au4peft Typreuee -coo6uan o HaMepeHHI'l orr.I,a uarirn HoByIo c.nyx6y anr XyxoncKoro, lt cHoBa, rar 6nt roBoprr, rrro H oH noCrynu,tt 6u rax )Ke, noBTopsn, qro Xy' xoscrnrl, <<KoHeqHo, He AoJI)KeH 6ltl csocurb or npoKypopa>>' Haroueu no xoAaraftcrny tr'IoaHa fletpoenua Xyros' cxafi 6u.u ocso6oxAen I{3-IIoA apecra, flponcruecrBlte 3To raK noBJII{flJIo Ha Hero, [pI'{BI'IJIo ra' KOe OTBparqeHLIe or cnyx6u, qro oH oTKa3aJICg OT IOMOXII.t craprlra TypreHena B noAbIcKaHIIn eMy Mecra' C suqroxsuttt 38aHneM Tl.rryJlflpuoro coBerHI'IKa oH ort{Ilcrltrcq ag ConsHoli KOHTOpbI I{ BbIIXeJI B OTCTaBKy. Ori saayrtraJl Bepllyrbcs Ha poAI{Hy B ceJlo MnnreHcxoe Ty.rscroli iy6epuuri u xarl rpyAoM JIlIreparopa. flpan4a,

KHlrroIIpoAaBIlbI npeAnoql'ITarI'I pacnflarlt{BaTbctt KHI'IraMtl'

uo Meps,lrros o6eqar HaJIaAnrb c I{IIMII AeHe}KHbIe oruo' rrreHus. Aa eeAl u KHI'IrH 6ulu Heo6xoAlIMbI' oH Bce paBHo

npuo6peran 6st llx. B ruxotr,t MuureHcront Hanl'IcaJI oH flepBoe Flacrotlulee

crr.txorBopeHl{e

3Jrerfirl

<<Cellcroe x.naA6auo, Bo,tsHlttt nepeBoA

ony6luKoBafl ero B cBoeM xypna' fpen. Kapannsl'IH

.ne <Becruux Eaponu>.

Tar

Xyxoncxoro. Ou u B caMoM

HaqaJlacb I'l3BecrHocrb [o3Ta

AeJIe,

Kaxercr,

BrIepBbIe B

ore'

qecreelrnoft IIog3uI{ [epeAa,T npl'IrryuerlHble KpacKa H 3ByKI'{

yracanuero LHfl. 6neaueer AeHb' cxpblBascb 3a ropoto; LUynrnu.lue craAa'toJ5fiflrcn na4- peroir; Vcia;rurfi ceJltHI.{H ueAnurenusof, crono}o

Vxe

I4Aer, aa4yltaBuucb, B uraJlalu cnoxofrttstfi csoir' cyMpaKe oKpecrHocrb l{cqe3aer"' Iloacro.4y rl'IIIIHHa, noBcloay MeprBbIR cou'

B ryuaunou

Jluu.rt n-epe.uxa, xyxxa' seuepHufr x{yK MenbKaer' Jlaur cnnruurcfl BAaJIII poloB yHblnblu 3BoH'

Bacannfi AH4peenuu n He 3aMerHJl' KaK 3aApeMan' Oq' HVJrcr ocBe)KeHHbIk. 14 xax o qeM-To peIueHHoM' noAyMaJI: 7l


H4rl{ K focyAapro, HanoMHHrb o TypreHeee. Xyroncrafi npoxoAr.rJr au$r.r.nalofi 3nunero ae6iua. 3a-

Hyxu_o

MeTHB BOCnHTaTeJIq IIeCapeBLIqa, MOJrr{aILrBbre rpeHaAepbt

6ecruyuHo orKpbrBaJru_MaccuBHble Ay6oBbre aoepr,r. tlepea

rroKoflMn r.rMneparopa Bacu.nnri AHap-eeonu B HepeuureJrbr.ro!,exypHuft renepaJr B pa33oJroveHuoru uyH.4upe cjleJradrr 3HaK: gaugru-c! llocnurr a.nucb cM ex ua pcroft H aJrolKHl.tubr Q pert.n r.rHu FI e,'ruAoeori ri AoBoJrbHbni 6ac cauoro HnxoJlaq. Ao6pufi sHax! Moxso a rroAoxAarr. BnpoveM, BcKope, cAeJraB Ha xoAy peBepaHc, BbrrropxHyJra Spefi;rnua a B ABepffx rrosBnJracb Aecrr.r ocraHoBanca.

peBflHHar Qnrypa qapn.

A, Xyroscruft! saMerun oH.- flpu- Ao6poAyrrrHo AoJroxurl o6 ycnexax Moefo cuga? Vcnexn uacieaHura, Barrre lrM[eparopcKoe BeJrnqecrBo, -TpeBofr{ y MeHfl He Bbr3brBaror! Ho...

rrleJr

9ro <<Ho>>? - Ho [o-npe)xHeMy_TpeBoxHT yrlacrb ocyxAenHofo [Inxolas Typrerrera. ga

HecnpaBeAJrnBo

Kopllvneelre, xfiu{Ho 3aocrpeHHbre ycbr Hnxoraq

I

apor-

HyJru, a fra3a craJru HaJrHBarbcfl Tax 3HaKoMHM Xyxoscxo_ My rHeBoM. Ho uapl eule cAep)Kr.{ear ce6n. t{ro 3a oxora Bosurbcr re6e co BcffKr.rM orpe6leu?

- u raK cqr4raror rnanofi nu6epanlHofi naprru, Te6n npu6exurrreM Bcex ue6narosaAex(Hbrx. Tsr snaeut o6 erou? ' Bacunllft AuApeesuq qyrb Har(JroHltJr rod,roBv u gacrbrJr rax s csoerl figrro6negHoli nose. Te6e aro

a rbr npo,{oJlxaerrb gacrynarbc, Xyxoe.cxr.rft, Xyxoscxfifi! FieAasHo ThI Bbrropaxznan KupeeBcKorol, a reneps onrrrb rrpucraelxb c Typreuenuu. roxe HH B qeM He Br,rHoBar, Ba[re HMne- KHpeencrtri paro_pcKoe BeJrr.rqecrBo. fl roros 3a Hero flopyqlrrbcr. Hzronafi BbrrrreJr as ce6R. Os noAourej i Xy*orcKoMy n c 6eueHcrBoM cxBarr.tJr ero 3a JraIIKaHbt cropryKa. Tu roroB nopyqurbcr,- nporxr4neJr dH._ A sa re6s xro-nopyuzrca? 3;lo6a AaB:r;tra ero. OH 6pocan B Jrnuo Xyxorcxoro orpbrBn_crbte Qpasur Ir, HaBepHo, noo6paxa.n, qro xrecra Jt uMn, 3a

-

ri3BecrHo_,_

KpaMoJrbHr4KoB.

xar

3x,

6ago[4.

I

Vsana Ktpeeecroro co6npaluct npuBneqb K orBery 3a cra.l.br), troKasaBrrryrocr npaBnrenbcrBy <xpauo,rruoft >. 72


/-v((?

i Jltl T

(6)T -,.:r'

..a

J*4 1..r2 tlj

{ifr {,i. t, "v t;.,,1

u)/i "ir

)

ii. Q.!


Tu /l,yMaerub, e He 3r.raro, qro rsoerl pyxoii nepenflcaHO nporxeH}te. ]KeHbI 9TOrc SnOyMbrIrrJrer{HHKa, 3aroBoplqr{Ka

-

f xyruxrHa? A

oH noxyru ailcfl Ha Moro xr.rsHb! ,II,a sHaeus

JIH CaM, CKOJTbKO IIuceM__HaCTpOrlHr Tbr o cMflrqeHr.rH yqacTfi 3rHM 3JroAerrru. MHe! XeHe! Hac.neAnuxy! A pa3brrpbrBaJt B Jrorepen cnori noprper pa6oru Bprc,r.nona u ua BbrpyqeHHbre AeHbfr.r BbrKynar KpenocrHoro Tapaca IIIeeqeu_ ro?! Kro?! 6urru ruoxer?t A- pasee sa6r,rru MHe rBoe 3a-

rro

f,

cryrHr..rqecrno ea fepuena? 3a fepr{eHa, KoeMy sa 6ynrapcrso Aocroriuafl HafpaAa KHyr u ner.us?! Hi, yx iepu-e-

s rc6e HaKonAa He nponly! Xyxoecxnfi no4yrtaa.n 6uno, qro Huxonafi Ha aroM KoH,Ir.rfl. Ho, BI{AHo, e[Ie KaKarI-To 3araellHafl 3Jrocrb He ,4aBaJIa uaprc noKofl. tr4 ou se cruv 6cn. Koraa Bacunufi AH,u,peeszq Ha

eule pa3 noKJroHr.rJrcs rz co6npancr yxoAr.trb, Haxonaft, oroirArr or Hefo uafa Ha rpu, npuurypu"rrcfl vr B nocne4uuft par MerHyJt ceupenurl B3fJrffA.

A

tu

gHaerlJb, qero MHe crouJtl TBofi BerrHbre xoAarari-

crBa- 3a flyrur<uHa?!

Ecnn 6u Haro.nafi He Ha3Ba,,r groro HMeHu, Xyxoscrnfi xax-utt6yAr nepecuJlrrJr 6H ce6q. Enay He B[epBbre flpnxo.auJrocb rrepexaBarb noAo6uoe. Ho nonpex B ero 3acTynHuqecrBe 3a flyurxirHa! 3a flyuxrzHa, nepeuu a rJraBHbtM BlrHoBHrrKoM ru6enu xoeno 6srn cau liaxonar?l Ha xaxoe-ro NrrHoBeHr4e nepeA Xyxoacr<una Bo3HtrKJra ra cBrru{cHHafl AJrfl Hero MHHyTa, KorAa oH Aapfi,,t flyurxauy cnofi noprper c HaArracblo, AaBHo npo4yuauHoft u sbrHoureH"-

Hofi cepA{em: <<flo6eAtreJrro-yqeHr.ix:y Te,l g

oi no6eNl."noro

vot,i-

>>.

r\,rHHyra. fiyurraH n rpo6y c saKpbrrbrMr.r __^I.ryVlu? rJIa3aMr.t. u Hrzx ilaBc.erAa floMepr{ cBeT yHeceHHHX l4r/l AHsHtrx o6pasoe. [Io qnefi sore?

Xyxorcxuri xore.l 6pocltr_b B JrriUo qapro Bcro 6o,rl ceo_ ax crpaAaHufi aa flyruxuHa. CrparuHbrM ycr{JraeM oH Bce_ra_

Ka cAepxaJr ce6n, uo eMy craJro AypHo, [r oH

npr.tcJroHr.rJrcn

roroeori K npoxJraAHori xo.nouHe. Uupo pacrepfl.lcfl r.r ryr xe, AocaAyfl Ha cBoe 3aMeuaTeJr.bcTBO, CA,eJraJr :uax 4exypHoMy aAbroraHry. flo Xyxoecxtfi orcrpaHHJr roro a, npeoabJIeBas rgx{ecrb B Horax, Koe_Kax ,u,o6pa.ncn ,q,o 'csoefi Cna,llbHH.

I4 cHosa A.nr'uur? s'r,r'r,ri Berrep B 6esflroAHoM xa6l,uete 3nusero ABoprra. ll cuoaa, xax 6irno He pa3, naxeu noaHecer Ha [oAHoce cBeproK, a B Herll r<axori_nu6yAu rracche74


Hbrli [epcTeHb

c Kpy[HbIM ]I{eMqyfoM I'I 3anHcKy:

<<TbI He

cepAr.uxbcs, Bacu.nufi An4peenuu?..>> A eeAl MHorLIe HaBbIBaIor ero npocro xI'ITpbIM llapeABop-

qem.

floltunrca, napoAl'Ipyfl

cruxorBopeHI'Ie Xyxoecroro

<<fleeeq>) I.I HaMeKae Ha ero npucrpacrl.Ie rros3r.u{>>, KTo-To

r

<<xnaA6nurescrofi

ua6pocan Bocel\Ib crpoK, craBIIIlIx l{3Becr-

HbrMrr BceM JII.ITepaTopaM:

LIs casaHa oAetcn oH B JII-lBPelo' Ha ,reury npoMeHfl,'l cnofi uuproellli He noaPixi'n 6oelure lPeo, C yraaxoft BTePcs Bo ABoPeu.

I'l qro xe

flpe,u,

BeHeu,

sHur,lo HaroHeu?

srtatuuult cru6aa

Ott pyry xMer

urerc, xaureP-';IaKelo.

Eeanuft neaeu!

)Kyxoncrufi Ha 9TI'I crHXIt He o6I{AeJ'Icfl. Ho 3HaJIu 6bl Apy3bfl, KaK eMy nopolr npuxoAHrct! 3na,ru 6bt, Kaxne 3anl{cl,,I o uape ecTb B eto AHeBHI',IKe! Aa BOT OHI{: <<Ecnu 6ri s lruen Bo3MoxHocrb roBopl'lrb'- Bor tITo 6bI fl oTBeqaJI... fl sauEulato Tex, KTo BaMI',l OCyXAeH VJrVr c6914' HeH nepeA BaMil... Passe Bbl He Moxere oIIIH6HTbcg? Pasne rrpaBocyAHe (oco6.nr'rao y nac) 6esoulu6oqHo? Pasee loHeceHUrr BaM JIIOAeI{, KOTOpbIe oc}IoBblBalor tix Ha raftHblx npe' 3peHI{bIx AOHocaX' CyTb Ar'If BaC peIUIiTeJIbllble npurOBOpbl 6bxue?.. tr4 pasne Mory, He yrparl'IB co6crBeHHoro K ce6e xl'i3Hfl>)' vBax(eHriff... )KeprBoBarb -cnpnraJl cBtl3tll\{Il ueJlofi Moell AiIeBHuK H 3aKpblJl 3epKaJlbHble Xyxoncxuil crBopKH urxa$a. flepea HI'IM MeJIbKHyJIo I{ ocraHoBIaJIocb ero

uso6paxeHr.re: 6,reanoe oAyrJIOBarOe JII{qO' AaBHO O6rSlcee' uarr roJroBa. <<Toqso o6reenHl? nonyrafi B oAHOM H3 nOKOeB ctapoti $petinuurt,- noAyMaJI c ycrueurxofr Bacnnv fi Au.npeeBfirr.- Kor.qa BbIHecJIll Ha JIyr 3o,'Iorylo KJIeTI{y H orI{pbIJ'II'I ABepIIy, IITHI{a paBHOAyIIIHO [orItlAeJla Ha BOJIIO." fi npI'IHf' Jracb KaK HH B qeM He 6bIBaJIO <<yAUTb>> 3epHa B yrJly Krer-*". Hy, a fl-To,- Bbulerly xoraa-ns6yAr Ila ceoeli 3o"ioroli xnerrn?>> On noAoureJl K oKHy' Irlropy ua xoropofi sa6bln rotAa 3aHa nycruluttoir n.noulaAl{ qapl'IJI cepbll cHer'

AepHyrb.


TIOCJIEAHflq KAPTHHA He noutur dopoea, He dporcar rtuctbt.,, Ilodotrc)u HerrHoeo, ardoscnewo

u

rou

M. Jlepnonroe

el{epoM, 20 oxra6pa 1872 roAa, B MaJreHbKoii, cKyAHo o6cras,'reHuofi KOMHaTytuKe,

3a IIIaTKHM

CTOJIITKOM

CHACN MOJIOAOfi qCTOBCK C 6TCAHbIM,

cJroBHo BocKoBbiltt, nHI{oM H III{CaJI.


OH HeAasHo [pnexan cloAa, o Kpnu, no ttpeAttucanuto Bpaqefi. Ha crone yx(e Jlexar saroroBJleHuuIft roly6o,o-aruft roH-6u.tto

nepr. Ha seu KoJr

BbIBeAeHo

I{Ms aApecara: <<HnaHy Htl-

aeBl{qy Kp qeM ganeqararb nncbMo, lrlo.rtoAofi qeJIoBeK ne' a

rvrcxolrty>.

flpexae peqen ero.

B uepnux crpoKax oH rIncaJI o roM, c KaKHM BeJIHKHM or l4saHa Hnxolaenuqa. CoxaJIeJI no noBoAy rolo' t{To ero co6ctseHHoe IIHcbMo 3acrasr4no snftrn He iosceita sAopoBoro Kpaucroro us Aotuy. I'Is-

HerepneHneM ox(HAaJI [HcbMa

BI'lHttJICfl Sa Hepas60ptlllBocrb cBoefo noqepKa.

eerrrfifi

KHs3b

BlaAuutlp AnercaHg,poBllq

oH nEcan, UtO

3aKa3aJI eNIy pac-

nucarb KpacI{BbIMIl BIIAaML naHHO AJItI IXHpM' KOTOpbIe co6upa.ncn noAapllrb nMneparpl{ue. OH, BacH,rses, I'I3-3a teHe>KHbIx o6crofrerbcrB He Mor BHaqaJIe orKa3arbcf' xortl 3aKas H He rlo Ayule. klsal Hnxoraeettq IIoMof I'l ryr. flocne

KH fl 3b NI HJIOCTHBO)> COI'I3BOJIHI'I rrepeMeHllrb 3aKa3. Cefiqac Bacurues rtlttr]er Aflfl Hero ApyBttA c 6anxoua HoBofo ,IlrsaAl.Iilcxoro ABopua roir neilsax flpaeAa, 12-eepcr e3Abt H rlJlara no 10-15 py6neli 3a sKIt-

CTO BMCIIJ ATCJIbCTBA ECT HKNfi

<<

nax. Sxunax ea6upaercs rplt qaca B ropy' aBa qaca c[ycKaercff o6paruo. XyaoxHnx rparqr Muoro r{acoB, uro6u pa6orarl B reqeHne raxnx-utl6yA,l 45 NlnHyr. Bacalten nepeqllraJl srlz crpoKll 14 HaxMypl4Jlca. I'lnaHy

Hfironaeeuqy x{t'tBerct n llrzrepe u 6e: roro HecJIaAKo - BblHy)KAeH IIl.lCarb noprperbl flo 3aKa3y' a tle no elt6opy, ycra-ei ctparuHo, qacro 6o.neer. A on, BacuJIbeB, raK o6tlsarlHrtfr eMy, BCe BpeMs paccrpa'ilBaer efo ofll'lcaHHel\'l cBol4x fope' creri.

Bacunlen qyrb oroAtsHlly,l luropy H 3aMep flopa)KeHHblI{'

,[I,onro BTJIflAbIBa'[cfl

xy erol

I

TeMHory.

Bor-xorl 6lt

HeKyIo ro"Iu-

Kpacorbt rlepeAarb I4-eaHy Hrronaesuuyl Cnera't

ilpHI]HCKy: <<flosAHo, a,pyr rrlofi, rlo3AHo'

14 rropa M-He cnarb Jlo)Kl'trbcn' cMorpe,l. Kaxas uyAuan Hout'! Celiqac 6un y-oxna AoJIro poAHoM ceBepe HaIreM Ha KaK KpyroM, npo3paqHo H Tenno He 6rrsaer Mepuo 6srcr o 6eper oonubl' paccblnarcqfiecr areKTpr4r{ecKI'tMII orHrMu no 6epery, He IIbIJII4T ,II'opof a' TVXafl Ao Tex nop, KaK rJIa3 BHAI'IT: peAKO' peAKO-Ha rope MeJIbKHer ofoHeK qa6aua' crpaHcrBylou(ero co cBccn orapoll rro ocbtnatsueMycfi JIHCTy HaropHblx 6y1oa, uro uepHoft uaH' rueli oAesarur BbIcoKHe ycrynbl rop. Bce SByKI't yMepJII4' TOJrbKo Mope 3Harb He xoqeT orjlblxa...>

I4


Bacsnoes flocraBr{Jl 6uno rpa rorrKr.t lr cJrox{r.tJr rrncbMo. floroiu qro-To npnuno Ha ylr, r,r, ynu6Hynurncb, pasBepHyJl d'mcrKa, Ao6asl,te ABa cJroBa: <<floft4eure norvnqri?!rt

Bacrntee Ao,'rro He rlror 3acgyrb. fluclui Kpaucxoro ero c AaJreKraM MapoM neTep6yprcxnx xyAoxHnKoe. fAe-ro saneJra sypHa. H-asepgo, ia ropHylo Ao-pory K npr.rBerHoMy oronbry qa6aua rroAorxJrr.t eAHHCTBeHHOe, qTO CBflSbrBaeT

A)Kurr.rrbr. HanrpurnarcT r.r rnxoHbKo rroAneBaror B JraA 3ypHe KaKLre-TO CBOtr, rpycTHbte MeJroAr.ilr... ,[,opora, Aopofa... Tur nponeraerrJb MHMo 6eeAoHHHx npo-

nacreli no_fopHblM KpyrlaM, acneupeHHblr\{ a,lrnlrricxalru

qBeraMr{. flo re6e 6eryr nouroBbre AHJrHxaHcbr, MeA,rrHreJrbHo Ir y[opHo crynaer rreuexoA. L{ sce ynpsMo, HeorcrynHo crpeMHTcs KyAa-ro BAaJrb. To.nrro oH oAHH o6peuen ocraaaricg Ha Mecre H Jrltrrrb cMorperb 6es xoHqa Ha gry ,[opory, ro xoropoli eMy, MOXer 6brrl, u He cy)KAeHo BepHyrbcrr. flocreneuHo KpbrMcKas rtpapoAa Ha'auHaia ireNso r{ 6ypHo oBJraAeBarb raJraHToM loHolxll rz, 3acraBJrgx pa6orarr, orBJreKaJra or t{yrlHTefibHbrx MbrcJrefi o 6oresuu, 6es4euexle. Vxe spe.n 3aMbrceJr Kaprr.rnbr <<B rpuucxrx ropax>>.

Oir gaue.n eAr.rHcrBeHHo npaBrrr'Ibnoe rlBeroBoe KoJropl{_ crlrgecKoe pelueurae gnn wz6pauHoro Morr.rBa, H ToJrbKo oAI{H OH B STOM MOTI,IBC YBI{AAT U E,AJI NOqYBCTBOBATb SPI,ITEJI'IM noAJrprHHoe BeJrfiqr.re rop. Tucaun JrroAefi npoxoAuJrr{ no eroft Aopore. Ha Hee rJrflAeJru r{3 oKoH orAuxan-ulae s flnre ngcaTeJrrr, xyAoxHr{KH, MysbrKaHTbr. Ho luurl oH oA}rH nepeAan To, rITo, MolKer 6rtrl, no4co3HaTeJIbHo LI TpeBoxHo rpe[eraJlo B Ayure y HeKoropbrx Har6olee qyrKr.rx .rlrcAeft, Aa)Ke npu rt{HMOdrreTHOM B3rJlRAe Ha 3Ty Aopory. flo neri He_ToponJrHBo r,r y[opHo Bbrcryfiaror BoJrbr, 3arrprx{eHubre n ap6y. Hor xpuruM or coJrHua BepxoM cr.rA[r qefloBeK, c3aAH nJrerercs eu1e oAHH. 3ra qopona npoJreraJra [o3a_ Au ero Aoua. Hoqlrc c rop Ha Hee cflycxaJrcfl TyMaH, Ho Mep-

qarcqnft nyHHufi cBer 3acraBJrflJr ee coepxars. I,l Heeonrio BCNOMI,IHAJI14

Cb CJIOBA:

o.(HH r Ha Aopory, LKBo3b ryMan KpeMHr.rcrttfi uyru 6necrur...

9uxoxy

Hacrpoeune JrepMoHToBcKLrx crpox BbI3brBaJlocb, Br.rAr4. MO, CypOBbrM BedlLIrrHeM AaJIbHItX rop, KOTOpbIe TyMaHHbTMI{ IpffAaMr4 He3aMeTHO yxOAI.tJrH BBbrCb r.I cJII{BaJrACb c ropr.t3oH.

TOM rAe-TO TaM, AaJreKo, noSaAH coceH. 78

oAHa as gux

unaena


I

A

JTlt

Vm ftt=0/ s\

\l 'l

Ir

r/v

'(_


COBCCI\I TOHKI,II? CTBO.[, OT CC KPOHbI OCTA,IIOCb KO BCTOK,

JII.III]b HCCKOJII,-

B ropu, Moryqne, 6ecNoseqgo AaJreKne, crpacrr{o, Tpe_ nerHo pBanacb qedrloBeKa. Katanocl, ratll uafiAer oH .AyrIJa orBer Ha xaxol:r-ro rHeryulari Bonpoc, ttcr{egHyr Trr)KeJIbIe cHu 4eficralre.rtbHocrrl. B cepaue Me HaBcerAa pa3BeeTcx AblNt ropeqA, OHO CTaHeT CUJIbHbIM IZ l\{OJIOAbIM, HeyTOMHMtrtM

n 6opl6e.

...IlorpnceuHuii xaprnuori cxorZ sanr4can:

<<B KpbrMcKHx ropax)>,

Kpau-

<Llro-ro ryMaHHoe, [oqrl4 Mr.tcrr.rqecKoe, qapylouree, Toqse KapruHa, a Bo cHe xaKaff-To canrSoHzd AoxoAar Ao cn)'Xa OTTy.[a, CBepXy, a BHr.Igy,.. Ha 3eMJIe, rAe npeAMeTbr AonxHbr 6urr^peantHbr,- KaKort-To crpa,4aroqari'n 6o.nt,_ Ho

HOr, r{eIoBeK. peuI.rTeJIbHo Htrr(or,q,a He MOr

f

npeAcTaBptrb

ce6e, qro6u flefi3ax Mor BbrsBarb raKr.re cuJrbnbre oqyue_ tIl{t>. Kpanrcxor? ysHan o cMeprlt ABaArrarr.trpexrerHero

- ^ ^{o_f{l oH 3apHAa/r. bacHJrbeBa,


PYCCKI,I

R

TIIII

KEJIAHAXEJIO

Ha oepefy npLlgbrBHo ct{Heloqero ll,rliuettuo3epa BosHHKaer BApyr HecKa3alluofr xpacorbl fopoA. KaK MorYqHe 6orarulplt B IItJIeMax ng reMnofo peAr.r pyccKoft paBHnl"IbI,


goJlora, croflr 6enoKar\reHHbre xpaMbr. Crosr H cJroBHo Bclrorrfir{aloT o [ecrpbtx ToJrrrax ApeBHr{x yAa/rbrx HoBfopoArIeB, qro uyMefllr KorAa-To noA ltx creHaMr.r, o 6brcrpoKpbr.irbrx n aAbrrx C a4xo, r.r3yKp arx eHHnx aarefi .n n au un uso6p ax{eH14 rrMH KOHCKI'X IOJIOB.

A pn4ona c 6e,roxanreuHoft rpacaenrreri CoQaefi Hosropo4cxoft, noA ee ceHbro ropAo Bbrcurcfl rraMrrrHuK 1000-nerurr Poccfira, nocraBJreHHuii eAecl s 1862 roAy. CnaneH oror MoHyMeHT, HarloMI,IHantt1uii IsAarH ee,IeeoIi Ko,'IoKo"'I, n rpyAHo 6uno 6u sailrn AJrr Hero Apyroe, 6onee floAxoArrxree

Mecro, qeM cBrruleHHufi yro;lor uaurefi 3eM,rru HoeropoA. ii .fl,oHcroft , I,ln-au I I I, Map$a Eoperlxafl - rocaAHr.rua HoBropo Aerafl' Munnn a flox<apcxfili, Bce oHrr, KaK H AecflTKIt Apyrfix 3uaMeHr.rrbrx .lrnAeft-u npocrbrx 6essecruHx rpaxAaH, uso6paxeHHbrx Ha noscHor\r ropenre$etlaMflTHr{Ka, o6aeAHHeHbr rryBcrBoM BbrcoKofo AoJIra nepeA poAuttoft, roroBbr orAarb eri ece cr.rJrbr cBoero

Bn aAr.rl,rr.rp Csfl rocn anru, !,marpu

cepAua

I4

pa3yr\ra.

He cneura o6ofiAeul naMnrHI,IK, BTJIflAHIIIbcff B fopeJrb. erp, n louyAurcr Ha llrrrr, gro oxr.IByr, 3aABr.rlKyrcr BeJIr{qasue Surypu, nocJrbluruTcrr HerpoMKafl, AHBHafl peut. tr4 nofiMeIUb: uMeHHo raxoii r4lrnrosurr u Eo6neancfl cKytbnrop, Mer{-

rasullri KaxAoMy Aarb

flpKoe, fapMoHrir{Hoe H nJIacrrlqecKl.Io MofyqeM paeBr4rltl locyAapcrea PoccuricKoro, o Ao6recrHbrx cbrHax H Aor{epflx ero. fllrny aaeurbcfl, y3itaB, qro npoeKT naMsrHr{Ka co3Aa,'r 25-netruft BocnI4raHHHx AraAeuru xyAoxecrB Mzxar.n OcurroBr{q MnxeruuH. Os no6eAun Ha KoHKypce BCex 50 npereuAeHTOB H B HX q[C,'Ie yBeHlIaHHbIx JIaBpaMI] saqreJlefi. Mvxeruus 6tr,r cuHom flapru3aHa OreqecreeHHoit nofruu, pe.rme$Hoe rpeAcraBJreHr.re

r{Horo c,'rbrura!'r B AercrBe o geft u fioroMy, 6rtrl uoxer, rax rro6osuo r.rso6paxaJl [oABr{f pyc-

cTaB xyAo)KHr.rKoM, CKOIO BOIIHCTBA.

OH yxpacr,'r poAHylo seMJrro n sapy6exubre crpaubr He Mureuuna Bo3ABHrJra g Kuese rtaMrrHI{K EorAanv Xue,rtuuurol,rv: a flonraeq-MoHyMeHr B qecrb no6eAu herpa I Haa urs"er.aMwa o ilerep6ypre-Erarepr.lHe II; e CeBacronone Ha Ma.[_axosola KypfaHe Haxnuony u I4cron,IHuy; - Kopunnoey, g_ HonovgpKaccKe-_Epuary; s HnxneNr -Honropo4ei pyccKHM Bor.rHarvr, naBruHM Kyerrue MrulHy; s TauxeHre s 6firsax ea Cpe4Hron AsHn. B 1864 roAy npaBnreJrbcrBo flopryranau o6tsefino KouoAHHM AecrrKoM MoHyMeHToB. Heyronazuarr pyKa

82


l(-ypc Ha rrpoexr rraMernnKa nopryranrcrofi KoHcrnryrluu. KoHxypc Bbrr4rpaJr MuxeuNu. Ero Harpa4unr{ flopryraJrbcKll}r opAeHoM H Ar{nJroMoM q.rreHa Jlucca6oucroft axa.u,euuu xyAoxecrB. HeeecrHH npoeKTbr rraMrrHHKoB MrxeurHHa: ocso6o4urelo Cep6HN Kapa feopruro H Knfl3ro Mlrxauay O6peHoBLIT{y.

(rlarpaaa

Mruxe-enuy

{ocru), Baurusrrosa,

qepHofopcxuir opAeH <<3a

HesaBHbHA,,la N{HorHe,

rfiA Bapuranir, .flruxonlHy

Xanrie- a'Apx - ans (Dpauuull, tr

-

MHOTHe ApynHe.

Muxeuasr,rttr BbtnoJrHeHbt a MoHyMeHTaJrbHo-AeKoparr.{Br.rbre rrpou3BeAeHfir, TaKHe, KaK ABepr4

rpo6suqu xgssn floxapcKoto e Cys4a.ne. Kpoue roro, oH co3.u,aBaJr craryr.r u no_coBbre yKp arxeHr.lfl x Qperarau <<MaHu H >>, <floNapcxu ft >, <<JIasapen>>, <Cnnpu4on>, <<I{nuarou>>, <f pefrr>, *' qxrr"i <<JlueaAr.tfl,>>, <!,epxana>. Cyaa era 6opos4r?JrH BoAbr MHorux rr.ropeii u no6eAso HecJru Ha rpor-Maqrax BbrM[eJrbl re-

po[-'{ecKoro pyccKoro Q,rora. DOJTbTITHM yBax(eHueM npoHnKaeubcfl K 3TOMy CKyJrbnTOPY, KOIAA B APXI BAX CTPAHbI HAXOAI.IIIIb AOKYMEHTbI O TOM, KaK caMoorBepx{eHHo u Hactoftqugo, xorrr u 6esycneruuo, 60_ poJlcg oH 3a BKd'[OqeHUe B__fopenteQtr MoHyMeHTOB <<Kpa-

o6pasa Tapaca IIIeeqeHKo. Ilpoe.xrapyn _rraMrrrHlrK Eor4aHy XuenlunqroMy, oH noMecrxJr Qurypy 6aH4yp1.1s1s c JrlrrloM Tapaca llleeveHro cpeMoJrbHoro>>

llll Apyr[x nepcouaxefi, rax 6lr o6crynuemux nbeAecraJr. Ero nocrur,ra HeyAaqa. BaAo HMg Be.rrr.rKoro Kodsapr 6uno nol crpo)Kafirunu salperona. V floAHo]Kllfl naMrrrtltzxy Xtr,le;t-l-urlllKoMy He rloflBrlracb Hr{ oAHa us Qrzryp. TorAa Mnreruns norrbrraJrcfl rlso6paeurt lllesqlnxo

Ha

nocraMeHTe cBoero naM.rrrHvxa Erarepuue II n Exarepuno4ape (uuHe Kpacroaap). OQuqaarrHo oH, KoHeqHo, o6'orou

He roBopIlJI,

a B I{3AaHHOM

OrrHCaHr.rH npoeKTa Jrr4rrrb oqeHb

ocropoxHo ynoMr.rHaJr: Snrypu lloretrxnHa a KasarrKr{x crap. nrI,IH <<erle He BrroJIHe xapaKTepr,r3oBaJru 6tr nausruaK>>, H rroroMy oH AonoJrnr.l;l ero Snrypan,tu <<cJrenofo Ko6sapn

H

ero HenpeM,eHHoro cnyrHr.rKa floeo,a,upn>, a6o uoHyneur, uocrasreHHlrri Ha rore Poco,ul, 6es SrHx rnnuqHbrx nepcouaxefi He MbrcJrr.rrcs. V ronaxo Apyry fllesqeHxo Oeaopy JleourleBurry TraqeHxo rrpr.rgHaBarcr B rrncbMe: <<Tanr xe caMoBoJlbHo HaMepeH [oMecruTb r.r yKpaHHcKoro xo6sapn Tapaca c noBoAbrpeM xnoflqeM. Tarnu o6pasou, n HaMepeH, c noMoulbto 6oxren, oKoHqareJrbHo Ha BeKH BeKoB yBeKoBeqHTb rlaMqrb Harxero c Bauu Hesa6eennorc Apyra...> 84


Ha nanqruHre e Exarepr.{HofpaAe, coopyxeHHoM y}Ke 6un aso6paxen crenoii 6au4ypncr, oAHaKo Aax{e MaJreliuree cxoAcrBo ero c

rrocJrc cMeprr.r MnreunHa, AeftcrstlrealHo

Tapacou <<BJracru npeAep)Kaur[e>> yttpa3AHHJrH. 14 sce xe MuxeruuH co3AaJr cnoeo6pasueftuuli railrrrrflfiK fioery. 3ro rpaSuvecK]re noprperH [IIesqeHKo, B oAnonr cfiyqae Becb pocr, B au4e 6aH4ypncra, B ApyfoM - Bo - B r.ny6oxoft 3aAyMtIHBocrLt y cBoero croJra, c Bbrpax{elrfieil JrHIIa, nOJIHbIT\r rpycTrl lt leqaJrr.r, B rpeTbeM n rpo6y c Harypbr. 3ro n BeJrprKoJre[Hbre uJrJrrocrparrlrn -K ero npor'r3-

BeAeHUflM, H IIeHI{bte, OBegHHbIe CBeTJIbIM JIHpU3MOM BOCIIOMI,IHaHHff o Tapace, ony6luxoeaHHbre B 1876 roay n flpale

flpH [epBoM nocMeprHoM vsnarw4 coquueHuir LflesqeHxo (uapcraa Poccuq H3Aarb Hx He peua.nacs). B neAasaelrou MuxeunnuM xypHa,re r.rJrJrrocrpauuft <<flqe.na>, noMHMo noprpera [lenqeHKo, Muxeruuu rn6osi{o Boclpor{3BoAn,'r roAapeHHbre emy Tapacolr fpuropreBnqeM pr,rcyHKn; ero 6r,rra eABa Jrr.r He nepBafl ny6.nuxaqun pu,a pa6or lllenueHxo-xy]IO)KHHKA.

B nacrue x Traqenro MuxeruaH AeJruncrr

rpaHAnoslrbrM

qrs 6rarorosefrHo rraMflTb rro3Ta ri Apyfa cBoero, MHorI{M euy o6nsaHHHtl s cBoeM xyAo}KecTBeHHoM [r 3aMbrcJroM:

<<...

HpaBcrBeHHoM pa3BurHr.r, Bo3HaMepr.tJrcn npe,u,rrpHHflTb Bo cJraBy ero HMeHlr o6ruupuefturfirl fi orgercrgesgeriruufi ceqrofi rpyA, H3Aarb B no.IIHoM o6reue Bce H3 rropuecrna [IIeeqeHKo Bo3MoxHoe Anfl ueH3ypHblx ycnoBr,rft ueqarn B [rJr!'rro-

crplrpoBaHHoM Br.rAe, c ltpl.rJroxeHuoro QaxcnMr.rJre r{ co Bcex ero co6crseHHbrx pHcyHKoB, a raK)Ke Bce BocnoMwrarwfl o HeM coBpeMeHHi.rKoB u 4pysefi, a raK)I{e H Bcex My3brKaJrbHbrx npongBeAeuuft pasuux KoMno3uropoB Ha ero rexcrbr>>. I'1 Muxeuruu, pa6orocnoco6socrr Koroporo flopax(afla BCeX, npIaHflncfl ocyqecTBJlrrrb STor 3aMblcer'L OH noArorosfin I roM <<I4n.nxrcr|npoBauHoro Ko6aapa>r,

qegueiruero xyAo)KecrBeHHoro c6cpHura, rocBtIIrIeHHoro lllenqeuro. 19 nunapn 1896 roaa oH yMep Bo BpeMn pa6oru

naa II roMoM. PlrcyHxu MltxeruaHa, cBfl3aHHbIe c [IIeeqeHxo,-JII.TII]b qacrb, xorfl r.r cyilIecTBeHHas, ero ofpoMHoro npa$ltuecxoro HacJreAr.rfl. Henpeasorl4eHbl ero pttcyHKu K <<Buro>> n <<CrpaurHoi.i uecrl.r>>

fororq. XyAoxnnx c

r.{3flr{ecrBoM HH C qeM

fl

ttopasuTeJltuoft r.ny6uuoft,

aprxcrfir{ecrofr rporecKHocrb}o nepeAaJl ro

He CpaBHHMOe HaCTpOeHLIe, KOTOpOe BO3HHKaer IIpU

qreHIlH 3TI,IX xyrKo-3axBarblBarou.iltx, IIoorHqHbrx nosec'reft.


B 60-x roAax Mnxeuas corpyAuuqar B

nporpeccr.rBHoM

carr.rpuqecxoM xypHare <<l,lcxpa>>, rAe eMy, B qacrHocrrr, rrpHHaAnexHT gHaMeHr4Tbni, ro.nuufi ncxpouerHoro ocrpoyMr-rr pr-rcyuor <SnurpaMMa>) A.ns o6noxxu. CorHn, eClu He rbrcflqH cBor{x BHpTyo3Hbrx pr4cyHr(oB noMecTHJr oH B

Koropyo vrcI\aBaJr He paAr.t BbrfoAbr, a sa6orqct o rrpocBeuIeHHH HapoAa. l{ Hecmorpn Ha ro qro >KypHa,'r r.t3-3a orcyrcrBufl KoMMep-

<<fluefie>>,

qecKoro

olbrra Mareurrna pa3opflJr ero, [3AareJrb He nepe-

CTABAJI 3AHI,IMATbCfl AM AO KOHIIA )KH3HH.

flosH

a

xol\.r[Brrrtrcb c MnreurnHbl M H ero rrpor4sBeAen

SpanqyecxuIi nogr TeoSanl

forle

BHrra pyccKutrl Maxe.naHAxeJro.

Ha3Badr

r.r

ff M

14,

Mnxaana Ocuno-


f

H

ESAA KPblJrATblX CJIOB

o JrecHofi npoceJroqnoft Aopore He cneua t.lAer Mo,qoAofi qe,roseK. Ha HeM ttapyc[HoBar py6axa, nopbtx{e,rtble, ncIIblTaBlxI1Ie He[oroAbl canorH,


OH ro H AeJro HaKJroHflercrr, Boporxt4T sa o6oqnHe cyxHe Jrr.rcrr,R cBe)KecrpyraHbrrr{ nocorrrKoru. VnH6aqcr, .ttto6yercn ceuuefi fApenbtx 6oponnuxon. Ho xorn ganre.{Harfi MerxoK rroqrn rrycr, rpH6sr os He co6apaer... I4sorAa pasBe copBeT H c'becT cneJryro nrcAy 3eMJrfHHKtt, MtrMO XOrOpOri rpJ,AHo paBHoAyrrrHo npofirn raK oHa KpacHBa, coqHa v llylxHcTa.

-

C.nlrunrcn [ryM, noKa3brBaercrr Kaypafl JloruaAeHKa. 6ol-

po noMaxuBafl roJroBofi, ona Be3er rer'rery, floaHyro rilyptlraulero xBopocra. t{yaoru npHMocrtrBruucb coBceM c6oxy, Ha reJlere cvlur ruyx<Hx B Bbrcor{oM fpeIxHeBHKel. flpoxoxlrri nosaopoealca, n4yx{rfK rpoHyJr rroBoAbfl, JrouaAb cTaila. !,a.nexo ,rrb ao Konornnoea, [paBocJranuuri?- cnpo-

cn,r- rpoxoxnfi.

4a BepcroB ceMb a,'rb BoceMb 6yeer. - Mepruux?npoxoxuli cBepr{HyJr sy6auu B yxI\IbIJIKC. Ba6a Mepflr'ra, Aa BepeBKy o6opea,rra,- 6oirxo s roll

eMy-orBerrrJr npoeexufi. OH y6eau.rrcfl, qro 6apuH 6yAer

<<ue

I{3 BA}I(IIbIX>.

il,a ru, ro.ty6uzK, apxaHre,tucrrri,- rryrrrnx.3x xyAa re6a saHecd'ro...

yBepeHHo BbrNlor-

BrrJr

A{yxnx noAo)r(AaJr, He cxa)Ker d.rn rrpoxo)Kufi eure qero. [']oronr roqecaJr 3a yxoNr h cnpocu,T, He 6yaer na y ero 6nafopoarrfl uyror ra6auxy. He Aepx(y. cepreuui,rir, a Bor fpHBeHHHK Ha BoAKy

-

l.t3Bodrlb.

caM He ttpocrlr, a aaAyr - A6pocr.rrra - He 6pocrzr,ocxna6u,rcs My)I{}rK. flo6a.narypr.trb 6u c ro6ofi, KpacHocrroBou... /[a cenoaHn- MHe Her.ocyr, n re6l 3arepx(r4Barb He xovy. A eor npfixonu-Ka ltt e KofloruJroBo a e as6e y L4tan Ceuerroea foc[oAuHa Mar<cur*,loea cnpocu. t{aiixour no6a.nyeurca... Myx<ux roxJroHr.rJlcn. I-lyruux notrral KoriledrreK, B Ko,t.o-

pon

3BnKHy,rra cKyAHafl Me,toqb.

,i\[yxux 6epexlro r]3flr

3a-

cKopy3JrbrrvrH naJlbuaMH MoHeTy, etrle pa3 noKJtolrr.rJtcfl H npl4_ qMoKHyJt B CTOpOHy Jror.ilaaenKU

_Cxopo npoxoxl.ui Bbt[Iedt uil iio",rnHy. OH c6pocun Me[IoK rt 6eega6orHo noBaJtt,lJrcr B ryc'ryro naxyqyto rpaBy.

fo 88

I IperuHeBltK-rolr.rgnori y6up BeKa.

pyecxor.o Klrec.t.brrHrlHa npouno


,[,onro cMorpeJl, 3aKHHyB 3a ronoBy pyKlr, Ha BeqHo MeHflrorrlue cnon Qopuy, To raroulile n ue6e, To Hapo)I(Aaloullte-

cs o6.nara. O qeu-ro AyMat, oH 6yAto npucJlylxuBaJlcn K rosqafiueuy ttepesBoHy n crpeKorar-rnlo e eucoxori rpaBe. Buuyn as MerrrKa xapasari u Hox, JIoBKo orpe3aJt JIoMorb

fi

rycTo nocblnaJr coJrbro. Hacrtrugrrlucb, Hanr.rBrrllcb BoAbI lr3 KJrr,oqa, florJrfl,u,eBllln ellle M14HyTbr ABe Ha ynopHylo Bo3HK) MypaBbeB y Hof, JrerKo Kr.IHyJr KoroMKy 3a nJleqfi H 3alrarat /Ia,'IbIIIe.

...8 1850 roAy, nocrynuB nocJle Kocrponncxoti rnusagus B Mocxoscruft yHunepcurer Ha MeAnunucxuh Qaxy"ltte'r, Maxculvroe BcKope c6nugsncs c raK Hagrtsaerloft <<Mod'toAofi peAaxquefi> )KypHa,ra <<MocxnurqHIIH>> - KpylxKot\{, lAe Ayuofi 6un A. H. Ocrpoacrr.rfi. On qacro caM rrvran cBofi flbecbl. Cnyuran ero, MaKcI{Mos 6H,'I IIoKopeH Mer'r(ocrbr,o peuu OcipoBcKoro. VAusL.Irr ero I.I Apyrofi nucarens, 3eMJlsK-KocrpoMr.rq A,rexceft l*luceucrufi. V roro xorb cJror H se 6nucran, 3aro cauu Qurypbl BbIXOAITJILI KoJlopHr' sue. 14 cKoJrbKo HacMeIITKL H ilpe3peHllfl TaI4JrH oHLI K ABopflHaM, K BbtcoKonocTaBfleHHbrM cl,IflTer'lbHblM caHoBHHKaM

H

ry6epHcr<uru qnHosHI4xa[4 ! B Aercrne, Korir,a xHJr s recuofi rJIyIxH nocaAcKoro ropoAKa flap$eurleea, Ceprefi BacrJreeuq 6es KoHua, 6brgaJro, cJIy[aJr paccKa3bI peMecJIeHHLIKoB-orxoAHHKoB, yxojlHBrrrrrx Ha sapa6orxu e flnrep. Paccxastt sru 6u.trl flepecbtIa3eMJIAHbI KpacHbtMH CJIOBUaMU, KaK qepHl'lKa B JIyKOIXKe

uuxofi.

-

B xpyxre MaxcuMoe roJIbKo BocropfaJlcn Ocrpoecxutrt ll flnceucxuru, Ho caM o [LlcareJlbcrBe He noMbIIIIJIflJl, po6e;t npr.r MbrcJre o co[epHLIqecrBe. Ou pellan npoAoJIXarb rlIeAHqr.rHcKoe o6pasonaune, nepeexaJl n flerep6ypr I{ 3aHI'IMaJIctl e MeAnxo-xlipypruqecKotl araAeuun. OAHaro BcKope cpeAH KaMeHHblx rpoMaA ropo,u,a 3acocara ero rocKa no ruxllM MocKoBcKHM rlepeynKaM L ABOpI'lKaM, no Ocrponcxotrly Lt MocKoBcKHM Apy3bqlt, no flaptpeHrueBy, lro crapnnHblM rIaMflTHItKaM Kocrpoutt, no BceMy tlcKoHHo pyccKoMy.

Bo apeun Ao;r6exxu cxyuHofi JIarbIHIl BcraBa,'llt nepeA uuu eeuepetourafl Kocrpoua,,u,epeByilIKn, qepHble IIoKocHBttll4ecg n36u, cnoBHo ona.IleHHbte AoroparcunMll d'lyr{aMH, u Ha 3aBad'rr.tHxe-6ueanrte IIHTepIILIKLI c ux paccxasaun. t{yAr4Jrr,rcb eMy xopoBoAbt, KpecrbsHcKl{e Hrpbl u o6pn4lt, H KaKro cpasy BbIJutJIcfl ua 6yuary 3aAylxeBHblli, 6orarltfi noApo6'


r{ocrflMn oqepK <<KpecrlrucKue nocr{AeJrKrr a l(ocrpoucxofi ry6epnun>>.- Ero HaleqaraJr xypHaJr <<En6nuorei<a Ailn qreHnr>. Bcxope 6unt ory6.nr.{KoBaHbr Han&car.rHbre rox(e tto KocrpoMcKr.rM BneqarfleugflM oqepKu <<l4gso3,{Hru>, <LIJBeqbl>>, <<Mafl fl p>, <<Ceprau >>. Ouepxn srr.r sar{HrepecoBaJrn Vleana Cepreernva TypreHeea. Bonce He3HaKoMufi c o6pn4aMn ceBepHoro KpecrbrrHcrna, TypreueB BnepBbre qr{TaJr y MaxcuuoBa, Aa erqe c raKnMH rroorllqecKr.IMH no4po6uocrflMLI, o BcsKr.rx <<cylpqAKax> u <<lrocHAeJIKax>>. OH, KoHer{Ho, orAa"'r AoJrxHoe He6eso6fiAHOMy HapOAHOMy roMopy, HenccrKaeMan crpyfl KoToporo TaK A 6nna s onucanHoft MaxcuMoeur\4 ltHcueHr.rpoBKe <<BapuH roJrbrrl>>. C,ronou, nepeA HHM gpr.rMo flporxeJl Becb Kpyr Hexr.rrpbrx pa38/reqesnfi KocrporvrcKoro KpecrbsHHHa, r{3HypeHgoro rpyAoM r syxAoii, Ho He yrparusuero ceoeii nprapo4Hort BeceJrocrr.r u cauo6urgoro rBopqecrBa. Ecrb cBrrAered'rbcrBo, vro TypreHeey oco6o noJlro6lrrcq oqepK uCepraq>>- o MeABexbeM Box(aKe, noSTl,trtHo onHcaEHoM Bfloc,leAcrBlIH TaK)Ke n HexpacoBbrM B <<leHepa.ne Tonrttruse>>. Typrener ltplrrnacaJr Maxcuuona r ce6e. KorAa cMyrileHHrtfr roHoura rrpnlxeJr, nracrurr,rrl fiucareJrb Apy)KecKH nporrHyJr eMy pyxy. flo6purr,rr,r 6apxarHtrnnu rnasaru I"Isau Cepreeon,l BHHMarer'rbHo rJrrrAer'r na opo6eourero nocerltTeJIfl, C r.rHTepecoM c,ryuad'r, a Ha IIpotllaHbe cKa3a,'r: uro... Crynarire-ra B HapoA, ua6nnAafire, - 3naere usyuafire ero Ha Mecre, sanacartrecb cBe)KrlM MarepuaJrolt. V sac xopouue sar,arrv. Aopora flepeA BaMa orKpbrra. Crosa grrz pelunnu yr{acrb MaxcnMosa. Ou no4yman: <<A eeAb a npaBx,a. Anercau4p HrxonaesHu Ocrponcxali BOT OTKpr,rJI }Ke Uonrrfi, segUaXOlrblfi AOCeJre MHp Kyneqecxoe 3anrocKBopeqbe.

f,, npazga, c Ocrpoacrr4M

-

He cpaBHrocb,

HO BCe X{e HerrJrOXO 3HarO KOCTpOMCKO|O My}KHKa H OTXOAHT.Txa. 3saxorra MHe fl Kycrapb, r.r Macreposofr, n npoctoli )KnreJrb

MeJIKTIx ropoAalxex Ij nocaAoB, 3arpanesHbrri uaru 6par, 3axorycrHbrfi npocronrc4aH. Bce ouu AocroriHbr BHr{MaHufl Jrr{Teparopa He MeHee, qeM saMocKeopeqxufi Kyneu, a euie He orrucaHbr, He 3HaKoMbr oreqecrBeHHoMv rllrrareJrro.

flvcrs

Ocrpoacxufr c llaceiracxuM cosAanr carupruecxne runri. fl xe 6yay BhrnorHflrb 3a.[aqy nocxporuHeft, craHy orrucbrBarb Bce KaK ecrb c Harypbl, Bo3bMy 3a ocHoBy Saxr rr AoKyMeHT. 3aro sa6epycb B TaKue Ae6pn, KaKHe croflr.rrrHbrM nuTeparopaM H HeseAonaul..>>

Co6upanca HeAoJrro. !,eHer Ha esAy He 6buro, Ho oH 90

He


neqarrrJrcn. PaccyAr,r 3ApaBo: B efo npeAnpvflrvu [erxKoM xoAHTb, a He 6apuuoM e3AI{Tb-gHarIHT yx(e noJloBrtry Aedra cAeJrarb. LI, saxnrrys Ba rrJrequ Aopox(Hyro KoroMKy, oH or. nparr'rrrercfl B neruee nyremecrBr.re no Kocrpoucxorl u Bna4nuupcroft, I-Inxeropo4cxori a Bsrcxofi ry6epuunu.

...Bor aAer-6pelet Marculroe, rAe npncraHer K apreJ'rrt eto noABe3er MyxHK, HaBeillaBrunfi xyua s coceAHeM cene. !,o6poAyrxHoMy, HenprxorJurBoMy ltpoxoxeMy orBeAyr s rlo6ori ua6e .nyuruufi yro;r Ha HoqJrer, ero H Ha cna4l6y [pnrJracflr, oH Be3Ae AoMa. Os ue o6nAur xo3qr{Ha, He orKaxercr or npocrocepAeqHo npe4noxeHuorl nficKH qeri. 3arc xorAa saBeAercr xorb He6ontuas AeHbfa paA Ir/IorHraKoB, rAe

-

noAeJIIZTbCfl C nepBblM BCTperrHbrM.

l'l

Ou He npficraer c paccnpocaMu, He Jre3er B Aytily. nor.. HOTOTHafl CaMa pa3Bep'rbIBaeTcR nepeA HLrM, ToJrbKo ycrreBaH yrpaAxoft, qro6u He BHAeJra JrroAt't, 3anucbrBarb. B crapocru oH cKaxeT:

HarorAa fl K npocrblM JtloAflM He noAJraxliBaJrcfl, Ire Tepnerr sroro MyxHK He ruoxer. f scerAa

noAJrnsbrBaJrcn. JraAaJr c Hr..rM

u ysHaBaJr Bce, qro uue rpe6onaJrocb.

flap$enrreB BcrpernJr ero 3HaKoMbrM rrIyMoM flecos. HHqTo SAecb He r.r3MeHr.tJlocb, a ecJlr{ KaKHe [epeMeHbr ll flpoH3ourJra, To K xyArrrerrry. 14 craJro eMy rcpbKo. floo6eeruanu AoMa, noKpr.rBaJrllcb oKHa H sa6opu, a HoBbrx crpoeHnfi uroTo He 3aMeqad'rocb. Aa u HapoA Ha y/tuue fiorraAaJrcrr Bce 6eAHo oAerur? u raroft-ro osa6o'reHulrfi. MarcnmoB 3ant4cblBaer: <<..,Her HH oAHofo KaMeHHoro AoMa, a 6o,tlnaq qactl, AepeBflHHbrx nporHH!'rH .ILo cJIe3, noKpprBr.tJr?rcb Ir floJrypa3pyrrrr.rJnrcb. Ha c;lo6o,uKy noArre rnaA6nula, orAer'reHHyro or rlocaAa rny6oxHrvr oBparoM... fi raflAerb 6ontno... Hapa4 xure;reri Ao cr.rx eule nop Ha 6onsruyn qacrb rrrbercrr r.r3 Ao[{oTKaHbrx uarepuft... He gocsr noca,rlcKue nanreft Tod'rbKo noroMy, qTo coBecTHo 3To focnoAaM MerrIaHaM, Ho oKpecTHbte KpecrbflHe Bce crIJIoIUb o6yru e AeuesHft rIpoAyI{T 6epesoBoro u JlnnoBoro AepeBa: B <<rxerrryHbr>> fi ilanrv. CRoeonl nocancKas 6eAsocrl cKBo3LIT oroBcroAy>>. cKasarb

MaKcraMosa sauHTepecoBaJro, qeM

xe

3anr.rMar,orcfl trap-

$enrleerlu, Ha qro oHH cylqecrBylor - cepr,esHuft Bonpoc, xoropufi B AercrBe y Hero IIo MadlloJlercrBy He Mot Bo3HI.IKuyrr. Tor4a oH ToJIbKo gHaJl, tITo HapsAy c >KLITeJInMI{ nocaAa cyuecrBylor orxoAHHKH. A ceftqac oI{ aoKonaJIcfl Ao caulrx xopuefi cyqecrBoBaHI4t cBotax 3eMJIlKoB. Ce.nrcrgu xosqilcteoM napQenrleellbt, cqLITaBIIIfiecf, xu9l


rc.1,tllr.r nocaAa, He 3aHrlr\{aJrficb. fIpaBAa, Her(oTopbre H3 Hrrx, TC, rrro >KHJIH nO6JIH3OCT[I K AepeBHe, IIbrraJIHcb, noMHMo cBo-

H.\ r4u3epHbrx oropoAoB, nocerrrb Ha flycrbrpflx Koe-qTo

tlro xe

3;iaKoB.

oHLI Mor"tu rlo.ryyqtlTb, ec,{LI Aa)Ke

H3

y oKpecr-

rri,i\ Kpecrbflrt <<To, qro BbtceBaercfl, Ha uecroti roA, r{L}r

roJIoArr, BcerAa He AoxoAr.rT, Ho r.t B cqacT/rr4Boe BpeMf poAHTcfi

To.'rbKo

cau 3-ri,

cana

4-ft, or6lrsag or 3eMJrH BcflKyIo

Ha-

At'x(Ay>>...

flcHo, vro nap$eHrtee[br Aod,rx{Hbl 6u;ul gaHunnarbcfl pellrrcJIeHHLiqecrBoM, rtpHrIeM Ha cropoHy, a6o ltecrnoe Haced'Ie-

s;re s 6o.nlur.IHcrBe cauo o6cny)r{HBarro cBon Hexurpble Hyx4ur. I4urre, MeHee 6pesr.nunue, rroAaBaJ'Iltcb, BnpoqeM, B KouIKt){8BbI,- BOpOBCKLI O3Hpancb, d'IOB}IJI[, IAe npUAeTCfl, KOuict<.. Eyrea,rrbgo 3a fporxg oHH orAaBanu etoi Heo6uqsufi ('r.oBap>) 6apuurHuxaM, Koropble, B cBoro oqepeAb, HenJroxo ria)KI{Barrcb, orBo3lrJrn ero B AepeBurc llloxruy 6nus fa,rava, Ha r(oxeBeHHbre 3aBoAbt.

Kro as MyxcKoro

qee,

HaceJrerrufl

re

flapQeHrlesa 6Hn no6ofi-

IIIJIH B Bnrcxyro H Aaxe llepucxyro ry6epuno xoHoBaJraMr.r l,Inr.i 3Haxapnrvru. ,(pyrne soo6ue Ha Jrero yxoAHJrr.r

Heu3Becrrro KyAa B noucKax c.nyuaftuoro aapa6orra. OcHosrias x{e Macca Hace,reuuq HarxJra g-enerruft Bbrxoa n-c6ope rpn6on. Jho6onHo, noApo6Ho H co BKycoM oflncbrBaJr

Marcuuon nenpeaaorlaeHHofo Macrepa rpra6nbir oxorH I,Ieaua Mnxenqa. C6op rpn6os!

9ro Moxer 6url npuRrHee, qeM yrpeHnflfl or uoquoft pocbr necy B rrolrcKax 3rono qyAa npnpoAbr rpu6a... fpa6a. c urlsnxofi HadeKpeHb, cJroBHo frpnBercrByrouero re6fl, t4Jrv, uao6opor, nporyJrKa no AbrMffuleMycs

cnpflTaBrxerocfl Bo Mxy, 3a [HeM, MexAy r(opHfMlr. Cxo.nlxo Kaprr.rH HarrucaJrli xyaoxiuxll, aso6paerla,ryAecHr,re Aapbr pyccKoro jreca To B Br4Ae pacTyqeii y nHn ceMbr.r

rry3arbrx,

HI'rKOB, TO

KaK KyrreqecKue rlepKBH, B BHAe

6opoouroa-rrod,rKoB_

X(XBOTIIICHO BbICbIIIaBIIIIlXCfl I,I3 KOpStrHbl

noAocuHoBr.rxos, noA6epe3oBHKoB... Onn nucrynaror B rlapruHax LI CKa3KaX X{ItBbIMr4 CyIqecTBaMH, ACnbITbIBanT BCeBO3_ I\IOXHbIC

TID

I'KJIIOqCHIt'...

3ra noegfin, arz 6ecne{HHe rrporyJrKr,r no recy sa rpn6aMH xopo[o 6Hnu agsecrHbr cocroflreJrbubrM nerep6ypixqaM tr MocKBHqaM, Bbresx(aBrrruM JreroM Ha Aaqa. BxyceH )KapeH_ srrui c nyKoM rpn6, apomareH cyrueHbtil_ Aan cyna, a xorrly eue 6o.nee nrc6 npu6 MapHHoBaHHstfi nnn colenslft. OAHaro noAo6uas (<JrHpHKa>, Bepuo, He cyqecrBoBaJra 92


A.rn lap$eHrbeBcKl.rx

(<rpu6HHKoB>>.

I4u HeKorAa 6ulo

pac-

cnrarpilBarb n BocTopfaTbcfl TeM, KaK pacryT, KaK BbIrJItlAflr,- y.nu6anrcr I,IJII flilaqyr, rpH6u. OHH sHarn oAHo: IIx HyxHo co6part L KaK Moxno rroKa ecrb B necy rpu6u

-

6o.qrure.

He ycreBa,'ul pacrn. Onrtrurte, gHaIoIIIHe <<Mecra> rpn6Hrrru B pa3rap ce3oHa o6upanu ece rpn6u s 6rasrexaurlrx Jrecax. flpyrue [rdrrn B Aa,'IeKae pourH Ir nepeJlecKn, cra-

fpu6u

paflcb, oAHaKo, He napyularb rpaHIIubI enaAeHHIi

xnrelefi

coceAHl{x ce,r. <<C5oporrr

rpn6or,- coo6u{ar MaKcuuoe,-

3aHllMalorctt

BCe, OT Nladrla AO BeJIHKa, C paHHerO yTpa, MOXTHO CKa3aTb, c nepBblM ,'ryr{oM BocxoAflrqero coJrHr{a... cxoAflT B AeHb pa3 Ao nnrlr H Bo3Bpalqarcrcs o6uxlroBeHHo oqeHb nogAHLIM Be-

qeporr>.

C erHorpa$uqecxoil ToqHocrbro,

BHeIuHe 6eccrpacruo, Ho

ocraR.nrrfl y6uricrneHuoe Brler{arr'IeHue

y vlttateflefi,

Maxcu-

orNreqaeT, qTo 3arracTyI0 ApeBHlre, eABa nepeABHfaloqlte rrofu crapyxu BbIHyxAeHbI I.IcKarb rpHdu s l0-15 Bepcrax or AoMa. Kynqu-nepeKyrIuI'IKLr IIJIaTI4JI14 ItM 3a rIoJIHyto Kop3uHy necKo,'rbr{o KoiIeeK. A senoaareKy, B ropoAe Cyauc"rraNroB

ec, noAo6uo orpouuorl [oraHKe, qro [bIIIIHo

14 HafJIo pa3pocr'rzcb r{3 HaBo3e, 6.naroAescrBoBaJl <<rpn6Hofi KopoJIb) Ky[eu flanynzu. Ha rpu6ax oH HaxtIBa,'I no 150 rbtcttt{- B

fo.u..

Ellroaa,'r y nap$eHrteBueB eure oAHH rlpoMbtcen - 6poAflrree fioprHrxHr.rqecrBo. O sent Maxcur,tos paccKa3a"t B oqepKe <<f[Iseubr>>. Llleellrt rtepexoAlld'rrr c Mecra ua ltecro, o6rrir{Ba,ru HacefieHue. 3auacryrc t,ts-ga 6eAHocrI4 xI{TeJIeft oun rroJryqa,ru BMecro rlJlarbt xapqa, roBopn H Ha roM cnacn6o.

lloKa xneer araxufi noprHflx{Ka n uletl-un6yAb u36e, [Iber ecr rr Jlaraer gv nyHbl Aa ryJlynbr, xa$rauu u no,'lyury6xu

-

Kouqr,r - I,tAer Aa.lb[Ie. cbI3Mar'IbcrBa HMeenb cl{oCrarr IxBeuoM, ecJIt{ aa)Ke poBKy,- He raK-ro npocro. Tu cnepna npotl4u BbIyqKy y <<MacTepa>> I,I TorAa JII,lllIb floJlyqHub [paBo xoA]lTb c ItfJIoH no ceJraM, a noKa nopa6orarl Ha Hero. Marcnnros He pa3 Ha6.noAal, KaK 3aApeMaBlllefo HJIL qyrb gaMerrrKaBluerocq yqeHHKa <<Macrep>) npe6olluo crefaJl n.nerxoli c sacrbIBIIIHM Ha KoHue KycKoM Bapa. Taxne oqepKlt nucarertl, xax <<lpn6oBI{I'lK>> unn <fllneuu>, npilrn/lrlJlHcb He COBCeM nO BKyCy IIeKOTOpbIM qUTaTeJIflM. Criaqa.na oHn rIJIeHnJILIcb, Hallpl4Mep, olncaHnenr flapSenrlH rrber c xo3fleBaMn.


eBa, oKpyxaBrrrux ero rop H coceH, 6.nnxsnx ll .[a,'rbHtrx .qyrots r noneil. I-lo AoqaruBaJrrr Ao.r.ex Mecr, rAe fiso6pax(arorcfl crapyxa rpu6uHqu, E orqyqaJrn ro, rrro HcnHru-eaer HHorAa raxolrqIrlurlcl. rpa6auu: fiorraAaercff BApyr raKafl loper{b, I{To He no ce6e cTaHeT. Kopo6u;ru nHbrx r{r.rrare.nefi a rarr4e oqepKrz, xax <<[Iurep_rrIHK>). fi_epeneuc]roro napHr flerpyxy ornpannam e lftareir Ha sapa6orxrz. fipyroro BbrxoAa Her eMy Kop- BAAepeBHe Mltrbcs HerIeM, xorb c foJroAa noAuxari. ue flurepa, rdrfiAr{rrrb, vro-un6yAl a a_ us6y npnHecer. Eyaer flerpyxa ao6upamcn cHaqaJra Ao Mocrsu <<pucqoli Aa neureqxbiau. A e

6enoraueusofi pasurqer Hzxoraeecxali soxsa il v Ha nvrflx sa6eperca yrpa4xori a nopoxur.rfi u rpasHlrri BaroH, s xbropoM HeBecrt xaxori roBap Bo3uJrr4. V npuxarnr llerpyxa a fllrrep, ,rro6u r{epe3 KaKHe-Hu6yAt HecKoJrbKo Jrer, BAoBo.rrb Haxre6asul{cb croJlur{Horo )KHTbfl, xar-uu6yAl cKaearb rrptl C.TIVTIAC CO B3AOXOM:

Hy a 6aruura llnrep! Bce 6ora eurep! - noxa, A co6pae cuHa r.r xax 6u onpan4blBaffcb, orerl

ro Bop I{T

3 a r.I cKr.rB a

Celrr,s

y

rcxlr.I M,

Hac

r.r 3

BHHfl rou{r.r

M

Crr ToHoM

u 6es roro 6onlruax...

- o6aAe.n, caM BeAaelrrb: rrrr.rp

:

3ennnuuer? sac oTBeJru flecoK AJIg rro)KHH, Aa H

JIyfa-To yrJIoM Ha Csatenoscxoe 6onoro BbrrrL'IH. Xort so.Teorl, roBflAr.rHKr,r-To Bor c pox{AecrBa He BLrAaJrra. Ox,

Kon,I

rflxeJro, flerponanyura, 6ontuo rqxero! tr4 uuxax rbr rvr

lre nDlrcnoco6uutcs! !,enaoxparaqecf(ar ny6nuxa raKr{e oqepKu, uao6opor, trpaBercrBoBaJra. OHa, ecrecrBeHHo, coctaenr.na 6o.nruuicrBo t{t{rareJlefi noAo6uofo poAa Jrr4reparypbr. BuxoArlu Hg H143oB, 6eAgue cryAeHTr,I, MeJIKIze qLIHoBHbIe cflyxau1fie, yrIH-

TeJIff qacTo Haxo,{,[IJII{ B HenpuTflSaTeJIbltblx, npaBAHBbIX, BCe_ raa crlHcaHHbrx c HaTypbr MaKCT4MOBCKLX CUeHKaX nepex(n-

roe fi

nepeqyBCTBoBaHHOe.

I(ar, o caMoM AeJIe, [ocJre npoqreHtrfl oAHoro r.r3 or{epKoB He Lr03Myulatr,cR <<6ylbrHflMr.t>>... Kax norul, qro oAofleBaer

toJroAHoro u 6o.tluoro, 6yntrHl..l troflBJrfl,/Ilrcb Ha ceJre B caMyro A,tr KpecrbflHuHa nopy B AHH y6opxra. Ceulvr, - gtr6aeanficl, .nuurt 6u He uMeBIxIte B AoMe MyxquH, H3 cr.tJr orpa6orart o6por< H noAyrxHoe r.I xorb HeMHoro ganacru ce6e. Cer?qac IzM Hexof.qa r{r.rHr.rTb Hexnrpufi nayxuqxaft aHBeHTapb, rroJroMasuJufrcs Bo BpeMrr pa6or, noKynarb ero roxe HeKofAa, Aa r.{ He Ha qro. A 6y.nlrHu ryr KaK ryr c HoBeHb_ Kr{MH cepnaMlr H KocaMu, rpa6nalan H B:z.ilarv, n BceM

crpaAHyro

94


[poqLIM cnapsxeHneM. ,[aror <<3aAapMa> - ronlro 6epn. 3ato oceHllo He B3bIIqn: o6Aepyr KaK nunKy. 3a6epyr n xo,'rcrbl, LI BoJIoKHa, u flpqxy. flocne 6ynuHefi uo au6apy xorb lxapoM noKarl{, He aaft 6or, uro c,'Iyqr?cq B 9To Bpe-

c xopMnnsqeu! floiilenl c Ma,aor'IerKallrn_flo MI{py' xaK no[IJIa nocJle cMepr]t Myxa KpecrbnnKa Cuqeea us N{s

""t81:olTffifH1?r*.r{MoBa, neqaraBIIIHecr B }nvpHarle <<Eu6nuorera Ails qreHIIg>>, cocraBl'IJII{ AByxroMHylo KHI'rry <<,Ilecuas rJIVIub>>. Hanncan oH 3a cBolo ceMnAecgrl-IrerHmro xr{3Hb (183i-1901 rr.) eue HeMarlo t<ttur noAo6Horo poAa. OH sar.nnuyJl B raxne 3axoJlycrbn, rAe paub[Ie He 6Hean HH oAuu nncaie.nl. A rraBHoe, .nrc6oeHo noKa3afl rpyaonoft .no4 B efo IroBceAHeBHOCTlI, qro MOf cAeJIaTb TOJIbKO TaKOI{ JI}'ITe' parop, xoropuft xun oAuoit c HHM xI,I3HbIo.

)(euuyrauu HapoAHofo HcKyccrBa 6oraro nepecbtrlaHa ero KHHra <<foA sa ceBepe>). ,[,ansHrlft Bocror u Vpal, flcxosrquHa a flpuracnnficrafi rpafi, CuoneuuruHa n Benopyccun rocrenpulrMHo BcrpeqaJllr MarcuMosa, 3HaKoMLIJIU ero co o6nqasul.t H HpaBaMI{. Mecra srn }KI.IByr cnoeft, npucylleft r.rM )KHsHbro; B ero oBeflHHbIx pouaHruxofi ruurax oHrr uBeTyT, KaK qBerer rro BecHe rrpocHyB[Iagc9 K Hosofi xnsrru crenb. flHrnugHft H nrc6oeHarenssrtft qnraTeJIb r.I cefiqac c yAoBoJIbcrBHeM 6eper noreltHeBttlue, 3anbrd'renHble or BpeMeHr,I KHLIrI: <<Ha socroxe>>, <<Trcpuaa u cBor.rMr.r

ccblr'IbHble>>, <<EpoAauaa Pycr>>, <<PaccNaeu

Hg )Iil.rgHlI cra-

poo6pa4qen>>. MarcunaoB Harr[caJr yBJreKareJrbHyro KHlIryoqepK, e xotopofi nepeA Hat\,Ifi npoxoAflT Be,'rttKoJIeIIHble KaprHHbI pyccxofi AepeBHLI, naxorbl, ceBa I{ y6oprn, ue"nrHHqHbrx pa6or u 6asapoe, peqHblx npucraueft, x,ne6unx

6upx. Bce ABr4xercq H ITIyML{T, Be3Ae cJrbrlllarcr Bbrpa3r.rTeJrbHafl poAHafl perlb I{ 3aAyuIeBHbIe necHLI paAocrr.r

u fopr. flncare.nt B KHLITe <<Ky,'tl xne6a rI eto

no-

XOxAeHI'Ifl>) MaCTepCKI'I [OKa3ao'I' IITO 3HaqI'IT Anfl pyCCKOTO KpecrbrrHr{Ha noruruir cJIeSaMLI I,I noAqac roplrrli, Ho Ha-

cyurHufi poaHoft <<xre6yruxo>>. Or oqepKa raK ,r laxner npocropoM poAHbrx IIIKIIIKLIHCKHX nOfler"{, rAe BbI3peBaeT BbrcoKaq KoJrocxcrafl pyccKafl poxb. ...B rnyxnx AepeBHflx fopecrHo Iorflrcn qepHble, y6orlte as6yruxn noA pacrpenaHHblMlt coJIoMeHHbIMIl xpuruanaz. B AOlKAn, HerroroAbr, B HenpoJrasHyn rpfl3b, KorAa no AepeBHe Hr{ KoHHoMy He npoexarb, HH neIUeMy ue npofiru, oHIt fioxoxu Ha 6esyreuHo pblAalotrlnx BAoB II crapyx. Bt'l6uexllrecR


Hs cr.rJr, l.r3HypeHHbre pa6cTBoI!1, [OAaBJIeHHbIe Beflur{fleM fi Ta_ [rHcrBe_HHocrbro npHpoAbr, To g,rroBeuleil, ro ao6porl, ro Kattpr.rsHori, Jlr,oAr4 oKpyxunu ce6s Mucrr{qecKofi eep6r? Bo Bce[ro-

ryurylo

Heqr-rcryr,o cr.ury.

Maxcu nlos cosAar Jrro6onurueliuylo B r.rcrop r.rr rr,ruponoir Jrareparypbt KHr.tfy: <<He,rucrafl a HeeeAot{aR cu,larr. K'6o.rrrIlIoMy coxaJIeHlIIo' oHa yBHAeJIa cBer JIIiIIjb rIocJIe ero cr{epTr.r H BolrrJra a l8-ri ToM co6paHun coqaHeslrrl nucare,ro. Sxseunlrp rarofi KHHrH s .tt-nqHori 6n6.rurrorexe flpeaMer

3aBncrr.t co6upare.neri- 6a6naoQz.non. <<Crogr Jleca reMHbte or 3eMJIu n Ao rte6a>>,- noror cdrerrbre cTapubr no.flpMapKaM, BOCXBaJTfls IIoABtrrH Moryqqx pyc-

cxux 6orarurperl u 6opl6y Hx c [pupoAHbrMu r]pennrcrBnrrM]t. Her sz flpoxoAa, Hrc npoe3Aa: HeoAo,{r.tMoji n.norHofi arauoii Kax(yrcfl cnHeroIrIHe BLaJru pocKotuHbre xeoftHue,rreca>). Tax uagnuaer e grori xHare MaxcuMoB rJlaBy <<Jleuuri>>.

t{eu Aa.ltue

Hr,eM MbI c HHM B TeprHyro qaqy reca, retr TpeBolKHee craHoBuTcq y Hac Ha Ayue. ,[ec sce qaqe fi fy-

trle, or1 npuTux. !,aexo yx<e 3aKarnnocb, Kauy"r.ro Kyr,a-To KpacHoe KoJIeco coJrHua. 14c,{esru BeceJrbte, AoMoBgrbre ri cyerJrnBbre gBepbKli - 6enxn. To"rluxo 3dToBeuIHe coeu u $u_ Jllll'lbl C rOpTaHHtlM BOIIJ|.eM TflX{e,lO [epeMaXHBaIoT C X,epeBa Ha AepeBo. <<O6uaHyrufi nyrunx oq6Hl ,,rerKo flpuHr{ivraer TaKOBOe nTHqbe rreHbe 3a oTqaf HHyro rvront6y nonn6arou{ero

B TpscaHe H!'Ia OCaXAeHHOTO CO BCeX CTOpOH KpOBOX(aAHbrMt{ 3BepnMr.t rrecqacrHofo sa6nyAunruerocfi qe,,roBeKa... B rux

Jrecax uau6onee qyBcrByercn rpener )Kr.r3Hn, u neujnli ssJrfiercg ero oJrHuerBopeHHbrM npe,lcraBr.treneu, noAo6Ho reM JrecHbrM TyMaHaM, t(oropbre MeAJreHHo rroAll4r\{atorcs saa 6o_ JrorHbtMH TpscuHaMH n, tto nprxorrl Berpa, npaunlram o6maHquBbre Qop'lrul npaeHAeHHfi >. B grofi xuure MaxcHMoB paccKa3blBaer, KaK 3apoAuJracb, B qeM cKa3brBaeTc' Bepa B Her{r4cryro cr{,ry pyccKoro KpecrbrrFrHHa, 3ar{acryn 6eccnnbHofo nepeA rpo3HblM rrponB,,rer{fleM npapoau.^OH nosrrzrrHo paccKagblBaer H o r\{oryuecrBe ont,

r{ BoAbt. OnrcaHae fpo3Horo fioxapa, xoropurft ua6,rro4a,n Maxcurr.los ria Kocrpouu{flHe, HrlrofAa He ia6yaercfl remr

Kro- npoqfiTaJr lTy .nrc6onuruym H qeHHyro KHrrry. <<Uapb-oroHrr)), HapoA o rlo)Kape, xar 6H eort- roBopt4,'I qacrbte

Jourafi B 9TI4 cJloBa Bce crnxuliHtte 6eAu a Hecqacrbrl 6essaurruori aepeeHra. lloxasas sHaMeHaruri -KocrpoMcKofi noxap tg39 roaa so scefi ero fpaHAuo3Hocrn, MariuMoB noBecrByer a o cpeAcr_ !d


Bax, KoTopbIMIt cMeTrnBblfr HapoA B KoHIle KOHI{OB Mecflqa qepes nonropa cnpaBuJlcs c oTHM aAoM KpoMeIuHblM. Oxa-

npI{IuJIa TyT He BOAa-IIapuqa' rle <qapb-oroHl>>' Hascrpeuy -6yuryroueMy [naMesn 6u.tt ny[reu roxe no]Kap, KoroAoftAs Ao sroro iurfi nirxer KaKyto-ro qacrb lrJloqaru. kl Mecra, nJI a M fl <<noAaBI'IJIocs> 6ecn.noAHofi geraileft . OAunru u3 <<Jl]ruuux HaIIIHX eruorpaQoa-6ennerpncron> HasBaJl M. E. CanrHxog-Ille.qpnH MarcrMosa. <<,l,paroueuHeftrnee csoficrso MarcfiMosa'- nficaJl oH,saKJuoqaercfl B ero 6rnsroM SHaKoMcrBe c HapoAoM I'l efo Marepr{anbHolo H AyxoeHolo o6craHoBKolo. B arou cMbIcJIe paccrasu ero AoJIxHbl 6utl uacroJlbHolo rHurofi AJIR Bcex sccJreAoBare,neft pyccxofi uapoAuocru, HapflAy c rpyAaMI't nats, MenlHnrosa, flxyurxl'tHa u Apyr[x>. Ecnu mu sauIflHeM n c6opHllx JlHTeparypHo'KpHTI'IqecKHx crarefi Cantuxosa-Il{e4pnHa, ro y6eAniucR, qro sernKllft carI,IpHK 6Hn oqeHr ocropoxeH H cAepx(an B nor'Io)KHreJIb' HbIx orleHKax, ue 6ot.lIct pa3BenquBarb raKI'Ie rotAartlHlle aBropr.rrerbl, xax Mafrxoe n (Det, H ero [oxBaJIa sHaqI{JIa

SbrBaeTcfl, Ha rIoMoIIIb cHpa geMng, a Marb

ror xe caunfr

oqeHb MHoroe.

B nepeurfi nepuoA AeqreJlbHocrl

THpHKoM nncare.nefi Maxctltvlog

6nusoK

l'13

Tpex Ha3BaHHbIx ca'

6ltr, noxanyfi, nan6onee

x Me.nsHuxooy-fleuepcrouy. I4x

c6nux<ana o6croq'

TeJrbHafl u cnoxoftuo-noBecrBoBareJlbHafl MaHepa flficbMa, yMeHHe Aarb KoJIopLIT MecrHoctll. OAHaxo MenlHnxoe-fleuepcxnfi B pnAe npol{3BeAeHnft cragfin ql'Icro xyAo}KecrBen-

o6pasu [I KoH' 6ufiHTepecoBa.na 6o.nlure KaK MarcnMosa rorAa Q.nnrru, Hbre sa4aqr{ H pasBeprblBan ApaMaraqecKne

TOBaf CrOpoHa. Burosnsln{oM oKpalxeHbt

n oqepKlr ynoMsHyrofo Canrltxosulr-IIIeApHHbIM flxyurruHa, nblHe oKoHqareJlbHo ga6uroro. B cgonx oqepKax oH AaJIbIIre HpaBoyqeHl'Iit se ure.n. fleqa.nrHa cyat6a flryruxuna. FlHraqcl <<cJlllrbcf, c Hapo-

AoM>, oH npeBparuJlcs e (<6ecnaqfloprllofo 6poAnry>, 6ocflKa r,r yMep oT roJIoAa. Mar'cgIraos MHoro xoAnr no Pyclt, Ilo BcerAa 6un qltcro ToJIbKo B TaKOM BI'IAe qenoBeK BbISbIBaer H rrpr.rflLlqHo oAer x ce6e yBaxeHI.Ie-Aaxe B caMbIx 6eAuux Kpyrax._ Ksnir,t MaxcaMosa nonyqnn14 rlpI'I3HaHHe. Ero rpyA

<l-oA H2 ceBepe> yAocronncn eonoroft MeAaJIIt Pyccxoro reorpa$rvecroro o6qecrBa. 14 ece )Ke 3a Marcnuonuu coxpaHnJlacr 6ol penyraqafl rI{IIrb KaK AapoBl{Toto Jlnrepa4

3aKas

246

97


ropa-3THorpaQa, ecra cKyro Kynbrypy.

6u os

He BHec oco6ufi BKJTaA B pyc-

ylKe B KocrpolvrcKrlx oqepKax ou o6paqaJt BHHMaHT{e Ha pacrpocrpaHeuuoe csoricrno pyccKoro HapoAa ne rny6nuKLI, Ha ero HeIrcrotrII,IMyIo BeceJlocrb Lr Ha xl{nofi, o6pasHutfi sgux. Ha no4uory rf,)KKoMy rpyAy ttpaxoAnr necHtr, JroBKoe,

MeTKOe CJIOBO, CKa3Ka, npHcKaSKa

LIJII,T

OSOpHag IltyTKa_npu-

6ayrxa. <<Crasxy nH cMacrepnrb Ha cMex H rope, uro6u

n CJICSbI BOTHATb I.I KOHqUTb CAIOBATbIM NEHI,ICM CTADOTO NCTV.

xa H KyAaxraHbeM Kypoqxri, onqori npo6nenrl, xo.,re"*o"" BcKpuqarb n sanpbrrart coporor?; co6ary corlrofo nepeApasHlrrb u gaMbrqarb coceAcrofi roponorl, crapoft nrurbn_ rofi nonpocarl MlrdrocrhlHlo ec-ro4y xBaraJlo Macrepa (Douxv>>. -

6giiilyt r.r3 oqepKa unpy_xxa>. flo4 crars eny l epexa rr3 <<luBerloB>>, He yHbrBaroqafi Hr{ npH KaKHX ".^i:_1"."_ O6CrOrTeJlbcrBax. On n cana nposna.rr ce6g <ra,rurrKllM epuroM)>, B lraMflTb roro caMoro <eptua-u{erxHuuKa>, roropufi' 6Hrosar erqe B o6qeaasecurori crapopyccxoli cKasKe. Iieceno u 6eiea6orHo BocKJrHuaer oH:

<<- Tenept sce H xoggftcrBo, qro Bor ecrb Ha ce6e;

,4BOpe cKoTr{Hbr-TapaKaH H ryceHHUa, nocyAbr Bcero oAHa nyroBtrrla>>.

?

H

no

ueAHoft-ro

Canro co6oli HanparuaBaercrr no6ontrrHafl napaJrJreJrb erorl npa6ayrKrr c orpbrBKoM r{3 HeKpacoBcKoro crr.rxorBope_ uug <<Mo.noAbre)>: Ecrr u oBorrll, B oropoAe _ 4p.n au nyKoBr.iua, Ecrr u lvreAua, [ocyAa _ i(pecr aa ny,-oauua.

Ha 60-u

roAy_ MaxcHMoB co3Aan <<Kpu.rrarbre c!'roBa>.

rraeHtrri rpyA aceii B nefi o" io6pun ,l Tlul-1_-5".ryy pyccKr{e nocJroBnrlhr HnoroBopKrr, KpbrJrarbre :9^"3.ny cJ'roBa, oyATo BbrfiopxHyBtxl{e r.r3 fge3Aa a o6reresuue ecn Pvct. Ca.riruxon-fleApnH cpaBHHBal jVlaxczMosa c B. H. Aaneu. 'l'py.u ,I{a.nn <Torxosbrft cJroBapb pyccKoro ,r3blKa)>

o6rscHqer gHaqeHr.re pyccxofo c./roBa, a rHr.ria Marcnuona _ pyccKyro flocJr.oBfirly, noroBopKy, xoAflqee Bbrpa]KeHr.re, B yBJreKareJrbHofi $oprue paccragbrBaer HcropH!o BosHriKHoBe_ HHf

98

OTACdIIbHbIX (KPbIJIATbIX CJIOB>).


y)Ke He HyiKllo A.nn uanucauus erofi KHflrIt Maxcuvooy IIe' saHpli\4areJlbuo OH ctsery' 6eny no e3AHTb 6uno xoAarb I{ f 3bI' HapoAHt'IMHaA H a6nnAeHl'ltl poN{nr,te of cBol'l DecKa3a,'I ecJll{ Qu lo io*. Ho ..nu 6u bs paHbIrIe BcloAy He no6uear,6lt sroft so6ltearl He He ao*anoteanctl Bcefo [pe)KAe .norofi Krlure.

Vuran ee, MbI coBepluaeM c aBTopoM []'TeIxecrBI'Ie no c <<ApeMyrleMy i{ pocKolxHoMy JIeCy poAHOro f3blKa>> - I{aK Moryqee' naio"otru.cxot?ropAocrblo Ha38aJI cam MarcuMoB 6oriroe. BeqHo o6ttosnnrcu{eecq uapcrBo oreqecrBel{Hol'o $onrx.nopa. Aerop KHHrI'l <<Kpu,ramte crloBa> "-""1y11T.3 pona onurnofo, yMyApeHI{OrO 3lIaHHflMII BOXaKa' KoTOpbIH Il ceJI' BeAeT HaC He TO,tIr'Ko nO yJII{IIaM I{ 3aXOyJIKaM TOpOAOB r{o rr B rny6l Pyccxofi ncropl{ll. ser' V Balrlero Bu nonaaa-ere c HI'IM' x npunepy, e XVII qyrl He orJIoxHyB Or KOJIOKo;a' yxa ryAoM ry,u,tlr crapl'tHHbIe HHx'BbInp'IqeTecb-eaor'l.repeu'Sro3aTxJIaHnpI{Ka3IIa'I fis6a, rAe crporlar <<s6eAlt> AbtlKII-JIl{xoI{MIIbI' MltNlo eac CTETICHHO I]d'IbIBYT

B BbICOKI{X

<<IOPJIATHbIX>>

6oxpe, flpoxoAflr crpeJlbubl c ale6apAaun'

.yaopb.on ,n"ua

JIIiqo

UIANKAX IIY3ATbIE Bu BHAIITe, KaK

herpa I,

ecefi

- nymol' lI KOC-

"c'*a"raercfl HeHaBHAeBIIIeTO JIeHb' Sacroft Bceilf flpbltvl cepAueM HOCTb.

TauriafiaereBblrHe3AaMHorHxKpbIdlIaTblxcJIoB'3Harle. Koropblx sa6rtrlt. Ho arn.rpi't'Ilarble cJIoBa' TpI{

HLIe H cMbIc,'I

Ber(a [Ia3aA o6poieuuue, KaK cKarHuft

xeuuyr'

KaKIIM-HH-

6yla paz6nTHbrr\{ rlJroTHr{KOM-KOCTpOMI{tIoM, KpelKo BOIIIJII',i B- coBpeMeHHufi roeop' Ottu nopaslt,ll'I Bac' Bbl xorl'ITe lix noHflTb, Ho HHKTo ue tlloxer o6lgcHllrs ux' kl ToJIbKo B I(HI'Ire MaxctnnoBa HaxoAHTe Hx I'lcroJIKoBaHlIe' flo nunlsoft Aopore, 6eperou Bolrn Mbr [p'{xoAI'IM B

ApeaHHft pyccxnr2 ropol-Pxen H sAecb no3HaeM "otllTt^Y" <<fiorracrb B npocaK>>. Kpyrurcn, cKpl{fiI'lr MaxoBoe Kofie-

co, ero Bpaulaer c,'lenar JIoIxaAb. tsoxpyr cHylor npfAnabulHKIt.

<Bce, vro BHAHT HaIII fJIa3 Ha

ABope'-a nporflHyraf

Ha

KaHaTBO3AyXe, SaKpenJIeHHafl Ha Kprcqbffx Bcfl npqAI'rrbHaff

Hafl cHacrb H BepeBoqHufi

cras

HocHT crapl{rluoe

I'I croJib

Bo' npocJraBJleHuoe I{Mff <<rrpocaK>>. 3Aecl, ecJIH ]'roAI'IT oALH <<npocfleBo> na 'nro6oil BepeBn.nn Jroc nonacrb B <<cyqeBo> -ace xyapn pycbl-e u 6opo'ny 6o6poeyrc ra^x' Ke, ro sa6eper a

qro Koe-qro llorepflelllb' a Ha no6uroM Mecre roJIbKo pyoeu ocraHercfl ra IIaMgrb. Kro flonaAer nonofi xaQtana u'nH +


py6axu, y roro Becb lurxul.rrl cran oAexAbr orpbrBaer rloKa.He ocTaHoBsT rJrynyn JroluaAb E ycJry)Kn[rBoe,

11porrb,

Koreco.

Xo4R,- He geBafilt : :Bor rengpr-To Mbr noHuMaeM, qro sHaqur <(nonacrb

npocax>! Oco6euuo nlo6oBHo,

B

:

<<BKycHo>>

noBecrByer Maxct.rMoe o

KpbrJraTbrx croBax, flpoilcxoxAeHr.re KoTopbrx oH BbrfBr.rJt y

ce6n Ha pognHe. Bor xax o6tscnqfl oH u3Becruoe Bbrpaxeuue <6axaynn 6rnr>>.

Eax"nyruu 6uru [poMbrcen retKnli, oco6oro r{cKyccrBa ue rpe6yer, Ho garo [r He KopML{T, ecJIH npnHl.rMarb eto B ToN,t o6uleu cMblcJre, KaK noHlMaror Bce, u oco6enHo ,aaai, u iiarep6ypre. 3Aect Ha Bcf,KuelrycrqKa tvracrepoB He nepeqrerub, a JlerHeuy caAy, nx ueedrpe6uan

-

_

1,1': Tllp3y, _ocrpoBaM ffMa. LoocrBeHHo, HegaqeM H xoanTb AaJrer(o, ilo sa o6tqcHe-

; cillsorlrr BHHMaT{HeM rt Hil;;;'H;;_

HHeM KopeHHoro cJroBa uaao6no

noA""ro."

cecrb_B MocKee B Apyrorl BaroH Ir, ocraBrrB rrpr{BbrqKn "**,;6;-MH.

noro flerep6ypra, ropoAa.

B necax, CeMeuoscrorc yesAa Hnxeropo4crorl ry6epHua usl\aBua saBeJrcs lr yKp_enuJrcfl npoMbrceJr tra[rex, jr<6isor,

Kopbrr, BeAep, xonruerl, 6arcA, Mr.rcox, yrroJroBunKos. .Iloxra_ pn MacTepfr_n Ty Jrox(Ky <<MexeyMoK>>, KOrOpon Bcn npo:_r::l:1"u" Pyct nulaubrBaer H3 l.optxKoB Kpyrvlo Karuv

u xreoaer rrltr, He o6xuran.. ny6, u udyrusxyu, "rixylo uocr.na 6yplanw sa .nenroqxoft rud,rflflbl - ua n6v *o-

"*adro

KapAbr.

Xo4nr ceMeHoBCKIIfi trlyxar no paMeHbflM B nor.rcKax caMoro Kpy[Horo ocr{HoBoro nHrr... To Aepeno, Koropoe npr4 rJrsBarrnr, a sareM orpy6aer cyqbfl r.r nepurr.rny. X.l!-Tl yI]!"*

UCHHA JICIKO PACKAJIbIBACTCS TONOPOM BAOJIb CTBOJIA IJIAXA. Mr.r, <<rua6a.navu>. I4x ceMeHoBcKr.rft llyxnx npr{Bes B AepeB_ nn <<o6orgaHr{Barb>: AJrff groro uaca4lrr oH rroflepeK AJTLtHHo-

ro ronop[rr{_a noJryKpyruroe recJro (.neso) H Haquer grzM <<Tecxax 6n AoJroroM, sHAar6r[sarl BHyrpeHHocrb tr

JIoM>>,

Cranacs rerepb r.rs ua6arbr <6axnyura>. Kp^{11". urcroaa fi 1n1y: fiorrrJro BblpaxeHr,re <6url 6arnyun> _ 4-e.narl nycrnKoBoe ae.no. flycrsrosoe? !,a, no cpaBneHr.rrc c rorapHbtM HCKyCCTBOM.

Ju*

B coKparrleHaa BbrrJtr4rrr oAHa Hs

xecrBo

rraBoK yneKarenb-

KHI{rN. B grOfi TJIABC _ EIIIC BEJII,IKOC MHO. nosrr{q ecxr.{x noApo6Hocreri. flosH a KoM nBrrrncb c Hefi,

HOI4 MAKCI'MONCXOII

ql{TareJrb cocraBJrrer scnoe, no4po6uoe t,t coBeprrreHHo t00

xn-


/

\\,

l,l',

ll lt

ol

ilL

'ty

4-^^


Boe llpeAcraBreHae 06 yrxeArxefi, Ho npuueuare,rtuofi crpar{rrqKe pyccrori xusHn. A saoAHo suaxoMlrrcs c rHesAor,,r pbcnpocTpaHeHHoro, Ho MaJro KoMy noHqTHOrO Tenepb rpunaro_ ro cJroBa. Bcero MaxcaMos paebflcHtrJr oKo.rro ABVxcor rlrer_ KlxJ(oAflqux Bbrpax{ennti, nocnoeuq, noroBopoK.

u

At4H H3 COBpeMeH-H-brx rrucaTe,l

n Kp aTHKOB Cnp aBeAJr lr Bo

roBopuJr, qro KH[ra Maxcul,rosa _ He HayrlHoe I{ccJIeAoBa_ HHe, He c[paBor{HuK, He TOJIKOBbTft c.rronapr,, a ceoeo6paaHoe

xyAoxecrBeHHoe npoasBeAeHr.re. Oro necrpufi xanelilocron

rpynrupyercs uubxecrno garron, uayuuux AofaAoK, qyxofo ynaa r.i

:IIl:::"t,

_-:-lotopoy. cBcAeHLlR, HaOrroAeHHli, CBOCTO TAJIAHTA.

Carrl MarcrMoB raJraHrou ce6s He cqaraJr. I(Hr.ry <,Kpulll:]:-.loua)> oH cpaBHr{Barr Bcero-HaBcero c nporynxofr no

rpupoAe... OH roaopun: <<Vrny6nnncl a 4peuyvlrft n pocronnuti Jrec poAHor.o q3brra, 6oratoro, cLIJIbHoro u cBexero, KparKoro a flcuoto, Ha oror pa3, KoHeqHo, AoBeJrocb npo6partcx Jralub no poAH_o-H

oIIyIrIKe)>.

<<Kpbr.[arbrx c.rroB)> u erHorpaQr]qecxr.rx oqepKoB, lvraKcHMOB ^, ^_K!9*a OCraBH.rr MHOro aHTepecHbrx MeMyapoB H CpeAil HHx ueHHbre Boc[oM[HaHus o6 Ocrpoecxou. Ho, x co)KaJreHUro, Her ero BocfloMuuannfi o noare-r.tcKpoeue Bacu.nrr

poqKHHe,

c

KoropbrM cBr3aJra ero coBMecrHarr )Ktr3Hb

s

Ky-

n-e-

rep6ypre tr Apyx6a e 60-x roAax. A un 4oao,,rbHo cMyrHo z 6olsure srrur(br"

npeAcraBJlteM KypoqrxHa KaK JrHlrHocrb

c

ero_ npeBocxoAubrMH rrepeBoAaMH

Eepauxe.

Ha o6noxre MHorr{x HoMepoB )KypHaJra Mbr Br,rrl.t], pucyHoK M. O. MuxeuruHa. Ma"rreulxr.re qeroBeqxr.r nDnforoBr.tJrr.tcb x 6on. Oro ennnpauuu. tr4 sAecb x" _

crr.rxH Kypovxana:

-

Oxorqeusas r'leryHbr. 3nn rpa ruu a-xoxoivHaq, SnHrDal,tMa-erosai

Breria, rpercr cperb

A

Hapoaa, 3aBilAHT nnUrb vpoAa

PagoM gqenHrcn a i,rasa.-

MaxcaMoe 6u.n Apyruu, qeJroBeKoM yMepeHHbrx B3rJIR,4OB, cosepuare.nlHorl. 11o qacTLtrIKy cBoero nJral\teHLI, KaKyro-ro t4cKpy Kypouruu HecoMHeHHO 3alKef B AVr[e cBoefo Apyra.

uarypoti

t02


KHHrI,r <<Kpslnarlte c,loBa>, c'loBHo cnpa[l{BaJII,I BbI, CbIHbl CqaCTJII'lBOII 4O,rU, CO6paHHble OUeHLITe IOT:

Crpouru

3,q,ecb coKpoBHIrIa Hapo4norl pevu?

>fiere nr.r? llPnYruuoxnre ,rlu?

flonrc6are JIrl llx' c6epe-

Oraer Ha gror BoJIHoBaB[Iuri Maxcul'roBa Bonpoc AaJla cyar6a efo KHHTH. flosgnerxascs 75 net HasaA' oHa, cJloBrlo 6onbuan, ct{,'IbHatl I.{ KpacuBaf [Tl{IIa, nepeJlere,{a B tlau BeK, rraue BpeMfl.


MACKH

ecHori l9l2 roaa B orAenax xpoHrrKH HeKoropbrx fa3eT npoMe,'rbKHyn[ r.rsBecrr{s o roM, .no s flerep6ypre

t{pyxox ftroJroAbrx aprr.rcToB, nacare.neft l-l xyAoxHr.rxos. Sror BOSHUK


Kpyx(oK Bo rJraBe c pex[ccepoM BceBoJIoAoM MefiepxoJlbAoM r Tepuoxax, KypoprHoM Me-

co6upaercs craBurb cneKraKnu

creqKe ua 6epery Ouncxoro BaJILIBa, He.uaJIeKo or fletep' 6ypra. B Tepuorax Aeficrsurenbuo [oceJIHJIacb rpynila MoJIoAbIx nn6uterefi HcKyccrBa, peIIHBIULIX nocraBltrb raKlre cnexTaKJIII, Koropble ocBe)KLIJIL 6U o6nerura.nrte, HaAoeBIuHe Sopnn rearpaJIbHbIx npeAcraBnesnft . flnnu sa 6olruroft Aaqe, Ha 6epery. B uae cloAa FIe pa3 [pr{e3xaJl AnercauAp 6nor n <<TonapzqecrBe aKrepoB' xyAoxnnKoB, nrlcareJlefi a uysuxanroo> (rax o$uqnanlno yqacrBoBaJIa ero )KeHa Jlto6osl Ananrr{MeHoBaJrcq rpyxox) pHeBHa, ypoxAeHHas iVieHAeleesa. B oAHol'{ Hs nucelt{ brox paccKa3bIBaJI o cBoltx BneqarJleHl'Iffx .or <<TogapuulecrBa>. <Csaqa,ra CHAeJILT Ha rearpaJllnofi Aa'Ie. OHa 6onouaq u ilaxHer, rax crapuft noir,Ieququfi Aotu. Bce 8M-ecre eJII4, nI'IJIll uafi, xo4unn no ux orpoMHoMy rapKy... .Ilyxa nycrorbl Her Bce oqeHb noAoJlfy gaHflTbl. Bce eecenHe I'I cepbesl{ble>>. HaA sAaHI,IeM rearpa pasBeBaJlcff Q.iIar c 6enoft Qurypoft fhepo Ha JII.IJIoBoM Qoue. Ha ycrax fllepo sacrblJla rparuqecKafl cKJraAKa, BbIpaxaBruafl ero AyIueBHoe cTpaAaHI'Ie' Ha cauou AeJIe pucyHor $.nara MbIcJILIJIcff ero aBTopoM' xyAoxHr.rKorrl Hnxo.n aelr C anyHoeu M, no-ItHoMy. fllepo Aonxen 6ur yrn6aruca. <D.irar yxe cIIIHJIH, lr CanyHoe KoHqaJl eto pacwlcbtBarb. Ho sor HeocropoxHoe ABIrx{eHIIe pyKaBoM, n KpacKH q_y_Tb ycMeuIKa. Xr'rcABr.rHyJILIcb. Blraecro ynu6xn - TparfirlecKaq BOIIUCeq XoTeJI nonpaBfiTb, Aa ocTaHoBIlJIcfl: a BeAb Il TaK HeIIJIOXO, AaXe, noxanyfi, Jlytlue' suparurenluefi. 3 zrcss rearp orxpH.ncg. .[lasaJII'Icb naHrotvIlttrla <<Bnto6JreHHbre>>, nnrepue4nC CepnaHreca <<,Il,na 6o.nryHa> I{ nbeca xoAarati csaAe6>. <Apnernu '<<Tearpse6onluofi,- nncar Eflor xeHe,- 6bIJI noqrll rIoJIoH, Ir x,ronaJlll uuoro' Mse Huqero He noupaBl'raocb. flpaaAa, rpeKpacHylo H rlecrpylo IIIyrKy CepeaHteca pasblrpaJrr.{ 6ofixo...>> flerpa u flagna - npa3AHoBa,lu no o6st14 r.rrcun - AeHb qaflM crapilHbl BeceJIo, IIryMHO' nbflHo. orauxanlrl,Iax n TepHoxax <<TooapnuecrBo> peluI'IJIo

A.nn 6o.nnuoe MacKapaAHoe npeAcraBJIeHIIe <<Bece'naR soql

Aatl

na 6epery @rHcroro 3aJII{Ba>. Pacnopa4ureJlbuaf, KoMllccuq uToadpnurecrBa> 3aceAana nepeA 3.[aHI"IeM Tearpa' Ha necKe no,t[ cocHaMH croflJIII MaccnBHble Ay6oBbIe cKaMbu' t05


,{yurofi [ocraHoBKa 6u,r xaBonlrceq Canynos sucoxuri. roHKnrl, eqe MoJIoAoil qerogex <<rtpli rpocrarr, o-HeusnaeuHo qepHoM Spaxe, TaKoM xe rIepHoM, r{Bera Bopouoro Kpbr,,ra, ur4JrI4HApe n 6enocuexsofi uauauxe. llo uucnu Canynooa, Ha 6epery cJreAoBaJro pagMecrurb HecKoJrbKo 6a.naraHos. B nepnou n3 HlIx 3pnrerqM npe,a,Jrara.[acb <r{acrorrfiras [cnaucKarr ApaMa <CH,ra nrc6sr H rieHABIICTH>>.

3pnrenu,-

AeJII,IJtcff 3aMblcJroil{

CanyHon,- )KeJlaro-

- yBlrAerb HcnancKyro nbecy, BxoArIT s He6onruoe [oMe_ qr.re UICHI4C. KOT4a, yToMJIeHHbIe AoJ'IIHM I{ Til{eTHbIM o>I{IIAaHI{eM npe,{,craBJreHr.tfl, oHE HaqprHaroT BbrpaxaTb cBoe HeAoBoJIbcTBO, 3aHaBec 9 tynaaosaMr.r B3BlrBaercfr, Lr rura3aM oTKpbrBaercfl nropoi. Ha seu HapacoBaHa Aypaur{aff poxa c

Br,r-

TsHyTbrM HOCOM, a nOA Hero [oA[r{cb: <<Brt, rpe6yrcu1ae r{cno/rHeHl{s rcnascxofi nbecbl, He Aopoc,r[ erle Ao ee [ogvMaHun. B HarpaAy 3a ynJraqeHHbre

Aerlbfu Bbr Moxere... yBlraerb ceoe co6ctseur.roe uso6paxe_ HTTC>>.

Cocrasasq [porpaMMy MacKapaAa r{a 6epery Ons- gaJrltBa,cKoto BcnoMHHaJr rlpuflTels Canyuona BnaAnulrp Conoetee,- oH MegraJI o6 ycrportcrBe raKoro 6anaraua, rA'e noKa3blBaJrncl 6u yAriBHTeJIbHbIe r{ crpalxHbre BeIrIfi. BanaraH ,4oJrlKeH 6n,r liso6palKarb HoqHori ipaxrnp. V cronuxos, Be3Ae r{ [oBcroAy, B noJryrbMe cEAflr MpaqHbre Surypu, yaa_ pflfl pyKaMu B raKr sBoHy 6oxanos. tr4 r.upyr sror rroquoli rpaKTHp gaJrr.rBaercn floroKar\{H cBera. JInu ner. Buecro sux poN(H H po)Kll, HaJreBo, Ha[paBo. Poxu csAnr cocpeAoroqeu_

rro, rrro-To^o54yuarnaa. OHn HaglrHaror xoxorarb, r.r Kar{ xoxovyr! Or Nx xoxora rpettrar AepeBrrnHbre creHbr noA xoJrlrloBbrMu gaHaBecsMr,r. H sparens, sa6He npo nnary, [cny-raHHo crrerrrrir BoH r.r3 groro npoK,'rgtoro 6anarana. Kax xals, q?o gror H MHofHe Apyfr{e 3aMblcJrbr Canyuo_ B_a rie ocyuecrBaJrzcb Hs-ga BHesanuort rparnqecxofi cn,teilrn! IJo ocranucb Apyrne ero [oJrorHa, no xoropuu ruu Mo)KeM cyAr.rrb o efo opHrr4sanrseriruenl reopuecree. B ero KaprHHe <Macxapa4> Mbr Br{AHM B,truflHr.re Spanrly3cKoro xuBo[ficrla AuryaHa Bamo. B neuepHeu iyuaHe, HanJrbrBarouleM Ha crapulrHufi napx, ebr6nercg roly6osarslft KacKaA QoRraua, Kaqaiorcq xeJrro-opaux(eBbre KH_ raftcNre Qortapaxu, MeJrbKaror apa6cxne qaJrMbI, nbrrrrHr,re po6u 4au. Tuxo crpyHrcn $anracrnqecKafl MysbtKa. Canyr{oB MeqraJr BuAerb <<Macxapa4> Aeropaqaifi r cueH-e, t06


paAyxgbrMn 6a6o,{xaMn lropxann 6u 6aaepuuu... ^ OAng ronrxo pas nso6pagnn ou-ce6fl H cAeJraJr 9ro, KaK s Bce, opnrrrHanbno. B upaeoM BepxHeM yrny KoMnoshr{r{[ H3 po3oBbrx, KpacHblx l.t xeJrrbrx rIBeroB rr cr{Hero Qoua ene yraAbrBaeTcs rrlo.noAoft qeIoBeK g 6erocHexsofi uaslrurxe. <<C neo6uqaiiuoli ocrporofi uyocreys Kpacory oKpyxaroulefo MHpa, CanyHoa nn6nn nlrcarb u'senuxonenHbre HarropMoprbr,-saMernJr r.rcKyccrBoBea E. A. fyHcr.*Ouu npno6rAe

peraror y Hero oco6yro ropxecrBennocrb n BeJrr.rqne>>. Crontxo 6u sn paccMarpnBarb ero Kaprr{Hy <<B raeepHe> (1908 r.), a ueri Huqero He pasrnffAr.rrrrb, KpoMe pasMaIIIHcro tr coqHo rroJIoxeHHbIX Ma3KoB, KpacHblx, cI{HLrx, xeJr_ Tbrx, co MHoxecrBoM orreHKoB H nonyroHon. <<Herepnetuoorft -s-pururl oroftAer or KapruHbr pa3orrapoBanHbrM,- rtr{uer M. B. A.[naros.- H sce ixe npu'noaHoM orcyrcrBuH orqernusofi fiepeAarru orAeJrbHblx z npeAnrdroe e ueil

Saryp

a3yMr,rreJrbuo BepHo r{ MerKo BoccosAaerca arnlocQepa nepe_

no;lgeuHofi TaBepHbI: ruyM, raM, roBop, cMex, KpHKH, nepe6paHru, [uyrKn,..xox(AeH[e BsaA H BnepeA, TecHora, Ayxoia, MepuaHI{e otHet?, gBoH craKaHoB, lteHqlueecg nHBo, AbrMffqr.recfl rpy6xn gro nepeAaHo t3brKoM KpacoK, r.t KTo - Bcerorrly 6ea ynoBI{T 9ro o6ulee, rpyAa yAac?cs B gTax c BHAy ne6pexuux Ma3Kax yraAaru MHoxecrBo xapaKTepnbrx $uryp r floApo6socreft>. AsaxAn nricaJr CanyHoo <<I(apycenr>. flepoufi eapnqHr - 9ro pasHor{sernHft rpyxaulr.rrlcs Bnxpb qeJroBeqecKax Qarypr AepeBrnHbrx xoHefi, 6axpol,rlr BceBosMoxHbrx Marepaft, $ouapnros. KorAa .nro6yeulca necrpofi )Kr{Bonr,rcbro KapraHbr, .eABa Jrr.r He cJrbnrruub Becb uecrpoftnuft ancau6,nt rpnr.nueofi r.r BlrgrJrnBort rrl ysltxlr, o6uqno conpoBoxAasrxefi KapyceJrb,- Bce srlr HeBnAHMbre oxpnnrrrue rpy6sr n HaArpecHyrHe 6apa6auu, s o6qervr-ro n co3Aaroulue paAocrHons6yAopaxeHHoe qpMapoqHoe HacrpoeHr.re. Bropar uKapycenb> BpoAe 6u npeAcraBrf,er ro )r{e caMoe 3peJrarqe, Ho yxe B gacrbrBrlleM, oqe[eHeBrrreM cocroflHnr.t 6yaro saMepr,rlt - Oror nropofi uasByKlt Mysbrxr{ r.r KapyceJrb ocraHoBr.rnacl. pr.raHT IIo npHrJryrueHHblM, HaporrHo npr{TyrlreHHbrM KpacKaM noxoAt4T Ha AepeBqnHoe Mo3auqnoe rrauuo: KpacKr.r E Sfirypbr ero KpynHoSepHr.rcTbr. Bennxuft BbrAyMr{r{K u Sanrasep, eun6leuuufi a apryrc AeKoparnBHylo cyrb uapoAnoft xH3HH, Canyuon, 6yayun yke r.r3BecrubrM xyAoxHr{Kona, nrc6ul 3arJrflHyrb B TpaKTHp HJrr.t uariHyto HcKJrnqareJrbgo paAn (KpacoK 6*ra>. 108


I4sHcxaHlro o4erufr,

s

6enocHexuoil uaHnuxe, Qpare

uHJrfiHApe, MaHep,Ho cHl.rMar nepqarKy TeJreM, oH MOf CilpOCHTb:

r

npn Bcrpeqe c IIpurr-

- KyAu, rpaQ, I4rLIm narpaQnaere? B xa6ar -- aHrHpncyerecl? OAuaro rro6osr K HeKoropbrM ByJrbrapHuiu veprau 6ura

HapoAHbrx Hr.rsoB He MeuraJra xyAoxHr.rKy ocMbrcJrhBaTb u coBeprxerrcTBoBaTb cBoe rBopqecTBo. <<6 u.no KorA a -ro npeKJroHeH r.re nepeA xp acorofi Te arp aJlbHoft r.rrntosr{H,- foBopur o CanyHose AanaroB,- Ho ona oKagaJlacb pa3BeHrraHHoft, 6u.na HacMeIuJIIrBag I{poHI,Ifl, Ho or Hee ocTaJrocb oulyqeHr.re nycrorbr>. B xonqe KoHqoB xugHeuHufi H TBoprrecKufi onur noMor

xyAoxHHKy BbrHecrn ttpuroBop Herrplrxparxennofi xr{3HeltHorl npasAe.

XyAoxul.rx cJroBHo cragan ce6e: AoBoJrbHo an6ogarrcn xpacorofi TearpaJrbHbrx speJrr{ur, garerl.lusocrbro MacKapaAoB, KpacoqHocrbro flpMapoqHbrx noAMocrKos. Bor oH, 6eg MacoK r.r [pr{Kpac, nycroft u rueryulr.rri naeulascxlrfi 6ur, AaBflIrlas KaxAoAHeBHocrb pyccKoft npornnquu. Canyuoa nr{rrrer <<r{aenntue>>. 3a cro.noM BJracruo BocceAaer 6arrcruxa r. AeJroBr.rro Ayer Ha 6.nroAqe. Cresa ero 3oJrorylx Hbr ft ornpucr, cn p a n a-6egnurnft ncaJroM urHK.-AoqKa HeBecra Ha BbrAaHbe LI3 ny3arofo, Ao 6lecra saqu-

- HaJILIBaeT Kl.trrflToK rqeHHoro MeAHoro caMoBapa

g qaftHllx. Ha yron cryna po6ro rpnceJra npuxuBaJrKa. Bce qHHHo, sce cnoxofrso. fAe-rc THKanr xoAr.rKr,r, Ha creHe aJrflnoBaras KaprllHxa c ne6eAq[{u.

3Aecr CanyHon AaJr, no Bbrpaxegr.rn oAHofo ng ero 6norpaQon, 6,'Ioroscxfifi <<6anarasquK >xH3Hr{>>, He npuKpaluenuufi pouaHraKofi, noKa3aJr MacKI{, I,IJIH, KaK caM oH ,'Ito6n,r nupaxarbcs, <<poxrl>, oKpy)KaBlxr,re xyAox(HltKa I{3o AHF B Aesr. Aa BeAb HeAapoM HMeHHo eMy npr.rHaAJrexar

coBeprxeHHo yAr{Bure,'rbHbre AeKopaqnr.r K caMoMy <<Ea;rafaHqLIKy> ElOra ri KapTr.rHa <<Muctnqecxoe co6paune>>, Hafir,rcaHHag Ha cro>Ker aroft 4pavu. ...8 orpecruocrsx fletep6ypra e[Ie croflJrr4 6enue soqn.

Jleuaso nJrecKaJrr.{cb, $oc$opec{Hpyfl, soAH (DuucKofo 3aruea. MHoro JIoAoK nJIbIJIo HaBcrpeqy ceer.rtofr tennoti Ho.l.t 14 uroHn

l9l2

roaa.

B oanofi l,t3 HHx cr.rAeJrr.r xyAoxHr{Irbr flxosreea u Ee6yroBa, aprncrra Hasap6eK, no3T Muxau.n Kysrrar.rn lt x{HBonI{ceu CanyHoe. Koraa or.bexaJlu or 6epera Ha Bepcry, Kystnll109


Hy B3AyMaJrOCb flOMeHqTbCff MeCraMH C OAHOI? n3 AaM. oH BcraJr a ilouIeJI rro JIoAKe, HeJIoBXo 6aaancupyn, Bannyncfl Ba cKaMbro r{ norepsJr paBHoBecue. .Ilo4xa oilpoKr.ruyd'racb. coH MbI cJrbIIuaJrH,- BcnoMuuan Bna4nunp - Cxeosl qro B rrxrKny6e snouudrlrl B KoJroKon. Pauo yrCononree,poM y3HaJrr{, qro Canynoe yroHyJr. Tena ero raK r{ He HarrrJrur... flanr.lxu4y cflyxl,tnu n pyccxofi qepKBa Tepzoroa. Crano xyrKo, KofAa cBfltr1enHnK B orcyrcrBue rpo6a c noxoftttptxotu [poBo3f,rac[,r BeqHyIo [aMflTb HoBolpecraBJreHHouy pa6y 6oxrcnay Haro.narc... Ilenoe Jrero Mbr Br;rAe,rru canyuoncxnfi $nar, auceol.l,luilt y BXoA,a B rearp. 3nofi u Ao)KArr

cAer'IaJrlt cBoe .{eJlo. ToHa no6.neKJrH, Ho TpafuqecKan

ylu6xa

flsepo ocraJracb. Ocra.nocu g HeAo[ucaHHoe <<tlaenurue>, n Muox(ecrBo rroJrHblx ropeq[ n capKa3Ma 3cKr.rsoB, To ycMexal.ollluecf, To KP}IBJIflIOIqilCCfl MACKH, 3OPKO YBHTCHHbIC XYAO}KHHKOM H KAK

6n c4epuyrbre r{M c noAerl ero

BpeMeur.r.


AYIIJA TJIHHbI

Fs \g

(P

aHHee

yrpo

B

ea6afixarrcKoM r&€)K.

HoM Jrecy. Kocue

;ryun

ttponr,rsaJrr.l

rycrbre BerB[ AepeBles. Eu1e MHr,

H

cKa3oqHo npeo6paeunocl, olKHJro

Bce BoKpyr. rlepee nec npo6nparcr-

\\\tilllll

fl

!v a


xyAofi cTapr.rK r.r MaJlbrrHK JreT AeBrTh. BrrepBbre, Ho roJrbKo ceftqac yBflAeJr Bcro Kpacory JrecHoro qapcrBa r{, qyps qepHbre rJrasa, yAHBJTeHHO 03Hpaercff BoKpyr. KreHrcruu oBparaM 6eryr, rrpbrfaror roBopJrHBHe pyqon. Osu raK crpeMr.rreJrbHbl, rrro rtoA Hr{MH cKpe)Kerqyr KaMgir ABoe: BbrcoKr{.ti,

Manlqux ryr He

flyruuxlt cnycKarorcr B oBpar. fny6oxufl a ranucrsenHblH,- 3Aecb ero Ha3brBarroT [aAbro,- OH pagAenseT ABe COnxu. I-lepe6parbcr Ha ry cropoHy uer snraxori eo3r,roxHocrn: Ha AHe 6yulyer ueJrar peKa, KaMesncrufi rroAteM orBeceH. Ha xpyrasue ApasHr.rr B3op cupeueBo-po3oabrMtr qBeraMr.r oanHoxllli, 6yfiHo paspocurulicfl Kycr 6arynrunxa. tIyrHHKr.r noAHnMarorcfl Ha orJroryo ropy. 3a o6naxatrn noMepKJIo co,'IHUe. BHco,{eHH61e ce4He cocHbt c Bbrcrynarorrlr,tMH,Jranaun xopuefi npeBparqarcrcr B sJroBeuqax crpaxerl neca. 9eM Aa.rrbue, TeM cTar{oBr,rTcfl Ttr[Ie. florunr Mecra AHKHe, Her.r3BecrHble. Cranu Bce qaue BCTper{aTbcf tpoMaAHble, nopoclxue MoxoM KaMHr.r_BaJrvrrbl, BbrBopoqeHHbre ypafaHoM ApeBHne AepeBbfl, KopHeBr.rlla Ko+ TOpbIX IIOXOAI.rJrr.t H a KocM aTble rodrroBbr rl.rraHToB-Jrr,oAoeAoB. Ha rparo o6puna cofHyrbrMu B Ayry crapyxaMn KoJrAygbfiMH AoxuBajrr{ BeK cKpIoqeHHbIe 6epesu. Tyr xe, cJroBHo HanrrJrr.tB Ha roJroBbr opaH)KeBbre IIoAyrxKr.r r.lJrr{ KoKoIrrHHr(r.r, ycbrnauHbre 6opo4anxanal4, yrKnyJrr{cb B Mox, Hacbru-{as Bo3Hn..

Ayx-_cbrpocrbro, qyAoBauluo 6eso6pasHbre MyxoMopbr. 14

alpyr

seJreHoe uapcrBo oxuJro,

satrpa.no. 3anrqcanfl

Ha crapbrx 6epeeax Mr{pHaAbl JrncrorrKoB-H3yMpyAoB. KopHeBr,trr1e rroBaJreHHoro AepeBa,c,'roBHo o6poc.,ro Qurypxarrau

ga6asHHx 3Beper, cpeAs Hux yraAbrBancr npuiesfti{fi Ha 3aAuae ranur safiqn[rKa, ropAeJrr.rBo BbrnsruBrrr[fr rpy.ur,

ropuuft KosJlr.rK, o:re_porueHuuft craprrKarrrKa. flo irixo 6neu1yu1efi JrasypH He6a crpeuHreJrbHo Hec,'racb 6enocneNHafl Bara o6,raxon; LIHbre t,t3 HI,Ix HaloM[HaJrH

ro 6ursv

BOHHOB, rO CO6paHUe QaHracrnqecKr.rx x(HBoTHbrx, ro fipbrx(Ka qepe3 BepeBoqKy cMexoTBopHbrx cyxlecTB C BbrTfl_ Hyrbrr\{E Hoca Mr.{. B grnxo;r enn ble, po3oB aro-so.r.rortrcrble or_

He3pnMbrx ryrrefi, uso6paxeHnfl ?Tn [peAcraBfiqJrH H3MeH_ rruByro KaprnHy, or roropoft_HeBo3MoxHo 6uno oropBarbcfl. B ror AeHb flepeA Keureli orKpbrncs nosurft ur.rp. C roft

nopbr BHr.tMareJrbHo flpnurffAbrBaJrcfi oH K oKpyxaoxleMy H AalKe B cyqKax H HanJrbtBax AepeBa y ce6a Ha rroroJrKe u Ha creHax Br.rAe_Jr H qyBcrBoBa;l oco6yn xr.rsub. I4nble Hg cyqKoB xoreJrocb o6aecrn KapaHAaIIIoM, qro oH BTHxoMoJIKv He3a-

il2


Merrro r.r Ae.iraJr, npuAaBafl rraMerr.tBlur{Mcr pncyHKau 6onee Bbrpa3u'reJrbHyro Qopuy. I,IuorAa nprrxBarbrBar c Aoporn cyxlrc LrerBH n ue6o;lnrune Kopr{H, gagHTepecoBaBrune eto ne-

o6nqnu,vu cn.rrereHusMn. Vrpaaxofi npnHocl.r.il nx a capaii,

a

IIOTOM HO)KEIIKOM BbIAeJIbIBaI LI3 9TO|O JIeCHOTO MyCopa tsceqecKHe ti.rurypxrr.

Bogrte AoMa, B l{oropoM oH xHJr, pbrJra KoJroAeq. Iyr x<e BHAIIeflrlcb Kyrla BHBopOqeunofi cupofr fJILIHbl. flpnouxuyn Ko BceMy npncrvlarpllBarbcn, Keua KaK-ro B3rJrflHyJr Ha KoMbr rJrr.rubr H AalKe or[pflHyJr. Euy nouyAnJrr{cb xr.rBbre cyulecrB a. OHu Asnra,'I rrcb, Konolu nJlucb, IoAMLITI{B aJrH. florou

H ece xe c rori nopor rnHila npeAcraB.rrr6u cyuecrnoM c xHeofi ayuloil. Oir 6pa.n enaxHufi KoMoN rJrHHbr, pa3MLrHaJl ero naJrbqaMI4. H noc.nyuuufr uarepnafl nocreneHHo HaqHHa,[ npuHIIMarb ror BLIA, xoropuft xoreJr rrpaAarb eMy Kerrrn... HJIJII,oBI{fl I.IcqesJIa.

Jlacb KaK

B l9ll roay e flapnxe cpeALI yI{eHr.{KoB

sHaMeHuroro

Spauuyscxoro cKynbrrropa AnryaHa 6ypae.nnn norrBn,'lcrr KperIKo cKoJloqenHbui qeroser cpeAnefo pocra. erqe oAnH - ag Poccxtt. Bur clrryrn, no.{Br.rx(eH, rro6oeHareOn npuexan ,reH n ueo6stqaftHo rpyAonrc6un. . KorAa Masc'r'po [osriaKoMuflcn c pa6orann nerep6ypx<ua, oH He cMor cKpbrrb yAl,rBneHufl. Muoro BHAaJT EypAennt, gTor yqeHrlr Po,u,sHa, [por.r3BeAeHnft ur.rpryosHbrx r{ opHrurHaJIbHbrx, Ho raKoro pasHoo6pasufl TeM, rarofi Heo6H.rar:rHofi orgblBquBocra Ha 3oBbr xr.r3Hn, raKori 3Kcnpeccur4 eule He Bcrpeqan. Bor ronrro Bce cKyJrbrrrypbr pyccKolo 6Hru esrNOJIHEHbI I,I3 TJII,IHbI.

lKe BbI, Mocbe, nepeBeAere cBoll Berqu B Nrpa. - Korla cnpocLIJI oH yl{eHLIKa. orBerLIJr ror pelilr.rreJrbHo. - HnrorAa,yANnuno H oropqluo EypAe.n,rn. Bnporeu, gro .ltfiq3ro

naop?

Hoe Aeno yrreHriKa. Mocle Xyxoo n.natnn aKKyparHo, a yqI,tre.nr Ao6pocoBecrHo nepeaaBan Bce cBor.r 3HaHHfl H yMeHbe BOCNI,ITAHHlIKAM.

HesaAorro nepeA oqepeAnbrM BbrlycKoM cBoHX yqeHr.rKoB HLIMLI ctpororpaSnpoBarbcr. Maecrpo noxeJraJr raKxe, vro6 pn4ou c HHM 6un Huuoreurnfi Xyxos. Tax ogr.{ s safleqarJleHbr: uacrnruft, nnceroqufi yqeHr.rK PoAeHa, co3AareJlb <flalrqrHuKa nABItInM B BoftHe>>, u pnxapernasufr, HeBblcoKoro pocra qeJIoBeK, HI,rKoMy He AoM Eypaen.nl nox(eJraJl c

-

lt3


u3Becrgr,rri pyccKr.rfi c_KyJrbnrop. B r"nasax BypAea.nr, uyrtuyrl o6pauleHgbrx B XyKoBy, oulyulaercs r.rHrepec H o:xtrhaHr.re: KaK-To cJroxl{Tcr cyAl6a groro opurl,Iuana?

...Myrnuri nerep6yprcxuli paccner. Ha creHax

lnsuyr

c

yxoAsrr{[e reHH HoqH.

tlro

AoMoB

npruecJra, qro yHecer oHa

co6oft? PaAocru 6egusrexsoro cna HeMHorEM, crpaAa-

ul1lq TblcfqaM.

Kpnxrn, Kpecrr{cb, noqecblBaflcb r4 pyratcb, Bcraer roJroAulrri, o6opraHunil JrroA B HorrrexKax. Eure He flpocHyJtcff, Ho yx(c B3AparnBaer B qyrKoM nocJreAHeM cHe crapufi pocroB_ IqLIK, oulyllblBaeT IIoA no4yurorl KJrrorrH. flo xele'eHbrM AoporaM rroArrod'r3aror K croJrr{qe poccllii. croir z:unep_Nrz AbrMHbre noe3Aa c JrroAbMH, rroJrHbrMn TpeBor r.r HaAe>KA. Ha cepux y,'rrqax HX Bcrpeqarcr BeJr[qecrBeuHbre H paBHOAyIUHbIe rraMflTHHKVt, Lt d'troAH Ha[pacHo BtJrfl.(brBa. roTcfl B HaAMeHHbre JIHqa MoHyMeHTOB: OHrr HenpoHrrllaeMbr,

oHr.r He

cKax{yT HIZqero.

A xzeur,

AJrfl oAHr.rx

rrryqafl,

HAe'r csoefi HeyMo/'raMofi uepe4ofi,

Apyrux nopbrBr.rcrafl, 6onuuamx H MaJrbrMtr

AJrfl

c

XJIONOTAMII.

Bor rro-ro uax.no6yuueaer y6oryn tlrartr{ouKy u, sa6pan

y,lorrKv rI BeAepKO, TIrXO IOCneuaeT K [OKpbrTbrM TyMaHOM peqHbrM 6eperau. Og n se gaMeqaer, KaK npr{noAngBlllaflcfl roJloBa exHAHo nocMarpuBaer eMy BcJreA: ue 6yAer re6e y;lo_ Ba, sarpbrsyr re6s KoMapbr, xe-xe! Bcrarculee cKynoe coJrHrle ocBeu{aer oAHy lzs KaMopoK. Ha cro.nnxe crpar{Hbre cKynbrrrypHue SrErypxx. B unx'rax 6u gacrn.na rpuMacbr raueusoro ropoaa...'Tyr n npocrbre

JIroArr c KpoxorHbrMr.r cBorlMr,r ga6matfiu oHI{ AoBepqnBo y.ruu6arcrca 14 rrlypercrl npn Bcrpeqe Apyr -c ApyroM, cJroBHo cflpaur.rBafl: <A y eac KaK?..> t{ psaonr rouuapnue npnspa. Kr.r Hoqu, Koropbre o6ypenarcr 6o;lruoro n crpaAaroqero qeJroBeKa, H3HeMorarcu1ero B xr{3Hennoli 6opl6e...

rlro xe

A

ero

ero?

-cKyJrbflrypbr_yqnrenn reorpaSnu nerep6yprcxori

rnMHaglrn I4Hgoxeurus HHxonaesHqa Xy-xoea, Bbr[oJrHeH]rbre

r.l\{ s-a nersHri orflycK.

Bor

Ha xaxAori

npouepueno Ha3BaHr4e.

uo.noAofi uouax. I4cno.nueso rocKn ero .urqo. Ha HeM rrETaercs Jrero[Hcb Ayrxa. crpacrno Ao6ueascl r.rcrr{rrbr H CrrpaBeAnrrBocrH! oH yluer'r ot .nn4efi, [ocrp]ircff B MoHaxil, MeqTafl o ToM, qTo B CyMpaqHblx KeJIbflx uapHT cBflTan rpl:l;,una u noxofi u pacuBeraer, <aKH Kpr.ru>, 4o6po4eTeJlb AyIIpl...

It{


tlro xe yBLIAan oH sa MoHacrbIpcKHMH cresaun? Ty xe cyery cyer, ry xe cKBepHyIo lr x(ecroxyrc 6ops6y 3a ,'IaKo' trltri rycor, To xe BeqHoe npeAarenbcrBo 14 noAcllxuBaHne, qro r{nrrrr B cyerJruBoM MIrpcKoM naypaaeftHnxe. Ha noAuoxuu eroft cKyJlbnrypbl npoqeprleHa uaAnlacl. B Heri aupaxeHa Mqrylqaqcs, [oJIHan ynpeKa MbIcJIb - 6esorBerHoe o6paqeuue x 6ory: <Bllxy l.rrp teofi Bo sJIe H MHpa rBoero ne npueunrc!>> I4x nHoro 3Aecb, noAo6sux .nI,oAeil. <llpoxnnruft ropoa!> rHeBHo ltpou3uocnr My]KItK-KaMeHIrtI{K. B usHel{o)Kenfir.r- onycrr.{,'Icr oH Ha seM;Irc y rpyAbl ule6ns 14 B orqafi' Hr{H cxaJl KyAJIaTyIO IOJIOBy. @uryp, oxeaqeHHHx ttlonqanfigofi, 6esponorHo'noxopuofr crop6rro r.rJrv y)KacoM 6ecnpocaerHoro orrlaflHl'ifl, croJlb MHoro, qro oua o6pasybr IIeJIyIo rpy[ny. Bnepe4u HI{x I'IAer HeKTo, HanoMiasapu{uft yr{qHblx npopoKoB, a 3aMblKaer IIIecrslle o6eccuneBuarr or ro,tloAa Marb c pe6enrolt. Bos4en pyru rope,

B

crpacrnoM nopblBe 6eguNrquuttft npopox BocKJII{uaer:

Vxena re6e, o ncenloryuufi, ge HaAoed'Io BHAqrb JIIoycra.nrrx u crpa4anqux? 4efr 3rH c.losa HarrgcaHbl Ha noAHo)KI,tH cKyJIbrITypbI. Ho n eepennqe o6paeon Xyxoea Bcrpeqaiorcfl, u rtrttlrl I'IHOTO CK,IIAAA

!I

TCMIICPAMCHTA.

ue.nan raJlepefl KpecrbnH, npHIIreAIxHx s flerep6ypr Ha cegoHHbre sapa6orxl4 H KaK-To c rpexoM nono,'IaM ycrpo' IlBlxr.{xcfl. 3rn unrAe He llorepglorcfl. seceno npnroBapl.rBaer oAI'tH I,t3 HI{x, ocra- 3arypr.ru!HoBr{Brxncb HeHapoKoM Ha yuly. Cefiuac, nycrllB KofleqKo,

Tyr

oH 6ecneqno B3r,,rrger Ha Bac I{ aaxe noaMlIrHer. 3roruy BCe HnnoqeM, Bce rpblH-TpaBa.

,(pyrofi flpoAaer csnHefi. OanH nopoceHoK Hel{croBo BI'I3xrrTyHeroBpyKax. npousHocur, 6ecneqHo noKypuBaa rpy6ou' - Tg-e-r-c!-_ t<y, Aroxnft MyxltK, c HecKpbIBaeMbIM LIHTepecoM I'I nrc6onur' crBoM B3upafl Ha Bce: 6ttrt naoxer, cJIeAtt sa nopeaeurefic,n ynpnxroft- JIoITIaAL HJILI cKarltBureftcg c Bo3a 6oqxoil... Ceft' qac oH noAot?,u,er lr 6es nnuIHHX cJIoB, JIoBKo I'I He crleua Bce o6naAnr.

9ror npncrpouJrcn Ha KaMyIxKe I4 yAI'IT, noJIoxI{B PflAol,l Berxyro rrJrsny, a y Hor [ocraBHB_ KpoxoTHoe AepeBflHHOe seaeixo n xopo6xy c qepBflKaMn. OH eecr ryr, Bcn Ayma ero orKpbrra 14 paAocrHo ryqnrcfl. Aonro xAaJI oH SToro cBo' 6oAnoro noro>xero AeHbKa, fiocryl(uBag canoxHblM MoJIo'Til5


NOr\l- B

.CBoeti noJryTeMHoii 3aKO[qeHHOri Uacrepcxoft, fiponu-

T?BIIlgugq 3aIIaxOM AerTt. Ou suaer, IIro yilo; 6yai:r ire6oraT, KpoxoTHoro BeAepKa xBaTUt C.:n36qTxgM, rlo KaK He [pocHAeTb rleJrbrfi AeHeK y peKr{, He no6orTarb c ycaTbrM coJr.IlaTo]\r-3eMJrSIKOM?

A y Bac KaK?- cHrB c yAoqKH KpacHorrepofo oKyHr)Ka, cnparrruBaer oH c Ao6poAyt[Hori yrbr6Koit,-tr cHoBa troA t'uxuit rueflecr rpocrnr.rKa rerrer HeMyApeHafl 6ece4a npo poaHyro AepeBHlo.

-

Asoe cocrapr4Brrrrrxcfl ua 6apcroii c.nyx6e cynpyroB, ylrur6aRcr, rJrflAflT Ha nepnuft asporrJlaH:

I4tul rbr... qeJIoBeK

- I4 cxo.trro oHr.r.-

xe

noJrereJr,- THXo npongHocflT HenoAAenbHofo yAuBJreur.rfl u paAocru

sa qeJroBexa e nx Ao6poft y.nu6re... Taxnx paAyr,otquxcq, cMerouluxca, ylu6arctr1nxcff .lrrcAefi cpeAr.r faJrepefi I,IssoxeHu.rs Xyxoea KyAa 6ontue, qeM

cxop6uux r{ crpaAaloIrlux. tr4 nnepeuexKy c HHMn H rrpesJrbre, cnJrer- npecMeruHbre HHKr.t H CnJTeTHHI{br, eXr.tAHbI r..r JrHueMepbr, xaHxrr r.I BpaJIr.I, cKprru u nycro6pexlr Bce JrroAcKr.re or6pocu, r{To rorflTcfl

-

B 3!'IOBOHHbIX TIOABOPOTHqX, KOPHAOPAX Ir JIIOACKIIX, B TCMHbIX

rlpr.rTBopax r{acoBeH, BbrrJrflAblBafl }I BbrHtoxuBat, 6u a cnegu, noAApa3Hr.rBafl Ha rpex...

cyJlt cKop-

'H, HaroHer{, eule rpynna He6HsarHx, flpur{yArnBbrx a ua nepeuft B3rJrrA seo6uqarino crpaHHbrx... Haxoxn[euncb, HcnoAJlo6ra norrqAblBarr Ha cBer, npnrawrcfl <<Crapur? BopoH))-rroJlynruua-noJryqeJroBeK. Bu, Aa y Hero lopoHa Ha roJroBe, a roficrnri, [poxopJnrBHri rnrcs B KpoBH... 3Haxouas nrnqa! He ru nu ero, naoHapx, cr.lAsulr.ui B 3oJroqeHoft ropoue H npogBanHuil Hzxonaena rponasuu?! A ero KTo erqe saceJr Ha 6o.nruoft Aopore r.r He Aaer Hg rpo$Ay, Hr npoxoAy Ao6puru lr,oAnu? Onr.rpaacr Ha rraJrKy, s.ro6uo cBepKaer nJToIIIKaMH rJIa3, I{ KpoBoxaAHbre ncbr-uep6epu oxpausror ero cJreBa a cflpaBa... 9ro <<Creperyurue>> x aHAap Mep r.rfl , cbrcKH a fl noJrr.t rlhs, Q an aru uHoe AyxoBeHcrBo, H3yBepcrByroqee MpaKo6ecue

HeAapoM Ha foJroBe rraBHo-

ro crpqur.rJrr{ula Herrro BpoAe -MoHaruecKoft cxyQru r{Jrn KJro6yra. 9ro sJrbre cuJrbr, noAcrepefarcqne .nn-66ro qecrHoro qCTOBCKA HA KA)I(AOM IIIATV.

grr rloJlynrnqu-no.ny.nro Au no rofi nopo4u, trro rt _ A rr_o <Craprrfi nopou>? To oHr.r Bbrcrynaror ao6purvru Apy3bflMn, ro fipocro nrc6onlrrcrByro[InMn (<Xovy nocMorperb, KaK Bbr xaaere>>), ro no3r.rpyrcur{Mr.t repe]t $ororpa$oM, ro o6eeAoil6


oh,.' v/ 14 b

N

,ffi

N.

UU kr,lr,,,U t--''tt W\,,-'.., Y 9* t/t.. t \

/

--rl\; .-) fr////


JreHHbrMr.r

(<B qe"'rou MHpe oAxH>)), To nu 3ro cKpbrras cHM_ .rrr4 npr{xorJraBafl rpaurasaa xyAoNuaka? 14 ro u

Roirr{Ka, To

Ap)'roe.

3ro, no MbrcJrH cKyrbnropa, oJruqerBopeHue Ayrxu qeroBeKa, o6pasHbre BL,rpaxeHur rr pacKpblTtrr pasflr4rrHbrx crpa.

crerl, xaparrepoB: 4o6po4ylrur u xonapcrna, nrc6osnr"eio-

HocrLI z .nto6onurclBa, HaI,IBHocrr r4 LrcrylxeHHocrr,r, xl{Tpocrr.r H cyeBepHocrr.r. flHr.[uaofi ceoeri MbrcdTbro xyAoxHr{x crpeMuJrcr npour.rKHyrb o r.ny6n qeJroBeqecKofi Harypu, 4o6partcl Ao <<Ayrrrr{>> r.r Bbrpa3rirb ee.

B rolr, KaKyr,o Sopuy sru fionbrrKn npilHflrrH, cKa3aJrocb,

KoHeqHo, BesHr.Ie coBpeMeHHbrx eMy re,{eHLrri B r,rcKyccrBe n qacrHo,crI4 BJIIiff Hr.re cuMBo,'r r.rgMa . Vl, o guarco, JrHTep arype, _B

Xyxona peaJrbHa, qyxAa rofi 6ec$opnneHnocra s a6crparruocrll, Koropoli ctpa4anu, cKax(eM, HeKoropbre no3cr4MBoJrHKa TbI-C}I

M BOJI

HCTb].

...I4 sce

xe,

HecMorps Ha ro, qro, no rBepAoMy y6ex4e-

Hr.tro MacrepoB cKyJrbnTypbr r.r HcKyccTBOBeAOB, LrrI4Ha

roAsufi

_

He-

Marepr.raJr AJrfl cepbe3Horo BaflTeJrr, fiyxoo upno6peJr H3BecrHocrb r.t 3aBoeBaJr nn6onr. He o xpyrax xyAox(HH-

KoB H Kpr{Tr.rxoo (eruirl Bo MHofoM

o6tscHsetcfl orcyrcrBl.re

ero IiMeHI{ B KHr{rax no l,tcropalr ncxyccrna), a cpeAr4

Macco_

BO|O 3pHTeJrfl.

Ero

pr{aJrorvr

lrvtHr.larropbr oKagaJrl{cb oqeHb 6naroAapnuM lrare-

4.nn QoropenpoAyr.lnpoBaHnq. PenteQHue qepHo6e.rue rrs6paxeuufl x(yKoBcKHx cKyJrbnryp pacxontr,'rricb B Tbrcflrrax oTKpbIToK H oXOTHO paCKynaJrr.rcb. Xyxos saxoreJr ysHarb MHeHfie o cBoux

pa6orax Aeyx uaa6olee nrc6snaux HM pyccxnx nucarenerl ra noc.nan lrnn r{oMrrJreKrbl orKpbrroK. B uysee HMeHr4 A, Xl. foplKoro xpaHLITCS Hel,I3BeCTHOe, HHKOTAa paHee He ner{aTaBlueecf IILICblvIo BeJrr.rKOrO pyccKoro rrHcaTeJrrr orBeT cKyJrb[Topy Ha rrpHc.rraHHbre rzM penpoAyKUHH: <<,4,oporofi I,Isnoreurufi HHxo,r aeslzq !

-

Ilo,ryunn fl orKpbrrKtr c Baurux pa6or, cepAeq- cHr{MKnCuorprc uoe cnacr6o Bann ga nrc6esuocrr. Ha Baruu eetlfi

paAyrocb; TaJraHTJrr.rBo, >Kr.r3HeHHO, HpaBr.ITCfl H rporaeT -3a cepArle. Bo sceM ecrb qro-ro BepHoe, pyccKoe: - rny6oro cMyqeHHafl HeyKJrroxecrb, gBepr.rnoe ao6po4yuae u r{eroBeqbn p],ccxafl rocKa. 3a rpy6r,run $opruailrn eABa oxr.rBJrensorl rnnusr qyBcrByerct ruxlrfi, po6xufi ofoHeK, npocBeqHBaeT Ta MrIJrafl CH,rra, KOIO 3OByT AyrXoft. tr4sorAa KapnKaTypHo, Ho KaK BCfl pyccKafl x{H3Hb SanyTaHHag, HeflcHafl,

-

1t8


HeyBepeHnafl B cBor.ix chJrax. Cnaca6o Barr,r! Xe,raro 3AopoBbq, cqacrba, 6oApocru Ayxa, TaK Heo6xoAuruorl gcell HaM. Kpenxo x{My pyKy Baruy.

A. flerrrKoe. Kanpu 9/II-910>.

flpuuno n rrcbMo ws flcHoflt flo,rsnn. !,oun Jltea KoJraeBr.rqa

HnToncroro, Tarrqna,l-lsnoeua Cyxoruua, nucar'ra

Xyxony: <2 anp. (1910) Mu.{ocrneHft rocy4apr.

Mofi oreq, tI. H.'Toncrofi, 3a Her.rMeHrdeM BpeMeHtr r{ no cna6ocrz 3AopoBbs flopyql.rd'I MHe orBerurr Ban,t ua Baue nHcbMo.

Ou Bennr oqeHb 6.naro4aput Bac sa npncJraHHbre

rn c Baurnx cKyd'rbnrypubrx [por43neAeunfi, Br.rJrIt

cHr.rM-

Koropbre Aocra-

eMy yAoBoJrbcrBne. Os HaxoAlrr, uro Bo ecex Baufix

rrpousBeAeHr4rx ecrb oqeHb 6onsruas cr.IJra Bbrpa3uTe,'rbHocrr.r, B oco6eHHocrra B coJlAare cll(eHilIrznoft u B AByx yqeHr,rKax. Srpr Ase Berur{ eMy oco6euso HpaBqrcfl>). Ha xoueepre, B KoropoM coAepx(aJlr.rcb rrpr{cJraHuue XyKoBbrM orKpbITKIr,,IIes Ht,txoflaeBLrtI HarlncaJI: Te,'r

<<Cnnrurolt. 6o.aluofi KoHTp bHocrr.r. Xopout o>.

acr. Eo,rrn:as

cu,'r

a

Bbrp a3r4-

...Teueps rpyAHo ycraHoBr.{rb. Kro nepBbrrt npe4.roxnn n Haureli crpaue yqpeAurb opraHH3arIHIo ronbrx nnoHepoa. JIeHHHfpaAcKHft nucarenl B.n. !,naurpneecrnil yrBep)KAaer, qro OAHI{M H3 IIepBL'IX OpraI{Iz3aTOpOB nI{OHepHH,

Eeila

u

rzHuultaropoM caMoro Ha3BaHUrr

6un

AyilIofi

3TOfo

l4HHoreuruli

Xyroa. B uaqane 20-x roAoe, npoAonxaq npenoAaBarb B rrrKoJre, Xyxou x(r,rJr B Mocxse e o4Hofi us KoMHar tr4Hcruryra SreKyJrbrypbr na fopoxoncrofi y.nuue (renepo yn. Kasar<ona). CrcAa-ro H nepeMecrh,nkrcb HeKoropbre H3 ero [pexHrax pa6or (snavureJrbHyro qacrb ou po3Aan Apy3bflM n BceM TeM, KoMy oHr.r npaeu.nucl). B xeaprlrpe na fopoxoecxorl Bo3Hr.rK ceoeo6pasHurt tura6 fiepBbrx coBercrr.rx nfioHepoB. Onn npnxoAlrr'ru K <<AffAe Kerue>> r4 cpa3y floilar,aJllr o ouaponaHnrrfi MAp HCKyCCTBa. Os noABeJr MeHfl K cKyd'lbnrype, croaBruefi B caMoM

-

lt9


yf ir y

Ko M H a Tbr,

Bc rro M

eT

B "rr. !, rrl u r p I es 14 cBepxy.

- Ha Hee cJreBa uur? cger [aAaJr r.r

Ha

nnxpacrolfi, KpyrJroJtHubrfi,

xu ft .

C o.n

Heq

-

- npocroft, Manluur, noAnsg pyKu K ue6y, roroe 6u.n, c

KaSaJIOCb, JIerKr.tM ABI{XeHHeM OTTOJTKHyTbCfl OT 3eMJrH

r4

B ero ur.rpoKo pacr(pbrrbrx rJragax pacnycrnJracb paAocrHat, II3yMJIeHHaff ynu6ra xopouo, KaK - KaK 3auer{arerbso xurr! fl roxe y.nu6ny.ncR, [oroMy qro xHTb 6uno AericrBHTeJrbrro xopouo H r.rHTepecHo. - Bor raxorl xpacueofi, acHoil AoJrlKHa ocraBarbcfl ,u,yrxa Kax,[oro qeJroBeKa,-cKa3ail Afl'.n Keua.-Vl saho, qro6ur )KHsHb He MotJra n3ypoAoBart n llccyruntu ee. Bor 3aAaqa, Bo.[oAq, BeJrHKaff u Berr.rqecrBeHHaff, Koropyn nocraBLrJrH nepeA co6ofi 6onluesuxu. 3a ayuy HaAo lparbcfl B3Mbrrb BBepx.

BCeqacHo...

Euna paspyxa. K AqAe l(eure npuxoAa,ln He roJrbKo nnoHepbr rr rrrKoJrbHHKn. Vsor1a oHH ltpnBoAtJu4 c co6ofi 6ecnpI.I3opIrHKos. floaSnpaJr Hx c yraqbr r.t caM AsAf, Keua. flo6nsas y Xyxooa, o6.nacrannue r{M, efo paccxasaun o6 r.rcKyccrBe, pedara yxe cMorpeJrr{ no-ApyroMy Ha nrnp. 14 cau oH, npgcra,'rbHo BcMarpuBafcb g Aerefi, yqa nx JIenHTb, cogAaBaJr qyAecHbre cKyJrbnrypbl: <<Paccxas o llepexone> (c raKHM BHHMaHr.reM cJrynaror nuoHepn repon!), <<Becb MHp fl cJryrrJaro H Karrry Kyrrrarc>>, <<flycm roJrbKo rponyr Hac npoK,rrflTbre Qanrucru!>>, <<Te, xoropble He BHAeaL x{HBoro ropo.iIoBoto>>.

B I-[eurpanbHoM rocyAapcrBeHHoM apxnne Jrr{reparypbr HcKyccrBa xpanr,rrcq orKpbrrKa. BHqeeruae xnMr.rqecKile qepHr.rra n aKxyparHuft xescruft nouepr. HesortHo o6pah

uaeflrb BHr{MaHHe Ha floAnr.rcb: <H. Kpyncras>. Bor trro nHcalt,a Yl. Xyxony rorAaruHnfi HapKoM [pocBerrleHr{s HaAex,u,a Koucranrr.rHoBHa Kpyncxan: <Toe. Xyr<oa, 6o.nrnryu{ee cnacn6o sa orKpbrrru. Osn xopoufi, oco6o xoporrJr,r flepexon a aepeBeu-

BaMeqareJrbHo

cKlte AeByIUKI.I.

f 6u oqenr xoreJra noroBoprETb c Bamn o pflAe Bonpocos. BHna Ha orAblxe a reneph Bxox{y B KoJrero, 3aHfira c yrPa Ao Berlepa, Ho qepes HeAeJIbKy raK HaAo 6H noroeopHrb.

Xruy pyxy. H. Kpyncxaa. 23. 6. 3l>r

I t20

fly6nuxyerca

BnepBbte.


Bcrpeua cocrosJracb. 3a4yueeHo 6eceAosanH, 6oluue Bcero o xyAoxecrBeHHoM BocluraHru Aerefi. Xyroe or,{aBar eMy Muoro clrJl, He roJIbKo o6yuan pe6nr JrenKe, Ho rl Hanr.rcaB HecKoJIbKo yBJleKareJrbHbrx KHIIxeK AJIfl pe6nr.

B xouqe 1936 roaa cKyJrbrrrop rrocJraJt orKpbrrKrr-penpoPot;lany. 7 ansapn 1937 roaa $paHuyscxufi uNcateJlb HarrncaJr orBeTnoe IIr.IcbMo. B Heu 6u,ru ta-

AyKULIH Ponreuy KHe CTpOKn.

(r. e. o cKyr'rbnrypax Xyrosa.- B. O.) MHe roA. M. I'oplxnft, Kor.rr,a fl 6nn ero rocreM. Bu yxe HgBecrnbr 6lrrr.r, fl troJlaralo, JLo peBoJrlorlnn. Mos x{eua MHe roBopuJra, qro oHa nepe4 noilnofi sr.rAera orKpbrrKn c BaIxlrMH cKyJrbttrypaMk. Ho 6es <<O

Boprur

HNx

c

r.rHrepecoM r.t cayrrarnerl

renepb Bbr HaIIIJIH 6onee nnpoKoe [oJre AJIa Baruero rBopqecrBa. Hexoropue pa6oru sauH Heo6brqafiHo aKcnpeccnBulr <<flaprr.rsaHbr I(auxasa> lrJrH Jrr{ua coMHeHI,Ifl ToJrbKo

Aere*, cJryuanqnx -paccKas o flepexone, a raKxe ABa MaJreubKlrx nnonepa na ctpaxe>>1. ...<<B nrcne 1964 roaa <JlnreparypHafl rasera>> noMecrr.tJra nucbMo B peAaKrlr.rrc C. T[rosa (orqa KocMoHaBra f. C. Turosa) u A. Tonopoea yqnreJrff. Anropsr nnca-

-ero rBopqecrBa He3acJryueo6xoAr.rMocrrr norryJrflpr.rsauan )KeHHo ea6Hroro V. H. Xyxooa. OHa paccxa3blBaJrr{, rrro AalKe Ao rJryxoro cu6npcxoro ceJra AorxJrrr eqe Ao peBoJrrorlr.ru ABe saMerrarerbHbre orKpbrrrn Xyxona: <<TaftHa xopo.neft> u <<Kax xoporun, KaK cBexlt 6nnr posu>>. 3rE eerqn nopasnreJrbuu. Flepnan lrs M]tHr.rarrop pa3o6naqaer MoHapxoB, 6pocarcuqnx cBoH HapoAbr B KpoBaBylo

.na

o

6orlsro H AoroBapnBaroqlxcfl o6 arou c oMepgnreJrbHbrM xHxrrKaubeM. Bropan cKyJrblrypa no.nertruqua. <<Kax xopolrru, KaK cBex(H 6unlt postt>-ocrpo noA grrlM TypreHeBcKul\l

- nso6pasnJr He3eMHyro Ha3BaHr.reM cKyJlbnrop Berureunureo

AeBy. XyKoB, cBq3auHblfi c penonrcquoHepaMr{-noAnoJrburr{KaMu a xopolllo sHarouufi x{HgHb HHgoB, llgAeBaercn HaA

On cos4al noprper crapoft Hecqacruofi xeHrquHbr, Buo xlrgHb 6arpauue-

AeKaAeHrcKl.lru 6er.nenrurueBcKHM o6paeou.

urefl sa rocnoA fi sa6Hsaroueir rope roJrbKo B B[He. <<Kar xoporrrn, KaI( cBelrlr 6urn poeu)> oHa cKBogb - noBTopfler ropbKne, nbrHbre cJre3bl npn Br.rAe HeseMHofi .[eBbI, norpyxeHHofi s lueaaHxoJruro... HunoxeHrnfi Hrxonaennu Xyroe yMep B 1948 roay,

I lly6lnxyerct

BnepBHe.

l2l


75 ner. MHorne H3 HbrHe BApaBcrByrou{ux xyAo}Kr{r4KoB, rrflczI. Teneiii, KoMcoMoJrblles 20-x roAoB rloMHflT gToro gHepruqHofo, lr(HsHepaAocrnoro qeJIoBeKa u ero Heo6uqailuue cKyJIbrITy-

pu. <l4e xe, rAe xe efo

ttpousBeAeHus?>>

OHI4.

-

cnpalxnBatctr

Vnu, ocrafir.rcb orrer{b HeMIIof[e. 3ro lr IIoHrrHo. frusa He BbrAeplKr.{Baer llcnbrraHAfl BpeMeHeM. p,a u pasgaBa,'t nx xyAoxHr.{K cBoHM Apy3bfM Ha,'IeBO }i HanpaBo. Onru6ancs .rrn cKyJlbnrop, nu6pan Marept4aJloM AJIfl cBor4x npolr3BeAeuur.i r,ruuy li He sa6orscn o6 ux AorroBeqHocrlr? Ho rorAa omu6a.rrucb u .IlenutaH, H I(yau4xn, H r{npne. Hirc, Aa H MHofue apyrfie xyAoxHHKLl, rIt{caB[II]e no 6eAuoc' Tfl CBOH KapTHHbr IIecTofiKHMH KpacKaML{, Ha He[poqHbIx xo.Tcrax. Hexoropsre [pon3BeAeHng no6,rex.nl't, BbIITBeJIH, lI Hr{KaKafl pecTaBpaI-IHs Ao cl{x IIop He MoxeT BepHyTb I'IX K npexnefi qseryuerl >NHsHrl, KaK Hnqro IIe Moxer Bepnyrb c'rapuKa B N{o,roAocrl. Ho e cBoe BpeMtt 3rH TBopeHI'Ifl l<r4c' TH paAoBad'IH H Bocxnxrang ,rrcAefi H HaBcerAa ocra,'ll4cb B so"qorofi coKpoBHutrHHIIe Hcl(yccrBa.

Tar u c l4ssoxeHrreu X(yxonuiu. flycrt Aylxa r,'ILrHbI ero yAr4Br.rre,'rbHbIx cosAaHLtil cBerHTCtt JII{IIIb c orKpbiroK. XyAoxullx 6u.r cnnrirxo'ra 6eAeH, qro6tt npuo6perarb MpaMop, Aa r.r )Kr{gHb rpe6oea;la or Hefo 6ltctporo, HenpepblBHoro orKJrHKa. L4 ry"t cocd'ty)Kl4Jl c.rtyx6y Heo6uxnoseHHo or3rre'{lrenil u Heo6H,IafiHo IIJIacrl{qecxuli tttarepfiail - rJIHHa... fnuliRur,rx cKyd'Ibnryp l4HIroxeHtlls Xyroea Her, a Aylua Hx }KHBA.


coA

XA

Onucuuu.t,rtr....b Bparna 9epueqonu fiepcrenlBeuenuruuoea V.rrirens flyurxnHa floc,reAuqrr Kapruga

. . , cJroB

Pyccxrfi.Nlure;rarrANelo fueaAa Kpbrrarux

i\lacxn Ayura rnuHur

, , .

B0

52

,

67 T6

8l 8Z 104

lll


Bacuarfi Hurouaesrq Ocorrn NEPCTEHb BEHEBI{TUHOBA PeAaKrop E. H. txrogc(ar XyAoxecrBeHsHfi pe.u,arrop e. A, Po3eH Texnnqecxnft peaaKrop ll.. ll. KanHToHoBa Kopperrop B. Jl. AaHtrno8a

s sa6op 13/lII-1969 r. floanuEqpuar 6yrrarH 84Xl08r/i2.. OH3. trec. n. 4,0. ycn. neq. ,n. 6,72. Vu.-us4. r. 6,M. Hs4. un4.

Caaxo

caHo K treqarg 22lIX-19@ 1.

trlx-471. AlW27.

Txpax 50000 sxg. l.

42 Kotr. EyMara Ne

UeHa

[43AarenbcrBo <Cosercl(afl Poccfitr, MocKBa, upoesa Cariynoaa, 13/15.

KunxHag Oa6pHKa Ne I PocrnaBnGnlIrqra$npoua Kounrera lro ncqaru npH Coucre MHnncrpos PC(DCP, r. S.lexrpo-

crant Mocxoscxofi o6racrtr, Illxoltuaa, 25. 3aKa3 M

246.


qI4TATEJIflM I,lgrarenr'crso npocuT or3blBil o6 grofi

n noxeJraHHt npltcblJlaTb no aapecy: Mocxna, Ilenrp, npoeeg Canyuo-

KHHfe

Ba, l3/15, HsAarelbcrBo Poccuq>.

<Coaetcxan


I43IATEJIbCTBO <COBETCKAfl POCCr4fl> BbIIIIJIA U3 NEqATN KHLIIA: Kar a

e

e tr4. IIoa

qficrbrMn 3Be3AaMil. flosecrn.

Ouepxu.5l2 ctp., qena

I

PaccKaebr.

P. 05 x.

B ery xnury nom,rz tls6paunble npon3BeAeHuq l4eaua l'IgaH9nnqa Kataesa, r'Iyquee u3 Toro, qro co3rauo uM 3a .[ectlrl'I'lerl{e lureparypriofr Pa6orlt.

he."Karaei Bouerl B nureparypy n 1927 ro4y. B caoux nep' Bbrx noBecrgx <<Cep,4ue>, <floer>> H Ap. MonoAofi nucaTe.llb [Hilrer o HeAaBrro nepexnroM: o_ rpaxAallcKofi norlne, o 6opr6e 3a I\lI{p' usrii pacunet crpaHbI. B ero xuurax npl'IBd'leKaer npaBtrI'IBocr^b' rounur?, o6pasuriii fl3blr, yMeH[e no-rloBoMy yBuAerb I'r H3oopa' 3rrrb aroaefi u co6slrux.

Iloxynafire KHI{ry B Mata3[Hax Knuroropra u norpe6ure'nr-

crofl

xoonePaquu.


I43NATE/IbCTBO <COBETCKAfl POCCI{fl> BbIIIIJIA H3 NEqATH KHI{[A: Ea6uxo

e iU. Ha socroqnom 6epery.

B cso[x

240 crp., ueua 67 xon.

BocnoMfiHaHr.rsx aBrop paccxa3blBaer

rtlyxecrBe coBeTcKHx 6ofiqoa

n

o go6necrn

r

KoMaHAgpon, ocno6ox4asruux xopericryro 3eM,rro or r.rr{o3eMHbrx 3axBarq[KoB. M. Ba6nxoa pncler rpKne uoprperbl cBonx ToBapliuer?.- B. ,Ileonosa, H. JIysHeHKoBa, C. AraQonona, A. Huxau.upona, f. tleruapera r-r MHofr4x Apyfux, repolrqecKr.i cpaxaBuir4xcq B qnoHcKoM Tbriry, 3IraKoMr.rr co <<Crpauofi yrpeHHefi cBexecrlr>, rroAqepKr.rBaer r{HTepHaufloHa,.rbHyro Apy)K6y coBercKux MopflKoB t't rpy,[oBofo napo,ua Kopen.

Iloxynafire KHxry B Mara3[Hax Knuroropna cxofi xoonepaqur.

!

I

:

\

u norpe6nrell-


I43AATE"TIbCTBO <<COBETCKAfl pOCCHfr> Ceptn ranr sKoporKne noaecrfi

tt paccra3br)

BbIIIIJIH B CBET:

f.

H. Marur<aH. {PacnaAor}. 92 crp., qeHa 17 Kon. A. H. Coxonoa. <Cnerupescrue tcropnn>. 47 crp., qeua

Z xon.

C. A, Bapyagun. cHAer cHer). 94 cip., qeHa l7 xou. A. 14. Cauoureuxo. <HosHfi AoMD. 94 crp,. [ena 17 xon. H. H. Prr,renroe. c,[opora yxogn'r 3a bKonfiuy]. 143 crp., [eua 25 Kon. B. A. flporoabnxoHoB. <6aftauafi - xo3flHn rafirrr. 56 crp,, {eua ll Kon. C. A. Bapueuro. cTpacca ua Jtyny>. I07 crp., qeHa

Knrrn npo4arorcfl cKof, |(oonepaqHH.

I

Mara3flnax Ksnroropra

r

2l

Kon.

norpe6nTerb-

I

Y

i


Осокин ВН - Перстень Веневетинова - М.,1969