Issuu on Google+

H. A. HI4ITUOOPOBCIUT.ff

Bn6Jrrro-

rpa{uqecnoe OIIIICAHI,IE

B Pocewn


AKAAEMVTf, HAyK CCCP OPAEHA TPYAOBOTO KPACHOTO 3HAMEHH EI,IEJII,lOTEKA

H. A. HHKHOOPOBCKAq

Bu 6nnorpaQHr{ecKoe OIIT4CAHHC

B

Po ccwr4

Ouepx HcropHH Ao cepeAuHur XIX floA peaarqneft C. n. "rlYnnOBA

NEHIZHTPAA

<HAYKA' N EHHH f PAJICKOE OT.IIEJIEHHE

l98l

s.


B runre npocJrexnBaerct gBoJrp[nt 6n6nlrorPaQllqecKoro onncauuf, s Poccrn or 3apox,lenaa pyccxofi 6u6auorpaQnr (XI n.) Ao cepearnH XIX s., ananll3xpyrorct pagnlqHbte cnoco6u s ttPtreMH, [cnoJrb3oBaBuruect B oreqecrBennof, 6r6rnorpaQrr npn cocraBJlenr[ ontcaxnf,, paccMarP[' BaKrrcf, ocHoBHHe 6n6anorpa$n,recKlte rpylbt. Hgtoxexne llnnlocrpupyerct

6omunu KoJuqecrBou npHMepoB. I(urra npe4Hasnarrena rnt HcropuKon, 6u6auorpaQon,

6n6atrore,tnbtx

rr BgAareJrbcrnx pa6ornnKoB,

042(02)-81 =ttt9lu-utl

3?.8t {5030t0000 @ Haaarerucrno <Hayra>, l98l

n.


OT PENAKTOPA

Hacrogulaq KHr{ra HanncaHa tr3BecrHblM coBercKr.tM 6n6rnorpaQou H. A. HHxn$oponcxoft, MHoro .ner nDoDa6orasrueft s Eu6rr.rorexe AxaAerrulr{ HayK CCCP e JleHdHnpaae. Hus H. A. HnrnQopoocrofi 3HaKoMo He ronbKo cneuranncrarrl-6n6.nnorpa$au, HO H l.t.rHpoKoMy Kpyry qurare;lefi: s 1978 n. fi3AarerbcrBoM <Hayxh> 6u.na oriy6nr{KoBaHa ee rr,rouorpaQus, <Bu6nuorpaQH,lecxoe onncasne. Bonpoctr

Teopuil, HcTopxH I{ MeTOAHKH>, nOJIyqHBruafl noJloxHTeJrbHyro oueHKy s Haurefr neqarr.t. Hosas pa6ora H. A. HnxuQopoacioft JrorfiqecKr.t l,t no coAepxanr.rro recHo cBfl3aHa c npe4u4yu1efr.

B Hefi nporrexuBaercf,

pa3BHrHe 6n6.naorpaeuqecxoro

s Poccuu or 3apoxAeHr.rfl pyccKofi 6d6nl.lorpaenH Ao cepeAlrHuI XIX s. , Vcropnn 6u6nnorpaQlrqecKoro onncaHuq n poccl.l.r, onncaHns

6yayuu cocrasHofi qacrbro ncropr.n{ pyccxofi 6u6.nuorpa$r.ra, npeAcraBrqer caMocrosrensnufi r{HTepec. HsyveHne oco6es_ Hocrefi KHHroonxcaHHfl no3BoJraer paCxpnrb MaJron3BecrHHe crpaHuubr trcropnr.r pyccxoft Kynbrypbr. Cpean .nn4efi, ycl.rlur,Mu Koropbrx co3AaBaJracb pyccKaq 6n6.naonpa$uA, 6wnz yqeHble, nrcareJllt, BHAHbre AeflTe.rIH KHI{roneqaraHHq" Vxe Ha sape pasBr.trnq pyccKoft 6u6nuorpaeuu ulr BcrpeqaeM ttoAJrHHHbre ueAeBpbr 6r.r6;uorpaQfiqecKoro onucaHl,tq, Koropbre He Moryr He Bbr3brBarb BocxnuleHufl u B Haiun AHH. ,Ilocra_ Toqno Bc[oMHHTb, Hanpr{Mep, <OrlasleHr.re KHHI, KTo Hx cJloxr.tJl> Cnllaecrpa MeAseAesa. B xuure noApo6Ho paccMarpHBarorcr onr.rcaHHr B pa3nnqsux 6n6ltonpa$uuecrnx rpyAax, H3yqarorcr npo6.neun pa3Br{rus onucaHuq, He nonyqllBrfrue Ao cHX nop AocraToqHoro ocBeuleHHf B Jrr.rrepaType, rrooroMy [oflBJreHHe Hosofi KHr.rrH H. A. Hnxr.lQoposcxoft Helb3q He npfiBeTCTBOBaTb.


MoHorpaQufl cocrour H3 Tpex uacrefi, B Koropblx nocJle' AOBaTerbHo paccMaTpIrBarcTcfl BOnpocbl Bo3HHKHOBeHng IIPOTflOTCqCCTBEHHOTO KHHTOONHCAHHq H CTO SBOJIIOUHH HA OT nepBblx Aou]eAuHx Ao HaC ero xeHr.rH [IecTI'I BeKOB o6pasuoa (Xl n.) Ao KoHua XVII s-.--(-vacru I), xapaxrep 6n'6.nnorparbHqecKoro onncaHuq s nepaofr noJtoBHHe XIX s. (uacrl

e XVIII s' (uacrl II) *l III). Taxoe pacnp^eAeneHue

ual a npeAcTaBJrReTCfl BrroJrHe onp aBAa HHbl I'n.'ocHoeHHe ov6eixu B p a3BHr HH 6n6.iruorp aQ Hr{ecKoro on,ca HLIfl cBs3aHbl u arep

['n.tpo".i,nn,tn peQopMaMH' rtocraBnBtuHMH nepeA pyccxofi

6n6.nuorpaSHefi HosHe sal..aqv, Koropble ocyulecrBnRJIHcb Ha nporffxeHI{}'r Bcero XVIII 8., a raKxe-c pocroM pJ:g*9ft xy.ltsiypsr, o6pasonaHnfl H HayKH e nepaoft noJIoBHHe Xlx B'' De3vJIbraroM qero 6lt.no, B qacrHocrl'1, co3AaHfie raKHx i pyn"ot* 6n6.nnorpaQrqejKnx rpyAoB, xax <Onur poccuft'

6"6n"orpaQnn> B. C. ConNxona, <Pocnncx> 6u6'nnorex "i<6fi B. fhaer.rruulHxosa n A. CunpanHa' flBxBlltuxcr 3HaqxreJlb-

s o6racrn 6N6;luonpaQHqecKono onnca.Huq. 3axanqnBaercff KHHra cepeAnHofi XIX s' - saxHoft eexofr B HcropHH pyccxoft 6u6.nllorpaQnu. C sroro BpeMeHH pa3BHTHe 6n6.nnorpa$HH [lJlo B oc-Ho-BHoM BllIHpb' a Kaqe' crBeuHbte I,t3MeHeHHq BnJIorb ao l9l7 r. 6u.nn He TaK yx HbIM AocrtIxeHHeM

BCJIHKH.

KaxAas qacrb KHHrll HaquHaercn rparxofi xapaKTepucruxoft neplloAa, no3BoJrsroulefi ssrRsr.rrs ocHoBHble rpe6osaHr,rfl, Koropbte ltpeA'bsBnflJlHcb x 6n6.nuorpaQau roro BpeMeHH' a cJIeAOBareJIbHO, I'l npeAonpeAerflJlt.{ HX noAxoA K pelxeHfilo npo6.neu 6n6.nuorpaQHqecKoro onHcaHHfl. Oco6yro ueHHocrb, c naurefi roqKH sp.eHun, npeAcraBJlsloJ MHoroq[cJIeHHHe npnMepu 6n6nnorpa$uuecxux onucaHnfi, Koropbre Aarorcn Ha crpaHl'luax KHHTH. flpn ux no46ope aBTop npoRBHJI 6o.nluoe MacrepcrBo H npeKpacHoe 3HaHHe ltpeBocxoAHo HJIJIlocrpHpylor reKcr MarepxaJIa. flpnuepu -anropa

HarJIflAHblMlt n y6eAureJlbHblMH. Kuura H. A. HnxnQopoecxoft npeAcraBJIflercs HaM

H AeJIanr BbtBoAbr

ueHHblM TpyAoM, 3HaMeHyIOUIHM HaqaJlo.paspa6orxn oAHoro

H3 HoBbIx HanpaBneHuft oreqecreesHofi 6H6;tHorpaQlu' Ona, 6es coMHeHHfl, npt'tBneqer BHI'rMaHue KaK cnequaJlHcroB6u6.nHorpaQoe, rai H Bcex, Koro HHrepecyer Hcropnn pyccxofi xyJrbrypbr.

,(oxrop

HcropHqecKHx HaYK

C. II .

JI

gnnoa


BBE,[EH}IE

B coBpeMeHHofi nH$opmauHouno-6n6;lnorpaQuuecxofi AesreJlbHocrn HcKJrroqHTeJrbHo BaxHoe 3HaqeHHe npao6peranr npo6neuu 6n6.nnorpa$Nuecxoro onHcaHna. PaepeureHHro 3THx npo6.neu yAerqercs 6onnuoe BHHMaHLTe B coBer-

cxofi u sapy6exHofi neqarr nocJreAHux ler. Heo6xoAHMbtM ycJroBHeM ycneunofi paepa6orxH reciplu H MeroAr.tKr.t 6u6nuonpaSnvecroro oflrcaHfir tBJrrercfl 3HaHfie HcropHH ero pa3Bgrufl. 3ro nogeorser npeoAonert Qopua.nlnuft noAxoA K perueHuro orAeJlbHbrx BonpocoB onHcaHns npoHsaeAeuuft neqaTH H onpoBepr"HyTb AoBoJrbHO pacnpocTpaHeHHoe'MHeHHe, cocraBJreHue 6u6luorpaSnqecKnx onncasufi BecbMa

qro

HecJIoxHafl saAaqa cyny6o rexHHqecKoro xapaKrepa. I-louHrr,ro qHcro npaKTHr{ecKoro HHTepeca, Bbt3BaHHoro

rpe6oaaHunmu paspa6orKu Teopux

x

MeToAHKH onncaHr.rs

negatn, H3yrreHHe HcropHH 6r.r6nnonpaSlruecKoro onncaHnf, TecHo csgsaHHoft c ucropxeli KHHrr{, c Hcropueft 6n6nnorpaQnr.r n B onpeAelesHoft Mepe orpaxanueli o6nryrc Hcropulo KyJtbrypbr crpaHbr, uMeer n 6o.nee uupoKoe 3HaqeHHe. He c;ryvaftHo cyulecrBeuutrft nx.na4 B pa3Br.rrne npHHuHnoB 6n6lnorpaSuqecKoro onHcaHufl BHecJrH BbrAarouluecr Aerrern KyJrbrypbr r{ npogBerqeHns C. MeAaeAes, H. 14. Hoanxoa, B. f. AnacraceBHrt s Ap., -a raK)Ke MHorHe H3BecrHbre yqeHbre. Xapaxrepusyr poJrb BHAHbrx 6H6.irHorpaQon n yrreHux a paspa6orKe reopnn H MeroAHKr.l 6n6;rnorpa$nuecxoro onHcaHHq, Mbr reM caMbtM pacuHpseM HauJ€ npeAcraBJreHHe o Hx AeffreJrbHocrH B o6lacru Kynbrypbr. B xHure paccMarpHBaercn r4cropHrr pa3Blrrus 6u6nionpoH3BeAeHnft

rpaQnuecxoro onucaHns

e

PoccHr.r

c

gapo)KAeHHa pyccxofi


6n6.nnorpaQ[n, flosBJleHfiff [epBbIX nepevHeft KHI'Ir, Ao cepeaHnu XIX 8., KonAa MeroAnKa 6n6.ntorpaSHqecKoro oltncaHHs Aocrr.Irna BecbMa BblcoKoro ypoBHfl, a B AaJlbHefturue noArt Sarrnuecxu He nperepfiena cyurecrBeHHblx llsMeHeHHfi BnJIorb

Ao Be.nnxofi Oxra6pucxoft couuarHcrnqecKoft peso.lttoIltlu. Mu nura.nncb npocJleAnrt eaxHeftIul,te aranH B pa3BHTHt't

6u6nHorpaQnqecKoro oltucaunfl Ha flporflx(esna 6olee qem ceMH BeKoB, BbtflBHTb OCHOBHHe SaKOHOMepHOCTH B 3TOM npouecce, noKa3aTb nporpeccHBHble qepTbl oteqecrseuHofi MeroAHKH, ypoBenb roropofi B psAe cnyqaeB 6bul Bbtlle, qeM B crpauax 3anaAa. flpnao4nrrrue B KHHre MHoroqucreuHble npuMepbl onucaHHfi Hs pa3nnqnblx 6u6.nnorpaQnqecKlrx rpyAoB He npocro ilnntocrpHpyroT TeKcr, Ho, KaK HaM Kaxercfl, UMeIOT I'I CaMOcTogTenbHoe SHaqeHHe, nocKoJlbKy AaIOT HarnflAHOe npeA-

craBJrenne o6 gsorloqun xapaKrepa 6u6.nnorpaQnqecKono onncauuf, g Poccnlt, gcnoJIusoBaHHH Bce 6otee coeepueHHoft MCTO,U.HKI,I.

Marepaa.n B KHHre pacnonoxeH no xpoHonoruqecKoMy flpn arorrt arlop crpeM[ncf, uan6o.nee AeraJIbHo oxapaKTepH3oBaTb onl{caHHf, B CaMHX 3HaqfiTerbHblx rpyAax, 3aHnMatoultrx BHAHoe Mecro B ucropnn 6n6.nuorpaQfiqecKoro onHcaHfif,. flptt or6ope Marepuana cAenaHbI HeKoropble orpaHrqeHun. B pa6ore paccMarpnBalorcfl 6n6;IuorpaQuue' . cKHe ottncaunq rulub e ony6lnroBannblx rpyAax He3aBHcHMo or roro, rorAa 6ula cAeJtaHa ny6.nnraunn (o uoueHr nonoJreHHq rpyAa u;r.u nosAHee). Mu orKa3arncb raKxe or HCCJIeAOBaHnS BOnpOCOB OnHCaHHfl CneIlHarbHblx BHAoB npollgBeAennft ne,{arfi (rapr, 3craMnoB s 1. A.) H HayqHoro onHcaHnq pyxonnceft B KaraJlorax n yKa3arenrx pyKonncHblx co6paHnfi, nocKonbKy 9To, no HaIxeMy MHeHHlo, TeMa caMocrosreJrbHofr pa6oru. He sxoALUI B Halry saAaqY H aHa.IIH3 onncaHnfi s 6u6rl.toreqHbtx KaraJlofax, TaK KaK gTor Boflpoc AocraroqHo xopouo orpall(eH B nnreparype' Hcx.ltloqenue cAenano JIHIIb AJts MoHacrblpcKl'tx 6u6nnorex. Aorop BHpaxaer r.ny6oxyto ltpH3HareJlbHocrb orBercrBeHHoMy peAaKropy C. fl. JlynnoBy 3a 6olruryo noMoulb e pa6ore uaA xssrofi. EflaroAapeu aBrop H peueH3eHraM A. A. KoHottosofi n A. V. Konaueny, o3HaKoMHButHMcF c rguroft B pyKolrncu H cAeraBIrIHM PsA noJle3Hblx gaMetlaHuft. npnHqr{ny.


tlacru

I

61{6Jt t{Ot'pAol,trt

EcKoE on HCAH H E B POCClil,t AO xvilt B.

B Poccr.ul, KaK H B Apyrux crpaHax, Bo3HHKHoBeHHe 6n6auorpaQuu u 6u6nuorpa$uvecxoio onncaslrq npaKrnqecKtI coBnaAaer no BpeMeHH c noqBrenneM caMHx rsur. Hat6onee paHHnft r{3 AoueArxnx Ao Hac nepeqHefi lureparypbr _ cnucoK (HcrHHHbIx> H (JIox{HbIx) KHHr, osarrasreHHbtfi <boroc.nosbqa or cno.B.ec>,.xoropufi BxoAHJr B cocraB <Hs6op_ nuxa CssrocraBa> (1073). Ofor cnucoK Moxer cqr.rrarbcs 3ap-oAbrrueM pyccxoft 6u6;rnorpaenu.

xorn ttHcbMeHHocrb Ha Pycu HecoMHeHHo Bo3HHKJra paHb||.re, noqBJIeHI{e t,t pacnpocTpaHeHHe KHfir TaK xe, KaK n co3AaHr{e ne.pB^bll tuxoJr H 6n6lxorex, cBs3brBaercn c KDeue(eU6) H KHnxeHHeM flpocnana Myaporo (l0lS_ ruo+r. ApeBHeHuHe pyccKHe pyKonHcHbre KHHrH CO3AaBaJrHcb,

ll:y,pl.n

lepenHcbrBaIHcb H XpaHHnHcb B TOT TIEPHOA

'BJIflBIIIIIXCg r{ nnreparypHofi

B MoHacrbrpflx H UepKBax, rJlABHbIMI{ qEHTPAMH NPOCBCIIICHHP

AesreJrbHocrg.

. Marepn_al_ou Ans pyKonacHbrx KHHr Aonnoe BpeM, (ao xoHua XIV e.) cnyxur BecbMa Aoporocroflurnl nepr'arr.reH

Hl u <x a prn_n >, <reJrfl TH H a>, <KolKa > ),xoropufi Hsro"o';n ;, cn H3 reJrflqberi xoxn. flncalacr KHr{rH ocoijuu noqepKoM _ ycTaBoM, ycnoxHflBtxHM H 3aMeA.rIgBtuLtM npoqgcc []tcbMa. ryKonHcHbte KHilrH croHJrH TofAa oqeHb Aoporo. Co epeueHeu ycraB cMeHuncs 6olee npocrbrM noqepKoM _ nonyycraBoM, a 3areM rroflBHJtacb H cKoponficr. 3ro o6rerqnro H3roroBJreHHe pyKonrcefi. Co nropoft nonoBr.tHbr XIV a. Hx craJru nncarb Ha 6yuare. BogHHxHoseHHe KHHroreqaraHHs (XVI ;.i co3AaJIo Bo3Mox(Hocrb floflBJreHar xaxAoft KHHrr] B gHaquTerbHoM KoruqecrBe gK3eMnnqpoB. OAsaxo eure (

,u,oJIFoe


BpeMn neqarHaR KHHta croHJIa Aopoxe pyKonncHofi. Pacnpo-

cipaHeuue KHrlr B ApeoHeft Pycn oueut paHo, KaK MbI BI{AeJIH, sBHJrocb npeAnocblnKofi A.[q SapoxAeHLtn 6n6.nnorpa$nu. flepnuft H3 AorxeAunx Ao uac 6n6nuorpa$uuecxnx rpyAoB

(yiouaHyrurfr suue cnncoK <I'rcrlHHblx> H <<JloxHblx> xHur)

cJIyxHJI

T,IcKJIIOqHTeJIbHO

reJrbHo, ecrn yqecTb

B

AeJre co3AaHHq

na Pycr.r. Cnscxauu

ry

H

Hy)KAaM UepKBH,

qro H HeyAHBI'I-

poJlb, Koropyo rorAa l{rpaJla uepKoBb pacnpocrpaHeHl'Iq pyKoIIHcHblx KH14f

<<I'tcrl'tHHblx>>

H <<JIoxHblx>> .KHHr uepKoBb

crpeMHJIacb orpaHH'{HTb Kpyn qreHHs .nnAeft, 6oporlcn c MHoroqilcfleHHbtMH anoxpuQaun, nporuBopeqHBtrlHMH AOrMaTaM. uepKoBHblM 'Ho

u

Aa.nuuefiuree pa3BI{rHe pyccxofi 6n6nnorpaQHn c HyxAaMH IrepKBH. flosereHue Ha Pycn MoHacrbrpcKux H uepKoBHux 6l6nnoreK npuBeJIo K co3AaHHIo onncefi xpaHHBtuHXcg B HI'tx xttnr. 3rn onucll orHocflTcfl K qHcny crapefiurux 6ll6.nnorpaQnqecKux rpyAqB H flBJlfllorcq rreHsu[,il.r naMsrsnxauu pyccxofi Kynbrypbl. Xapaxtep 6n6nHorpa$HqecKI'lx rpyroB orpeAerflJIcn oco6enuocrfrr,tn pyccroir pyxonncHoft (a sareu u neuarnoft) KHHTH. PacnpociiaueuHulrtl BHI(oM pyKonncHblx xnnr 6u,rn

6st.no ceqsaHo

c6opnrlxn, cocrasretrubre I{3 HecKoJrbKHX npol'{3BeAeH uit u1u ux orpunxoe. 3ro o6croqrerucrBo Haro)KHno ceoft orner{aroK ua paesurue pyccxoft 6n6.nuorpaQnl'l: c nepBblx uaroB nepeA Heh eoaHlrxJla 3aAaqa cocraBJIeHI'tf, yKa3areJlefi x c6opHllxaru.

B ronqe XV s. B ouncr.t xunr Knpn.nno-EenosepcKoro

Mo-

Hacrbrpr 6u.na roueulesa pocnncb 24 taxnx c6opnuxoe, a e t6M r. Apcesnervr Bucoxr'tu 6HJt cocrae.neH <Vrageq>, coAepxaBunft nepeueHu crarefi, rJIaB H orpblBKoB xs 40 c6opHHKoB, npeAHa3Har{eHHbtx Anfl ycraBHstx qreHufi B Monac-

rbrpe,- nepnsrfi AorueAurllfi Ao Hac nepetleHb He KHHr B ueJIoM' a oTAeJIbHblx cTaTeH.

Passm'He pyccxofi 6u6.n-rlorpaSun 6uno:Bf,3aHo c o6Irlnu pocroM xynur'lfu crpaHbl. Vxe e XVII s. e PoccHIt Bo3HHKJIn

nepsue ut{oJtu,''B Koropblx nloAll He npocro oBJIaAeBaJIH rDaraorofi, Ho H noflyqa.nn 6o.nee unpoKoe (xoneuHo, no reM nper"reHartl) o6pasonaune' B 1687 r. orKpblJlacb UrasqHorDexo-narnHcKaq aKaAeMI4fl, flBHBlIIaqcR [epBblM B POCCHH

BbrctuHM vqe6uuttl 3aBeAeHHeM' Pacrunpn.nacb H3AareJlbcKaff AeqrerrHocrr. Boapoc.lto r{HcJIo noKa eure pyKonncHblx nepe-

BoAoB KHHr

c nuocrpauuux q3bIKoB. Eollure craJlo KHHr

cBercKoro coAepxaHns. CosAaaarl'lcu 6n6.nlorexu rtpH rocyAapcrBensni yqpexaennflx (npu fleqarHou ABope, rpn B


Floco.ntcxou, AnrexapcxoM r.r HeKoropbrx Apyrnx npuxasax),' nonyqgna AalrHerluee pa3BHrHe flarpuapu:ar 6H6.nuorexa.,

Mouacrupn n qepKBH nepecra.nn KyJIbrypbr.

6uri

neayurnMlr ueHrpaMr,r'

B Poccru Har{ara cKJlaAbtBarbcg noKa eure HeMHoror{Hc-. reHHafl npoc.nofixa npocBeueHHslx .nroAeft, nucareleli,, nepe_ BoAr{HKoB, yvnre.nefi trrKoJr, MHorHe H3 Koropbrx 6uin reiuo' cBfl3aHbr c AesreJrbHocrbro fleqarHor.o ABopa. Hexoropue -aperraeHau r.r3 HHx 6trnH sraleJrbrlaMH Kpy[Hbtx no reM 6n6JIHoreK.

K urcny raKux

.nn6l.rre.nefi KHHrH orHocurcq ruca-

reJrb H cflpaBUrHK fleqarHoro ABopa Cn,rreecrp MeAeeAen, aBrop BbtAarouerocfl 6u6;rnorpaQuqecKoro rpyaa <<Ornanle_ HHe KHHr,

Kro Hx cJroxr.tJr> (166b). Tpya MeAqe.desa flBuJtcrt

He roJrbKo nepBbrM oirbrroM co3tau{rs penepryapa pyccxoft KHHTH, Ho H nepBbrM HayqHbrM yKa3areJleM .nnreparypsr. OH no npaBy cquraercrr nepurnnori 6N6nnorpaQn" aonerpbncxofi Pycw. TaxuLu o6paaoru, 3a uecruBexosof, flepuoA pyaa*r" 6u6.nuorpaQHq npoula rryrb- pagBHTHr or rrepBbrx npnMr.rrHBHbrx cnHcKoB Jrureparypu XI B. Ao cepbe3Horo HayqHoro

rpyAa.

K coxalesub, AaJreKo He Bce naMnrHHKH pyccrofi nucrMeHHocrH coxpaHnJrHcb Ao Hauero BpeMeHH. OqeHg MHorHe KHHrH noru6nr Bo BpeMfl rloxapoB, 6unu yrpaueHbr B pe3yJrb-

rare pa3fpa6reHus r{HHroxpaHHIHru Bo ipbua softH'fi i. n. V ecnu cefoAHq raKue rpy-uVraseu> bl, *a^ onuir xHHr Knpnnlobe.nosepcxoro MoHacrblpa, Apceuun Bucoioro n <<On"[asreHue KHHr, Kro Hx cJroxHJr> Cn.iilnecrpa Meaneaesa

HaM KaXyTcq

B

yHHKaJtbHbtM14, TO HeJIb3fl yTBepxAaTb, r{To nnrepecyrcurnli Hac rrepHoA He cyulecrBoBaJro Apyr.HX

TpyAoB aHarorHqHOrO XapaKTepa, Koropbre Ao Hac He coxpaHHJfHcb.

floerouy Haur.l

BbrBoAbr

o pa3Bnruu 6n6nuo.pu$"_

qecKoro oIIucaHHf He Moryr npeTeHAOBaTb Ha HcqepnbrBan_ uyro noJrHory n a6conrorHyro ror.rHocrb.

Cnncxn (r{crnnHHx> rr (Jloxnbrx)

KHHr

Iepnurrau yKa3areJrrMH Jrrrreparypbr, Koropbre rroflBHJrHcb Ha yycn, obrJIH c[HcKH <<trcrtlHHbtx> lI <<JIoxHbIX)> KHHr, CosAaHHe raKr.rx cnucKoB cBfl3aHo c luHpoKHM pacnpocrpaHeHHeM

e 4perueli Pycr auoxpnrpoa, r. e.'npon3BeAeri"f penlliroi_ uoro coAepxaHHs, He rroJryquBurHx rrpl.rgHaHHa oQuuua.ntHofi uepKBr.r. Co BpeMeHeM anoxpr.rsu craJrH HcnoJrbgoBarbclt


cropoHHHKaMH pa3nuqnblx <epeceft>. I-[epxonl nena 6opr6y c anoxpnQnr{ecroft nHreparypofi , HagHsaq KHHrI{, coAepxaB-

rune arioxirnQsr, <.noxnulun> ( N.n x <<orpeqeHHblMl't>, <6orootMerHbIMn> lr t. n.) B orJtHqne or KHHr <ltcrnHHblx>, T. e. KaHoHHqecKHx, o4o6peuHux LlepKoBbIo. CocrasrexHe cnlrcKoB <HCTHHHb|X> H <JIOXHbIX> KHHT HMETO UCJIbIO HC TOJIbKO orAeJrHrb Apyr or Apyra 3rH ABa BnAa KHHr, HO I'l oAHoBpe3anpeT Ha qTeHI're KHHr <JIOXHbIX>' KOTOpbIX npaBocJIaBHbIM XpHCTI{aHaM <He AOCTOHT AepxarH> I'I <He IIo-

MeHHO HaJIOXHTb

Ao6aer qecrfl> (unraru). floaAsee K qncny (JloxHblx> noMHMo anoxpnQoe craJln ornocurb raKxe

u

KHI'rr

HeKoropHe penHrfio3HOrO XapaKTepa, HoctulHe He npou3BeAeHHs, Apyrue HanpHMep ManHqecKHe, acTpoJIorHqecKHe I{ raAaTeJIbHbIe

xn"i". flpn arom, KaK orl\{eqaer A. H. flunun, I'IHorAa <B rlr.tcJro KHnr orHocHl,tu 6ut.llll fi He KHI{rn, a npocro HapoAHble cyeBepHfl u nPeApaccyAKH, B KOTOpbIX qeH3opbI BHAeJIH

xe onacHoro, KaK H B JIOXHbIX' 3anpeuleHHblx qepKOBbro KHHrax, H KOTOpble oHH noSTOMy' He CTeCHgqCb' rrocraBHJIH B ror xe PasPa4>.1 Ilepaue cnncKl{ (ncrnHHblx> ll <JloxHblx> KHHr npnunll x HaM r{s Bltgaurnn u 6unn nepeBeAeubl c rpeqecKoro. C reqeHHeM BpeMeHH B nepeqHH <JIOXHbIX> KHHI cTaIH BKJlnqaTb cronbKo

cseAeH;s u o6 opirrl{HaJlbHblx pyccKux KHHrax. <<Crarsq o JIo)KHbIx KHI'Irax 6u.na raxntl o6pasoru y)Ke r{Hcro pyccKuM npoH3BeAeHHeM: oHa 6ula a4pecoBaHa K pyccKoMy npaBo-

cnaBHoMy qI{TaTeJIo H HanpaB-neHa IIpoTHB pyccKHx JIOXHbIX KHHI H HapoAHbtx cyeeePnfi>.2 06 l,tcrioJlrsoBaHHl'I s arNx cnncKax 6r'r6.nuorpaQuqecKux onucannft MoxHo roBo.pl'trb nilIxb ycnoBno: H3 6n6lnorpaQnqecKnx cseAeHrfi n sux o6uquo npHBoAI'tJII'tcb HMeHa aBropoB u 3ArJlaBn KHHr, HepeAKO Xe yKa3HBanocb ToJIbKO I',lMfl aBTopa HJIH 3aruIaBue. 9ro o6lqcusnocb Ha3HaqeHHeM cnucKOB: peKoMeHAOBaJIHCb I'lnH 3anpeqaJll'lcb BCe npoH3BeAeHHfl TOrO HJIH HHOrO aBTOpa HJIH I',r3BeCTHble IIoA ynoMflHyrblM B clncKe 3anJIaBHeM. B psae cnyqaeB <<aBTopoM> cquTaJlcfl

JrereHAapHbIfi unu HcropnqecKufi nepcouax, KoropoMy npuflr,lcbrBaJlocb flpol'{3BeAenue. HHorAa npIlBoAHMoe B cnucKe iln,tq 6uro He LIMeHeM aBTopa, a 3arJIaBHeM: Hanp-H-Mep' <<l,Ios> Ha3BaHr.te KHfirH, coAepxaBuefi nctopNto l4osa.

-

I fl u n n g A. H.

.n"tont.o."n"infr 2 Tau xe.

l0

,ll,rq o6lqcHeHHq crarbn o JloxHblx KHHtax' Apxeorp. xoMncctltl ea 1861. Cn6', 1862' sHn' I' c' 4-5'


Hau-6onee Apeaunft cnncoK (HcrHHHbIx> H <Jto)KHbtx> KHfir,

roropufi Aorxen Ao Hac. <boroc.lloebua or cJroBec>. - <He6opHuxa CasrocJraBa>>, Og 6sr.n qacrbn gHaMeHHToro cocraBJreHuoro B X 6onnapcxono qapfl Crueoua u ". r.An" flepenncaHnono s 1073 AJIR qepHuroBcKoro KHfl3q CesrocraBa (cranurero B_cKope Belnrnu KHq3eM Kneacxuru ) .g qacrl <<EorocJroBbua or cJroBec> npeAcraBnqer _Ilepnan co6ofi_nepeqeHb <r.rcruHHbrx> KHHr, npltflHcHsaeMsrft lpnno-

purc DorocnoBy H coAepxaurufi xnuiu Berxoro u Hoaoro 3aBera, Bropan - Tpn cnHcKa, npHnHcbrBaeuue Hcr.r4opy.

t'

nepBoM H3 3Tr.tX CnHCKOB nepeqncneHbr KHUrr{ <HcTfiHHbre>,

BO BTOpOM KHl,lnH, He OTHOCflUIHeCS K <HCTHHHbIM>, B TperbeM - KHHrH <coKpoBeHHbte>, T. e. anoxpnQHqecKue,

-

HJIH <JIO)KHbIC>. <

Hava.no flepeqHs <HcrHHHbtx> KHHf a nepnoft qacrlt > Bbrr.lqAr.tr cJreAyroulHrrl o6pasou : a

^ borocJroBbua

. . .npb-Boe Poaucrso e. nepaan KH]tra Esrrnel; rave Hcxo.u, Jleyurnion [Jleairrl raue gnc.na; noio* xe Broprn saKon; raqe Hlrcyc n Cy,inq; py$; nx xe [r. e. <ncrrn""*"

.

[r.

ll

[sareul

;

-

xHurl AeuaruR.xe

H recf,rbrfl xxnrn ,flennnn uaprira; n llaparuno_ nocJtexAexe [noc,le urxl xrrlautH Esapyj Hacrrurunua [c.leayro'r{Hel )Ke nsre?br, Hx r(e e nptasrft Hoe, r;oroM xe ,Ilaeua; ia,te rpofl conoMoHa, Ct6opuHlrx, flecur xe u flpnrtla. . .

MeHbr;

Moxuo o6parnrb npHeMbt, KOTOpbre

BHHMaHHe Ha r{cnoJrb3oBaHHbre B cnHcKe

B Haue BpeMs Iut poKo

npHMeHflroTcs

a 6n6nuorpaQNvecxou onucaHHH. l. Buecro noBTopeHns 3arJraBnfl AByx KHrlr <.Il,eaHaa uapbcKa> nHueTct: <Hx xe AeBflTbrg H AecgTbrs>: gro xar 6H

3apoAbrrx cBoAHoro onficaHHs MHoforoMnbrx lisAanafi, KorAa 3a,rraBne npHBoAurcfl oAHH pa3 s o6uefi qacru, a cBeAeHHfl

o6 or4entHbrx roMax Aalorcff a- cnequOnxaunu.

.^^^3 l4s6opHHK BeJtuKoro xHssg^Csqrocrasa fpocrasn,ra. 1073. f16., 1880, c. 253-254. (B r.lsaanne t884 n. c rapanJlenbHHMH rper{ecKgMH H

-

<bofocroBbua or cJroBec) He noure.l). Texcr <Boro_ cJloBbua> noMeuleH a yxasaHHofi Bbt[re crarbe A. H. I-turnuua, ls xoropofi r,,rsl s 3aHMcrByeM npnaoAnuuft aanee npHMep. flpr nepeAa,le reKcra npnMepoB 3Aecb H a 4a;lrrefiueu co6ltoAaorcg cteayroulHe. npaB_Hn-a: npaBonHcaHHe r{cToqHHKa COXpaHneTcr, 3a HcKJrIoqe-

JIaTilHcKHMH TeKcraMH

-

{

Hneu 6yxe i, O, A, rP, [, u,.<o, bt Koropble 3aMeHrrcrcr coorBercrBypulHMt_i 6yxnauu coBpeMeHHoro areasrra; co,reraHHe (oy) flepeAaercn iax oyrr. byrea coxpaHeHa roJrbKo B cepeAnHe cironai 6yxal olr, n plaJluqatorcr. Crosa, HanHcaHHbre noa rrrrJlaMH, pacxpurrsr. Cna""116**

<u

ol,

qnQpbl 3aMeHeHu apa6cruuu.

ll


2. Croea <rpon Co.noruosa>, npeAuecrByloqHe nepeqHo KHHr, Koropble npnnncblBanHcb Co.nouoHy' no3BoJ'ltllor

He noBTopRTb Aaflee HMfl aBropa; TaK' B HaIUe BpeMfl He no' BTopfercfl B onHcaHHn Qarr,tu.nna aBTopa' ecJIH oHa ynoMq'

Hyra B 3auIaBHH yKa3arenfl -'

t.tJII'I

B

Ha3BaHH]l..

py6pnxu'

npr""AeM na'{Lno nepBoro cnucKa nropofi qactn

cJtoBbua oT

<<Boro-

CJIOBeC>.

5' Bropufi saxou' Cyt u,-PyQ. 8. I-laqscxsrn npbBbtn' 9' llapsc-r-un' rb.--ijjp**"".' i i'^ IIa'pic*o'"' l2'- I-lapairnnouena' l3' 14oe'

L

Poaucreo. hcxoa. Jleynrtlr' I{ncaa'

6. Hncyc.

i.

i+. iliuntnp".15. IIpuriva.16. 18.

Cr6opuHnx'

l7'

flecHn necHeu'

Esqpa...

Aanuufr cflucoK Bo MHoroM rloBTopfler Ha3BaHHr' npuBe<uapb-' AeHHble B nepBoft qacTn' TaK, n HeM ynoMl'tHalorcfl nepBoI'I qapcrn) B 3anHcaHHble (r. e. > Knrnn KHHrl.t cKbrf ' oAHaKO ecJlH qacrll noA Ha3BaHI'IeM <<,[lenunn qapbcKa>, qerblpe' yKa3aHbI qacrr.t renepb Hx 6Hao Ase, ro e nepnofr oJ Apyra qacru orAernlorcfl Apyr KHHI Ha3BaHHfl Bo nropofi r{acTH' He cJloBaMI,l <<Taqe>>, <<noToM xe> n T. n., KaK O nepaofi

u"6pu"" (xax aro AeJlaercfl s 6orutullHcree 6n6rl'rorpaSnqecKHX yKa3areJIeI'I B HaCTOflUIee nper"rn) ' - JIHUTI nepeA qHQpH noqeMy-To BToDbtM, Tperbl'lM H '{erBeprblM Ha3BaHI'tflMH u

HageaHI'le KHHrI{ <<l{aplcxan> noBTOpqercfl s cn"cxe-uerblpe pa3a. Taxnu o6paaou, 3Aecb He Hcnorb3yercfl npr{eM O6leAuseHufl KHHr C OAHHM 3arflaBHeM' BCTpe' qacrn uuloI.rr;la" e nepaofi qacrn. 3aro Aa'nee, no nropoft <Eorocnosbua or cJIoBec> Bcrpeqalorcq cJIoBa <ToroxAe> (ero xe) H <<raKolKAe> (raxoe xe),-sarueunnulu€ I'lMq aBropa H 3anJIaBI{e, HanpnMep: <. . .47' flaynoeo noc'bJlaHre' 48. x purvr. Ipnr'r"nnnarur] roroxAe -K KopHQaHeM lKopHHQfl' uaul. 49. roioxae noc'bJlaHHe. 50. ronoxAe x raJlaroM' Si. io.o*ae x eSecnorra. 52. roroxAe K coJlyHflHeu' 53' ro-

otcvtct"vtor.

rox.u.e raKoxAe: 54. roroxAe

x

Tnn,ro0ey' 55' roroxAe lo SHaqeHHIo c yno-

TaKolKAe. . .>. Cnoao <<TaKoxAe> cxoAHo

rpe6naeruuu ceroAHfl s o6.'beAI'lHeHHoM onHcaHHH o6o3HaqeHHeM <<TO )Ke>, a CJIOBO <TOrOxAe> - c o6o3HaqeHneM

HHorAa B coBpeMeHHblx KHHrax B noAcrpot{Hblx npHMeqaHHflX I{ cnHcKax nHTepaTypbl' floc.rle <boroc.rlosbua or cJIoBec> co3AaBaJII'tcb I'l Apyrue cnHcKH <<HcrNHHbtx> lt <JIoxHbIx> - {HHr .(6onrue Bcero Hx noflBl'tJlocb s Poccnn n XVI-XVII ne')' Taxne

<<dro

t2

xe>, BcrpeqatouuMcf


B qacrHocru, B cocraB Kopr'auux KHHr c6opHtrxoa, BKJIIoqaBIITHx ycraBbr H nocraHoBreHldq BceJIeHcKHx n MecrHbrx co6opoe H Apynne 3aKoHoAareJrbHbre Mare-

crrHcKH BxoAHJIH,

pHaJrbr, cnyxaulHe pyKoBoAcrBoM npH ynpaBneHHr.t uepKoBbto H B UepKOBHOM CyAe.

HHrepeceu nepeqeHb <JroxHbrx> KHHf B flonoAHHcxorra (XIV a.). 3Aecr Mbr BcrpeqaeM 3aqaroqHyro npnuevaunfi n.nn anuoraunfr. IIpHseAeM orpbrBoK Qopr'ry HoMoKaHoHe

H3 STOrO nepeVHR:5

Brnpool

BapQoaonreonu

x

Eoropoauuu JroxHafl

nHcaHHrr.

EgaHre,rue or BapHaau. EeaHrerue or <Douut. Eperuqn cnHcaJrH. BsaeHne flasra anoctora. exe enHcrorbro HMeHyrorb. flapaannoueua Hepeuenua o nJreHeHHH vro op.lla crarH s BasHJroH c rpaMororo x Hepeuen.

t' AaHHoM OrpbrBKe ponb npHMeqaHHH Hrparor cnoBa <IO}KHag nHCaHHfl>, <epeTLIUH CnHCaJII{>, <exe enHCTOJIbIO HMeHyroTb>, a cJIoBa <qTo opJla cJraJrH B BaBuroH c rpaMoToto K HepeMeH> qBrflrorcq KaK 6br aHuoraur{eft, B Koropofr pacKpbrBaeTcg coAep)KaHHe KHHTH. Cnucxn <HcrHHHbrx> n <JloxHbrx> KHHr 6u.nn noueuteHur r.r B raK Ha3brBaeMofi I(upu.nnonoft KHure, Koropas HeoAHoKparuo nepenficbrBaJracb, a s 1664 r. 6una BrrepBbre HaneqaraHa. B 1786 r. BbrutJto Bropoe ee H3AaHne (ero uHor4a Ha3btBaIoT <<pacKoJIbHl.tr{bHM>>, TaK KaK oHo noflb3oBaJIocb

oco6oft nolynrpHocrbro cpeAn pacKoJrbHnKon). B cnucKax, noMeuleHHbrx B Heft, nocJle 3arraBHfl KHHrn HepeAKo AaeTcs ee xapaKTepHcrHKa, HeqTo BpoAe aHHoTarIHH, HanpHMep; flyruux KHHra B neftxe ecrr nncaHo o crpeqex xo6n [no.nxoaaune, raaaHHe no npr.rMeraM H ncrpeuau] BcflKHf, eperrqecxnq, H o qacex go6putx l{ 3Jrbrx, exe ecrb 6orou orpeveHo, r.t o AHex JIyKaBblx, H qro B nepnufi aenb Jrynbl corBopeH 6ucrl AAau, To eperfiKfi Hartncarr. A ue o nepaufi aeHb corBopH 6or Aaar',ra. flosexe conH(e n nyHy H gsegAu He6ecHbln corBopn 60r B cpeAy, AAaua xe corBopH 6or s nRrox.

Kax guAHo y)Ke r{3 caMHX npHBeAeHHblx HaMH rrpr.rMepoB, cBeAeHHrr o nHTepaType, noMer{aBHJHecfl B CnHcKaX <<HCTHHHbrx>) H (<JroxHbrx> KHH[, He ffBJrrrJrHcb 6n6nuorpa$HqecKHMH OTIHCAHHSMH

5

B

NOAJIHHHOM CMbICJIC CJIOBA.

fl u n n n A. H. Aln

o6tRcHeHHfl

BCC XC HA 3THX

crarbn o noxHbrx xuurax. c.

26.

l3


cnHcKax HeIb3g He ocTaHoBHTbCfl, nOCKOnbKy 6e3 HHX HeBO3MOX(HO AaTb npeACTaBJIeHHe O TOM, KaK BbIHIflAeJII{ nepBble B Poccul,t yKa3areJlr.r KHLIr. HecMorps Ha npLrMI4rLrBHocrb cseAeHHfi o KHHrax B 3THx enncxax, yxe Ha caMoM paHHeM

srane pa3Burns 6u1nuorpaQtt s Poccnu cocraBLITeJIv

rutvl

nepenficr{HKH crlHcKoB <Ltcrt'tHHbtx> u <JIoxHbIx> KHnr o6uqgo He MexaHfiqecKr.I 3aLIMCTBOBaJIII 3TH CBeAeHnq APYr y Apyra' HO nblTaJil{cb KaK-TO nO-CBOeMy peuaTb Bonpocbl oTpaxeHHR B crrHcKe rofi unn nHoft xsurx B 3aBHcIlMocrH or ee xapaKTepa.

HHrepecHo

raKxe orMeruTb, qro yxe r

Apeauepyccrnfi nepnoA HaqaJIH nupa6aruearbcfl t'l ncfloJlb3oBarbcfl orAeJIbHbIe npneMbI, KoTopble notyqllnfi no3AHee IXHpOKOe npllMeHeHHe s 6n6rHol'paQtuecxofi npaxrHxe, HanpI'IMep npu cocraB-

JIeHHH cBoaHbtx MHororoMHblx usAaHNfi u o6leAnueHHblx onncaHnft, H Bo3HIIKJIH B 3aqaroqHoM BHAe np[MeqaHufl 'H AHHOTAUHll.

Onncu KHlrr MonacrbtpcKxx 6tr6lnorer

B Poccltr, KaK n B crpailax 3anaAsofi Enponu, B crapnHy cocraBJrtrJlticb onucn KHHn, HaxoAHBlIIltxcr s 6u6Jtnorexax orAeJrbHbrx uoHacrupefi. K coxaneHxIo, TaKHx onuceft, orHoctlqfixcr K nepHoAy Knencxoft Pycn, ne coxpaHHJlocb' xors oHr.r HecoMHeHHo cytuecrBoBanu yxe rorAa. Han6o.nee crapbre r{3 AolrreAuux Ao sac onnceft KHHr MoHacrblpcKax

6s6rnorer Aarupylorcs XV-XVI BB. floao6no onrcf,M' cocraBrfleMHM s 3ana4xofi Enpone, oHll xapaKTepn3yK,rcfl' KaK npaBr{no, xpafiHeft npI{MHruBHocrsp' 3ro cBfl3aHo c reM'

IITO ONfiCH HTPANN PONb HHBEHTAPHbIX CNHCKOB H KHITN B HHX

paccMaTpLrBaJII{Cb KaK qacTb MOHacTblpCKOro HMyuIecTBa' a coAepxanlle KHHr o6uqno He ItHTepecoBaJIo Hx cocraBHTe;refi. Bo MHorr{x cnyqanx cBeAeHHfl o KHHrax npI'IBoAHJII'rcb B OAHOM pflAy co cBeAeHHSMH O Apyrgx IIeHHblx npeLMerax.

Tar, s co-crasreHHofi oro;lo 1429 r. orucll .Ilyuxoro Kpacuocelrcxo-CnaccKoro MoHacrbtpfl SHaql'lrcfl: <. . . 4 HKoHbI KoBaHbrH, a 3 rxoHut 3 BeHbuH; 2 rpnneHuqe 3oJlorblx, a l0 ceoe6ossux: KDecr ygAsl'IsarHHfi c KaMeHbeM; EgaHrenle iao"u"o", Anocrol, norost{Ha flponora, Octlor.nacHuK Becb, VcraB, Knpn.n, Knrjra 3latoycr, Ilapeuu, MnHes' . .>>.6 6

fi l4

Axru, orHoctulnecf, K Hcropull ganaanoft Poccl'ltl, co6panuue Cn6., 1846, r' l, c' 47'

H3AaHHbte ApxeorpaSNuecKolo KoMnccuero.


3Aecr KHHrH (EnaHrerne, Anocrol H Ap.) y[oMHHanrcq

HAP'AY C HKOHAMI,I, ACHbTAMI,I, KPCCTOM. B saqa.ne 1494 r. npu cAaqe HMyuecrBa apxnMaHApr{roM -HocNQor,a, Cnyuxoro Tpoluxoro MoHacrbrpr no.nyune.nu caH enncKona Cuo.neHcxoro, 6ula cocraBJreHa olrucb, B Koropoft noc.ne ynoMr.tHaHr.rq pa3rHqHbrx npeAMeroB galtHcaHo:

<... a rHnn: IIpaeHJra BeJrHKHa, Vcran, Co6opHux nocrnulfi, Co6opHnx rogouufi, Co6opnux Xnrus cssiHx, 3uotoaa. florpe6xnxu ABa, C.rryxe6Hrrfi rpu, AopoQeft, eOieu, Huxog, Oeaop CryAur, Anorarunian, fpunopuir Cur,'aur', flca.nrupn B Aecrb, 9acoc.[ogeu), a AaJree flocJre AJrHHHoro nepeqHs Apyrnx npeAMeroB (<4 cxareprn BeJtHKHx, a flflras MaJIar...> n r. n.) cHoaa roBoprTcg o KHHrax: <A crapux peueft ueproBHbrx: Mnnefr ABaHaAqarb, Tpno4n Ase, EBaHreJIHfl ABa rerpbr, flpenorn ABa, EsaHrerne roJIKoBoe qerbe, KHHxKa Jlecreaqa, Ceunog HosHri boroc.nos, Anocro;r a onpaKoc, rpyrofi Vcras, Ilca;lrupa, flarepux T;.tp' . r rer{epcKHH._. .> (3aTeM cHOBa nepeqlcnqrorcs pa3Hbte npeAueru).7 flpneeAeuubre flpr.rMepbr noKa3HBanr, HacKonbKo cKyA_ Hrt- 6unn cBeAeHHff o KHHrax, noMeluaBrrJr.tecff B onficqx

XV s.: yKa3brBanncb roJtbKo 3arJraBHs HnH HMeHa aBropoB (nnurl B oAHoM cnyqae orMeqeH Qoprrlar); KHHrn, ,n,t'ero_

ulxe

o,u,HHaKoBHe 3ar.lraBHs,

HHKH ABa>,

n

r.

o6teAnus.nl.rcl (<florpe6<Clyxe6HuxN rpr{>, <MnHeft a"e"rauiru,

n.). nosAnee craJrn cocraBJrtrb orAenbHHe onact,t

oAHHx

.nHttlb KHr.rr. KonH,recrBo KHr{r, nepeqHcnseMbtx B onl{cgx, 6una;lo AoBoJrbHo BenHKo; Hanpuuep, onr{cb xHur Hoct69_ BoroxolaucKoro MoHacrHpq coAepxur oxo.ro ii50 ;;;;; (ara onucr 6u.na cocraBJreHa s fSZg f., a B nocneAyorrrxe roAbl I]pHnHcbrBaJrHcb KHHril; nocJleAHsfl npHnncxa ^HoBbre orHocurcrf(.1593 r.). Onl,tcaHnq xsnn 6o.ilee noApo6xu, veu

B onHcsx XV s.: noqrn BcerAa yKa3HBaerca eoprr,rar; caHr.rsx pyKonr{cHbrx KHrr B psAe cnyqaeB IIpHBOAHTCfl "'onn_ HMs

nepenficqnxa, a ecra KHr,rra tBJrgercfl neqaruofi, 9To orMeqa_ ercfl B o[[caHr.tH; qacro yfloMr{Haerc, aMR 6usr.[ero BJra_

Aenbrla KHHrH (xepreoaare.nn); uHor4a npuBoAqrcq 3arraBl.rfl orAeJrbHbrx npon3BeAeuNfi, noMeueHHbtx B KHure. HJrr{

yKa3brBaercq Ko.IIflqecrBo

rraB. B

xe

orAeJrbHbrx cJrvqaflx

7 Tar',r xe. c. 137.

l5


B npueo4nMbrx Aaree [puMepax MoxHo o6parHrs BHHMaHHe Ha yKa3aHHe, qro DH6nHq HaneqATAHA <B ABA CTOJINUA> H ABC TPHOAI,I H3AAHbI <KAXAA'I

yKa3brBaercA LtMs nucua. B AByX KHHTaX>.

llprnepu 13 onttcll xnur fiocrQo-Boaoxoaancxoro

noHacrupn.s

EnaHre,nse neqarHoe rerpo B aecru Hurnru <DyHnroea. Esagrerne B Aecrb roJrKoBoe fieqarHoe, Aaqa 6HsuJero rryMeHa

VoacaQa JlyxoeHnroacxoro, a rnaa 77.

EsaHrerHe neqarHoe Anparoc

B

Aecrb, AarHHe

PoAuona

.IIHcuoea.

6r.16lnn B Aecrb, neqarHar B aBa cronnqa, CnueoHa, en[cKona Kpyruqxoro. KHnra 6H6rnq cJroBer, g Hefi xe Bce xHHrH Berxoro H Hosoro saKoxa, nlrcbMo MoHacrbrpcKoro cnyrri Huxnrn <Deaopa JlanurrHa, B

AeCTb.

KHrra s

r{erBepTb,

neqarr JlHtoscrar, a s Hefi nca.rlru AasH-

roBbr, aa Egaure.nre rerp, Aa Anocro;r, aa Anoxalnncuc. .[,ae rpuo4n fleqarHbrx B Aecrb, Kaxrag B .qByx KHfirax.

Cpean noAo6Hbtx onnceft Han6onblxnir uurepec nPeA: craBJrfler onHcb KHHr Kr'rpu.n.no'beno3epcKoro MoHacrblps (xoneu XV n.). OnHct cocronr H3 AByx r{acrefi, HJIH pa3AeJIoB;

NOCJICAHHC JII4CTbI KAXAOfi qACTH YTPAqCHbI, TAK qTO HCJIb3fl BCeM ee o6leue. flepnoJryqHTb nOJIHOTO [peAcraBneHHfl

o

Bafl r{acrb coAepxHr o6ilrnfi repeqeHb KHI4r (212 uazua' HHft) H cocraBJreHa no rHny HHBeHrapHbIx onHceft, Bo BTopofi qacrn AaHa nocrarefiHan pocnilcb coAepxaHnn 24 c6opH14KOB.

nepaofi qacrtr onrcaHHq KHHr BKJIIoqalor 3arJIaBHe' Qopuar, a HepeAKo u yKa3aHI{e Marepl'Iara, Ha KoropoM KHHra HaIIncaHa firH HaneqaraHa: <Ha xapTHH> (nepraueHe)' <Ha 6yMa3e> (6yrrlare). HuorAa ynoMunaercq <<npo3BHrII.e>> KHHrH (no nMeHH 6blBlllero ee BJIaAeJIbI(3_): <Kllnra XpncroQopoBa>, <Co6opHttx OuroHnescxofi>, <HnxxQopoau KHI'IIH>>' hpn onucauun c6opullxoB, HJIH KoHBoJIloroB, o6olvHo npuBoAr.rrcf Ha3BaHHe nepBoro npoH3BeAeHHs: <ClepBa croBo JlapnoHoeo>>, <<B HaqaJIe cJIoBo Ha braroBelqegue>>. HsorAa

B

oTMeqaeTcfl cocrogHue, B KaKOM HaXOAHTCfl KHHra: <<BeTXa>' <<cTapa>>.

8 Onucu xnnn l4ocn6o-Bo;toxo,qaltcxoro MoHacrblps 1573 roaa' grenuR n O-ae ncropnn u.{peeuocrefi poccnficxnx, 1847, xH.7' Orl" -4' Crr,recu,

l6

c. l.


llprrepu rs neprof, {acr[

onrrclr xxnr Ktpxaro-Ee,norepcxoro iloHacTHpt

Asa ycraBa. E4uu B Aecrb. A apyrH B

qerBeprb.

.II,sa anocroJa onpaKocbr B aecrb. Eanu ua 6yuaae, a apyroe Ha xapruH.

Co6opnnx, C,toso s HaqaJIe Ko orqaqBueMycfl. Co6opnnr OHroHuencxofi. B gaqa.ne cJIoBo Ha B.naroseuteHHe. Ilcarrupn HaJrorrHaf, co 3.[aroM Ha xaprnH.

Cggrqu KupHnoBbcKlre B ocMr.IHy Ha xapr[H.

.[a rnura Xpucro$opora

B qerBeprb. C.roea cnepna

or Hnxosa

IItlcaHbt.

3epua.no lra xaprult, crapoe.

Ecnu nepeas qacrb no xapaxrepy onncaHurr He

BbtAeJlff-

eTcg cpeAH npotrHx onHcefi, To BTopaq 3aHHMaeT oco6oe MecTo B LtCTOpHH OTeqeCTBeHHOTO KHHTOOnHCaHUfl. HruesHO 3Ta

qacrb

no3BoJIHJIa H. K. Hnxo.ttscxouy, ony6rHKoBaBueMy oflr.rcb, xapaKTepH3oBaTb ee KaK <<3aMeqaTeJrbHbrfi 6H6nHorpaQHqecKHfi rpyA>, Koropbrfi <<HMeeT nepeA MHoTHMH H3 oAHopoAHbIx pa6or npeHMyulecrBa c roqKH 3peHHrr 6u6nuo-

rpaoHqecKofi rexsuxl.r

Kax

>>.e

npanHJro, npH onncaHuu c6opHHKoB yKa3brBarorcfl

3ANJIABI,I'I BCCX CTATCft U TJIAB, A TAKXC HX HAqAJIbHb,IC CJIOBA, orMeqaeTcfl KoJIHqecTBo JIHcToB, 3aHqrbtx cTaTbeti HJIH rnaBofi,

H HX HyMepaur4fl. 3arraBvfl LI HaqaJrbHbre cJroBa cTarefi H rJraB npHBoAqTcfl c HoBoft cTpoKr.r. 3arJIasHs crareri HanHcaHbr KI,IHOBAPbIO, qTO BbIAEJ'IflET HX H3 OCHOBHOTO TCKCTA. KUHOBapbn )Ke nHrxyTcfl Ha norltx cTpaHHII HoMepa fJIaB, TaM )Ke

(uo ue KnHoBapbro, a npocrbrMu uepuu,nalru) flpocraB"rrflercfl KOTHI]ECTBO JIIlCTOB. 3AHqTbIX CTATbEfi HJIH TJIABOft.

H3yqHB rexHHKy orrucaHnr no aropofi qacrtr HnxoJrbcKHfi cAeraJr BbrBoA: <<Vnorpe6neHHnre 3AeCb npHeMbr B cBoefi coBoKynHocTH npHMeHsJrHcb o6pa3UoBbrMLr 6u6.nuorpaQaMr{, Hanp. JIau6euueu, MoHSoxoHorrl,

Turarenluo

onucu,

H. K.

fapArou, EauAasn, Marreu u .u.pyrHMH, AoceJre yAepxaBanTcs npH HayqHoM orrHcaHnr{ cTapr.rHHbrx pyxonuceft u noKa-

3btBatoT, qTo Mbt HMeeM Aer'to He c o6btqHbrM KaTaJlort43aTopoM MOHaCTbtpCKUX 6n6nUOreK, a C Bbt nodl H HTeJIeM BbrAarouef OCq AJrfl cBoero BpeMeHH 6u6;ruorpa$xqecKoro rpyAa)>.10

e

Hr-rxoarcxHftH.

K. Onacanne pyxonucefi I(r.rpH,uro-be;ro3epcKolo

MOHaCTblpq, cocTaBJIeHHOe B xoHqe XV sexa. Cn6., 1897, c. KHHII{ HAMH 3AUMCTBOBAHbI npHBoaHMbre 3aecb npHMepbr.

XII.

-

Hs eroi

ro Talr xe, c. XX.

2 H. A. Hlxrrfopoocxaa

ta


H. K. Hsrolscxnfi

conocraBnJr coAepxaHHe

n

oco6eu-

uocru oQopMJreHHfl 14 c6opnnxoe (rs rex, Koropbre 6unu pacrrHcaHbr no nropoft uacrr.r) c nx onucaHnsMn H 3aKnroqur: <ApenHr.rft 6n6.rrnonpa$ AoBoJrbHo

roqHo

BocnpoH3BoAHn

HaqarbHbre cJtoBa xaxAoft nJraBbI, co6.nroAas HepeAKo Aaxe opQorpaQnro HX, Bepno noAcqnTbrBafl KoJrr{r{ecrBo JtHcroB, 3aHrrbrx KaxAoro rJtaBoro, vt, coo6pasuo c HyMepauuen B pyKonr.rcqx, o6o3uauaJr nopgAoK Hx r.rraB. HHorAa npr.t 3ToM

oH BeJI AsofiHofi cqer: noA Ne or.u,erlnofi r.[asH oH BHoCHJI qenyo rpynny cJloB tr noyueuuft Ha H3BecrHbrft Aest roAa>.ll

H. K. Hnxo.nlcxnfi orMerHJt raKxe, qro 3arJraBr,tfl, Aaxe

AJrHHHbre, HepeAKo Bocnpor.t3BoAHJracb <so Bceft [oJIHore>, Ho o6uqso oHH Bce xe coKpaqaJlncb, B HHx onycKaJtocb Bce

HecyxlecrBeHHoe.

B To xe

BpeMs, coKpaulaq 3arraBr.tg,

cocraBHTeJrb onHcH <cpaBHHTenbHo peAKo gcHocrl.t>,l2

norpeuan

npoTHB

flpmrepn re eropof, qacrr onilctt xutr l(lpnaao-Eoroaepcxoro iloHacTbrpt

B HeAeap Mrconycruyro. Hnno.nura H MyqeHHKa nanbr pnMbcKoto. O cxonuante uupa flonexe y6o 6.naxenur npopour.t orqn

Oxra6pr 24. My.lexue ApeQu 1a Hxe c HHM. B .nero qecapr Hycrnaua Xpucrban6troro

Mar 12. flosecru HoauHa flpeaaurepa KocrqHrtlHa rpaAa o xnrnn'npeno4o6Horo EnrQanxs apxuenHcKona Knnpucxoro Jlro6ruuul.r qrt y6o EnnQanuu Mapra 17. Xarae qerogexa 6oxr.rs Alexceua Ee qerosex 6.raroaepeH B pHMcreM B npunepax He aocnpousaodnrca 4uQpw, o6oanauatouque floilep araau u KoJtuqecTSo SaEuilaeildx e,o .ltucTog,

Hecuorpa Ha ro, qro 14 B XVII B. cBeAeHHr o KHHrax, B onHcrx MoHacTbrpcKl.rx 6u6lnoreK, flpoAon-

npHBoALtMbre

xaJlr.r ocTaBaTbcfl AoBonbHo cKyAHbrMH, Bce xe Ha npaKTHKe nocTeneHHo ycTaHoBHncq 6onee HJtr.r MeHee onpeAeneHHHfi o6'beM gTr{x cBeAeHr.tfi: OopMar, 3ailraBt,te (s corpaqenHou Br.rAe), uMfl aBTopa, MaTepHaJr, Ha KoTopoM KHHra Ha[HcaHa nJrH HaneqaTaHa. IdHorAa oTMeqalocb cocTosHHe KHHru, ee

rr Tau xe, c. XXV. 12 Tau xe. c. XXV-XXVI. l8


AeSeKTHocrb (<<eetxa>>, <<JrHcrbt noBHApaHH> n HOCTT.I

r. n.L

oco6eH-

nHCbMa (<<CXOpOnUCHafl>, <<nilcbMo ne.nuxo>>). B orAenr-

Hbtx cJtyrlaflx orMeqaJlocb I{l.lcJlo rJIaB, KOJIHTIeCTBO CTpOK Ha IlMn nepenncqlrKa Hilvt 6srsuJero BJIaAeJIbua KHHrI{ ()KeprBoBa-

crpaHnue (us ABaAuarb crpox>), yKa3btBaJlocb

rera). flpu

onHcaHHH c6opHnxoe HHorAa npHBoAHJIHcb garJraBLrfl orAeJrbHbrx npor{geeAeHHfi (o6uuuo nepBoro il

n c6opHvtr, ulrrl xe Ha3btBaJIHcb Bce aru cBeAeHHfl cnoco6crgosafltl nAeurnSuxaur.ru KHnr. OAgaxo Bce eure BcrpeqaJlucb H raKne KparKne onncaHns, Ha ocHoBaHHI.t Koropbrx rpyAuo 6uno noHgTb, KaKafl HMeHHO KHHIa HMe.[aCb B BHAy. Hs onuceft KHrlr MoHacrbrpcKux 6n6;tnorex 3acnyx(IlBaer oco6ono ynoMr,rHaH.Hq <Onncr KHHraM, B creleHHbtx MoHacrbrpflx HaxoAHBruHMcfl>, cocraBreHHaq no yKa3y IIarpHapxa Hnxoua e 1653 r. c ueJlbto o6lerqurt AyxoBHbtM BracrqM sarpe6oaaHue H3 MoHacrupeft neo6xoAl-ttvtltx Arq HcnpaBreHtlfl, e Mocrse 6oroc.nyxe6Hutx KHHr. OHa BKJIIoqaJIa nocJreAnero), nxo4nnurnx ToJrbKo HMeHa aBTopoB.

2672 pyccxue KHHrH Ns 39 cteneHHbtx MoHacrupefi I't sBHJIacb no cyurecrBy nepBbrM cBoAHbIM KaraJlot'oM 6a6nnoter, cocraBJreHHbrM n Poccr.rr.r. Mgorue onucaHHfl s Heft AoBoJIbHo noApo6Hu. B t{acrHocrn, nopax(aer rlqareJlbHocrb xapaKTepxcrHKH 6onaro oQopuleuubtx KHHr, no3BoJIHlotu,aq cyALITb o Hx qeHHocrH H orJrlrqHTb Hx or ApyrHx c reM xe 3arJIaBHeM (uanpuruep, <EaaHre.nue>). OAHaxo pflA onHcaHufi upeeMepno KparoK, coAepxnr oAHo 3arflanue. Bcrpeuaercfl Aax(e

3alrHcb: <<TpnArrarb rpr,t co6opHlrxa> (xaxne

HMeHHo

<co6opHllxa>, Her{gBecrno). Oruacrr.r raKoe pa3Jlr.rqne B onHcaHnsx o6tgcHqrocb r.rHAr.rBr.r,u,yaJrbHbrM [oAxoAoM cocraBnreleft r xapaKrepncruKe orAeJrbHbrx KHr.rf (Han6o.nee rleHHHe

KHHn{ ottr.rcbrBarr,rcu noapo6Hee). B gHaqnte.nuuofi Mepe orcyrcrBne noJrHoro eAHHcrBa n or6ope caeAeHufi, npHBoAHMbIx B onucaHl,ru, 6nr.no pesyrbraroM Toro, qro KHHTLI flocrynaflH Lr3 pa3Hbrx rrrOHaCrUpefi (u n onucn KHHrH pacnoJloxeHbl

no MoHacrbrpnu), onucaHHs cocraBJrflJlHcb pagHbrMH JIIoAbMn, ue 6uln corJlacoBaHbr Me)KAy co6ofi. <<Onucr KHI,IraM, B creneHHbtx MoHacrbtpflx HaxoAI.{BrrruMcs>> 6u.na ony6.nuKoBaHa B. M. Vnaorlcxntut.13 flo arofi

ny6.nnxauun

I,r

Aatorcr

npHBoAHMbte HHx(e npuMepbl.

crerleHnblx MoHacrblpsx " Vnao.rrbcKrfi B. M. Onucl xnnrau, B9reHfiq s O'ne HcropnE s XVII BeKe. n 4penHocrefi poccttficxttx, 1848, xs.6, ota.4. Cuecn, c. I-lV, l-44. HaxoaHB[rHMcq, cocraBJreHHas 2r

19


flprnepu rg <Onncu KHrtraM, B crenennHx riloHacrHptx Haxo[||B[tfittcgD

fpueopun Eoeocaoaa nHcMeHafl ua Aaexcax4psficxoft 6olnuofi 6yMare, 3acraBKH t,| npoIIHcHHe cr'toBa flHcafibr 3oJroroM, 3acTaBKH y cJroB TaQTa qepBqarafi, oKono KaMKH nHcaHo 3onoroM It KpacKaMH, c HaqaJra y KHrlfu o6pas xHeouaqaJrHbre Tponr{br, 4a o6paa fpmopnn Dorocrona, B Jnruax, no o6pesy 3oJroqeHo, cepe4Heft nJraulb fi HaytonHHKH lr 3acrexx[ cepe6pnuue pe3HHe, a ua Hcnoasefi qxe HayronbHHKH u nocepeab nnail{a MeAHbre, o6oroqeHbr 6apxarou qEDBqATbIM.

'

KHnra Hurconcxoe npasur,o, B Aecrb, Ha 6yuare, ga,rn I{apa Be.ruxoro KHqgs HsaHa BacurtesHqa Bceg PycHH, Bo BJlaranHulx AepeBflHHOM, 3a 3aMKOM. l\uura l(opnuer, B aecrb, Ha 6yr"rare A.rercaH1plrficxofr, a g uaqane npaBln n noc,rasefi I I I raas, 3asraBuua nncaHa KpacKaMu, or 3aAHHe Acklt nncaHo c,roBo o epernqex, Aaqtr crapqa HoacaQa

r

I(uponxoaa.

l(nnra gcrae, B Aecrb, Ha 6yMare, a B HeM 70 r,nas, Aa B HeM xe r.naou Mapxa epoMoHaxa, rJras 83, or 3aaHue rrKlr Ha nocJreAueM nncry

crnx: pa1ocru npunrerruule. D,a\u Kenapfl crapqa Anpaunr

fla.nuqusa. Ksura JI ecrou4a, B nonAecrb, Ha 6y*rare, a v nelt IIerp!,ailacKuH, Aa Cuileot uoeotti Eoeocloa, 3acraBnqa nucaua 3onoroM, flporuB 3acTaBHqH JIeCTBHqa nHCaHa. KHHra s aecrb, Ha 6yuare, Mapeapur, a B HeM 3acraBr{ua flrcaHa 3oJroroM, B HaqaJre nrcara 6eceda o Henocruscur4or't.

KHura s Aecrb, Ha 6yuare, 6eceda Haana Eozocaoaa, cr<oponlrcHar, noBoJroqeHa B 3arbrJroK. Mnrponoaura lloacaSa. KHura s nonaecrb, Co6opnurc, B Heft l9 rJraB, BgaqaJre: ttcurue cBflrbrx Munodopot u Murpodopat u HunQodopw.

Kgrra s 6o.nuryn lecrb, Koarra llndunontoa, B

JIHI{ax, Aat

pqry roproBblfi qeJosex @or{a. lUecrr xnur Muaei ueceqrllx qerbux, Bo Becb roA, B Aecrb,

BKnaay H3 oBoxrHoro

B Koxax qepHbrx cstosyr Xa6apoacKue. Ilarepu If ca.n.nat naaudoaw, oAHH Ha xaparbe. TpH4qaru rpn KHfiru Co6opnurcoe.

Tpn rHurn lloaca$a Qapeauua.

B 1675 f. ro yKa3y narpnapxa hoarnua 6u.na cocraBJleHa <<Onncu I'pevecxnu, lpexo-JlaruHcKHM, flo;ttcxllltt u CnoBeH' cKHM neqarHbrM H rrHcbMeHHblM KHHraM, B3flTblM H3 I4BepCKOI'O

noABopbf H H3 BocKpeceHcKoro MoHacrblpfl a flarpnapuryn pH3Hylo Ka3Hy>. 3ra onHcb raKxe 6u.ita ony6nHKoBaHa

B. M.

VsAo.nrcxHt',t.la

Osa BKJtroqara 551 xHnry. OcHosHas

l{ Onncu KHHfaM, nocrynuB[IHM n flarpnapuryn pfi3Hyto Ka3Hy, cocraB,'reHHar cnpaBurHKoM MoHaxoM EoQnr'rueru/ I4,ga.B. Ysao'nscxnft. M., 1847. flpnno4uuue HaMn npnMepu onncasufi 3aHMcrBoBaHbI B. M. VHao.nucxoro. 20

re

ny6anxaqlu


qacrb 6brfla noAroroBJleHa cnpaBUIHKOM fleqarHoro

ABOpa

B MocKBe MoHaxoM EaQuunerra, nocneAoBare.neu EnuSaHnn C.nasfiHeuxoro, a ue6o.nlurofi no o6leuy nepeqeHb KHHr

pr

He B ocxpeceHcKono MoH acrbl

cocraBJIeH pnsHnu

n nn.

Ho.aKH

H

-

q3[,lxe. flo Qoptrle $orra. OnucaHHfl cocraBJleHbl Ha pyccKoM s <Onuclt KHHraM, noMeureHHblMu oHH cxo,u,Hbt c oIIHcaHHtlMH,

B CTeneHHblx MoHacrblpflx HaxoAI4BlllHMCfl)>' HO, KaK npaBHJlo' MeHee AeraJIbHbr. OAHornngue KHHrH o6leAnHsancb, o BTopoH

KHHre AeJ'laJIacb 3arlHcb <Apyraf raKoBa xe>. B nepeqHe KHHI, B3srbtx ne BocxpeceHcKoro MoHacrbtpfl, B onHcaHHH HepeAKo orMeqarcq cnoco6 nl4cbMa (<c.xoponucHag>, <<ycraeoiur>). Ec.nn KHHra ttBrfld'lacb rleqarHofi, ero TaK>xe yKa3HBAJIOCb B ONHCAHHH. Ilpnuepu

rs

(Ortnctr fpetecxnx, fpero-JlarnHcxlm, IloJtlcxxu ll ttllcbileHnblm KHHtail. ' '>

u

Caoneucxnm neqaruHi{

a)

ug ocHosHoft qacru

ApucroQan, fpeuecrufi, neqatHofi, B Aecrb' rpl-l KHHTH. Apucroreaeew aBe KHI{rll, fpeuecrue, neqarHble' B noJlAecrb' B Koxe, 6eg aocox, Apucroreteaot xe qerHpe xHIlru, fpero'Jlatnncxne' neqarHble' B aecrb, s 6eJoft xoxe. Etppena Cupuna KHnra, xaparefiuan, fpevecKatl' B Aecrb,

6eg Haqara n 6es aocor. Hoaxnurca HepoMouaxa Kaprana, KHHra neqarHar, fpeuecxar, B qeTBepTb, flepeAHfis aocKH noJIOBI'lHb'l Her.

JIekcurcon' lpero-JlarnHcxnfi,

B Aecrb' neuarHuft,

Apyfas

TaKOBa Xe.

6) us Ksura Anruaxa, nrcara

Kuura

usr,oilceHue

nropoft ,racrn noJlyycraBoM' B aecrb,

oTqeril aa JInroput,

cKOpOnHCMeHHas,

B non.[ecrb.

Kuura Hoauua 3narogcroeo,6eceau, ttncMo crapuHgoe,

B Aecrb'

ts cyuleKpoue onncefi KHHr MoHacrblpcKux 6n6.nnorex B TIpHXOACKHX KHI4r, HaXOAHBtUHXCtI CTBOBaJTH H OnHCH l5 Heaocratox Mecra He Aar't Bo3MoxHocrn ocraHoBnTbct Ha onHcaHHtx, npoBoauMblx s ony6.nuxonaHHblx B uaruefi neqaru MarepnaJlax H nocBqurenubtx onHcqM KHHr MoHacrblpcxux 6u6'nnorex. Tarue MarePI{aJIbI no MoHacrbrpcKHM 6tt6.rnorexaN pyccKoro Cenepa uoxuo naiirn' B qacrHocrH' rDvnax M. B. KyxyruxltHoft, sHueauHx H3 neqarll cpaBHHTeJlbHo HeaaBHo 1cil.i KyKytuxnHa M. B. l) Onncn xnxr-XVI-XVII ss.6H6ruoreru

B

AHroHHe'eo-Cnftcxoro uouacrblpt.

-

B xH.: Marepnarbr H coo6uleHuq

no

2l


uepKBax (onu ncrpeqan?cq B TaK Ha3brBaeMbrx nucuoBbrx KHHrax H B cAaroqublx 3anr{cKax qepKoBHbrx crapocr). flo xaparrepy orrucaHnft oHN B pflAe c.dyvaen He ycrynaJrr.r oflllcflM MouacrbrpcKux 6u6nworex. Ha 3TLlx onncaHHrrx Mbt

He ocTaHaBJruBaeMcg, nocKoJlbKy H3yqeHHe apxHBHbIx MaTepHanoB He BxoAr.rJro B Harxy 3aAaqy. HeAocrarox Mecra He no3BoJrHJr HaM paccMorperb onucr.r KHHr, nocryrrHBrur.rx s Iloconrcxnft npuxas,l0 onucu uapcKnx -Moxxo 6n6.nuorex 17 u Hexoropbre Apyrne. orMernTb, qro onHcaHHs B Hr.tx qBJIflJIHCb elqe MeHee coBeprxeHHbrMH, qeM

B onHcsx MoHacrbrpcKl.rx 6n6lnorex.

cVxaeeq) Apcenrn Bucororo

Or rosua XVI s. Ao Hac AorrreJr gHAaroutnfic s 6u6nuorpaQavecxut_r.pya <Vxasequ (r. e. yxaaarelt), cocraBresHuft s 1584 r. -KHr.tfoxpaHrreJreM Bbnoro4cxoio Cnacoflpn.nyuxoro MoHacrbrps MoHaxoM ApceHnerrr Bucoxnu.

9ror rpya

npeAcraBnfler oco6uft uHrbpec

B

orHorueHun

npuMeHeHHoft__s Hen MeToAHKH 6a6.nxorpae[qecKoro orrHcauxs. Tercr <Vxasua> 6url ony6;rnxoBaH H. A. LlI.nsnKHHbtM, rrpeAnocnaBuHM H3AaHHTO npeAficnoBHe, B KoTOpOM paCcMaT-

pHBarorcfl oco6eHsocrr{ rpyAa ApceHna Bucoxono, B qacrHocTLl, xapaKTepH3yIoTcs npHBeAeHHbte B HeM onucaHns.ls CosAaeas <Vxa3eq>, ApceHnfi Bucornft nocraBnJr nepeA co6oft 3a,qaqy Aarb cBoA crareft, rJraB t,t orpbrBKoB, oro6pauHbrx AJIn ycraBubrx qrennft B MoHacrbrpe B TeqeHHe Bcero roAa {no cJroBaM caMoro cocraBnTeJrs: <<rtro Ha xoropuft AeHu qrercq Bo Becb roA>). C erofi ueJrbro nu 6u.no pacnucaHo oKoJto

40 <qertuxu (r. e.

[peAua3HaqeHHbrx

A.llf

qreHufl,

EqHAlM- grAgrra .pyronncHor? n pe4xoft xsnru 6u6.lnorerr Axa4eunr{ HayK CCCP. M.; JI., 1966, c. 122-142;2) MoHacrupcrae 6u6ruorexn pyccxoio Ceaepa. n., rc77\. 16 Onrct KHilf, nocrynHBruux n llocolrcrnfi nptxaa, a raKxe pfla apyrr.rx onncefi ony6.nnKoBaHbr xu.: EenoKypoB A. O 6u6nnoiixax

n

C.

Mocroscxux rocyaapefi n XVI cro.lernt. M., 1898. " Onucu KHUI uapcKnx 6u6luorer XVII s. ony6nnxoeauu n xH.: 3 a 6 e.l n H H. E. ,Il,orrrauruufi 6ur pyccrux qapefi e XVi u XVII cr. 4-e ngA. c aon. M., 1918. tt Lllrcnxtrn H. A. Vxaseq KHunoxpaHHreJrx Cnaco-llpnJryqKoro Monacrbrpq Apcenux Bucoxoro 1584 roaa. [Cn6.], l9la.

22


B

orJtflqle or 6orocnyxe6Hux) c6opHuxoe, a Becb Marepuan

pacnonarancfl no MecflqaM H qI{CJIaM, B KOTOpble CJIeAoBaro quTarb ror uJlH aHoft rexcr. 3saqesxe rpyAa ApceHua Bucoxoro AJIfl HcropHH oreqe-

pe3Bbtqa ft no Be.IIHKo. <Apceunti,BnepBbte cpeAu pyccxnx 6n6nnonpaQoa npHMeHHJI TaK Ha3btBaeMbtfi ,,aHarnruqecxuft" MeroA

crBeHHono KHHnoorlHcaHHfl

q

rrucar H. B. 3Ao6nog,

onxcaHHfl KHur>.19 OcHoaHHe npr.ruqnndr o[l{caHHR s <yKa3ue> TularenbHo npoAyMaHH H nOCJIeAOBaTeJIbHO npoBeAeHbl .cocraBHTeJIeM. flocne Hrpalouero po.nl py6pnKH yKa3aHHq Mecsua t,t qHcJIa (H,'ur uepxonHoro HaHMeHoBaHHr HeAeJIH, HalrpuMep: <B noueAeJTbHHK cBerJlbrq HeAe.ns>) npHBoAHTcfl Ha3BaHfle rJIaBbl,

craTblt

HJlr.r

oTpbrBKa, HepeAKo yKa3HBaeTCq LI HOMep rJIaBbl,

xoropsrft nHuerce KHHoBapbto. !,a.nee Aatorcq cBeAeHHfl o c6opulrxe, B KoropoM noMeureHa crarbr HJIH rJIaBa, npn grol{ o6uqHo orMeqaercfl ero Qopuar: <<B Aecrb>, <B ttoJlaecrb>, <B JtHcr>; B pflAe cnyqaeB ynoMHHaercs xapaKTep c6opHnra: <B flarepnu€), (B rpeQoloe>; HHorAa c6opxltx Ha3brBaeTcs no HMeHH JII{ua, KoropoMy npI.lnHcblBaeTcq aBTopcrBo HJtr.t nocBrrrleu c6opullx: <B KHHre fpnropnn 6ece' AoBHHKa>, <B KHHre Bacsnus Be.nnxoro>, <B KHHre fplropua Eorocnoaa>, IIJIH xe <npo3BHure> c6opHura, HanpllMep: <B co6opunxe KHqxe,[,nunrpnencKoM> (<npoanuqe> c6opHnra: <<KHsxe,[,uttrnrpuercxnfi >) ; HepeAKo orMeqaercfl MarepHaJI' Ha KoropoM HanHcaH c6opHl'tx: <co6opnHx xaparefinufi>;

xapaKrepr.I3yercfl sHeuHHft BHA c6opHnxa: <nepennereH B 3arburoK> (<sarunox> - KopeuoK), <<o6o.noueH Hpxolo> (<npxa> ilnH <HpreHb>,-MarepHaJI HanoAo6ue 3altrun),

<o6oloqeu rpacHofi xoxeft c xyKH> (<xyxtt> - BHnyKJIble HoMepa yKpaueHfir Ha [epenrere) u r. n. Buecro yKa3aHI4r

rJraBbr B pflAe cnyqaeB oTMeqaeTcfl MecToHaxoxAeHHe rJIaBbl

(u.nn

craru) n c6opnnKe: <<or 3aAHHq AbUKH> (<or saAuefr r. e. or gaAHefi KpbrIxKH nepenJlera; <AbuKa>), HJIH

AocKH>,

<<AocKa>,- nepen.ner), <To eMy H HaqaJIo>), <<g oAHoft rrase crosr> r4 T. n. Hacro B KoHIle olrficaHnfl npHBoAHTcff 3arJIaBHe nepBoro npoH3BeAeHHq, BKJIIoqeHHoro n c6opttt'tx: <B Har{are Xurne l4oaHsa 3.naroycroro), (B HaqaJIe Ha norpe6euue

locnoAHerr,

<<B

HaqaJIe

roe

KHHrH

fpnropnft Cnnanr

cronT>>

u r. n. Bcrpeuaercfl Aaxe raKoe yKa3aHHe: <Ta ncaJlTblpb re

3ao6Hoe H. B.

Hcropua pyccxoi 6n6atonpaQua ao Haqara

XX s. 3-e uga. M., 1955, c. 31.

23


xnBer (r. e. Haxo4nrcn) n Kerbe y [rryMeHa Ceprun>. Bo usorux cryqasx ynoMnHaercr: <<B co6opullxe ABoeKpaHHHoM>. Croso <ABoeKpanHsufi> H. A. IIInnninH o6tqcHqer: <B AByx qacTqx>>.

flpuao4urraue B onHcaHHH cBeAeHHff AaBailu Bo3Mo)KHocrb

nafiru HyxHurfi c6opnnx cpeAa flpoqHX KHHI H orbrcKarb B HeM TeKcr, npeAHa3Haqesuufi Arfl qreHr.rn B onpeAeJresHufi Aeuu HeAe,'r H. llp a saa, coBpeM eH HoM y qurareJlo rrJtt 6u6.n uorp aQy onHcaHHfl g <Vrague>> Moryr noKa3arbcf AoBoJrbHo npHMHTHBHbrMH, Ho, KaK orMeqaer H. B. 3ao6HoB, <<npHMHrHBHocrb (c coeper'reHHofi roqxH epenHn) raKnx 6n6,rnorpa$Hr{ecKHx yxasaHaft onpeAeJrrJracb JrnTeparypHbrM crHJreM Toro BpeMeHH, a raK)Ke n oco6eHuocrflMH pyKorrHcHbrx pyccxHX

KHHr>.2o Kport,te roro, KaK Mbr ynoMHHaJrH, nepeA cocraBnTeJleM CTOgJIa BnOJIHe KOHKpeTHag 3aAar{a cBoero - co3AaTb pona Kpyr qreHHs Ha MarepHaJre QoHAon uoHacrupcxofi 6n6lsorexz, H 3Ty 3aAar{y oH BbrnoJrHHJr AocraroqHo rula-

n xna.nnQuqHpoBaHHo. MoxHo yrroMflHyrb o roM, .rro ecru pqAoM s <yKa3ue> noMeulaJlHcb crarbH H3 oAHoro H Toro xe c6opHHxa, To coTeJIbHo

cTaBHTeJrb B nepBoM onHcaHHH npHBOAHJt KaKHe-TO CBeAeHHfl o AaHHoM c6opHHxe, a B nocJleAynutnx onncaHHtrx 3anHcbtBaJI: <B ToM xe co6oprulKe>>, <<n co6opHHKe B ToM )Ke>>, <<n co6opHuxe B ToM )Ke AecroBoM>> (r. e. e Aecrl), <<n rofi xe KHHre>, <B ToM xe rpeQo.noe>>. 3Aecl HcnoJrb3oBaH npHeM,

xoropsrfi unpoKo npnMeHflercfl B Harue BpeMfl, a HMeHHo 3AMCHA B AHAJIHTHqCCKOM ONHCAHI,IH HAHMEHOBAHHfl HCTOquuxa (npr noBTopHoM ero ynoMHHaHnn) cronaMr, <<raM )Ke>. Ilpxnepn xe (yt(a3qa, Apceuxn Bucoxoro Mecqqa

anpLtJtr.ts

nI

AeHu.

Xurue cssrux u

npeno4o6uun

Marepu nanrea Mapun Erunercrofi. B xnure n cxurcrofi nareparle, B AeCTb, OT 3aAHHf, AbqKH. Mecqqa uafis n 2 Aeua.

06 y6ueulru cloao Eopucy u f;re6y. B co6opuuxe B rroJrAecrb, B HaqaJ're orono feoprur Crpacrorepnqa, 6 ;rncr.

Mafiq e 3 ,u.ens. Xurue npenogo6noro orqa Haurero @eoaocllR Ilevepcxoro. B narepxqe nevepcxofi, B noJrAecrb, ro eMy u HaqaJlo. Mafiq Mecqua s 28 AeHs. Xart.le csqrua u npeno4o6sr,ra OraoQefi. B co6opuuxe, B noJrAecrb, B Koxrl Crpacrorepnqa f eoprua.

B qepHon, B

Haqare Myueune

Maftq s 30 aeuu. Xnrue Hcaaxnq Aalrtrarcroro. B co6oDuuxe

B ABOeKpaHHOM. 20 24

Tau xe, c.

32.


B

lTlr,as n 8 AeHr. Myuerue cBsroro BennxoMyrrenfira flpoxonnn. co6opuure, B r,ecrb, B HatraJre Xrrtre HoaHua 3aaroycroro. Hlors s l0 aeHr. Myvenue cBsrux 45 rrryuennxon. B co6opnnxe

B TOM XE.

Cenrr6pn a 27 1esr. KasoHu H xnrne npeno.qo6Roro Casarlrq, coJtoBer{Koro qntrorBopqa. B co6opaaxe, B flonaecrb, rrepenneren B 3arbr.noK, Xurug coJloBeqKnx qpAorBopqeB, B noHeAerbHHK cBerJlbtr HeAeJln. r{reune s EaaHrerfiH ToJtKoBoM, rJraBa 31. Aa sa cBerJroe BocKpeceHne Xpucroeo c.rros 41. B co6opHuxe nocrHoM, rrasa 24. Aa EsaHrenue Haqrerqa qecrn ronxogoe l,loauHa borocaosa. !,a na nacxe Bacuaua Belaxoro ABa cJoBa. B xHure fpnropHfi 6ece4onnuxa, B lonaecrb, tnasa

7..,

(OrnaBreuHe KHlrr, Kro lrx cJroxnJr) Cnarnecrpa Me4ne4eaa

B

ncropnr.r Hauefi oreqecrBeHHoft 6N6.nuorpaQnfi coBep-

rxeHHo oco6oe MecTo rrpHHaAJre)KHT TpyAy <<OrJraBJreHHe KHHr,

Kro Hx cJroxHJr> (1665). Sror rpyA npHnficbrBaJrcfl

pa3HbrM

JIHUaM, HO B HaCTOgUIee BpeMfl TOCnOACTByeT TOrrKa 3peHHf, corJracHo Koropofi aBTopoM <ornasreHHfl> 6Hfl BbrAarorqHficfl

AeflreJrb pyccKoro npocBeuIeHHfl, coparHHK cuueoua flolouKorot no3T, ny6nurrucr H neAaror Cnnreecrp MeAeeAes.

Crruoecrp (ao npunnrHfl MoHa[IecrBa - Cnnneos Ara$onxHxoauu) Me4ee4ee (1641-1691) poluncn e Kypcre. Tar,r oH HaqaJr pa6ory clepBa B Ka'{ecrBe nHcua, noroM noAbflr.rero. floeAHee MeAseAee nepeexaJr B MocKBy, rAe B reqeHHe pflAa .ner cJry)KHJr n flpnxaae raftHbrx AeJr. B 1665 r. oH nocrynHn B [rKony, co3AaHHyo cnueoHoru llo,noqxnu, nAe yqnJrcfl JrarbrHH H rpaMMarnKe. Mexqy MeAeeAeeH[a H flo.nouruu ycraHoBHJracb recHas Apyx6a, ltpoAonxaBurascq Ao cMepru flo.nouxoro (a 1680 r.). OcraanB B 1672 r. nprKa3Hyro AeqrerbHocrb, MeAseAes rrpHHflJr MoHauecrBo. B 1678 n. oH 3aHqr AoJrxHocrb cnpaBurHKa fleqarHoro ABopa, 2t 6y1yun B To )Ke BpeMs Hacroqrereu 3auxosocnaccKoro MoHacrbrpfl, npH KoropoM ocHoBaJr cBoro r.uKony. floc.ne cBepxeHHfl Co$u MeAseAee 6u.n npuuerreH K cyAy rro AeJry lllaxrosnroro KaK yqacrHl.rK 3aroBopa npornB flerpa, aaroueu n Tpor.rqe-CeprueBofi .nanpe, a B 169l r. Ka3HeH. OAHH lrs san6o.nee o6pasoeauubrx H HaqnraHHbrx JrtoAeft cBoero nperuenn, MeAeeAen 6un gHaroxoM KHilrH, BJraAe.rrbrleM 2l B o6qsanHocru cflpaBuu{Ka r.r '{reHne KoppeKryp. HbIC JIIOAH.

BxoanJro peaaKrnpoBaHue pyxonucefi

.[,onxuocrs cnpaBquKa 3aHHManH cauue o6pasonan25


6orruroft 6n6ruorexn,

n

cocraB xoropofi nocJle cMeprH

Curueosa flo.noqxoro BoruJra u eno 6n6lNoreKa. flpn cocranJTeHHH <Or.nasreHHs> MeAeeAeB rxnpoKo norb3oBaJrcR csoeft 6u6rHorexoft, xotx BKJIroqar B Hero u raKne KHHrr{, Koropbre u uefi orcyrcrBoBaJru. Texcr <Or.nasreHuq> 6bt.lt ony6.nnxonaH B. M. VHAolrcrr.rM co Bcry[HTenbHofi crarreft <Cnnunecrp Me4ne4ea, oreq pyccxoft 6n6ruorpaQnn>. B grofi crarre 6u;ro nogpo6no paccMorpeHo H <OrrasreHxe>.22 <OrnasneHue KHr{r, KTo ux cJIoxHJt> flpeAcraBnger co6ofi 6n6.nnorpaQuqecxnft yKa3arenb scefi ussecrnoft MeAeeAegy nr{reparypbt. OHo coAepxnr cBeAeHHs o npoH3BeAeHHrx (xHnrax n craruax) oKoJro 200 arropoB, a raKxe o6 anosnuHbrx KHHrax. flpucrynan K cocraBJreHHro <OrlaaJleuuR>, MeAseAes HaMepeBancfl pacnonox(Hrb Marepr.ta.n n alQaanrHOM nOpsAKe IIO HMeHaM aBTOpOB, HO 3aTeM OTKaSaJlCq OT TaKOnO pacnonoxeHvf, fl cTaJI BK[roqaTb KHLrnH, He npHAepxlrBascb a.nQaarra. ,[,.nn roro qro6u o6lerqnrt qr{TareJrK) HaxoxAeuxe Hyxnbtx KHHr, oH rroMecrnJt B Haqane <OnrasneHr.rR> yKa3areJrb lrMeH H npe,u,Meros (c ttouepaMn, orcbrJrapUIHMH K coorBercrBytotrrnM HoMepaM B TeKcre <OrrasreHun>). MeroAuxa 6n6ruorpaQHqecKoro onxcaHHfl, npuMeHeHHat MeAseAesHM, 3acryxusaer oco6oro paccMorpeHnr. Ilo,u,asJrtK,ulee dorrurHHcrso KHHn MeAse.u.ee onl.rcaJr de visu. B onHcaHuH yKa3HBarorcq HMf, n 3BaHfie aBTopa, HanpnMep: <Arpaaunfi enllcKon EQeccxnfi>, <Hnxos narpnapx MocxoscKnft>, <AQaHacnfi MoHax Hepyca;rnnncxnft> n r. n. 3rn cBeAeHHf qacTo noMeularncb Ha orAeJrbHoft crpore, Hrpag ponb He roJtbKo aBropcKoro 3anoJroBKa, Ho a py6pnKn, noA xoropofi 6sr.nl.r co6paHbr Bce npoH3BeAeHHf, AaHHoro aBropa (Hepe4xo HMg r.t 38aHHe conpoBoxAanncb croBaMH (Hanl{ca>,

(cnnca cHil croBeca> H T. n.). B prAe cnyqaee MeAee.u,es KpoMe HMeHn H 3BaHHs aBTOpa AaBaJl H KpaTKyo cnpaBKy o HeM: y[oMHHan o roM, qro <Dpasuncx CxopllHa 6ul <cyu[.nr ng flo.norcxa yqeHHM Myx(eM B neKapcrBe>, uro lidoa:aiuxufrt <pexrop H HryMeu 6parcrna Kueocxoro>>, FarqroncxHfi qro 3uHosnft-rrloHax (yqeHHK Mancuua lpexa> H T. n.

-

"

MeaBereB

C. OrrasreHle KHHr, Kro nx c.noxu.r/ Hsa. B. M. VnH ApeBHocrefi poccnficxux, 1846, xs. 3,

r O-ae ucropr[ - c. I-XXX, orA. 4. Cuecr, l-90.

.q,oarcxufi. 26

Vreuns


floc.ne cseAenxfi o6 asropcrBe npLIBoAHJIocb 3arJlaBne npoH3BeAeHus. E ng nepeBoaHblx KHilr orMeqafl I'Icb cBeAeHHq o q3brKe nepeBoAa lInH opHruHaila, a HHorAa I{ Toro, H Apytoro, HepeAKo yKa3bIBanHCb raK)Ke HMf, H 3BaHHe nepeBOAt{HKa: <flr(e c CnageHcxa Ha Pyccxnfi AHaneKT flpenox(eHbl>, <rxe npeBeAe or Ellnncxa B q3HK C.noseHcrllfr Enu$anuil, uepo' nbuax Manus Pocculr> H r. n.; B nepeqHe rpyAoB Enr.rQaHna

C.rrannseqroro ynoMHHaerct, qro oH (flpeno)Ku cJIoBa cz. fpueopun Eoeocnola or E.nlnscxa c KHHTLT fi3AaHHbIq e flapnce; .nera MDCXXX. naqa 7164, coeeprtru xe 7165 Vyn.o. B onucaHsg neqarHbtx KHHI HepeAKo BKJttoqanncb BbIxoAHbIe AaHHbre: Mecro H noA H3AaHHf,, A B OTAeJIbHbIX CnyqaflX TaKxe H3Aarerb HILI rHnorpaSna. HHorAa [pHBoAHnI.{cb HMs H 3BaHue rHUa, <BereHHeM) HJlI,t <TulaHHeM> Koroporo KHHra HaneqaraHa: <Be.neuneu Ml{TpononHTa Kuescxa II erpa Moeunot, Haneqarana> ilJtw (TulaHI{eM IIerpa Moeunon. B paae cnyqaeB B onLIcaHHH AaBanacb H KoJII{qecrBeHHafl xapariepncrnxa (vnclo JIHcroB xHnru): <HMarb nncros 447>. Hepearo orMeqaJlocb trllcro rJIaB HJIU qacteft: <uMarb lraB 26>, <nmarr qacreft 4>, <nmyurnft rras 109> u.lls xe npocro <rJIaB 94>. HuorAa yKa3btBaJlcn Qopnaar: <B aecrb>, <B norAecrb>. flpn onncaHnn pyKorlltcHbtx npolr3BeAeuufi, a raKxe orAe.,IbHbrx ruraB H crateft (rax a pyKonflcHbtx, TaK H B neqarHbrx KHr.rfax) Meaaeaen, KaK npaBHro, npHBoAHr H HaqarbHble

croBa reKcra. flpu srou o6uquo oH yKa3brBaJI JIHcrbt, Ha KoTopbrx noMeuleHa n c6opttnxe crarbs. O6pauraa BHxMaHr{e Ha BaxHocrb npt.tBeAeHufl HaqaJIbHbIX cJroB npon3eeAeunft npn onr{caHnn crapnHHbrx KHHr, VgAo.nrcxnft aupaxaJl coxaneHne, qro STor npneM, TaK IItHpoKo HcnoJrbgoBasul.tficg MeAgeAeguu, He 6u.n 3aHMcrBoBaH ApyruMr.r 6x6.nnonpaQaur H nogroMy B Hx rpyAax HeJIerKo ycranoBarb uAeHrnqHocrb fipoagBeAeunfi, ony6.nuxonaHHux noA oAr{HaKoBbIMr.I 3arraBugMlI. Onucauug )Ke, noMerreHHbre g <OrraBreHHH>>, nogBoJIgJILt 9To cAeJIarb Bo Bcex cnyqaqx coBepueHHo 6esoun6o,{Ho: <<Bu xoruTe onncarb HJIfi npocro

rr3 .irro6onHrctsa crHqltrb raxoe-Hu6yAs

HaneqaraHHoe

rBopeHne, xorb, Hanp., EQpena Cupuna. EcrecreeHHo, BaM HyxHo 3Harb, To JIH HarleqaraHo, qTo HaxoAI,ITcf B ealueft pyKollr.rcr, fi ecJlr.r To caMoe, To BCe JILI LI B TOM )fie .nU nOpA4re? Pacxpuaaere 6u6rnorpaQn,lecxne coqHHeHHfl H B HHx HaxoAHre oAr,rn roA H Mecro H3AaHHq; B Apyrnx, 6o.nee noApo6nux, cqer Jtr.rcToB H T. A., HapyxHble [pHMeTbl, BblnHcKy H3 nocJle27


a o coAep)KaHHH poBHo HHr{efo. 3Havrar, peuHTb: cxoAHa JIH Batua pyKonilcb c [eqarHbrM

cJIoBHfl H3AareJreft, Bbr He Mo)Kere

H3AaHHeM.

Ho 6yal 3To H3.[,aHHe

onHcaHo

raK, KaK sro

cAeraHo y Me4ne4eaa (Ne 80) , H3 JrHcra B Jrncr, c Haqa"raMH, TorAa HaM He HyxHo 6u nuerl H cauoft KHHT.H>>.23

MeAaeAee y.u,ennJr HcKJIror{HTeJrtHo 6o.nruoe BHHMaHHe pacKpbrTHr,o coAepxaHHrr oTAeJIbHbrx KHHr: nocJre onHcaHHrr KHHrH B qeJIoM oH qacro noMeuaJr noApo6nsrfi neper{eHb rflaB lr.nu crar_eft, coAepxar.unxcR n ueri, orMeqaJr HaJrHr{He npeAncronufi. 3rn cneAeunfl rro3BoJrsJrH r{HTareJrr,o noryrrnTb npeACTABJ'IEHHC O COAEP)KAHAN, A TAKXC T.ABAilH BO3MOXHOCTb u4euruQnunpoBarb npoH3BeAeHHs, Aax(e He BHAR caMHx KHHT.

B Haqare <OrrasreHHfl> KpoMe <Vxasarerfl HMeH H

npeAMeroB> 6u"no noueuleHo raKxe <O6tqcHeHHe coKparqeHuft>, rAe npHBeAeHbt coKpau(eHHbre onHcaHna c6opHl.rxoe, crarbu H3 Koropbtx BKrtor{eHbt B ocHoBHyto .lactl <<OrflasreHHq>> noA HMeHaMH ux aBTopoB, a raK)Ke c6opuuxoa, orncaH-

Hbrx B reKcre noApo6Ho (c pacxpurHeM HX coAepxaHHfl). Kax46vy c6opnuxy s <O6rflcHeHHH coKpar{essft> coorBer-

crBoBaJro ycJIoBHoe o6oauaveHne,

a B

ocuoeHofi qacru

<<OrnasreHlrg> nocJle 3arJlaBHfl BMecro cseAengfi o c6opHNxe npocraBJrrJrocb ycJroBHoe o6o3HaqeHHe, lroA KoropbrM oH 3Ha-

rlurcfl s

<O6'becHeHHH coKpaueHuft>.

Hanpnuep, e <O6'brc-

noA o6ognaqesuem <(D> 3HaqHJrcfl c6opHux <Croseca cs. HoaHHa 3raroycraro, co6paHas or ero cnncaHnfi CrunosoM uapeM... Hx xe r{HcJroM 136, u Hape'{eHHafl 3narocrpgd, pyKonr{cHaq>>, B ocHoBHofi xe qacrH <<OrnaereHHff> B r{HcJre npoH3BeAeHui't Voasna 3naroycra noMeu{eH pnA crarefi H3 sroro c6opunxa: <O yuepurnx tD r.n. l0 Cnercn retto dgweeno>, <<O.nxe Su.noco$ex, flraroHe O rn. 98 Tarco nodo1aer> u rp. B AaHsoM cd'ryqae,,<D, yc- $HJroBHoe o6ogHa,{euue c6opuHra, <O yuepu_rHx>) rz <<O nxe .noco$ex, I-lnarone>> Ha3BaHHr nJraB, a <Cnercn rerto dgweeuo> u <Tarco -nodo6aer> croBa gTHx HeHHr.r coxpauleunft>>

-HaqaJrbHbre Taxofi cnoco6 onilcaHHrr crareri us c6opultxoe (:aueua cseAeHr.rri o c6opuHxe ycJroBHbrM o6oeHaveuHen,t) AaBaIl 6olturyrc gKoHoMHro Mecra fi o6;rerqan npocMorp <OrraereH a> rruTareleu. 3ror c noco6, HcnoJlb3oB a n HH fi MeAeeAeBbr M r"'l a B.

14

23

28

Tau xe, c.

XVII-XVlll.


6onee rpex crurerHft ToMy Ha3aA, Jtntub B HauH AHH no"'lyqaer

paclpocrpaHeHHe. flpasaa, BMecro ycnoBHoro o60gHaqeHHq cefoAHs o6uquo ucnorb3yercr lruQpa (Houep, noA KoropblM onHcaHHe c6opnlrxa gHaqHTcfl npHHuHn ocraeTcf ToT xe.

B cltncKe Hcrouullxoe),

Kax npanuno, B ocHoBHoft ,{acru

Ho

<<Orras.neuun>> c6opullx

onucbrBaJrcfl 6o.nee noApo6Ho H roqHo,

as

<<O6'bscHeHHH

coxpaureuufi> npHBoAHJIHcb HHorAa rHub cBe,tteHHtt o6 aBrope (<HuxoH MoHax ropu 9epustfl>, <Ca. EQperra CnpuH>). OAHaxo B orAeJlbHbtx cnyqaffx onucaHne s <<O6bflcHeHHH coxpauleHuft> coAepx(aro cBeAeHHR, orcyrcrByloulhe B onucaHHH. noMe[leHHoM B OCHOBHOfi qaCrn. Tax, g onHcaHHH KHHrr{ <<Pafi untc.neHHstfi> g <O6tqcHeHHn coxpaureHHft>> yKa3aHo KoJIHqecrBo JtHcroB (<nrrlaru JIHcroB 107>), Qopuar (<s nonAecru) n Rsltx (<cnaaeucxn>), rol'Aa KaK B onHcaHHH rofi xe KHHrr{ s ocHoeHoft qacrn 3TH cBeAeHHfl orcyrcrBoBaJIH. B qe.nsx 3KoHoMHH Mecra MeAeeAen orKa3arctt or IIoBTopeHHfl B cronurnx prAoM onucaHHttx coBnaAaloulltx cseAeHHfi, 3aMeHHB HX CJIOBaMH <<TOrO xe>, <O TOM )Ke>, <O TeX )Ke>>, <Ha ro xe> il r. n. flo cBoeMy Ha3HaqeHHIo grH croBa cxoAHbl c HcnoJIb3yeMbrMH ceroAHr o 6u6nnorpaSuuecxoft npaxrHKe

o6ogHa,{eHl.rgrrtH <To xe>>, <TaM xe>, <ero xe>>. C.nosa <Ha ro xe> HHorAa 3aMeHflJIH Ha3BaHHfl OTAeJIbHbIX npoH3BeAeHnfi (<c.nonec>), HanpnMep: 4. Ha Ycnenne cs. Boropoagqu. loacrnu u 5. Ha to xe. Eturo aac 6oeopod.

aceeda.

Ilpuaedeaot flaqanbHbrc craoaa, qro nogloJrner pa3ruqurb npousae1enun, uilaoulue o1uuaxoawe gazraaun.

flpHueHan MeAseAes u o6reAuueHHoe on[caHHe: K onncaHHro nepBoro r4g/.,aH!/.fl (<neuarauna>) npoH3BeAeHHR oH npHcoeAHHsJr cBeAeHHf o ApyroM eno H3AaHHH. Kax ncrnsHufi 6n6lnorpa$ MeaeeAeB He roJrbKo orMeqaJI HaJrHqHe B KHHre npeAHCJrOBHfl, HO B OTAerbHblX CryqaRX, YKA3bIBA' AATY HANI{CAHHfl KHHTH HJIH APYTHC AAHHbIC, HAnpuMep cBeAeHHr o nepeBoAqHKe, nficaJr: <<fxo npeAcJroBue

sBJrfler> (<Kax BHAHo H3 npeAncnonna>). Toqso raK )Ke B Ha[re BpeMfl 6u6nuorpaQbl ccbtrarorcfl Ha HcrotIHHK, orKyAa tttrt

u

6ul.ll

l.r

3a HM cTBoBa

Hbl

Ka KHe-To,u,onoJIH

HTeJIbHble cBeAe-

unn. B oAHoM H3 onllcaHHfi ronopu.nocr: <l4oaHu Aauacxutt cHs cJroBeca HanHca, Ha Htxe Ha[Hca Anapefi Kypncxnfi 29


fl HcnpaBH ro>. B onHcaHHH orMeqanocb: <Efl xe cnucare.rrb HMeHH cBoefo He sBn> (cero4Hn nrurercfl:

npeAcJroBHe

[rHurn] <Aerop B

B onucasun 6n.nu HasBaHbl lpera B nepeBoAe H HcnpaBJIe-

KHr.rre He yKa3aH)>).

r.rMeHa corpyAHrlKoe Maxclrl'4a

Hau <flcarrupn>: <<CrpyAl{uaxecfl eMy B AeJIe B.[ac H MHrq N Cl.{rgaH HHoK, nl{capn>. B <OrraeneHnn> MeAseAes noKa3aJI ce6a npexpacHblM

ToJIMaqr{, Mnxau.n MeAoaapues

Ou no-paaHoMy noAxoAun K onucaHnto pa3nHqHbrx KHr.rr: B 3aBLICHMOCTH OT SHaqeHHt KHH|H OnHCblBaJrilcb c pasuofi crerreHbn noApo6Hocrn. B psAe cnyqaeB MeaseAee coqerar onilcaHI{e co cBeAeHHqMH, orHocflui(l,MI'lcfl

3HaroKoM KHHTH.

K

HCTOpHH KHHTH, HanpHMep:

IIOAHH rrronax HATDAHAHJI co6pa o rafisax [epKoBHbrx Han[ca Knnny, toxe uapeue Cxputtcatu dgxoauote, cllro rtpHcna Ilaucufr narpuapx Hepycaauucxnfi, aera 716l Hwcong narpsapxy

r

Mocroacrong, ero

xe

BeJreHI{eM

flpenoxg Ha Croaexcr[fi rsux

Apcenurt uonax lpex, npu6unurui n Mocxay nera... or q3HKa rpeqecKa npocroro, rt3Aanxbtfl n... Haneqaract xe nepuoe s MocKBe reTa, .

.

Mnozoroqun danw Vxdotocvur4, aepoarno, a con3u c reil, qro darw I pgKonucu 6wau xepas6op.ruab,, SosileJrc+o, nocrpadaau or Bpeiletu.

Kuurn Ha HHocrpaHHbIx s3blKax onncblBaJlncs MeAseAe' BHM Ha pyCCKOM s3HKe (f,3blK, Ha KOTOpOM KH[ra HanHcaHa,

n

onucaHNn). Hcx.npqenueu flBJIfleTCf, JIt'llIIb Ha g3blKe H3AaHHfl. O rou, qro 6onluuHcrBo npofi3BeAeHnfi 6u.nn onHcaHu MeAseAesHu de visu, cBHAereJlbcrBytor ycnoBHble o6osuaqe'

orMeqaJrcff

o.u.Ha noJrbcKafl KHLIfa, OnncaHHafl

HHs, npocraBJIeHHbIe HM B pflAe onHcaHLtfi _(nounuo ynoM.HHaB' runxci HaMH o6osHaqeHuli c6opHuxon). Cuucn grux o6ogHaqeunft pacKpbrBaJtcs s <<O6'bqcHeHHH coKpaqeHxft>. Taxux o6oesaqenufi uerupe: <pyKonncHoe>, <<qreHo>, <pyKonucHoe qreHb>> H <<r{TeHo H 3HaMeHoBaso>. VuAonscruft o6lqcHser

[ocJIeAHee o6o3gaqeHue KaK <qHTaHo

H

pa3MelueHo ltoA

HMeHaMH aBrOpoM>.

3aueqarelrnufi rpya MeAeeAesa coxpaHl'ul cBoe 3nar{eclycrfl 6o.nee rpex croJleruft noc.ile ero co3Aa' Hr.rfl. I{ro xe Kacaercfl MeroAHK}t 6n6nNorpaQuqecKoro onHcaHHg, IlcnoJlb3oBaHHOfi B <<orraBreHHn>, TO HeJIb3ff

Hue H ceroAHs,

He BOCXHUIaTbCfl TeM, HaCKOJIbKO MeASeAeS CyMeJI OnepeAHTb cBoe BpeMfl. OH npnno,u.r4Jl cBeAeHHff o npoH3BeAeHHsx c PeA30


Kofi Ann roro BpeMeHH TularerbHocrbro n ror{Hocrbto, HcnorbSOBaJr pa3nHqHHe npHeMbt, noMorapulHe nonyqnTb HaH6oJIee noJIHOe npeAcTaBneH[e o coAep)KaHHH KHHr, OTMeqaJI Har{aflbHbre cTpoKH

uIaB

H CTaTeft, qTO IIO3BOJIRJ!O HAeHTr.roHrIHpOBaTb

(raxofi [pHeM cran renepb rpaAHuueft npn _ottl,tcaHnl,l crapr{Hnrilx KHHr HJrr.t apxr.tBuux Marepnaroa). Kpoue roro, ocyulecrBJrss rpe6oeaune norHorbr H ToqHocrn onucaHufi, MeAaeAeg B To xe BpeMg HeyKnoHHo orAe,JrbnHe npon3BeAeHaa

cTpeMr.ucq K 9KoHOMHH MeCTa, npnMeHnn 3aMeHy coBnaAarculllx caeAeunft B oflficaHHf,x o6ogHaqeHHsMH (Tono xe), (o roM )Ke> H Ap. r{ BMecro cseAeHNfi o c6opuuxe, B KoropoM noMeuleHa crarbg, HepeAKo npHBoAHn ycJtoBuoe o6osHaqegHe c6opHllxa, ncnoJrb3oBa.n o6teAnueHHHe onHcaHr{r.

fiprxepu rs roraaracnnr xtlrr, xro nx cJroxrJtt

a)

uecxoarxo nporgseaexrfi oaHono aBTopa

Cs. BACI|IHf, apxrenncxon l(ecapuu Kannadorudcxun cnilca cltfl cJtoBeca, txe Haneqaraua B rpaae Ocrpose rulaHneM xttagg KoncraflTuva cu,Ha Koucraxrnxosa Octposcrcoeo, B Jrscr. . Jlera unpa 7102. PoxaecrBa xe Xprcroea 1594 Mapra 3. l. flpercaoaun fiaqaJro. Bca eostoxxa ot 6oea. 2. flpeacaonne K qnTareJrp. Ila xwcto Ne or flenpocaeulelvux,

l.

flpeg,caosne [ocrunqecKfiM ero cJloBeceu. Mxoao* cgt4u.u. Xpucrg

2. Boo6paxenne nocru[rtecrsa. focnodg Haweilg H. noaeL

3. Ilpe,qcaosue. 6oea 6taeoeo 6aazodaruto. 4. O nepe. Eoea 6taeoeo 6aaeocruto sanoaed. 5. ftraa 80 or EganreJrna tr Anocro,na Orrole uaua Hucgc, Toroxe cs. Bacur,un K nocrnuqecrggtot4a.* c;roaec 30. flpe.qcaoane. Erce o Xpucre. l. O norrrucaex, Hacrorre.rrcrBe ll sKo He 3Jro reJto. H nepaue 96o. 2. Koaaxnuu o6pasu nyKaBtrtt noMHcnH B.[yu[ cocraBrrtorcq.

Ilonene u docneewe. [. . .] Toro

xe xaxo

npeN.

no4o6aer yKparxarlcr nuorcy. !,ocrour uvoKg

O oreepxeHnn xsrns o cBepuenlrn AyxoBHeM L a. 176 IIpuudure xo n+e 6ce rpClc. 1.,.l <I> gctoanoe o6osxaqenue c6opnuxa <Topxecreennux>.

gaileneubl ongt4eflHbre flanu Ha36aHun npougMxoeoroquanu aedeaud.

6) xxnra, HMepulaa HecKoJrbKo qacrefi r rras AnOKPtlCllC, aa6o ornoneAb cKoM HMeHeM ,no.quft

Ha KHrrxKH o co6ope Eepecrei-

crapoxnrnoft peatnnn fpe,recxoft, uepes Xpa-

croQopa @utatera a pHxne BHAaHa, trx xe HeKro Bo BpeMq co6opa 6eguuesso [3aaae o Vsex c xocreaou Puucxnr't urrponoanra Kuee-

3l


cKoro tr Borotruuupcxoro, Jly[xono, floaoqxoro, BnaAblKtt Xoaucxoro, 6usuero o Depecrro, ApyKoBaFa s Burne craporo xaaex4apa 1597.

l. Hr'rart qacrufr 4. Ilpearirbea Ao qrrerbnnKa. Ilod cefrnon.

Oxros.

9acrr I. O nocrynry

cHHoAaJrbHoM

Toeo wro u npoq.

a Depecrn peaeu fpe[xofi.

l. Mu qepxau. 5. Haa6urt 6w cn, 2. Muxaun. 6. Oanailngeno. 3. Ilpaeo o Koropot*. 7. Bcrceca awwe. 4. Cgd

notnewxurt.

Ilo0o6nor.trt qacrert.

4-il

B.

we o6pason

Eanut npopor. l. . .l

pacKpbasaercn codepcrcanue

s) o6re,qrHeHHoe onncaHne 3AXAPI'ffi Konucrencrcurt apxnMau,[plrr

2, 3

u

l(nenonevepcxufi

Ca. na norpe6exue Eaucen rosxe "'taBpbr apxuuangpura llrcreHeqKozo, B HepoMoHacex EaQunua, cKouqaBruact Jrera 1624 Oxrog. 22. fleqarauo s rofixe.Ilaape: 7130 XpHcra xe 1625 Orr. 17. I4ua. 8. Pyccxnrvr fl3brKoM. IIa,r. Eaucefi pas6oneca. Bropoe neq. Jrera 7133. na rorox. ly' 6wcro asaxon a Llcpauau.

r) nonnoe onncanae c6opnuxa (o ocrorHofi uacrtl) PA9l nwcaexuurt, B aer xe pa3rsr{Hblf, ueeru npeno4o6Hutl CreQaxon Cantoeopqex co6paHu, o cssrofi A$oncrefi rope, noqro paan cBrroro 3ogercr, u o Hnepcrou Moxacrbrpn s tofi xe cearofi rope, u o flopraHrcroft rroHe. flpuconoKyuneHno xe n o MoHacrbtptt I4aepcxou cBflroe3epcKoM H o SBJTeHHH x npeHecesflu Moqeft

cs. Ilarcoea Bopoauqrcoeo B MoHacrbtpb Haepcxufi. B rou xe uosacrbrpn n3Aact aera 7167. Oxroepua 28 AHs. . l. flpeAcronne K qnTarern nat. ,Qon npecanrbtn npequcrun. 2. O rope casrofr Haqa,l. [Iodo6eu aosap6texne. 3. O o6nrean Haepcxofi lr Hxoue flopranrcxofi. B nera 6naeoqecruaedwe?o

or

4. O

gaaHntl MoHacrbrpn Hnupcxoro cB. e3epcKono. Beauxaa

aeuleil.

5. Croso noxBaJrHo o rlpAecex cn. 6oropo4nqH B cB. topax o6HrerH Harpcxoft or HKoHbr er, H B MoHacrHpe cB. e3epcKoM. IIpuu1en dneco oepnuu. 6. O qerreHnu npnHeceHs[ )Ke n qpaecex cs. Haxoga. Ilpecrcde

a

oet

flenocTufic.

a)

coxpautenHoe onncaHHe roro xe c6opHnxa coxpaulennft>)

(s <O6racuennn

Ksnra: Pail nwcaennurt, o cs. rope AQoHcre r a Hei Hnepcrom o MoHacrbrpr.r Haepcxou CnnroesepcKou s PoccHH geanxofi, H o cB. Haxose Boponucxou. fleqarana B Monacrbrpe I4nepcxor'r, tera 7167, oxr. 28. B norAecrr Craaexcxu, firtratr Monacrbrpn, r.r

lHcroa 32

107.


e) ortficaute ttonbcroft xnnrx (cocraBneHo Ha pyccxoM r3brxe) Ilgro 0o Hepgcatutta Huxoaan'PAAHBnnA, uanncaHufi Jlarnxcxu, KceHA3oM @ouon Tperepon, crpaxeM Bapruencxnu;

Andpeet xe

KceHA3oM

Bapeo4xun npeJroxeHa Ha 4na.lexi floacxsfi

u n l(paxoae Haneqarala 16ll. r,r.4.

B

nepnori qacrn MoHorpa$nlt Mbr KparKo paccMorpeJrn

3BOJIloUHro 6n6.nnorpaQHqecKoro onHcaHHfl

Ha npoTrr)KeHHI

600-.nerHero nepHoAa. OAsaxo, crporo roBopfl; Hax6onee paHHHe r{3 AOueAuHx Ao Hac o6pa3uoB cneAyer orHecrH

cKopee K npeAbtcropqH, qeM K HcropHH 6n6.nnorpaSHqecKoro ONHCAHHfl B POCCHH. KAX UU BI{ACJIH I{3 NPIBEACHHbIX NPI,IMC-

poB, cnHcKH <14cTHHHbtX> H <<JtOXHbrX> KHHn COAepXaJTH 3ar{aroqHyro Qopr'ry onncaHHs, a He 6ra6.nnorpaQHr{ecKoe onncaHue B coBpeMeHHoM CMbrCJre CJrOBa, HaCTOnbKO CKyAHbr H OTpbrBOqHbr 6burH [pHBoAHMbre B Hr.rx cBe.4eHHrr o KHHr.ax.

gru cBeAeHHr H B orrncflx MoHacrbrpcxnx 6u6nHoreK. JIH[rb nocrerreHHo onncaHHf craHoBHJrHcb 6olee AeraJrbHbrMH u e4nHoo6pa3HbrMH. B reqeuue pflAa croJreruir Ha Pycn cyutecrBoBaJrH JIHrrIb Becsu_a KpaTKHMH 6sr.nl{

pyKonHcHbre KHHTH, B KOTOpbtx orcyTcTBoBaJrH HeKoTOpbte cBeAeHHfl, BKJrrOqaeMbre o6brqHo s 6H6rr.ronpaQnvecxoe onncaHle (nuxo4Hue AaHHbre, a 3aqacryro H HMeH; a'aropoe). 3ro H a.nox nJro orneq aroK Ha xa p a Krep- 6u6.n Horp a 6 raveixoio onHcaHHr. A"[q HAeHTH$nxaunH KHHr yKa3brBarcq MarepHaJr,

Ha KoropoM KHHr.a HanHcaHa, orMeqarHcb

oco6eugocru

nepenJrera, HMfl nepenHcqHKa HJru 6srsuero BJraAenbua KHHfH, qHcJIo rJraB, npHBoAHJtHcb HaqarbHbre croBa nponseeAeHHft H T. II.

OAuaxo

yxe B ApeBHepyccxxfi nepno4 Hcno./rb3oBaJrncb

oTAeJrbHbre cnoco6br H npHeMbr, KoTopbre HaxoAflT npHMeHeHHe H B Ha[re BpeMs] CBOAHOe OnHCaHHe MHOTOTOMHbTX H3AaHHfi, o6reAnsesuoe onficaHHe HecKoJrbKHX KHHr, pacKpbtrHe coAep-

xa.HHH c6opHllxon. CpanHNre"trHo BbrcoKuM ypoBHeM onncaHuft or.nnqaJtacb nocrareriuan..pocnncs coaepxiannn l4 c6op_

aropofi rtacTH onHcH xttnr 6u6nsOrexu Knpu;uro-EeJro3epcKoro MoHacrbrpfl (XV e.), a s uVxasue, ApceHua Bucoxono (1594) Mbr BcrpeqaeM repBbre AoueAuHe -e poccnn. OnnAo Hac o6pasuu aHaJrHTxr{ecKoro orrHcaHns caHHfl B <yKa3(e> BnoJrHe orBeqaJrH 3aAaqe. nocrasregHoft HLIKOB, noMeuleHHaR aO

3 H. A. HrxrQopoacxaa

33


cocraBilTeJleM: AaTb cBeAeHHtl o crarbflx H oTpHBKax H3 C6OpHHKOB AJrfl qTeHllfl B MOHaCTblpe Ha onpeAe,'leHHble AHH HeAerl',l.

Taxum o6paeou, yxe B XV-XVI ss. s PocclrH BeJII'tcb noHcKH HOBbrx soprr,t onucaHHfl H o6bexrou onHcaHHtl cTaHoBHJIHCb HC TOJIbKO KHI{TH

B

UCJIOM, HO H qACTH KHHT.

Peaxoft AeraJlbHocrbto H Toq Hocrblo orJIIlq aJI Hcb on Hca HHtl B TpyAe Ca.nraecrpa MeAeeAena <OrrasreHne KHHI, Kro Hx

Aaearu Bo3Mo)KHocrb noJlyqHTb BcecropoHHee npeAcraBJIeHHe o KHHrax. Ilouuuo onncaHaft KHHn B <<OrrasJTeHHH>> nOMeUIaJILICb CBeAeHI.lfl O CTaTbsx. flporpeccnnHuu flBJrqrocb onncaHne npoH3BeAeHuft noA HMeHeM asropa. Kar Mbr [oAqepKVBailv!, B MeroAHKe 6u6.nnorpaSrrlecKoro onHcaHHs MeAseAeB cyMeJI Bo MHot'oM onepeAnrb cBoe BpeMr H <OrnagreHHe)> flBHJIocb BblctilI'rM AocrHxeHHeM B lrcropull pa38HrHn 6u6rr-rorpa$HqecKoro onncaHHf, B nepHo4 Ao XVIII 8., a B r{eM-ro Aaxe npeBocxoAl4no HeKoropble 6u6nuorpaSuvecxue rpyAbr XVIII H XIX es.

cJroxHJI>>. OHH


tlacrt

II

6H6JI I,IOTPAOHTI ECKOE ON I,ICAH }IE B POCCHI,I B XVIII B.

flepsan qerB.eprb XVIII B. flBHracb e poccuu rrepuoAoM nerpoBcKHx peQopu, HanpaBJreHHbrx Ha npeo6paeoeaxne

npeoAoneHhe ee. eexoeoft orcrdnocrn. peQoprvrsr lll1l_"",, llerpa I carrluru.cyuecrBeHHuu o6paaoM sarpoHyJrr H Bce cropoHbr pyccxoli Kynbrypbr, npou3BeJrr{ s Hefi - xopeHuoft

sror nepnoA 6ul no"noxeH KoHeu HeorpaHlrqeHHoMy rocnoAcrBy uepKBH s o6nacrH Ayxoeuori xH3HH. Orpouuoe BHHMaHHe 6u.no o6pauqeHo Ha pa3BHrHe flpocBeue_ HTIA, NOATOTOBKY .OTEqECTBCHHHX CIICIIHAJII,ICTOB, CO3AAHfiC cern cBercKax yve6usrx saeeAeHHft, u3MeHeHHe 6uira pyccxux nepeJroM. I4ruesuo B

noaefi.

Oco6oe 3HaqenHe npao6pe.no KHHroneqarauue. I4gAare,ru_ cKoe AeJro 6nlo noAqnHeHo npaKrHqecKHM 3aAaqaM, crorBtl*, nepeA rocyAapcrBoM. BHeApeuue npaxAaHcKofo tupHera, co3AaHHe HoBbrx runorpa$nfi, uaxoAnaul,txcfl B BeAeHHu cBercKnx n.nac-reft, nepeBoA H H3AaHr.re ny,{ruux npox3BeAeHaft sapy6exnofi .nnreparypbr, a raKxe noAroroBKa

u u3LaHile cauo6ursux pyccinx ipyaoa lto pasJrur{HbrM pyccxofi" nepuoaui" lraseisr "gli.-Tlr 3HaHr.rfl,Bcecosaaun-e <<DeAoMocrH>) 3To cbrfpano saxneftulyo poJlb B Aene - Poccnr.r. B -HaqaJre npeo6pasogaHHq XVIIi nepBas e Poccna fleqarHaq ngQoprraaqufl o BHoBb ".'no"""nr"i BblxoAflrrlxx KHHrax: peecrpbt. 14. e. KonHescroro l.t <peecrp KHHTaM rpal(|3_H:xHr'r>

npr.trrolKeHr.rH

K ra3ere <BeAbruocru>).

-(e borbrrHM cO6Urnerrl B KynbTypHoft xugnl.r crpaHbr flBH_ Jlocb orKpbrrne s l7l4 r. nepBor.o pyccKoro rnrysea _ KyncrKaMepbr u nepaoft e pocg.rn 6H6nuorern 66utecree;Horo noJrb3oBagr.rr, noJ'ryr{HBuefi nosAHee Ha3BaHne 6a6,rnorexn 35


AxaAeu ut uayx. Kara.nor sroft 6 n6n uorexu, ony6Jt Hxoe-a H Hlt fi B HaqaJIe 4g-x 194o4 XVIII 8., flBHJIcfl nepBblM s Poccnl'l

H3AaHIreM, r.rusopr',tupoBaBtuHM o HayuHoft JIHreparype. KopeuHurra o6pasou H3MeHHJICT H cocraB qacrHblx KHHX(uux co6paHuft: renepl B HHx, KaK npaBHJIo, npeo6raAaJla cBercKatl KHI4ra n 6u.na uHpoKo npeAcraBJleHa HHocrpaHHafl

Jrr.rreparypa. OreqecraeHHafl 14 eapy6exuaa KHI{ra flonyqunl'l lxHpoKoe pacnpocrpaHeHHe B CaMblx pa3Hblx cJloflx pyccKoro

o6utectea. Orpouuoe 3HaqeHHe B Hcropnll Pocctln I{MeJIa co3AaHHar no yKa3y flerpa I n Haqasuafl cBolo AerrerbHocrb c KoHua

tliS r.-Poccuftcxas AxaAeunfl HayK. flpu AxaaeMHH HayK 6una cogAaua xpynueft[Iafl B crpaHe runorpaQna, ny6nnxoBaBUIaf HaytlHyIo rHreparypy no BceM -orpacJlfM 3HaHI'le' r.r KHHxHafl JIaBKa. C orxpurneM KHH)KHOI JIaBKH AKaAeMI'tH HayK B03HItKJIa pyccKafl KHHroroproBafl 6n6'nuorpaQnn,

cTaJrH fleqaTarbcq peecTpbl KHHr, I]MeBUI'iXCfl B npoAaxe' EnaroAaPfl AxaAeut'tll Hayx rer'rnu I'I3AareJlbcKofi Aesreno' HOCTIT H B nocJleneTpoBcKoe BpeMfl 3HaI{HTerbHo Bo3pocJlH' Pyccxan HayKa H KyJIbrypa npoAoJIxaJlH cBoe pa38HrHe

B roM HanpaBJleHHu,-xoropoe 6uno uaueueHo peQopuauu Ilerpa. C Axaaerunefi Hayx 6H.ila cssgaHa n AesreJlbHocrb 6u6'nu-orpaA. 6. Cel.nua, ocHoBotloJloxul{Ka orpaclenofi '$"i e Poccuu' -Ero <KHlrxHuft xanncareJleu, xorbpue B cBoux KHI'trax neo6pa-xanr TaJIor"-6no6n6nuorpaQun (173-6).' noJIfiruqecKylo n uepxonHyn Hcropnlo Poccun> ;il6;;;;;;Huft na JIaTHHcKoM n3brKe, npeAcraBJr-sl t^?9:i 6nb6ra6.nnorpaQnuecxnft cnoBapb JII'ru' nucaBrJHx

o

pyccKou

r.rcTopl.lH.

Bropan [oJIoBI'rHa XVIII B. o3HaMeHoBaracb HoBblM roAbeMoM pyccKou xy.nsrypur. B 1755 r' 6ul orxp-ur Mo-cKoBcrlrfi yunnepcurer, cbeaaHHlrfi no ilHl'llrnarnse M' B' 'IlouoHocoBa u urpanrunfi HcKJIIoqureJIbHo BaxHylo p-oJlb B 111^"; sefiureu pasnutr'ru npocBeureHHfl, HayKH H oourecrBeHHoI'l

raKxe a pacirpocrpaHeHHH KHfirH' Cpe4u nepeAoBblx Poccutl 6b.truuiyro nonyrqpHocrl npno6pe'nn HAeH HeyKJIoHHo Qpanuyscxllx npocBernre.nefi. IlpoAonxala nJIeflAa noflBllracb HayqHaR AesreJIbHocrb, ficuruinrrcr yueuuri H3 qt'Icra pyccKux .ltrcAefi. Bosunr'ilt't HoBble uenrpbl irayxn H KyJlbrypbt, n rortl '{Hcre Borrnoe 3KoHoMHqecKoe oOur."t"o, n uTpyaaxu Koroporo e 1789 r' 6un ony6'rlt'txosau nepeufi s Poccltl'l yKa3areJlb nHreparypbl no ceJIbcKoMy xosnficrny H crpoHTeJIbHoMy AeJIy' MbrcJrH, a

.rrroaen'

36


flo.n_yunnu AanrHefiuree pa3BHrHe Jrareparypa

fl

HcKyc_

crno. Hnrepec K Jrureparype H rearpy Bbt3BaJr noqBJreHxe cnpaBoqHo-6a6nuorpaQHqecKux rpyAoB <Onur HcropHqecKoro cJroBapn o poccuftcrxx nficareJrnx>> H. H. HoeHxosa (1772) u <<[par'raruqecxuri cnoBapb> (llg7). Carrpnuecxne xypHaJrbr H. Vl. Hoeuroea u VI. A_ Kpunona noJroxnJrr.r H a r{ aro_ flporpecc n nu ofi pyccxori xypn aJr H cr Ke. B 1777 r. Hosnxoe HsAanar 6t6.iinorpaQaqecxnfi xypHaJr <<CaHxrnerep6yprcxve yqeHbre aeAouocrur, xoropuft ir"qn BHAHoe Mecro B r.rcropHu pyccxofi 6u6nuorpaeuu. flpo_ Aor'rxaJrocb 6ucrpoe pa3BnTile KHlrofleqarautR, orxpuna_ r.r

rnnorpaQuu, B ToM r{HCre qacrHsre. orponaHoe 3Har{eHHe HMeJIa o6ruapHan H3.u,areJIbcKafl AefreJlbHocrb HoeHxosa. Pacuupll;tacl KHH)r(Hafl ToproBJrrr. HoeHe KHr.txHbre Jrr'rcb HOBbre

Mat'a3HHbt H3AaBailH CBOH <<pocnhcl'i.> UnH (<peecTDbt)> nocTvnHBrrHx B_npojraT.y xuu r. C lTT2 no l7g9 ni. ny6.nuxona.ndn

xypHaJr

I'. Jl. X.

Eaxue_ficrepa <pyccxan 6a6nuorexa>,

uerbro Koroporo 6u;ro-coAericraue KHHn

p a cnpocrpa

HeHHro pyccKnx

3a npauHqefi. K arouy nepHoay orHocrrrcfl

flonbrrKr.r

cosAaHxfl penepryapa pyccxofi KHHrH: KaproreKa H. H. bas_ ruura-KaueHcKoro u <<BH6lnorexa poccr.tficxaa>,[lauacKHHa ( n. .E. cer*leuoea PyaHena ), ou,.{a iul aqcfl BbrcoKo ilr 6u6nuorpa(pHqecKoli xy.nrrypofi .

B 1778 r. eHueJ B cBer peKoMenAarentsufi yKa3areJrb Jrureparypbr no BceM orpacJrnM 3HaHHfl H. H. EauruuraKaueucxoro, noroxHsuafi Haqano peKoMeHAarelrgori 6n6.nuorpaQnx s PoccHrl. g0-x rr. XVIII B. B cBs3r1 c HacrynJreHr.reM _OAuaxo B KoHrIe n Poccl.ll peaKrrau, glrgsaxHofi arpa*on uapcKoro npaBH-

rer bcrBa repeA pacn_p^ocrpa HeHHeM nAeli B enl xori Opai.r uya_ cxofi peao;rnuHr. 1789 r., o6urecrseHHsrri noAteu B crpaHe npnocraHoBNrcfl, 6u;lr.r 3aKpbrrbr Bce qacrHbre runorpa6r.lu, orpaHHr{eHa KHI{nOTOproBJtg

H r3AareJlbcKar,u,eqTenbHocTb, 3arrpeueH BBO3 s PoccHIo BCex KHHr, ony6.nuronaHHnx Bo <Dpauqnn c 1789 r., HaqaJrr.rcb x(ecroKue De[DeccHH B orHorreHnu A. H. paAuulega n H. Vl. Hoslrxosa. Cia"r*o 3rr.r Mepbr cMor"JtH 3aAep)Karb pa3Bnrlre Kynbrypbr l_r o6ule_ crseHHoft MbrcJil.t s PoccHr.r JtHUrb Ha cpaBHHTenbHo KoporKoe BpeMfl.

5t


Peecrpu rnnr 11. 0. Konnercroro n <PeecrP KHtrraM rPax4aHcKIlM'

Vxe n Har{are XVIII s. e Pocctlu 6u.nn npeArpnHfrbl nonbrrKn ocyluecrBl'lrb reKyxryn t'tHQopmaunn B ner{arH oHoBblxKHHrax,I,I3AaBaeMbIxHapyccKoMfl3blKe:noEBHJlHCb

(r. e. cnncxu, nepevln) raKnx KHI'rr. flo'pacnopflxeHnlo flerpa I H. O. Konnescxuft opraHll3oBaJr B Ar',tcreiaar'le nepeBoA Ha pyccxNfi fl3blK HHocrpaHHbtx KHHr n [eqaraHHe arnx nepeno4on. Peecrpbl KHI'lr (xar yxe onv6Jtt{xoeaHubrx, TaK H roroBsulnxcfl K rIeqaru) cocraBrfl;rHcr KonneBcKltM I't gBJIflJIHcb ero orqeroM uapo o npoAeJIaHuofi pa6ore. B ro xe BpeMfl (r'l aro Arq Hac oco6esHo eaxHo) oHH CJIy)KI,l.ttN t'tcto"Hl'rxortr llH$OpMaqHl'l o KHfirax u 6w',ttw nepeurrr-r.r s Poccl.lfi neqarHblMl'l 6n6.nnorpaQnqecKHMI'r yrasare.nnuH, a TaKXe [epBHMIr yKa3aTenflMH, BKJIIOqa0iur.rrrrn nepeqHlr KHHr roJIbKo rpax(AaHcKoro c-o-AepxaHHq' Peecrp n'a pyccKoM fl3blKe 6u.l HaneqaraH Konnegcxllm B rtpilJloxeHnt't K H3AaHHofi nru a AmcrepAaMe KHHre <Latina grammatica> (1700), a Ha JIaTHHcKoM f,3blKe --B npnnoxefir, n xuane <PyxoBeAeHHe s fparuuarury' Bo cJloBenopoccnftcryo> (1706) ' Bor xix sutrnnAnr Haqaro peecrpa V' O' Konilescroro:

<<peecrpbt>

'

PgAosoft qItH ttM x(e KHHnU HMenylorct nilcagbl

I{

l{3aaHbl

aBropoM, Erua Oe4oposblu Kofluesc5nu. Hxe no yKa3y Be'luKoro l' Bseaexfle t*yi"pi n Aucrepoilaue nucaJl n B neqarb usAar'cnpeqb Bo BcsKyo HcroPblto.2. Pyxoee4eune- Bo aPHrMernKy' "i "t" roft cqoi. 3. floiepcranue rpyroB xe6ecnux c roJlKoBaHHeM' 4' o AeJe BoHHcrBeHHoM. 5. Horrleguarop Ha pyccxoM, rarnHcKoM H HeMeqKoM

t."*i.

O. Boxa6y.nu crsxaux JIaTHHcK[e H pyccK'Ie'

7' flpnrul

Ecconogu, Ha naruHcKou H pyccKoM t3HKe...

3ar.nasilfl He ToJrbKo npHBoAHnHCb B CLlJtbHo COKpaUIeHJIOM BnAe, HO s 6orsull'tHcTBe cnyqaes 6buH r4cKaxeHbl' I aK'

JII"ICTe KHI',tf H' ganucauttoft B peecrpe noA BCflKyIO nepBblrvr HoMepoM, 3HaqHJtocb: <BseAeHHe KparKoe Bo

Ha THTynbHoM

r.rciopuro, no qHHy Hcrop[qHoMy or co3AaHnfl MHpa flcno H coBepueHHo onHcaHoe>, a KHI{ra, rIoMeuIeHHaR IIOA-BTOpblM HoMepoM, HMeJIa Ha THTyJIbHoM JIHcre 3ar'IIaBHe: <<Kparxoe H noJre3Hoe pyKoBeAeHI'le Bo apbITMerl'rKy' I'IJII'I BO O6yUeHne n no3HaHr,le BctlKoro cqeTy, B COqeraHI'tH BCflKHX BeUIeft>' Bcxope nocJle ny-6.tlNxaunn -peecrpoB Konnescxoro o B@HHbtx I'l s npnloketnu K J\b 12 ra3erbl <BeAouocru 38


uar l7l0 r..) 6u.n saleqarau <peecrp

Apyrux Aerax> (31

NHhraM rpaxAaHcKr.tM, Koropbte no yKa3y rlapcKoro eenuqecrBa HaneqaraHbr Hoaonso6pereHHoro aMcrepAaMcKoro

as6yxoro Ha nepBoe qncJro HyHs HbrHeuHero Ill0 roav, 1<<Hoeouso6pereHHarr aMcrepAaMcKafl as6yKa> _ pvccriq rpaxAaHcKaa as6yra, BBeAeHHas e l70g r.). <peecrp'iHnrar,l rpa)r(AaHcKHM)> rrpoAoJrxuJr rpyA KonHescxoro. B ro xe BpeMfl gro 6Hr nepnufi onbtr pyccxoli focyAapcrBessofi _ yqerHo-perHcrp a rIHoHHo fr 6u6nuorp a$nn. OAu axo oH He HMeJr IIpoAoI)KeHHq, a rocyAapcrBeHHarr yqeTHo_ _nocrosHHas perucrpaunoHHafl 6a6naorpaenr Bo3HHKJra s poccnH nr.rus cnycrfl 6onee 100 .ner (e 1837 r.). OnHcaHHq n <<Peecrpe KHr.iraM rpax<AaHcKHM)), KaK u peecrpax Konaeecxoro, 6brJu.r HenoJrHbrMH H HerorrHbrMH. L flpan4a, n <Peecrpe> l7l0 r. Ha nepBoM Mecre B onHCaHHH npuBoAH,tacl Sauulan aBropa (aroro He 6u;ro y Konnee-

CKOIO), HO OHA AABAJIACb HE B HMCHfiTC,IIbHOM I{ AAXC HC B DOAHreJrbHoM rraAex(e, a n Sopue lpxJrarareJrbHoro: ..pHrrluie_

poBbr. .

.>,

<EpoyHonu. . .u, .:.E6pr3lopOosbr. .

KHHbr. . .>, <<KyropHoBbr. . .>).

.>, ..6t;;-

(Bo ucex c",iyuanx rrpHJrarareJlb_

HOC CTABHJIOCb BO MHO)KCCTBCHHOM

tIHCJIC, NOCKOJIbKY COTJIACO-

Barocb_c flonp a3yM eBa ro[IHMcs cJroBoM <<xH l.l.r.r> . ) fle B MeHb[Jefi crenenn, verra y KonneBcKoro, 6ur.nn coxoa_ uleHbr H HcKa)KeHtr garilaBtr. H. B. 3ao6Hoa

r{ro n <peecrpe

rtpeAnoJro)KeHr{e,

"o,c*uiu, KHHTaM fpax(AaHcKHM>,

xaK H B peecrpax Konneecxoro, <3arJraBHfl KHHr npHBeAeHbr TaK, KaK oHl.r o6osHaqaJrHcb B pa3roBopHori peu'arr., n;; nepBbrM HoMepoM

s

<<peecrpe, gHaqu"noci,

unir"nr""."ril

r,ru o6pasqbt, KaK n14carb nllcrrra K pa3HbIM oco6aM>>, TynbHoM xe Jracre KHHrH yxaaauo: <<rlpuxnaAu, ", "r_' KaKo nH-

IXYTCfl KOMIIJICMCHTbI PA3HbIC HA HEMCUKOM 93bIKC, TO CCTb K noTeHTaTaM, no3ApaBHTeJIHbte LI coxaJreTeJrHbre, a HHbte TaKOXAe MexAy cpoAHHKOB x IIpHqTe.nefi. I-lepeee4eHbr c Het\{eqKoro Ha poccuriirnfi

nucaHufl, oT noTeHTaToB

raHHbre noBeJreHHeM

"ro,^, "in.uurocyAapfl

H Ber,rH_ -6laroqecrtnefiuero Kp3fl flerpa Anexceesnqa Bce, BerrHKHn Li Maltbtfl u :?fo oerbrfl voccuu caMoAepxua. flpH 6;raropo4uefirueu rocvlaoe

rlapeBnqe H BeJTHKoM xusge A.nexcna flerponn.re. B uaoci"*ro_ IueM BerHKoM rpaAe Mocxee. .Ilera focloaHq 170g.'Ano"Hr_

I3,u,o6Hon H.

---- nexa. M., XX l95b, c.

B.

83.

Vc"ropua pyccxoft 6n6nuorpaeuu

Ao

Haqana

39


Jna>. B KHHte, Ha3BaHHoft B <Peecrpe> <BpuHrnHH aprfin.nepnficxne>, Ha rHTyJtbHoM JIHcre yKa3aHo: <OnucaHne apinr.nepHn s Hefi xe coKpaureHHo HanHcacfl Bce' exe xlsaqnuasnn aprt'InJlepsftcxoro BeAoMcrBa H ocHoBaHufl ee' xorsureMy y cero Aeni 6uru, BeAarH noAo6aer' 3elo npn-

JrHqHo BCeM XOTflUITIM Or MJIa,U,blx JIeT nOT[laTHCg B CeH HayKe

cBoero ficKarH Cr{acrHs, H KaK llylxKapfM, 60u6apAnpau

n

rroAMH HaqaJIHHKoM HcKycHblM 6urn' 9nsuo onn"ua caHo H npncroftHsltr'tn JIHuaMH yKpaueHo BceM cHff HayKH nonty. t{pea Tnr'ao$ea Epnnxa aprun'nepnficxoro oiou"* "u Pasyrueerca' 3TH 3anJIaBHq qpe3MepHo KanHTaHa>. AeJra 6ltno coKparl'lrb' AJrHHHbt, H B onucaHAH ux uenecoo6pagHo a HcKaxeHbl' coKpaueHbl, npocro He Ho s <<Peecrpe>> oHI'l

tat"

KHHr

npHToM HacroJlbKo, uro eaipyaHrJlacb uAeHruQnxauns j (iert,I 6o;ree, qro HepeAKo HcKaxaJIHcb n Qauu'nun aBropoB onH' B npHBeAeHHoM npHMepe Qauu.nHn Eputtx repeAaHa B DPuHxuHur). caHHH roAa H Mecra H3AaHHfl, BepoRTHo' o6lgcHROrcvrcrsue t{To (l7lo} 6un o6ulsru AJIfl Bcex KHH[' BKJIIOroA nocr rer,,|, 3arJIaBHH I'l Bce qenHbtx n <Peecrp>, H ynoMHHarcfl B KHr{rH 6Hna HsAaHoi

.ero

"

o^"o* ropoAe (CaHxr'flerep6ypre).

Ilpnrepu rc cPeecrpa tttrrnar rpaxAaxcxrilr l7l0 r''

l.

pa3ublM Koun.neueHTbl, HJIH o6pasuut, KaK nHcarb nncMa K

oco6au.

2. O caPanux aelex.

H JIIrHeRKI'I' 3. feouerpntrecKue o npueMe qHpKynfl -ruiyp"rtaonblff HayKIt o6pasUul' 4. Apxnrexryp" uoe""'a" n.nn 5. PnunaepoeH o crpoeHnll Kpefiocretl'

6. BopsaopQoBu

nBapHll3oHHble H HafioJlltble urypMoBHe'

7. Ep6ynonu aPrruaePuficxne'

8. EPuHruHu aPrulaePnftcrae. 9. KvroPHoeH HHxeHePHble. ib.'ii.iopnu KsuHra'Kypuxa, o A'nexcan4pe BenHKoM uape MaxeAoHcxou.

B3flrHH rPaaa TPott' 12. Tpuyu$a;lHblx Bpar onficaHue Ha

li. Hctopta o

l/lu roa' 13. feoipaQna, tlJIH onlcaHl{e 3eMJIH coKpalrleHnoe' 14. Kalesaapu. 15. Mann$ecru xopo,lefr, noncKoro n AarcKoro'

40


Knnroroprosas 6r6a xorpaQnn BosHr.rxHoneHHe KHHroropnonofi

'6n6lnorpaQNn

s

Poco.tH

ornocurce K KoHuy 20-x noAos XVIII 8., KorAa npn AxaAeunn HayK orKpbrJracb KHHxHas JraBKa, Ha3BaHHas Kunxsoft na.narofi, H B ra3ere <<CaHxrnerep6yprcxne BeAoMocrH> or 2l Aexa6pn 1728 r. (Nb 102) 6uno noueueHo nepBoe o6'bsBreHHe o KHHrax, npoAaroulHxcs n Heft. B eroM o6tqsJTeHHH nepeqHcnfrHcb 'leTbrpe pa3Hbrx KaJreHAaps Ha 1729 roa, Koropbre MoxHo 6u.no npno6pecru s KHHxHofi naJIaTe.

B onucasnsx grnx xaneHAapefi no,u,po6uo BocnpoH3BoAHJrHcb 3arJraBHfl, yKa3brBaJrHcb Sopruar, HaJrHqHe nepenJrera

n ueHa (lnurl B onHcaHHH rperbero KaJreH- Kauropuoro -cBeAeHHfl Aapfl He 6un yxasaH Soprrrar H orcyrcrBoBaJrn o nepennere). B onncaHHH qerBeproro KaJreHAaps orMeqaJlocb, qTo oH gBJIfleTcfl nepeBoAoM c HeMeuKoro, roBopHJlocb o HaJTHqHH HJlnrocrpaunfi u Aaxe npHBoAHnocb Hx coAep)KaHae. Eu,nu orMeqeHbr raKxe npHrolxeHxfl K nepBoMy, BTopoMy il qerBeproMy H3 Ha3BaHHbrx KaJreHAaperi u AaBaJracb xapaKTepHcrHKa 3THx npuJroxeunfi. BuxoAnue AaHHHe B onncaHHn

cyry6o BpeMeHHbrM a raKxe reM, qro uecro (CaHxrflerep6ypr) n roa ( 1728) 6wnw 3aBeAoMo H3BecrHbt qHra-

orcyrcrBoBaJrH, Ho 3To o6rscHRyrocr xapaKTepoM o6'bflBreHHs, TCJIflM.

Onncanrs ralen4apefi, noMeuleHHHe B ra3€re cCanxrnerep6yprc[re Beaoltocr]|t

l) l4cropuvecrsfi s

axouor,rtqecxnfi xa.neuAapb, Koroporo cqsc,eHHe noanexau1lrx K olrouy AcrpouoMHqecKnx Aeficrn no sceM 3Harseftruuu ropoAaM Poccnftcxoro rocyAapcrBa coqHHeHH, c AgoftHutr npn6ar.renueu MHorflx noJre3Hbrx gKoHoMurrecKqx npaBxJr Ir Kypfio3-

Horo onucaHut o 3eMJIe l(auuarxe B qerBeprb .nncra B npocrou nepennere no 15 xoneex, a Koropbre c npoKnaAKoro 6yuarx no 2l xo-

2) Vro4uufi xaloft xalesAapr c npn6awreuHeM, KaK rroqra crcAa npuxoAr-rr H orxoAHT, npoAonroBarbrfi s 12 aoJrro nncra, B npocroM nepenJrere no 8 xoneex, a c npoKJraaKon 6yruaru no 12 roneex. 3) Kaxropnuft KaneHAapb no 6 xoneex. 4) Ka;reH4apr sa Poccnftcxou q3HKe, npeBeaesuufi c 6o.nurono HeMeuxofo KaneHAaps c 4 npeuapa4HbrMH rpbrAopoBaHHbtMn Qurypaun, Koropbre 4 apeueHn roAa 3Haqar; npH xoropoM eule uecRvHurfi urrarcxnfi KaJleHAapb scex eHarHeftruux Qaunalft n Snpone H nepeBo1 c otrrcaHur geMar Kau.tarKl rprlnoxeHbr B 8 ao;rn .,rHcra B npocroM nepennere no l0 xoneex, a c nponeex.

KJraAKoro

6yuarn no 15 xoneex.

4l


B xaqecree orAeJlbHoro nplrJloxeHlrq K roMy xe N! 102 <<Caurrnerep6yprcxr.rx eeAoraocreft> 6ltn ony6nnxoaaH <CynneueHr, (r. e. AonoJIHeHue), neunuruftca nepnofi pyccxoft KHnroroproeoft pocnncbo r.r coAepxaeurHfi nepeqeHb 9 xnnt, npoAaBaBunxcfl s Knr.txHofr naJlare. floa Ne I s groM nepeqHe gHaqHJIHcb <Kounaeuraprv ltntu Ltgr,atufl AxaAeuun HayK nuneparopcroli caHKrnerep6yprcxoii> (uacrr l). B onncaunn noApo6Ho pacKpbrBanocb coAepx(aHae Kax(Aoro H3 rpex <<KJraccoB>> (orpac.rrefi suaHua), Ha Koropbre noApa3AeJIflJIIicb <<Kotrtueurapvv>, vt nepeqncnaJlucb Bce HayqHbre pa6otsr, noMeuleHHble B Ka)KAoM <<KJIacce>>: yKa3bIBaJIHcb nua n $annnJrnfl aBropa (a poaurerlHoM rraAexe) u sar.naeue, orAeJrrrBrxeeca

or

QarunruH ganqrori.

B onncasnsx KHr{r, noMeureHHbtx B peecrpe 1728 r., npnBoAr,rJrncb 3arJraBne, nua lr $auurfiq aBropa (e po4xre.nlHott naAelKe, o6uquo c npeAJloroM <<or>, HanpuMep, <<or Hoassa XpucraaHa Eyrc6ayua>>), Mecro ns!'a*vr n rnnorpaQnn (n ro r.r Apyroe B poAureJlbuotu naAexe), roA H3AaHLIR, Qopuar H cBeAeHHfl o HaJrHqHn B KHr{re r{JlJlrocrpaquft. A.ns nepeBoAHbrx KHHI o6uqgo yKa3bIBaJIocb, qro KHl{ra flBJlsercfl nepeBoAoM c raKoro-To q3brKa. IIpu ua"nnuuu MHororoMHux ugAanuft pacKpbrBanocb coAepxaur{e KaxAoro roMa n.nn qacrn. OrAeJIbHbIe SJIeMeHTbI OnilCaHHfl He BCerAa pa3AerRJIHCb 3Ha-

KaMlr npeIIHHaHHfl, I{TO 3arpyAHfJIO BOClpl.lfTHe OnHCaH{f B UCJIOM. Ilpnrrrepu rl3 peecrpa 1728 r.

qacrb

l.

coAepxaulas oxo;lo KoHor Hoauua XpucrnaHa 6yxc6ayua, Axaaeuun Hayx ureHa n Caurrnerep6ypre, n Tunorpa$nn Axaaeuuu Hayx 1728 B qerBeprb .nncra 6orturus pyKn c 65 rpu4oponaHHHMu Qurypaun. Ero xe qacrb Bropaq g 4 rncta 6o,nnoft pyru c 50 rpbti[opo-

Tpar ne

craHTnHonorn

BaHHbTMH

BecMa 3HaeMblx

n sa Boctoxe

Qurypaun.

o6HcxaHHHq

Corpaulennn MareMartqecKofo, AJtt ynorpe6.neuur Ero Bennuecrna Huneparopa Bcea Poccnu, 9acrr flepeafl, coAepxaqaq ApnQrrreuxy, feouerpuo u Tprronouerpnro. B CaHxrnerep6ypre, neqaraHa n TunorpaQuu AxaAeunu Hayr< 1728 ro4y n 8 Aonlo Jlncra c 7 rpsraoponannunan $nrypauu ua poccnftcKoM r3blKe. KomueHrapru tiltt v,al,aHtfl AxaAeunn uayx I'IuneparopcKl.tfl CaHxrnerep6yprcKHq. flepnan qacrb Ha 1726 rot. B Caurrnerep6ypre, n Tr.rnorpaQnr.r AxaAevuqecxofi 1728 roly HaneqaraHbl B qerBeprb JrHcra 6o.nuuofi pyxu c l7 rpHAopoBaHHbltuu Qnrypaun. Csn ae.ra 6orruras qacrb H3 cneAyounx apyrux HaneqaraHbl TaKoxAe Ha 6yuare rpex pyK, a HMsHHo: Ha aneKcaHApuftcxofi nnuleft 42


6yuare Hex.neeHnofi, u ua 6yuare,[.Byx pyK, Ho oIHaKox Bce B oIHy Mepy H qhcrory. Ouue Ae.na npHnHcaHbr ero HuneparopcKoMy Be.nnrecrny flerpy Bropor'ly, r.r Car*o4epxr1y Bcepocclrftcxoruy, n nporqas, H nporqaq, n nporrras. flocre xoroporo npHnncaHfig npeano npoHcxox,u.eHHH H HaMepeHHH cero aena npocrpaHHee H3aflcHeHo, caMHe oHHe B npuBarHbrx co6paunnx oHoft

cJroBHe cneayeT, B KoropoM

Axaaeuun npoqnranbr, KpoMe roro qro HHbre lto pagHbrM MarepHffM eule Ha Tpfi KJIacca pa3aeneHbr, Kax o ToM cneAypuaq pocnHcb noKaxeT:

B x.tacce

MareMarsqecxoM

Vaxosa fepuaua, o Mepe cHn B

TeJrecax.

feopra EepunapAa bynQuHnepa, o clrnax reny noAB[xeHHoMy BAaHHbTX nO Mepe HX.

Urro.naa Eepuy;urxa, o ABr{r(eH[u reJec or yAapeHus.

,(anuxla Sepxyaana, ucnbrraHre

HaqaJtoB MexaHnKr{.

Haxosa leprrraua, o npo6aeue rnu npernoxeHur.r l(en.nepu-

AHOBOM,

Ero xe o uere [HTerpanHoM H [eJrHHcrBeHHoM. [...]

B gracce [cropflqecKoM OeoQn.na 3trerppn.4a Eafiepa,

.ruulax cxaSoa.

o

HaqarKe u apeBHltx npe6HBa-

Ero xe, o MecronoJroxenng CKuOxH B Jera fepogoronu. Ero xe, o creHe KaBKa3cKofi. [...]

B rocneAyroqee BpeMr peecrpbr HIH pocnucn KHHr, fiMEIOIIIHXCS B KHIjXHOft JIABKE AXAACUNN HAYK (KHHX(HOft flan aTe ), ny6JI Il Ko Ba Jr Hc b ex(ero,u,Ho oTAeJr bHbt M tr r.t3,u,a H I.t f, M n

(e nn4e caMocrosrerbHbrx Bbr[ycKoB). Ha nporaxeHur4 AecflT-

KOB JIeT OnHCaHHt B HHX, KaK HH CTpaHHO, He ToJtbKo He

coBep-

IIeHCTBOBaJIL|Cb, HO, HanpoTHB, B pgAe clyqaeB oKa3btBaJIHcb 3HaqHTeJrbHo 6oIee npr.tMHTHBHbrMH, rieM B peecTpe 1728 r.

Qaunnnu aBTopoB (nuena unv nHn\nanbr o6brqHo He vKa3br-QopMe BaJrHcb) rpHBoAHJrHCb (B poAHreJtbHoM naAexe unr.r B npHJraraTeJrbHoro) To B HaqaJre oflficaHHq, TO nOCJIe 3arJraBHr;

B CHJIbHO COKPAIqEHHOM, A HCPCAKO I,I B I,ICKAXEHHOM BHAC; BbIXOAHbIE .U,AHHbIC OTCYTCTBOBAJIH; B OTAenbHbrx cnyqaflx_ onycKaJracb Aaxe oaMHrHq aBropa. Hanpnnaep, B peecTpe 1767 r,2 oAHo H3 onn;anufi BbrrrsA;ro cneAynur.rM o6pa3oM: <<Onacaxne Kauqarxu B AByx roMax co MHoFr.tMH rpHAHpoBaHHbrMr{ oHrypaMH>, a Ha Tr.tTyJtbHoM 3AFJIABHC AABAJIOCb

JrHCre KHHrH 3HaqHJrOCb: <onficaHHe 3eMJrr.r Karuqarxl.r coquHeHHe CrenaHa KparueunHHHKoBa>. Taxnnn o6pa3oM, B onHca2 Peecrp poccnficxlu KHHraM, Koropble npoAanrcg s CaHxrnereo6vorJraBKe B Mocxse. n,.'tltOZ.

cxofi araaeutqecxoft xageHnoft xnnxioft

43


nponyqeHbl HME H oaMl{nHfl aBropa H BTopoe cJloBo 3arraBnq (xorn n yKa3aHo Haruqr.te B KHHre n.n.nncrpaunfi, qro 6u.no AJIfl onncaHnft, noueuaeMblx B peecrpax, AoBonbHo peAKr.rM nnneHneu). B apyrortr onHcaHHH npHBeAeHH cneAyroHHH'

ulue

cBeAeHnR

:

<

I-pa

ru

u arlrKa poccnft cxaR rocnoAuHa Jlor,,to-

HocoBa>, a Ha rr.rryJlbHoM JIHcre KHHI'H crosJlo: <<PoccHftcxaq rpaMMarr.tKa Mnxaft.na Jlottlottocona>. B arou cryr{ae u3MeHeH nopflAoK cJIoB B 3arJIaBHH, O[yUIeHO LIMfl aBTOpa, 3aro

<rocnoAltxa>. floAo6Hblx npHMeAo6asreHo JrHrlHee cJIoBo MHox(ecrBo. poB Mo)KHo 6sr.no 6st npr{Becru Jlnurr cnycrs 20 .iret onxcaHllfl KHHr B peecrpe aKaAeMI'lqecxofr runxiHofi JIaBKI{ crarl{ 6onee coBepueHHbttrln: QaunJrr.rs aBropa (e poanre.nrsom naAexe) yKa3blBaJIacb, KaK

fia nepBoM MecTe, HMf, aBTOpa npl'IBoAHnocb nocne QauHnuu (e xpyrlux elo6Kax, HepeAKo B coKpaurenHoM iuae), 3arflaBHe Bocnpofl3BoAl'lJIocb 3HaqHreJtbHo 6o.nee noJIHo H Tor{Ho, orMeqarncb roA H3AaHHfl n Qopuar, a HHorAa H HaJlnqile HJlJllocrpaqnfi (<c Qurypaun>) ' (Mecro Il3AaHHfl onycKaJlocb, tlocKoJlbKy Bce KHHTH, BKJIIOqeHHbIe B peecTp' 6srrn HgAaHH B oAHoM H ToM xe ropoAe - CaHxr-flerep6ypre). Hanpnuep, B pocnucll 1787 n.3 onucaHuff KHHr npaBr.rJIO,

tv(.

g.

JloMoHbcosa BbtrflflAgr cJleAylolrlaM o6pasor',t:

(Mnx.) aperHqq PoccHficxan Hcropur or HaqaJIa Poccuftcroro HapoAa ao KoHirHHbt Be.rlKoro xHxsa fpoc'nana flepnoro, Hrtt-t ao 1054 roaa. 1766 r. s 4.

JloMoHocosa

-

Ero xe r. JloMonocosa rpaxoft Poccnfrcxofi Jleronuceq c cJIoBHeM. 1760 r. s 8. Ero xe nepBble ocHoBaHHt Meta.n'nyprnn HnH pyAHblx

- s 8. c SurYPaun.

poAo-

aen' 1762 r'

OnucaHfiq tuuororounstx t{sAaHnfr .IIHlltb B oqeHb peAKHx BKJIIOqaJII,I CneqnouxaqHlo OTAeJIbHblx roMoB' B KO' roioft pacKpbtBanocb coAepxa HI'le Kar(Aoro rol!'t a' flpu seAe rt,t lpuMepbl onHcaunft MHol'oToMHblx sgAannft (nepnoe cJloBo 3arraBr.rq AaJIee 3aMeHeHo npoqepKoM, gngqaQfixallHfl TOMOB

clyqaqx

AaHa JIHtxb Bo BToPoM orIHcaHHH).

3 Pocntct poccuficxtltl, JlarIlHcKHM, HeMelrKHM' HTa'tIHaHcKHM n QpaHuy3cKHM KHIrraM H naHAKapraM' TaKO)K- npocneKTaM' nJlaHaM u ApyfHM gcraMnaM, Koropbte s trun. AxaAeunn Hayx xnnxnoft naBKe npoaalorcq' c noKa3aHHeM qenu. Cn6., 1787. 55 c.


Hcropua Ar.nxHcxan, co'tHH. Panrlna ae Toapaca 1768 r. Aarcxas, coqnu. Ma.n.nera. Herupe qacr|, 1775-1786

-

r. a 8 tlacrr I co4epxur a ce6e nponcurecrBnr or HaqaJIa MoHapxnn Ao BcrynneHuq Ha npecron O.n4en6yprcroro aoMa. Ilacru II or cMeprfl Baa4euapa no6eaouocsoro n l24l roay Ao BocuecrBnr Ha npecron a 1448 ro4y Xpucruaua I, nepaoro tlacrt III, or nocuecrann xopoJrs ua Oa4eH6yprcKoro AoMa. - Xpt,tcrnaHa tla npecron Xpncrnaua I 4o cnepxeuua II. 9acrs IV - or cBep3ax.rrpqaer B ce6e Bce npoHcruecrBnt, 6unurue s AaHr.rH H3 KoHx

II .qo-lllrerrHHcKoro rllupa. Bce versrpe uacrn BMecre, 3 p. 50 xon. a nopo3nb KaxAar no py6. Ero xe BBeAeHHe B Hcropuro !,arcxyro, B KoropoM paccyxaaercfl Bepe,3aKoHax, HpaBax o6brKHoBenHfx apeBHHx.[larqaH. 1785 r. s 8. Ase qacrr BMecre, 95 xon. xeHnn Xpncruana

- o B

I

H3AaHHbrx rro3AHee

n

peecrpax vrtr pocnllcrx

KHHI

,

IlpoAaro[lHxcrr B KHHxHoft naBKe AXaAeunu, BpeMfl oT BpeMeHH Ha6nloAanOCb BO3BpaUleHHe

K

6OJIee npl.tMHTr.rBHofi

Qoprue onHcaHHfl.

Tax, s pocltt{cn 1794 r.a He yKa3brBaJrr.rcb HMeHa aBropoB, Qar',tnrun xe B pqAe cJyr{aeB AaBaJrHcb B SopMe npfinaraTe.nbHoro, HanpHMep <Pa6eHeponu corlHHeHHfl>>, KaK 3TO 6u.no eule B <Peecrpe KHHfaM rpa)KAaHcKHM...> l710 r. Orcyrcrsoaa.nn noApo6Hbre oilncaHufl (co cneuu$HKaunefi orAeJrbHbrx roMoB) MHororoMHbrx H3AaHHfi. Taxuu o6pa3oM, npouecc coBepIxeHcTBoBaHHfl onHcaHHfl Aaxe B npeAeJrax oAHOTO H TO|O )I(e n3AaHr.rn npoxoAHJr BecbMa HepoBHo, H_ KaKHe-TO AOCTH)KeHilfl, Ha6JrrOAaB[rHeCf B OrAeJrbHbrX BbrnycKax, AaJIeKo He BcerAa coxpaHflnHcb B BbtllycKax nocJleAyloulHx.

flounuo peecrpoB r.rJrn pocnncefi KHHr, npoAaBaBulnxcfl B KHHxHori JraBKe AxaAeuuu HayK, B XVIII B. ny6rilKoBaJrocb MHOXeCTBO peecrpoB HnH pocnHceft ApyrHx KHHxHbrx JraBoK, a raKxe rHnorpaoHfi. Bce oHn, KaK H fa3erHbre o6bsBJreHHfl o KHHfax, oTJrr{qaJrr.rcb KpaftHeft npHMHTHBHOCTbTO OIIHCaHHfi, KOTOpbre HHOft pa3 COCTOSJTH H3 OAHOTO JrHltrb 3ar"JraBHrr.

<Becrua MHoroqHcJIeHHbIe B cBoe BpeMfl, H3AaBaBuIHecf 3Haqr.rTeJIbHbrM THpaxoM, 3rr.l He6oJrb[rHe no o6beMy raK Ha3blBaeMbte <.[eTy'.rHe> v3(aHnf IIor{TH He coxpaHHJIl.tcb,

-

{ Pocnncu poccnficxurtt, JraruHCKHM, HeMeqKilM, HTaJlr{aHcKnM n QpaHqy3cKlrM KHHTaM n naHAKapTaM, TaKox nopTpeTaM, npocneKTaM, TaKox gcraMttaM, Koropbre s xnlxxofi .lanxe l4uneparopcxofi Ara4eunr ! ApyrHM Hayx npo,qarorcfl, c roKa3aHHeM rIeHH. Cn6., 1794. 64 c. 46


nucaJra T. <D. AQanacbeBa.

OsN coBepueHHo He IreHHJtHcb

- qro Kax(Abtfi nocle4ynutnft B cHJIy roro, peecrp rofi unu nHofi ragxN HnH rl{norpaQuu Ae.nan HeHyxHbrM nocreAyrou{nft>.5 BosI'IoxHo, HMeHHo eroft HeAo.nnoBesHOCTbTO peecrpoB, a raK)Ke crpeMneHueM Bna.u,eJlblleB JIaBoK HJu{ rnnorpa$ufi xax MoxHo cKopee pacnpocrpaHnru nuQopMarruro o nocrynuBuux B npoAaxy KHHrax o6lqcHsnacl He6pexHocrb cocraBJIeHHt onucaHNft. TaK, o <<Peecrpe Poccnftcxnu KHHraM, npoAalotrlnMcfl ... e xHI'lxHoli JIaBKe, cocrosulefi y Hosoro Huxo.ltucxoro Mocra In Mocxse] > a 1796 r. A. 14. Manenu cilpaBeAfl?tBo roBopIlJI, '{ro oH cocraBJreH <c nopasnrenruofi KparKocrbto H npene6pexeHHeM K qnTarern. 3ar.nasns KHHI coKpaueHbt Ao Hey3HaBaeMocru, Hanp., Aaonr.ra; Ba.nrure; Becra.nxa; Aercxas xuHra;. . .> 6 B XVIII e. ny6;tNxoearucb raKxe KHHroroproBble pocnHcH KHHr Ha l{HocrpaHnblx g3brKax. Onncasss lrHocrpaHHblx KHHr'

coBpeMeHHHKaMH

TaKXe OTrHqaJIHcb KparKocrblo KaK npaBHJIO, 's

t',l

HeToqHocrblo'

Tax, pocnxcn 1787 r. onrcaHl{e oAHofi ns SpaHuy3cKHx KHHr BbtrJlflAHT cneAynunu o6paaou: Observations de passage deVenus a Ponoi. 1769. par Mr Mallet.4.

qro Mecro Il3AaHHfl He npHBoAHJIocb' aBropa (s aaHHOM CJryqae oHo noMe[IeHo flocre roAa H3AaHHH), HMfl X(e Hs npnuepa

BHAHo,

He 6u.no eAnHbo6pasun B yKa3aHHH Qauu.nnn

aBTopa o6st,{Ho He yKagbtBaJlocb. Cpean KHnroroproBblx pocnncefi s;tn peecrpoB XVIII e.' xapaKrepH3oBaBtrILrxcs, KaK npaBn.no, xpaftu,e_ Hn3KHM ypoBuertr onncaunft, snrAersJtcs, KaK orMeqaer H. B' 3Ao6nos, JIHlrIb <KaraJlor KHuronpoAaBua Mn.n.nepa c roqnbrM o6ognar{eHHeM 3ar.nanufi, roaa LI3AaHHa u Qopuara KHHr. IIo c.llosaM

baxueficrepa,

sror

KaraJtor

6ul rorAa...B

Poccl'tl'l

.'.

eANHcrseHHoft xHnrofi, npuroAuoft AJIS HaBeAeuun cnpanor>.7

5 AQ a H a cbesa T. O. <Peecrpu> xHnnXVIII s. Mocxoacxofi cHHoB xH.: KHHra s Poccxu Ao cepeanHbr XIX aexa. ,qanbHofi rnnorpa$un. Jl., 1978, c. 170.

Maaenn A. H. KnnxHue pocnucn XVIII sexa.-Tpy4u Hx-ra KHnrH, aoKyMeura H nltcbMa, 1936, gun. 5, c. 44. 7 3ao6Hos H. B. Hcropnn pyccxoft 6t6.luorpaQnn Ao Haqana 6

XX sexa, c. 46

95.


Oco6o cneAyer ocrauoBr.rrbcq Ha oAHoM nepHoAnqecKoM 6u6.nnorpaQnqecKoM ilslarilu KHHroropnoBoro Ha3HaqeHHfl. 3ro 6n6.nuorpaQuvecxuft xypHan <<Russische Bibliothek zur

Kenntnis des gegenwiirtigen Zustandes der Literatur in Russland> (<Pyccxas 6u6;rnoreKa AJIfl H3yqeHHs coBpe-

MeHHoro cocroflHnr nnTeparypbr a Poccrn>), n3AaaaauraficR 6n6;rnorpaQoM L yI{eHbIM-3KoHoMLrctou f. JI. X. Eaxr'reficrepoM (1730-1806). Xypna.n BbrxoAHrI s 1772-1789 rn. (acero BbmrJro I I romon) n 6u.tt npuypoqeH x nefinuurcxnu KHHX(HbIM gpMapKaM. Bce ero roMa, BMecre B3flTbIe, coAepxar I 123 onncaHnfl KHr.rn Ha pyccKoM r.r HHocrpaHHbrx n3blKax,

ony6nnxonaHHbrx B Poccnu c 1770 r. B <<Pyccxofi 6n6rnorexe>> baxueftcrepa onncaulrfl pyccKr.rx KHHr 6uru Aault B rpaHcJIHrepaIrHLt narnucxl.ttrru 6yrnauu. TpaHcnnrepHpoBaHHuft pyccxufi TeKcr 3aKJIloqaJIcfl B KaBbtqKH, BHAHMO, C IIeJIbIO BbIAeJIHTb Onl.lcaHHfl pyCCKHX KHr.rr. (B <Pyccxyn 6n6nnorery> 6u.no BKJIrcqeHo HeMaJIo us1a*uir, ony6.nnxoraHHblx B Pocctur Ha l,tHocrpaHHbtx g3blxax). OnacaHHfl cocraBJIqrncb de visu c 6o.nluoti roqHocrbto I.r BKJIrorIaJrr.r s ce6q Bce ocHoBHbte 3JIeMeHTbt. Bcel'Aa AocraTOqHO NOJIHO I,I TOI{HO NPHBOAHJIOCb 3ATJIABHC, YKA3bIBAJIHCb

Qaun.nnn aBropa (onucaunn AeJIaJIHcb noA 3arraBHeM), Mecro HgAaHHr, I{3AareJIb LIJIH runorpa$na, KoJIHT-recrBo crpaHHll, Soprr,tar H ueHa. ,[lna nepenoAHblx KHIar orMer{arocb,

c KaKoro fl3brKa oHH nepeBeAeurt. OnucaHHr conpoBoxAaJll,rcb noApo6HuruH aHHorauHflMu uJtn peQeparaun. Eyayuu npeAHa3HaqeH Ail:. xsuxsofi roproBJIH, rpyA Baxueficrepa B ro >xe BpeMq BbrnoJrHrJr 3aAaqn rexyutefi 6n6nraorpaQnqecxofi perucrpauun. <<,[,axe H renepb, cnycrfl nHcaJI M. V. Cyxolr,t.nnuon o <<Pycrrorrru rreJroe croJlerne, cxofi 6u6nuorexe>> s - 1889 r.,- yr{eHbte npu3Haor, t{To HH oAHo Hg rrocJreAynxrHx r{gAaHr.rft e noAo6Horvt poAe He TOJTbKO He npeB3Or.XJIO, HO He MO)Ker CpaBHHTbCS C npeBo-

cxoAHbrM rpyAoM Earr'aeftcrepa>>.8 OAHnU Hg eaxHefiilJlrx Aocror.rHcrB Hgrarvfl 6ula, B qacrHocru, TrrareJlbHo pa3pa6oraHHaq MeroAnKa onHcaHHfl xuur, o6ecneqHBIuafl TotIHocrb, [oJrHory n eAuuoo6pa3ne ollncauuft. Oasaro to o6croqrerlcrBo, qro Bce onucaHnfl pyccKnx KHI{r AaBaJIHcr s rarnHcxoft TpaHcJrHrepauHr{, He MorJIo He 3aTpyAHHTb AJI' pyccKoro qHTareJrfl noJrb3oBaHne rpyAoM baxnaeficrepa.

r

t Cy*oMJrnHog M. I,l. HccJreaosaHus Cn6., 1889, r. 2, c.6.

H

crarbtt no pyccxofi uayre

npocBeu{eHnro.

47


Ilprnepu ng,,Russische Bibliothel "Knigha soderzcaschtschaja w' sebje utschenie o rawnowjesii dwizchenii tiel', sotschinenie Semena Koteljnikowa. W' Sanktpeterburghje pri morskom' schljachetnom' kadetskom' korpusje

i

1774 ghoda". 166 Oktavseiten,

,,Poterjann'rij

mit

raj,

12 Kupferiafeln.

poema Joanna Miltona,

perewedena

s' Aghlinskagho. W' Sanktpeterburghje pri Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk' 1777 ghoda'l. 107 Oktavseiten.

<Canxrnerep6yprcKxe yqeHbte BeAomocrn>

H. H. Hosrxosa

3naqurerruHfi HHTepec c rorrKlt 3peHHR MeroAr.rKH onucaHHfl npeAcraBJrqeT xypHar <cauxrnerep6yprcKHe yqeHbre BeAoMocrH>, H3AaBaBuHftCq

Ha

H. H.

HOeHxoBHM. HecMorpfl

KpaTKOBpeMeHHOCTb CBOenO CyUIeCTBOBaHHg, )KypHaJI

3ror 3aHqr

BHAHOe Mecro B HcropHH pyccKofi 6u6rnorpaQnn. 3aMe,{areJrbHHft pyccxuft npocBernreJlb XVIII e. HHxoraft HgaHosnq Hosnxoa (1744-1818) poau.ncs B ceMbe cpeAHenoMecTHoro ABopflHHHa, yqHrcfl B fHMHa3Hn npH MocKoBcKoM yHHBepcHrere, 3aTeM cnyxHJI B nBapAHH s HslvtafiroBcKoM noJrKy, pa6oraJl s Koil,firccHH AJIq cocraBneHHfl HoBoro V.noxeHHg. B TaJIbHefiueM B TeqeHHC NOqTH ABaAUATH JICT HOEHXOE 3aHnMarcq KHHroH3AareJrbcKorl, xypHarbHofi u nxreparyp-

Hofi AeflTerbHocrbro. B carupauecKHx xypHaJtax" I{3AaBaBul,txcg Hoglrxosstttt, noMeluaJrHcb cTaTbH, B KoTopblx o6rHqaJrocb KpenocrHHqecTBo, 6HqeearHcu nopoKH ABopflHcKoro 06ulecrBa,

B

brpax aJlocb coqyBcrBI.re yrHereHHbt

M Kpecrbff Ha M.

HosHxos cMeJIo BeJI noJIeMHKy c xypHalou ExarepuHut II <BcRxag Bctr{HHa> H HaBreK Ha ce6R rHeB HMneparpnubr. IIo noseneHHn EKarepHHbt Hoarxos npeKparHr'I H3AaHHe

xypHafloB H neqaraHHe KHHr, a s 1793 r.6ut.n apecroBaH H 3aKJtroqeH e [IlrHccenr6yprcxyro Kpenocrb. Cnycra 4 roAa (nocne cMeprH ExarepnHu) HonHxoe 6un ocBo6oxAeH no yKa3y

flasra,

Ho

yxe

He Bo3o6HoBJIsJr cBoro H3AarenbcKyro

H nHreparypHyn pa6ory.

AeqrenlHocrr H. H. HoeHxosa HMera orpoMHoe o6ue-

cTBeHHOe 3HaqeHHe, a ero caTHpHqecKHe )KypHarbl HaBcerAa BoruJrH B HcropHto pyccxofi nHreparypbt. Hoeuxos 6ut.n sblAalo-

rUHMcfl 6u6.ItnorpaQoM, o qeM, B qacrHocrl.l, cBHAereJlbcrByer ero xypHan <Cauxrnerep6yprcKHe yqeHbte BeAoMocrH>,

48


EBHBIuHfics nepBblM B PoccHH KpHrHKo-6H6'iruorpaQnuecKuM NCPHOAHI{CCKH

'

M

H3AAHHCM.

<CaHxrnerep6yprcxue )4r{eHble BeAoMocrH> npeAnonara.Jrocb r.f3AaBarb exeHeAe.trsno c flHBapfl 1777 r', no nepaufi HOMep xypHana noflBHJICq JIHIIIb B Haqare MapTa (,BblnycKn l-8'aarnpoBaHbl flHBapeM u Qeapa.ner'a; BHAIIMo, Host{xos

B TeqeHHe foAa sce 52 HOrtlepa)' Ha J''l! 22' AarupoBaHHoM npeKparnncfl xypHana buxoa 2 urc,nn l7i7 r. IlpnuuHa npeKpaureHHs v3l..arvtfl HeH3BecrHa' <CasxrHo Mo)KHo npeAnoJloxnTb, rlro orKa3 or ny6'nNxaunn

paccqHTblBaJl BblrlycTHrb

nerep6yprcxHx yqeHblx seAol{ocreft > 6sln sbl38a H HeAocr arot{HbrM KoJIHqecrBoM noAnHcqHKoB. flo-BHAHMoMy, xypHan oKa3aJtcg cJtHulKoM Cepbe3HblM B ycJIOBl'lflX' KOrAa Kpyf eue JrroAefr, HHTepecoBaBurnics HayqHbtMH Bo[pocaMH' 6st'n BecbMa orpaHHqeH.v

B ea.uiuy

<Casxrnerep6yprcxnx yqeHblx BeroMocreH)>

BxoAHJIo, KaK cKa3aHo B rlpeAHcJIoBHt't x Ng l, <BMelllarb s ce6e yBeAoMneHHe> o BbluleAunx B PoccuH KHHrax H AaBarb <KpHTHr{ecKoe paccMorpeHn-e H3AaBaeMblx KHHr>' B cooreercrsuH c STHM B xypHaJle ny6nnxoaa'nHcb pelreH3uH Ha BblueA-

;;;;t

neqarH

s?occ'"

pas"nnvuue H3AaHH'' Ha crpaHHuax

HAANHCH XVDHAJIA HHOTAA NOMEUIAJIHCb TAKXC CTHXOTBOPHbIC

*'ui"u"ot" uso6paxeuunu> (r. e.Jloprperau) Aesrelefi Poccnl'r

roro

eug'anur'uxca

BpeMenn. flpeanoJlaraJlocb neqararb

TaKxexH3HeoIIHcaHHfpyccKHXnncareneft,go6lt.ilno}|euleH noaututerrg"fi xfisHll H Aeqr€rbHocrn Ce'trtuq Jrutub oqepK, -XypHa.n BbIxoAHn B, BHAe roHKHx (I\b l0). -1T!?1f1...1 6oJInuaq peueH3ntt ua <ApenHnn poccHficxylo .BHBJIHo(pHKy)>

neqaraJlacb B HecKoJIbKHX HoMepax (c,-nsMerxofi <npoAon)Ke<HaHHe cJleAyer>), n rpex HoMepax neqara'flocb onucasHe Ka3a>> EIiarePuHur II. yqeHblx Peues3nfl tr, noMeluenH bl wt s Ca Hxtnerep6yp rcxHx BeAoMocrgx>, npeA[IecrBoBaJIH 6n6nnorpaQHqecKHe onficaHI,rfl, orJIHqaloluHecfl peaxofi Aera-'IIbHocrblo H ToI{Hocrblo' geo6-xoAllt"tlte AJIR BcecropoHOHH coAepxaJIH Bce cBeAeHHs' <<

Heft xapixrept'rcr"x" H3AaHHr. Kax npaBHJto'

onHcaHHe

HaqIrHaJtocb c 3arJIaBHs (.nnurl onncaHHfl KHHr, nepeBeAeHHbIX

c JIaTHHCKOTo, HaqHHaJIHCb c HMeHU aBTOpa B p-oAHTenbHoM naaexe;. 3ar.nanne rlpnBoAHnocl 6es xaxnx-'llu6o coxpauee Cnvcrq noqrn 100 ler <Cauxtnerep6yprcxue yqeHble BeAoMocrlt> A. H. Heycrpoeeuu (Cn6'' 1873)'

Our,,rn nep"entaanu

4 H, A.

HnxrQopoocxan

49


c 6onrurori roqHocrbro. floc.ne 3arJraBr.rf, yra3brBanucb HMfr t4 Qamnnua aBTopa B ToM naAex(e, n xoropou ottn 6lrnn HHi4 H

AaHbl Ha rurynbHoM JII'lcre, orMeqaJlHcb raKxe ero nol{erHbre H yqeHbre 3BaHHq. Mecro HsAaHufl o6uqno He yKa3brBaJlocb, oqeBHAHo, B cBq3il c reM, qro oHo 6suo auHeqeHo B KaqecrBe

py6puxu (<<Cauxrnerep6ypr> H.nl.r <<Mocxna>), o6osHaqarocb, npH KaKoM yrrpexAeHr.r1 uJtu y KaKoro "o ""a.iu rr{no_

rpaQa KHHra HaneqaraHa. B xosue npxBoAHJIHcb roA r{gAa_ HHfl, Sopnaar H qncJro crpaHHrl (s nocreAoBareJrbHocrn y::^r.u!rl 3rr.tx rpex 3JreMeHroB ne 6uno eAnHoo6pasnq). L,cooo cneAyer orMerHrb, qro B Onr.rcaHHrx Her.r3MeHHo Aa BaJracb KoJrr{qecrBeHHa r xap a Krepr.rcrfi Ka. Ho ca u a Sopu a, a xoropoli oHa npHBoAHJracb, eule ne 6ula eAnuooOpasHbn N He coorBercrBoBaJra coBpeMeHHoft: nepe4 yxaaaHueru qficra crpaHHrl npocraBnrucq npeAror <Ha>>, CJIOBO <<crDaHHUaX> c:Ipf*rjarycb no-pa3Hovy^^ (Hanpnrraep, <Ha tti+ crp.>, <<Ha JUd crpaHr.luax)>, <Ha 120 crpau.>), a B oAHoM onHcaHHll yKa3aHo: <<coAep)KHr I 30 crpaHrl_q>. IIo-pasnouy yKa3brBancfl , .pfl (Hanpnuep, <lT7T roAa> H <a'1770 roAe>). -r-.Iu"nn nHorAa B OnHCaHHH OTMeqaJIOCb HaJll-tr{fie B KHHre ,u,onoJlHI{TeJIbHblx npousne4eHuft, He ynoMsHyrbtx B 3arJraBr.rH (c'r. HH.xe_ npnMep <<l-ly6;lna Bxprunua Mapona i;t_ rr.rK. . .r). Ann nepeBoAHbrx KHr.rr rtpr.tBoAHJrHcb HMfl n OauilJrHff nepeBoAr{r4Ka, a raKxe ero 3BaHHe. Hepeaxo yxaaunaJlocb, KoMy <<[pflrrucaHa>, T. e. flocBfluleHa KHHfa (co sceM]r

TrrryJraMu H 3BaHHtMr.r AaHHoro Jrr{ua) B onucanun MHororoMHoro HgAaHHr AaBaJIacb cneuuOuKAIIHfl OTACJIbHbIX TOMOB: qACTHOC 3ATJIABHC KAXAOTO TOMA (ecrn oHo- llirle.noct), roA l.r3AaHHfl H q|l,cilo crpaHHu. Bo truornx onficaHxflx no4po6Ho pacKpbrBanocb coAepxaHxe KHHrH: flepequcJlflJlacb Ha3BaHr,tfl rJIaB, crarefi - a Apyrux MarepHaJroB, ony6"nuxonaHHbrx e Hefi. Oco6ofi .q,eraJrb_ Hocrbto orJrHqaJracb xapaKrepHcrHKa coAepx(aHHfl <<Apeaueli p3.^.-ll^.Io1 a n e.n H oQ u x n >. rI o4po6H o p a c Kp brro coAe p )K a H He <<rraKa3a> EKarepuHbr ll, xunr <<Aocyru nnn co6panre corlnHeunft H nepeBoAoe> MHxaHra flonona, uflepiue o."o"i, MerarlJryprHH H pyAHOfO Aera>, <<ontcasue pHr,rcxr.rq Barn_ xaHCKHfl UepKBH> lr Ap. 3ro rroMoraJlo rtnrareJrlo noJIyqHTb gaN6onee noJIHoe npeAcraBJIeHHe o KHHre.

B

<CaHxrnerep6yprcxr.lx yr{eHbrx BeAoMocrflx>> Hoer.rKoB r.r o6teAtHeHHoe onHcaHue. Tax, B oAHoM onr.rcaHHH (oueul 6olrurou no o6teuy, noaroMy ono 6tr.no no"aur""o B psAe HoMepoB xypuana) o6teAnsenu cBeAeHH, o MnororrpaMeHsJt

50


qncreHHbtx H3AaHHflx <<Haxaga> Exarepauu II, e roM qucre r.r o Bcex nepeBoAax ero Ha I{Ho-crpaHHble fl3blKI'l (.naruucxufi' qro Heueqxnft u Spanuyscxnli). Cneayer flotlcHnrb 3Aecb, 6u'no He ,<Haxa3a>> orHIoAb oIIHcaHHe cro.nr o6crosidnuno-e nponBJIeHHeM <<BepHolroAAaHHuqecKHX>> r{yBcrB HoBIlxoea, xbropufi, KaK Mbt BI,tAeJII't, He 6_oqrcq Bcrynarb B noneMlKy

c xypHanou Exarepnnu II. Herusq cr{Hrarb ero raKxe

Jlr.lub npoflBJIeHHeM rleAaHTH3Ma ycepAHoro 6vt6ttuorpada. Kax o6tscttqer A. B. 3anaAos, <<Exarepl'lHa npHHflJIa ilepst x rouy, vro6bt eK3eMnJIffpu Haxaaa 6u.nn cnpnranu

oAHr.rM

npeAHa3HaqaJlocb He Arfl Poccl'tl"t, B rJta3ax xoropoft oHa xoreJla noAa A.nq 3anaAuoft Eeponu,

noaaJlbue,

H HoBoe HsAaHHe

Aepxarb penyrauulo cnpaBeAJll'tBoft t'louapxultll' Teu 6onlluyro cMeJlocrb npoflBl.{.n HoeHroe' HanoMHHBuruft o6 arou ,qo*y"""t" n o pi6ore KouHcct'tll, Iia 3aceaaHnax xoropoft, HecMorpR Ha Bce nperpaAbl, ropflqo o6cyxaanocb noroxeHne DvccKHx KDenocrHblx KPecrbflH>.'' " no*" hoapo6uono onHcaHHfl <Haxasa> HsraHilA 1770 t' co BceMH nocreAylouHMH AOIOJIHeHI'ltlMH K HeMy AaH nepeqeHb BCeX rJIaB, BXOASXIHX g <<HaKa3>, a AaJIee yKa3blBaercfl: Onpu,rs cero 6u.nn eure H3aaHxg Ha pa3Hblx fl3blKax' Koropble MH 3IECb

l.)

ONHUICM:

Coaepxauree

e ce6e nepBble 20 raan; neqaraHo Ha oaHoM a' n., s Mocrcae' npu Cenare, 1767 roaa'

Poccufrcrcox R3blKe, B 8

s Htore

Mectue.

nepBbre 20 rnas na Pocctlf,cxou Rsuxe' Hunec [pHcoBoKynn euueu Hene4xoeo'nepeBoAa; neT ' a Mocxne, npn paiopcxou'Vausepcurere' s 1767 roae' B ceu HeueqxoM nepeBoae

2.) Coaepxauree s ce6e

b6p"iurot pa3Hocrb npornBy nepeBoaa Caurctnerep6ypzcroeo

- v3l'.3BHfl. -CoAepxaqee s ce6e 22 rJraBbI, neq' Ha oAHoM Poccuficrcox a.l

s C.n.6., npu Cenare, n 1768 roae' Hete4xud Mocroecrcurt nepeB-oa' BHeceH Bo BTopoe-H3AaHxe

t3blKe, B 8 a. Jr., 4.'1

Hoaonpe.uenennua

t- JIefi'6quee. 'Cauufi 5.)

Poccuu nau' Xurun Exarepnuu

cefi

xe

nepeB-or HaneqaraH

II'

g Jlefi6uHre

lteq'

oco6o'

Vg^ateneu - -^-6.) HoaonpeneveflHbtn Pocctllt'

',

neq.

s

.

@pan4gscxud nepeso.4, -c-oAepxaurnft s ce6e- 22 rtaau' Huneparopcxofi Aralenuu nagrc'

g 8 ir. r., e

C.n.6-'' npu

1769 roae.

Bceeo nepequcrrelo II usdanuir <Haxaeat Ha pgccKot u ulocrparurux Sguvax' a ra'gce onucaHu' doxgnenrw:-grcqau u np,, <npucolovgnJteflflue> e 1777 e.

r nocnedueng

r0 3 a n a ao s A. B. Hoesxos. M., 1968,

usdanuto <Harasa>

c. ll8. 5l


B

qeJroM <Casxrnerep6yprcxue yqeHHe BeAoMocrr.r>

oTJrHqarilcb BbrcoKHM AJts CBoero BpeMeHH ypoBHeM onHcaHHr,

a no csoefi noJluore H ror{Hocru He ycrynanr onncaHlrrM, cocraBJlfleMbtM B Halult AHH. Hx ueAocrarKoM flBJrgJtocb, noxanyft, orrHcaHHe <aBTopcKr.rx> nporgBeAeHHfi He noA $arrrnlnefi aBropa, a noA sanJranueu (ia HcKflroqeHueM KHHr, IICPCBCACHHbIX C JIATHHCKOI'O fl3bIKA, rAC, KAK YNOMI,IHAJIOCb, Ha [epBoM Mecre rrpnBoAHJrocb r{Mq aBTopa), a raxxe orcyrcrBne eAHHoo6pasun B yKa3aHnu BbrxoAHbrx AaHHbrx H KoJtH_ qecrseHHoft xapaKTeprcrHKH. ll prrrrepu ng < Caxxrnerep6yprcxxx yqexHx seAoilocref,

r

a) o4uorouHue u3aan[ff nyEJll,lfl BVlPlVnII,fl MAPOHA fEOpfHK, uau o 3ente-

detuu uerwpe Kflueu, c Jlarnscxono r3brKa nepeBeAelru Ha Botoede. vrsAaHbl B cBer c HcnpaBneH[eM Bo MHorHx Mecrax Bacutoen

I-pueopbesu4eil Pg6anon, r. Koa.nexcxllu Acceccopou u Boaonoeo PoccuticKo?o Co6panun npu Hnneparopcvo,rl Mocioacrcon Unueepcurere ttaeuo.u, c npncoBoKynnenueM flepBbrr BupeutueaoL Ercaoiu, Ha3brBaeMbrq

Turup,

uc

npno6uleuneu flpuuevannri. fleqarasa B. Muattepa, npt Aprutaepudcxox u- Ll HtrceflepHotx Ka.dercrcon Kopngce, co4epxaielnun rtnbrpaQnu X. @. Kneenon n E. JL fehee, i g .q. .n.,'1777 rorc, Ha 104 irp. Ilpunucana . Eno Cseilrocru CssueHHbrx pxrracxfl q lt"ir"fnn (nal',o Ha xxAHBeHHH KHrlronpoaaBua_K.

I pueopan

c

A,oerccandpoauug II orenxuxg. rrepaue ocHoaaflun ile-Tan.ngpeuu, HnH pyAHbrx Aen, nepeBeaeHHafl

Heueqxoro

IlpoQ-e-ccoponr

sa Poccnftcxnfi-'ssux Kolaexcxulr Co"irn"*om n Xuuut, Msxafilou Bacu.nleqeu .IloMonocosulr. fl€q.

npu Uuneparopcxofi Axa4eunu Ha-y-r, B g A. a., e 1763 roli, 461 crpaH. _flpnnxcaHa Ee Hnrneparopcronry Be.nnqecriy, lu ncenpecBerneHruefr u tssruxoft^ Hnneparpuqe, Exareprue li. Mu$oaoeua c Oeudueawnu' Ilfeapar4"nulrru, nepeae_ O_eHa ^- _Kqa1rcax c QpaHqg3c$ozo nswxa_C. 6. IIe,r. e runoepaeuu Mopcxoeo Unnxercrcoeo Kadercrcoao Kopnyca, 1766 eoda,'s'12 0. 'n., na 128 crpanu4ax.

6)

runorororuHbte n3AaHHt

Ilsaecrua Busanrudcrcux Hcropurcoe, o6,oacaanuque poccufrcxyto Hcropua dpeanux apeilefl u nocenelu, ioapiiiwe,

"apoaoai nopnd.Koil pacnorrolcennwe, Haanon lllrpur!^!!?"y!r"recKu.& repon. IIeq. e 6 d. tr. npu Ilnneparopcrcofi Arca1enuu Hagr: Vacro I. o_CaaonnaL a 1770 eode, na 135 crp.; Uacro ll. o foreai, Bandana,x, .

fenudax, Epgnax, Uunax u Aaapax,

III.

a l77l

eode',

na l4l

crp.i

o Poccax u Bapneax, a 1774 eode, na226 crp.; rlacro iV. o B_oteapax, Bnqlgx, Xasapax,,^l(onanax, Uqax, Iletenieax, Benepax u Tarapax, e 1775 eode, na 308 crpanu4ax. ,I[ocgeu, uau Co6panue Co.runenurt u llepeaodoe e. Muxafuta Vacro

qo


Ilonoea;2 .!acru, ne'r. e 8 d. a. npu Hnneparopcrcort Axadenuu Hagr, e 1772 eode; Ilepaan ,tacrb fla 258, a eropan na 320 crpaHuqax.

Il attee npuaeden nodpo1nwfr. nepeqetb npoueaedeaufi, axodnulux a xaxdga us ,aacrefi.

pyccKoft Penepryap -

hduaixnHa

<6n6anorexa poccuficKast E. CeMenosa-Pyanena)

KHHTH.

(4.

B XVIII B. npeAnpHHnMalorcs nonbtrKu co3AaHHs penepryapa pyccKoft KHHTH. Taxyro 3aAaqy nocraBHrl nepeA co6ofi A. H. DoraaHoB, pa6oraBrilHfi B bn6luorexe AraAeuuH Hayx. B npu.noxeHnn K cBoeMy 6o.nruroruy rpyAy <Kparxoe BBeAeHHEIS HCTOPHqECKOC I,I3bICKAHHE O HAqAJIE-H TIPOH3BCACHHI'I Bcex soo6qe a36y,{Hblx cJIoB . . .> (1775) oH noMecrl'lJl repeqeHb pyccKlrx KHHr, o3arnaereHHHft <Kparxoe co6paHHe neqarublx KHHr. . .u. Tpya 6orAaHosa He 6bIJI Hanel{araH H AO HaC He COXpaHHJlCfl, tlo3TOMy Mbl He MOXeM rloJlyqHTb npeAcraBneHnfl o xapaKrepe onHcaHufi, noMe[reHHblx B HeM.

Peneptyap pyccxoft KHHrt{ ttblraJIcfl cocraBHrb raKxe apxeorpiQ - r ncropnx H. H. Eauruur-Kaueucxnft-- (1737lbl4), ynpaBnflnqnft MocxoBcKHM apxHBoM Ko.nnernn I'tHocrpaHHblx AeJI, co6paournri n ony6.nnroeasuHfi MHo)KecrBo MarepHaJIoB tro HcropHH PocctlH, aBrop pqAa

c_o_tIHHeHHfr

HcropHH cJIoBecHocrH n QN.nocoQuu. Vu 6ntna noAroroBJteHa KaproreKa, coAepxau{afl oKoJIo 4000 raprovex c onHcaHHqMH neqarnblx KHHr c XVII s. ao 1805 r. BKJIIoI{HreJrbHo. Xorn rpyA EaHruura-KaMeHcKoro 3axBarblBaer H HaqaJIo XIX e.,- iocrasnqrcq oH B ocHoBHoM e XVIII s.' B HeM npeo6nalaror H3AaHHfl XVII-XVIII as., nosroMy o HeM Uenecoo6pa3Hee roBopHTb B pa3AeJIe, nOCBtluleHHoM

n o6lacrn

XVIII

e.

H. H. Bauruur-Kauescxrfi ncno.nt3oBaJl BecbMa Heo6blqHyro Qoprtly onncaHnfl: Ha Kaprot{Kax, KaxAafl H3 Koropblx 6ur.na roquo raKoro xe $optuara, KaK I'l onucblBaeMar KHHra,

rHTyJlbHble JIncrbl, rlpHqeM BocnpoH3BoAHr acb He roJrbKo nocJleAoBareflbHocrb yKa3aHHfl 6n6.nnorpaQHuecKHX cBeAeHnfi, Ho Aaxe pacnoJloxeHl'le Hx no crpol{KaM'

KOnfi poBaJr Hcb

BOCCO3AABAJIHCb PHCYHKH

H YKPAlxCHHfl' HMCI'OIIIHEC'I HA TH-

Taxnu o6paaou, KaproreKa npeAcraBJltler co6oft xax 6n co6paHue <<$ororpaQHfi>> rury.nlublx JIHcroB KHH[, Aa erqe BblnonHeHHblx <B HaTypaJIbHylO BenHqHHy>. Taroe [peAenbHo roqHoe BocnpoH3BeAeHHe scex oco6eHHo-

TyJrbHoM JrHCre.

53


crefi ooopMJreHHfl rHrynbHoro JrucTa, no Bcefi BepoFTHocTH, HMeJro uerbo o6rerqnrb 6esouru6ovuyro llAesrsQxxauun ;rlo6oft Hg o[HcaHHbrx KHHr. Oanaxo onxcaHus bauruuraKaueucroro AaJreKo He BcerAa coAepxanH AocraroqHo noJlnylo xapaKrepncruKy KHHTH.

flounuo

cseAeHr.{fi, noMe

uleHHbrx Ha THTyJtbHoM JtHCTe, Ha KapTOqKe yKa3brBanocb JrHrub KoJrnqecrBo crpaHHu <Crp. 120>. Apy- no Soprue: rr4e xe cBeAeHHf , oTcyTcTByrotqHe Ha T[TynbHoM JIHcTe, Ha Kapror-rKe He orMeqaJIHcb, Aaxe ecJIH oHr.I u 6amn geo6xoAHMbr AJrs

xapaKrepucruKn

KHHTH.

TaK, B oAHoM

r.r3 npHBoAH-

Mbrx HHxe npxMepoB He yKa3aHbr HMfl, H Qauu.rrua aBTopa KoMeAHH <DpnraAnp>

n. n.

QoHgnsr.rHa (n.nu <DoH-Br.r3HHa oHH BpsA .lru 6uln seng-

roro opeueHN), xorfl

B HanilcaHHu

BecrHbr cocraBHreJIro KaproreKH. Hs cseAeunfi,

orcytctselas-

r.rrHx Ha THTynbHoM JrHcTe, KpoMe yKa3aHHg cTpaHHu, B BHAe r.rcKJrroqeHHs cocTaBHTeJIb IIpHBOAHJT TOJTbKO CJIOBa <neqaTaHa

6es ro4y>, ecJm B KHrlre orcyrcrBoBaJro yKa3aHHe Ha foA H3NAHHfl.

Ilpnrepu ll3 Kaprorerl H. H. Banrnura-Kaxencrorort Anrona llonora/ ga6aaHue carupxuecxne/ u Hpanoyurrelrnue/ uaLnscnf uauf enurpauuu/ g4n noassbr s yBece.rreHHn o6qecraa/

ts4auHue/ BropHM ntcanueu/ neqaraHH o Canxrnerep6ypre/ r ruuorpaQnx M. OsquxHxxoza./ 1786 ro4a./ Crp. 51. Bacnt / HpaBoyqxreJbHue/ c Hetrcreunnun f rocnoanua 6apona

lo.rr6epra/ Ilepenel/ Aexuc <DoH-BnaHn./ Tperre H3AaHHe c npn6asneaneuf 42 6acet./ Mocxaa, n rnnorpaQan Kounaunn rnno-

rpaQH.recrofi./ 1787./ Crp. 227.

Epuralup/ Koueaua/

s 5-rn

reqaraHa 6ea roay./ Crp. 132.

4eficrsnnx./

B

C.-flerep6ypne

6pyr./ Tpareana./ As couuuentft/ n. Bo;rrrepa./ Hx,qfisenleu H. Hosflxoaa u xonnatun.f B Mocxne/ B yxunepctrercxoft rnnorpaQun/y H. Honxroaa. 1783 rorc./ Crp. 127.

HecparHeuHo 6oree yAaqHbrM Bo Bcex orHorrreHlrsx 6btJr onbrr co3AaHHs pelepTyapa pyccKofi KHHTH, npeAnpHHqTbrfi pyccKoft Kynbrypbr H npocBeueHHr erlHcKonoM AaMacKHHbrM (A. f. CeMeHoabrr',r-PyAneeur'l).

Br.rAHbrM AesTeneM

Ir'rurpnft

EQumonNu CeueHon-PyAnes,

B

MoHarrrecrBe

" Tpyo H. H. Eauruura-Kauencroro He 6ua 3aBepueH H ocraJrct reony6,rnxoaauxnu (o xaprorere). Jlsrus s 1894 r. B xypHare <KusroBeAeH[e] (Ns

3 H 4) 6u;ra

oTKyAa HaMH H 54

HaneqaraHa He3HaqHTe.[b[afl

3aHMCTBOBaHbT npHMepH.

ero

qacrb.


,IlauacxuH (1757-1795), oxouullr Moct<oscxyn CnanxuorpeKo-narHHcKyro aKaAeMHIo, npenoAaBaJl pHTopHKy H rpeq-ecxufi r3brK B KpyrNuxofi ceMHHapfiH e Mocxee, 3areM B TeqeHHe rrrecrlr Jrer cJIyrxaJI JreKuHH no Hcroplln, Qn.noco$ut't r{ ApyrnM npeAMeraM s fertnHreHcKoM yHHBepcHrere; TorAa )r(e oH Har{aJI 3aHu}tarbcfl HayqHbIMH rpyAauu a o6Jracrn pyccxofi ncropun. BepHyeurucs s Poccnlo, oH tloJIyqHJI 3Banr.re npoQeccopa cJloBecHbrx HayK H qepxonHofi HcropHH, 6Hn HasHaqen yqnTereM C.[asquo-rpeKo-Jlarnscxoft aKaAeMr{H, no3AHee npr{Hgn MoHatrlecrBo, cran peKTopou Axa4emuu, gareM noryr{Hn caH enr.IGKona Ceecroro, a BnocJleAcrBHH enr.rcKona HnxeropoAcKofo. AartlacxuH 6tt.n q"neuotrt Bo.nsHono poccuficxoro co6paHnq npil MocxogcxoM yHHBepcurere u Poccnftcroft axaaeunfi, corpyAHHrIaJI B <<ApeeHefi poccnficxofi eHsruoQuxe> H.I,I. HosnroBa, [oAroroBHJI H ony6"nnxonan <<Co6paHt,te pyccKxx corluHeHnft> M. B. JloMottocoea (1778\. Eu6;ruorpaSuqecxuft rpyA,[,auacrnHa 6u.tt 3aAyMaH KaK perepryap pyccxofi KHHTH, t{ro BHAHo y)Ke I'13 ero 3arrasHfl: <<Elr6rHoreKa poccnftcxan H.nH CseAeHHtl o Bcex KHHrax, s Poccnr{ c HaqaJIa rlrnonpaQnn B cBer eblilJeAunx>>. OH coAepxaJl nepeqeHb pyccKHx H cJlaBflHo-pygg1lx neqarHblx KHHr, fioflBltBruuxcfl n nepnoa c 1517 r. no 1785 t. BKJlloquTeJrbHo. Marepnal 6u.il pacnoJloxeH B xpoHoJIornqecKoM rropflAKe. Onucauus g 6orstul'tHcrBe clyr{aeB corlpoBoxAaJl.rcb yKa3auueu 6n6.nuoreK, B Koropblx HMerorcfl AaHHble KHHrH; raKHM o6pasou, <<Bu6nuorexa poccuficxaf> tlBJIrJIacb s xaxofi-ro Mepe H cBoAHbtM KaraJloroM 6H6.nHorex. Tpya,4,art,tacKuHa He 6u.n 3aBeplxeH H.ltpn xlt3Hn cocraBuTeJrs He neqaraJlcfl. B 1848 r. B. M. VuAonlcxt'1ft HaneqaraJl HaqaJIo <<6n6.nnorexu poccuficxoft> (r'ratepna;r ao 1693 r.), tto Ha sroM pa6ora npeKparllJlacb, a Iz3AaHHe He BblllIJIo B cBer. B l85l r. VHAonlcxlttl gaHoso HaneqaraJl HaqaJIo rpyAa .[,auacxuHa (xa eror pa3 MarepHal 6un AoBeAeH ao l7l3 r.) ' Ho pa6ora onnrb 6srna npepeala, v H3AaHI{e se 6u.no P?lnyr{eno s cner (coxpaHHJIHcb JIHtlIb r{Hcrble .nucrul). B l88l r. HaqaJto <<En6.nuorexn pocct'tftcxofi> 6ntno ony6.nnxoeaHo (no pyxonlrcu, npHHaAJlexaurefi K. C. Cep6uHon-r'ruy)-a cepllu <flar,asrHuxn apeanefi nrcbMeHHocrH)> (r. XI). B KHI'Iry BoueJI Marepaar roJtbKo Ao 1699 r. r{epee l0 nel B npHJloxesl.rr.r x <tlrenuqM B O6ulecrse ucropnll I{ ApeBHocreft poccnficKHx npn Mocxoscxorit yHHBepcnrere> (189 l,.rH. l) 6u.nu, HaKoHeq, ony6.nuronaHbl qt'rcrble JIHcrbI <<En6luorexn poc55


cuficxofi>, HaneqaraHHue VsAo.rrlcKHM B 1848 u l85l rr. B npe4uc.nonus x aroft ny6.nuxaqnu C. A. Ee.noxypoB nHcaJr, qro MarepnaJl, noAroroareHnHfi VsAontcxxu, He norepflJl cBoeno 3HaqeHHq H rrocJre ny6.nnxaqnn rpyAa ,[,amacxaua s l88l r. He roJrbKo noroMy, qro H3AaHHe l85l r. BKJrroqaer KHr.rrH, ony6;ruxosaHHbre Ao l7l3 r., Ho H noroMy, qro sro

H3AaHHe sBJrgeTCf <rOpa3AO 6O.nee nCnpaBHbrM>. K coxa.neHulo, VHAo.nbcKHM 6lt.no ganeqaraHo .nnurr 395 JrHcroB H3

1484

sa

31

rncros pyKonHcn Aauacxnua. Taxnu o6pasor'1, lor{rn 4 pyKo[Hcb Ao cnx nop He ony6"nnrosaua.12

<En6lnorexa poccnftcxafl> flBJrsJracb Anfl cBoero BpeMeHH rpyAoM. B Hefi .{,auacxnH noKa3a.[ ce6R HacroqqHM 6n6.nuorpaQoM H npeKpacHbrM 3HaroKoM KHHTH. 06 3ToM cBHAereJIbcrByror, B qacTHocTH, cocTaBJreHHbte HM onHcaHHR H aHHOTaUHH. <OnucaHus KHHI B <Eu6nnorexe poccnftcxofi>,- orMeqaJr C. A. Peficep,- 6u.nn cAeJraHbr de visu H no noJrHore oxBara H ToqHocrn He HMeJIH ce6e panuuX>,13 a H. B. 3ao6noB yKa3brBaJr, r{To (B ueJroM no MeroAaM o6pa6orxa MarepHaJla AauacKHH onepeAun MHonHx nocneAyrournx 6u6luorpa$oB>.14 B cesgH c reM, qro <Bn6nuoreKa poccnficxag> npeAcraBnner co6oft BbtAatoqeecr sBJIeHHe B HcropHH pyccxoft 6n6nnorpa$uw, a MeroAHKa onncaHlls ,[,auacxnua 6Hra Arq cBoefo rroAJrHHHo HayqHbrM 6n6luorpa$Hr{ecKuM

BpeMeHH BecbMa nporpeccHBHofr, uu paccMorpnM noApo6Ho pa3nHqHue rnnbr onucannit vt auHoraqHfi, BcrpeqanulHecfl B rpyae Aauacxnsa Msorue onncaHnrr s <6H6rHorexe poccuficrofi>> orluqa-

nncl 6o;tuulofi Aera;rssocrblo

H no3BoJrrJril noJryqHTb Bcecro-

oflHcbrBaeMofi xHHre. B ro xe BpeMq B psAe cJryqaeB AauacxuH noMexlaJr B cBoeM rpyAe H npeAenbHo KparKHe onHcaHHfl. Telr ue MeHee npH npocMorpe <Bn6.nsorexu poccnficxori> orsnAu He co3Aaercn Bner{arre-

poHHee npeAcraBJIeHHe

o6

uHa ue6pexHocrn pa6orbl cocraBHrerfl H HapyueHnn HM eAHHcrBa npHHuHnoB orrHcaHnfl, nocKoJrbKy paaHufi rroAxoA K onHcaHHro KHHr

y

AauacxHHa 6urn HeugueHHo onpaBAaH.

l2 Pyxonncr <bs6;laorexs poccnficxofi> HaxoaHTcR ceftqac s pyKonHcHoM oraere locy4apcrneuHofi 6n6,rroreru CCCP nrrr. B. H. JIeHnna. O,reul xeJateJrsHo, uro6u aTa pyKonHcb 6u,ra, Haxoxeq, ony6,rlxonaHa, nocKoJtbKy oHa Moxer npeAcraBHTb HHTepec A.ln 6u6.nnorpaQos n ucropnxoa KHHTfl. 13 P e

c. 56

fi c e p C. A. XpecrouarHfl no [cropHu pyccxofi 6n6;rHorpaern,

40.

't 3Ao6xos H. B. HcropHr

pyccxofi 6n6.ruorpa$nn, c. 12l.


Han6o.nee noApo6Ho onHcbIBaJI AauacxsH peAKHe KHHrH H Bce u3AaHHs, npeAcraBnslourne ficKJlloqnreJllultfi HHrepec n ueHHocrb. Kpatxne xe onHcaHHr cocraB.IItJIHcb Ha KHHrH' trrHpoKo pacnpocTpaHeHHble H oAHoTHrIHble no coAepxaHHlo. Hepeaxo Ha qeJlbte rpynnbl oAHopoAHblx KHHr cocraBJltJlucb

o6reAuHessble onncaHHn (HanpNuep, HHorAa noA o6ulnu 3anJraBHeM onncbtBaJlncb MHoroqHcJleHHbIe c.nyxe6uule uepKOBHbre KHHrfi, CyUeCTBOBaBlUHe B orpoMHoM KOJ|HqeCTBe <<c.llyxe6HHKH>, <rpe6unxu>, <<qacocJloBbl>> ngAaHufi

n

n.). Kax npaeu.no, oIIHcaHHfl <aBTopcKHX>> KHHr n <6n6nuorexe

r.

poccuficxoft> HaqHHarucb c HMeHH u Qauu.nnn aBTopa B poAHie.nrsottr naAexe. Vlr,rn u Qaunnun aBropa B HaqaJlo oIIHcaHHr He BbrHocHJlttcu o6utqHo B Tex cryt{aflx, KorAa HM B KHHre npeAIrIecrBoBaJI npeAnof <qepe3>. Kportle HMeHH aBTopa, 3BaHHe, qHH, AOJIXHOCTb' qro npn onncaHHH crapltHHbIx xHnr 6u.no oco6enno BalKHo, nocKoJlbKy HepeAKo yKa3blBaJIOCb

efo

IIO3BOJIflJIO OTJIHIIHTb APYT OT APYTA NPOH3BCAEHHq PA3HbIX aBTOpOB, HMeBIIHX OAHHaKOBbIe HMeHa.

3arnaaHe BocnpoH3BoAHnocb Aauacxusutr{ s 6onlul'IHcrBe cryr{aeB AocraroqHo noJIHo H Tor{Ho. JInurs Han6o.nee AJIHHHbTe 3afJlaBHtl' HHorAa 3anHCbIBaJIHCb COKpaIUeHHO' HO npH 3rOM nOJrHOe 3arraBHe npHBoAHJIOCb B aHHOTaIIHI',I. Hanpnrr,|ep, B OnI'lCaHHH yKa3blBaJIOCb 3arJIaBHe <KHnra o Bepe>, a B aHHorauun 6u.no cKa3aHo: <Tnry.n e-c-ecrb creAytcunfi:,,KHLIra o eepe eAnHoft, cnfltoft, Co-6opHofi Anocrollciofi qepKBe, Koropan roA paccyAox lJ,epxae BcxoAHHq noA'bAaercfl">. H3peAxa 3arJIaBHe B onncaHnn conpoBoxAa-

JIOCb,U.OnOrHl{TeflbHbIMI'l CBeAeHHqMH, KOTOpbIe' HcnoJIb3yfl

nogAHefiuyn repMHHororurc, MoxHo 6u.tlo

<<noA3aroJIOBOqHbrMH AaHHbtMH>, HanpHMep

6u Ha38arb <c JIHtIHblMI',l

noprperaun ) ' Qaryparrara> (r. e. c uao6paxeHHrM14 JIHU,qacrln raKoto i.Repeeoa c fpeuecxoro> H r. n., uo 6ollurefi poAa cBeAeHHr noMetuaJlHcl Aan'tacxusltttt B aHHorauHH' Hs ocrantHbtx 3JIeMeHroB onncaHl'ln npnBoal'lJIHcb BblxoA-

Hbre AaHHbte: Mecro nsAaHHn (B npeAJIoxHoM naAe)Ke' HanpuMep: <B Mocxse> ilJtt4 <HaneqaraHa B Mocxee>), H3AareJrb HJIH rHnotpa$nn (aa.neKo He BcerA?)' roa H3AaHI'lfl (s orAerlHstx cnyqanx KaK no crapoMy, raK H no HoBoMy JlerocqncJteuuro). Ec;rn Mecro HJIH I'oA H3AaHHfl B KHHI'e orcyrcrBoBa.nn, AauacxnH o6uqHo yKa3blBaJI: <6eg noxagaHHfl Mecra> unu <6eg noKa3aHHg.ner>. B orlucaHHH orMeqaJlctl TaKxe Qopuar KHHrH: <R 4-tr>, (B aecrb>, <B JIHcr> I{ T. n'

57


Oco6uli HHrepec npeAcra_Bnflror aHHoraqHH, colpoBox-

Aaroulue MHorue onncaHurr. 6o"ntuas Hx gacrb no cBoeMy coAep)KaHr.rrc Hepa3pbrBHo cBq3aHa c orrHcaHHeM H ,rl,orroJrHrreT

'

ero, Hnpafl po.nl 6t6.nHorpaQnuecxax npnMeqasuft. AHuoraulril qacro 6unu oqeul noApo6uu, Ho B ro xe BpeMB Aocra_

roqHo JIaKoHHrlHbr. Hepeaxo B aHHorarluflx orMeqaercq. qro AaHIryo KHHry BHAeI H qHTaJl carra .[,auacKr.rH, H yKa3brBaercrr, B xaxoft 6n6nuorexe oH 3HaKoMHJrcfl c KHr.tfori.-Ecnn xe KHHra He MorJra 6urt npocuorpeHa de visu, yKa3brBaercr, H3 KaKHX HCTOr{HI,TKOB IIOJIyqeHbt cocTaBHTeJIeM CBeAeHHfl

o

Hefi.

B ausorauHrx, KaK y)Ke roBopnJrocb, npHBoAHJrocb rroJrHoe 3afJraBHe KHr4rrl (ecna a onHcaHHH oHo AaBaJtocb B coKpaue_

Htu). Tarr,t xe coo6ulalHcb cBeAeHus cj q3lrxe KHHrH: <Ha cTa_ pHHHOM CJIaBeHCKOM fl3brKe>, o ToM, qTO KHHfa [epeBeAeHa c Apyroro fi3brKa, npH 9TOM qaCTO yKasbrBaJrocb, KeM OHa

6u.na nepeneAeHa: <a c I'peuecroro Ha CnaeeHcxnfi qstrx nepenoxeHo Oruou Bnranneu Hr.yMeHoM n .[,y6ne, e Eeropyccna>>, H T. n. Ecnu anrop KHHril Hlvl ee nepeno4uprx 6un HCH3BCCTCH, COCTABHTEJIb HHOTAA OTMCqAT B AHHOTAI{HH: <Kro anrop cero Karexn3nca He noKa3aHo>, <Kro H Koraa

cHro KHHry nepeBoAnJr, He noKa3aHo> u r. rr. HHorAa B aHHora_ npHBoAr{JrHcb unn cBeAeHHs o6 anrope npeAucnoBHs: <l-lpeAn_ cJroBHe Ha cnro KHHry nHcaJr Hepououax Ilouna Tpyqeatu, HryMeH, co Bcero o Xpucre 6p_arNero, MoHacrbrpr KyrinHcroro

o6nlexure.nuoro, I-[epxnu Ca. Eorose;leuufi>. Bo uHornx aHHOTar{Hsx pacKpbrBanocb coAepxaH[e KHHTH, nepeqrcnsJILICb ee pa3AeJrbt, qacTr,r, cTaTbr,r. B o6teAuHeuHlrx orrHcaHHsx B aHHorauHflx HepeAKo COTIOCTABJIgJIHCb PA3JIHqHbIE U3AAHUfl KHHTH, OTMCqAJIHCb

H3MeHeHHfl LI AonoJIHeHHr, HMetoItIHecr

B turx: <<Tot xe. fi

flpxroM eue Bonpocu AsaHacns A.nexcaHApHfiCxOro o Bepe, H cJroBo .[,araacxaua B noqreHue qecrHot o H )KnBorBoprqero Kpecra>. B p"aa asHoraunft K onncaHuru oco6esuo peAKHx KHHr H3JlaraJlacb KpaTKas HCTOpHf, CO3AaHHfl KHUTH, ltHOfAa xe NPHBOAHJITCb H OUCHKA KHHTN H XAPAKTCPHCTHKA CC ABTOPA;

HanpnMep, clrr.r KHHrH ceM.r{HapHH

o KHr.rrax Cnueosa flonouxoro ronopnrcn: ..O6e BHAeJT H qHTaJI e 6u6nHorexe Hnxeropo4cxofr ycMorpeJr, H vro Cxmeos flonouxnfi 6un npeyue-

r

Hrtri qe.noseK, nporroBeAn ero B KHr.rax Ha Becb roA coAepxaulHecq, TaK xopotxH, qTo H HbrHe c nonpaBKoro cJroB He ycTyflflT caMbrM ryquHM nponoBeAHHKaM>. 58


B qe.nou y Aauacxusa ua6nrcAaercfl croJlb )Ke I'IHAHBI'IAya.nrnufi noAxoA K aHHorIrpoBaHHIo pa3Jluqublx KHI{r, qro n K Hx ofltlcaHlro. CocrasrenHble HM aHHorauHH noMoranr noJryqurb 6oree nonuoe npeAcraBneHne o KHHnax. B to xe BpeMs s <En6nuorexe poccuftcxoft> ncrpeqaercr (oco6euuo B qacrg, orsocsu{efics K H3AaHHsu XVIII n.) ueuano onucauHft, He coflpoBoxAaB[IHxcfl aHHorauHflMH, nocKonbKy caMH onHcaHHfl AOCTaTOqHO nOJIHO XapaKTepH3OBaJl14 KHHTH.

B

<En6nnoreKe poccrficxoft> Bcrpeqaercs oqeHb MHoro

cJryqaeB o6reAnHeHsoro oflncaHus.

BnolHe eAuHoo6pasnofi

Qoprrru o6reAuseHHoro onrcaHuR .[,auacxnH He nupa6oral.

Ka3alocr, oH

gKclepHMeHTHpoBaJI

B noncKax uan6o.nee

pauuoHaJlbHoro cnoco6a onucaHHq, B KoropoM npHBoAHJILtcb cBeAeHr.rr o pa3ublx H3AaHHflx oAuofi n roft xe KHHTH. B pa4e cJlyqaeB cBeAeHHfl o nepeH3AaHHqx KHHrH AaBaJll.lcb B aHHoTSrlnnr Ho 3HaqHTerbHo qaule oHH npHcoeAHHqJIHcb HenocpeAcrBeHHo K orrncaHuro flepBoro HsAaHvfl nocJle cJIoB <<Tor xe>,

<Taxag xe>, <OHa xe> l,t

r. r.

HHorAa nncanocb cJIoBo <<eure> HJrH <H>rJrH6o HHKaKoro o6ogHaqeuns soo6u{e He npoCTABJIgJIOCb.

flprnepu ng cEa6anorerx pocctf,cxofir .llaracxnra

a)

onucanna 6es aHHora[nfi

HnA yqeHHe x xllrpocrb paruoto crpofl [exorHbrx aroaefi. C uao6paxenaeu Quegp, neuaran s Mocrcae, 1647.

BOIiHCKIIR gcral,

in folio. B llarp. n Arcal.

t

6u6,tr.

acxnHa, Hcropnf, o B ap aaa ne, nycrbluHoxuTeJle Hoaca$e qapeBnqe Hsaeftcxou, Harteq. B Mocrcae, 168l r., B aecrb. H

OA

H

HA

.[[arrr

B [Iarp. u Arad. 6n6t. u y dtaeoeeul. pn3Hnlre. HOC HOA T g po6odcrcoeo npecrraBHoe ropxecrBo cso6oaurerq

Jlltsoulru focyaapx flerpa A'rexceeBur{a, c noficxaun cBoHMn B uapcrnyrcqufi rpag Mocrsy Bo3BparuBlrJeroca. fleqar. s Mocrcee,1704 r.,

s 4-rr. B Arcad. 6u6tr. ]lJlbld Konueacxoeo

Cnaaa ropwecrs r{ 3HaMeH no6e1 locyaapa 1700 r., n.4-rs. B 4rca0. 6u6n.

flerpa flepnoro. B Atcrepdane, 6)

ortucaHnt, conpoBoxAaroulnecq aHHorauHgMIt

EPAIIIHO dgxoenoe, r. e., ncarMbl, MoJrHrBbI, neHuq, 6aaroaapeHns, Kauo[br x flpoqae norpe6u, qro HbIHe 3oBercff Ecanrorpo co eoccaedoearTueil B Hnepcxou MoHacrblpe, vro xa Cnare-esepe, ua Batdae, B crpoeHnn caqieftuero flarpuapxa HsxoHa HoBorHnoM u3Aacr B 7170 nau 166l r., B nonaecrb. B 6u6rr. Arca). n Huuceeop. Ceunuapnn. 59


B npe4uc.noarfi noKagaHo, qro curo flca;lrupr co BoccJeAoBaHseM Haqan reqarat <Du;lo$efi Apxnr*aH4plrr c 6parnerc, cnepBa B Ee.nopyccua B KgreuflcKot MoHacrr,rpe; Ho, no npuqnne sofiHbr c flo.nrruen, nepeunu oHH B HoBoco3AaHHHfi Hnepcxuft uoHacrbrpb ua Caaro-osepo s 7163 (1655) r., H ryr cHro KHury Ao KoHua coBeprxnnu s rcro 7170 u,rn 166l or P. X.

tfOAHHA Maxcuuoaula, apxnen. 9epnuroncxoro, Honropo4cKoro n flepercaarcroro AtQaeurapo, utru AtQaaar, no4Heceuuufi uecapeBr.rrry

lleu. s

Arercerc flerponuuy, cuuy l4uneparopa flerpa l-ro.

r.,

Vepnueoae, 1705

B Aecrb.

B cefi xsnre npn6paxu Hlaena

co6crseHHbre no a,r$aaary n HpaBoyqeHxq, H3 HHx BblBeAeHHbIe n npllloxeHHbre K HacTaBneHHro qapeBHqa crHxaMH, B To BpeMs ynorpe6rrerbHbtMH;

6olee unqero. f cnrc rHury Br.raen u qHTaJr B 6u6n. Huxeeop. Cer'rus. B Axad. u lfaro. 6u6n.

e) HOHKA

o6te4nueHHbre onHcaHHs

n.nl $uocoQnr

HepononurnKa,

B noJrb3y rorbrM coqr.rHeHuas.

upanoyqHrerbHar, 12 aorro. 1764 r., n 8 4o.nro.

B Kueae, l7l2 r., s

Tox s C.11.6., l7l8 r. u rplr Cunode, B Arat. u llarp. 6u6a.

Cl{l}tEOHA flo;rouxoro, Ilcanrupo, repeBeAeHHar crHxaMH. Haneqar. a Mocrcae, 1680 r., B Aecrb. Taras xe, TonbKo rlpunficaHbr npr-troM Horbt neHHfl ncaJrMoB. Eeg noxaaaHnrr ner. B llarp. Tunoep. n Ara1. 6n6n. BACHJIbt 6yPUOBA 1grcaapo c AecflrocnoBlreM H pacnorroxeHHeM HMeH co6crseHHutx

s

Mocrcae, 7145 (1637)

no

rpaMMarHqecKHM naAexaM, neqaraH

r., n 8

Ao.nro.

H npu HrxoHe flarprlapxe s Mocrcae 1657, 167g; a Kueee, 1670;

so Jlteoae 1692; s Mocrcee 1704, 1705, 1708; a C.-Ilerep6gpee 1722, 1727; a Kueae 1753; e Vepnueoae 1755; s Mocxae 1758. Ha cux Ha4auuft [MercTcq nHbre B Arcad., nuwe s llarp. 6n6n. TPilOAb UBETHAt. B Mocxae, 1592, n aecrs.

B Arcadenuq.6s6.nuor.

Apylle

H3aaHls: npn [ape Eopuce Oeo4oponuve H npn flarp. Hoae, n Mocrcae 1604, n Kueae 163i, u s Mociee 1636. Ilpu L{afe Muxarre @eo4oponuue r.r npll l-larp. Hoacaee, B, Mocrcbe 1640, ao Jloaoae 1642, a Mocxae 1653, 1660; so Jloaoee t664. 1688. s MocKae 1692, 1707, c rnqHbrMll Surypaur.r s MocK.ae l7l4, 1762, craporo ugaa*nfl s Mocrcae 6ee noxagaHuq Jter. B Arcadeu. u llarp.6u6tr.

yJIOXEHHE, urll npaBuna cyAe6Hbre I{apa A;rexcea Muxafilosxqa. fleqarauo s Mocqae, 1649 r., B Aecrb. lpaxaaHcxofi neqaru a C.[I .6gpee, 1759, s rncr. B Arcad. 6n6n. n o E.nanoeeul. pu3nnue. EYKBAPb. B Mocxse, 1664 r., n 4-rr.

Tox 1704; s Kueae B Tunoep. 6u6a.

60

1670;

s

Vepnueoae 1680.


Orpacaeoan 6r6lnorpaQils

u Apyrre

BnAbr 6u6anorpa$nn

3aqnsareneu pyccxoft ucropuuecxoft 6u6nuorpa$uvt sBnilcn Aaau EypxapA Ce.nrufi (1695-1745). !,aruaHan no nponcxoxAeHuro, oH noJIyquJI o6paeonauue B pa3JrHqHbrx fepMaHCKHx yHHBepcHrerax, rAe H3yqaJr $nnocoSHro, cJroBecr{ocrb, 6oroc.noeue u MeAHuHHy. B 1722 n. Ce.n.nufi npHexaJr s Poccnro. B llerep6ypre oH cHar{a.na 6u.n yr{HrereM rHMHagnt, a 3areM pa6ora;r s AxaAertauu HayK H npenoAaBaJ'r JrarHH-

cxnfi sgr,rx g ArexcaHApo-Heecxofi Ayxoeuofi

ceMnHaplrn;

B KoHue xH3HH oH npHHqJr MoHauecrBo noA HMeHeM Hnro-

AnMa. Oco6uft HHrepec

Ce.urfi

nporrBHJr

co6upa.n pyKonHcH H KHHr|,l, HanHcaJI pa6or. Du6.nnonpa$nqecxuri rpyA CenrHq

x pyccxoli HcropHH,

psA

HcropHrrecKHX

6ur ony6;luxoaan 1736 r. s Peeere Ha JrarHHcKoM qgbrKe noA 3arJraBileM <<Schediasma literarium de scriptoribus qui historiam politico-ecclesiasticam Rossiae scriptis illustrarunt> (Knuxuuft xara.nor nncarerefi, Koropbre B cBonx KHHrax uao6paxanr noJrurnqecKyro H qepKoBHyro ucropnro Poccnn) .15 B <KgnxHoM KaraJrore nncarereft>> nepeqHcreHbr npou3BeAeHnq 164 pyccKr.rx H HHocrpaHHbrx aBropoB, nr.rcaBuHx o pyccxofi ucropulr. B xaxofi-ro Mepe KHHra Ce.nlus flBr4Jtacb v 6Ho6n6n norpa $nuecxnrr,t cJIoBapeM, nocKoJIb Ky u arepn an 6un pacnorox(eH s alQaonrHoM nopflAKe no QautnntM, a nocJre xaxAofi Qattunnu, KaK IIpaBHJIo, noMeuraJll,rcb KparKHe cBeAeHHfl O6 aOrOpe (ero uauHoHaJlbHocrb, AoJlxHocrb HJIH 3BaHHe u r. n.) H nepequcJlrJtncb efo npoH3BeAeHua (6es nos

BTopeHHfl ilMeHH n Qart,tuluH). 3arnasus HHocrpaHHbrx pa6or rpHBoAHJILtcb

Ha

tr3brxe

vg/.attfl. B onncasnu yKa3brBarncb Mecro H roA H3AaHHR, Sopuar, a HHorAa H cBeAeHI'ts o Harnrlufi B KHHre HJIJIIocrpaunft.

Ilpnuepu rg rKnnxxoro KaraJrora pyccKlrx nscare,nef,> A. E. Ce.nrtg

N. Weberus

Procurator negotiorum Hannoveranus

residens

in Russia, vulgavit Verindertes Russland, Hannov. 1729. 4 : to c, fig. Paul. Jac. Marpergeri Moscovitischer Kauf f mann, Lribeck 1723.

8:

vo.

l5 Ha pyccxou q3brKe rpya Ce.n.nrs 6u.n rgAa.n ,E,sreHusld 6orxosl.r?lIHoBbrM noA 3atrla BHeM <Karaaor nucarerg*, ioqrHeHuflMu cBoHMs o6,lqcHHBruHx qepKoBuylo rpax4aiicxyro poccrficxyro rctopulo) (M., 18l5).

r

6t


Alb. Heidenfeld Batavus conclinnavit eine Beschreibung der Orientalischen K6nig-Reiche, Tircken, Persien, Moscau und China. Francf. 1680. 8: vo.

To;lrro cnycrr 36 rer

nocJre BbrxoAa <KHHxHoro KaraJrona Ce.ir.l[.ls rroflBHJrcs HoBbrft 6no6n6nuorpa0H'{ecKnft TpyA, Ha sror pa3 yxe Ha pyccKoM fl3brKe. 3ro 6u"rr <Onur HcropuqecKoro cJloBapn o poccr.rficKux nncarefiqx> H. H. Hoenxona, ony6;luxonaHHHft e 1772 r. OH co4epxan cBeAeHHs o 317 pyccKnx nHcareJrrx x yqeHbrx. Marepaa.n B croBape 6u.n paclo.noxeH B a.n$anurHou rropflAKe no QaMHJIHsM aBropoB. flpneoAHnncs KparKr.re 6nonpaSnuecxue

nr.rcareJrefi>

A.

o6 anropax u nepeqncJrqJtucb HX npoH3BeAeHHfl. B <<Onsrre ficropHqecKoro croBapr o poccnftcxr.rx nucarerflx> B ord'Iuque or <CaHKT[erep6ypncxux yqeHbrx BeAoMocrefi>, Koropbre Hognxos HaqaJr H3AaBarb cnycrn nflTb Jrer, onr4cartus 6ttnu qpe3MepHo KpaTKHMH H AaJreKo He BcerAa ror{HblMn H qepeAoBaJrucb c norrcHnTeJlbHbrM TeKcrou. O6uqHo oHN

cBeAeHHfl

BKJIOqAIH sANJIABH' H BbTXOAHbIC AAHHbIC (QAUU.IIUN ABTOPA

orcyrcrBoBaJra, raK KaK HrpaJra po.lrl py6pnxn), Ho HHorAa yKa3brBaJlocb roJIbKo MecTo H3AaHus, a roA onycKaJrcf. I{erxr.rfi nopflAoK cJreAoBaHns BbrxoAHbrx AaHHbrx orcyrcrBoBaJI. Bcrpeuanncb cJryqaH, KorAa 6u.iro npuneAeHo oAHo TOJTbKO 3afJraBHe npoH3BeAeHHq, npaBAa, r.tHonAa 3To o6'bfc-

qro B cnoBapb BKJrroqaJrHcb l,t Heony6nnKoBaHHbre pa6oru. O coqnHesHqx @. 3. Srr,rnua cxa3aHo o6o6uesHo: <Bce cnn KHr{rH HaneqaraHbr n Casxrnerep6ypre B pa3Hbre roAbr>>. Ec;m ynouuHaJrocb rrpon3BeAeHne, ony6nnKoBaHHoe B XypHaJre, To yKa3brBaJrocb ToJrbKo Ha3BaHr.re xypHana HsJrocb reM,

H ro,(. II

p

rnr

epu

*'

?H;lJ ;l'j

A6,recnuon, Alexcax,qp.

Cyxornua, Hanucar

?rlTf."i,"":r ::ap

no

Aatoraur B urare

HecKoJrbKo

poccn

ncrrx

lenepa,'r-Mafiopa

e.nerrfi, enhrpaMM u ennraQnft,

Koropbre H Haneqaraubr B exeMecrqHoM cortHHeHHH <Tpydonn6uaort

llqe.te>, H3aaHHoM 1759 ro.qa o Cauxrnerep6ypre. Ero Crcasru a cru(ax, HaneqaraHHbre raM xe 1769 roaa oco6,tneon KHHxKoro,,. Eprxqxoft, Tuuo$ef,. Hs coqHHeHHft cero nrcare.nq ocra,lacb H3BecrHoro oaHa rorbKo KHHra, coaepxaulafl B ce6e Onucauue oatecrpe.nb*oti HagKu, c $arypauu, HaneqaraHHaq s Mocxee l72O rota. Cnorpxqxufi, Me,nerrfi, MoHax, Myx ncrycuufi s fpeuecxou n .IIarlrscxou r3brKe, coqr{HHn C.naaeucxyro rpaMMarsKy, Koropat H HaneqaraHa 6ula nepnuu n3AalrieM s Bursne 1629, a BTopbtM

n Mocxne, 1648 ro.qa. 62


Tarxqen, Bactanfi Hnxxrt.t, Tafissfi CoserHrr n AcroaxaucxHft ry6epHarop, 6yayqn no6yx4eH leuepa,n-Oe.nr4ua puta.nor,r lpaQou Bprocou K coqHHeHuro Poccr.rficxofi feorpaQnn, Ho He HMeq Ha ro ,[oBoJrbHo rcTopHqec(Hx AoKa3aTeJrbcTB, npeanpriHsn oH flpe)K.[e n 1720 ro,qy coqHHnrb Pocctficxyro ncropulo, xoiopyr,o rlpe3 30 ner HeycbrnHblMu rpyaaMr.r H cortHHHJr, pa3Aerr ee Ha 4 qacru. B I onncal IpeBHHe CJaseHcrae [JreMeHa no 860 roa; so 2 KHsxeHE|r poccnficxux Kngsefi Ao Haruecreufl Tarap a 1238 ro.qy; a 3 Tr.rpancxyro cnx BapBapoB BJracrb, no onpo^B^epxeuue oHofi nepBbrM l_lapeu HoaHHolr uerHKHM, To ecrb no I462 roA; n 4 soccraHoa,teHne MosaDxnu cHM rocyAapers ao Bo3BeaeHHrJta npecron I_[apn Mnxalua Oeoaopo_ BHqa, ro ecrb ao 1613 roay. Cns_ucropun nd cueprn ero no4ap6ga I4uneparopcrouy Mocxoncxortry Vnunepcnrery csrHor*l ero Crarixur,l coserHaxolr,EnrpaQou BacuJrresHqeM, n nanevarana cefi ucropur.r JrpH

oH9-M

Vuueepcurere

I qacrr n

1768 roay; raKxe H cyae6lnK

I-[apn HoaHua Bacn.nsenuua, tr HeKoropbre ero yKa3br, co6paHHue criM noqTeHHbtM MyXeM U yKpaueHHbre ero npHMeqaHflrMll, HaneqaTaHbr B Mocxse rorox roa;. Cefi aocrofinifi se.rsxoro noqreuuq

Myx corlr.tHr.r.Jr ncropuuecxuft cnoBapb, o KoropoM yBeAoMJrner oH s PoccHficxofi ceoefi acropur,r Ha nnoinx Mecrax.'Becrnra xeJlarerbno r BecbMa HyxHo, r{T06 H oHHfi 6ul Haneqaran. -_-_Tpe.q*axoacxnf,, Baoralf, l(xpnalou{, poalJrcfl 22 eerpann 1703 roaa, t-t c caMbrx roHbtx Jrer Bo3.br.rMeB npenelnxylo cK.rroHHocrb

K HayKaM, [yTelrrecTBoBan geMJrH Ha cBoeM

ant

npocBeuleHHs CBOefO pa3yMa B

qyxfie

HxauBeuxn; n 6un ao epauqnt, AHurx n foi;ras4ur, o6yua.lca s flapuxcxou VHnnepinrere nopsAoqHo pa3ubtM H Mexay np_qynM KpacHopeqHro r{ HcropHH yill,rcq y cnaB_ lllltxl Horo l,elreHa. ts 1730 roay rlo Bo3BpaqeHfiH s CaHxrneiep6vpr onpeaeneu 6lrJr s HMneparopcKylo Axa.(euun Hayr cryg"i,r6ir; n 1733 ro4y Axaaeutt Hayx cexperap eu, a s lZ4S roAy ro r_rMsHHoMy yKa3y noxanoaan flpoQeccopou-xpaiHopevua. Cun noqecrb n Aocro_ lrHcrBo lrMeJr oH n_epBbrft us poccxqH. B 1763 roay no npoueulK, eno

or c.nyx6tt, H HarpaxaeH urHou Ha4nop"or6 ao"ar""*u, H^1_p:o6Hn Ao KoHqHHbr cBoeft, Bocnocneaosasuefi 6 Anrycia ?*"J:ryI | /oy foaa. Len.Myx 6brn Bentlxoto pa3yMa, yBoJreH

Muorono yqenr,rr, o6urup_ Holo 3HaHHr n 6ecnpaueproro rpyao;rrc-6ux; BecbMa 3Hatoq B Jlarnir_

cKoM, I peqecKoM,

_(DpaHqy3cKoM, l4ranHf,HcKoM H B cBoeM rrpHpoAHoM

ra#I:--B- gxnocognr, 6oroc;roBrn, KpacHopeqHr H B ApyrHx :::l::i. uone3HbrMu HayKax. cBoHMH rpyaaMn npno6pe,r ie6e 6eccrrret'iHyro cJaBy; l,l nepnufi s Poccnn cotrnHun npaBunbr Hosoro poccr{icxoro crrxocJroxeHfir, MHoro coqHHuJI KHr{r, a lepeBen n roro 6o;rtute,

aa n cronb MHoro, qro Kaxerc,

HeBo3MoxHbrM,

qenoBeKa AocraJro K ToMy cronbKo cHJl;

1160

vro6st oAnofo

oAHy ApeBHroro po.l.nenoay

|rcToplllo nepeBeJ OH ABa pa3a, noToMy VrO nepeoro [epeBoAa TpH_ Haaqarb roMoB It eule Mnorr{e .[pyrHe KHlrrH s-6brsugfi's ero aoue loxap coBceM cropen[. Ilpu.lroxeuHaa pocnHcb BceM ero cor{HneHtlqM l,l nepeBo.(aM nocJryxr{T ceMy B AoKa3areJrcrso. Ho ou se roJrbKo qro ficnpaBnrn paqlTeJIbHO BCe nO ero qHHy AOJTXHOCTH, gO H CBeDx rofo TpyAlrncfl B ucropuqecKon co6paHrt rpu roaa; ornpanrrfl, MHofo_ KparHo aoJrxHocrb ceKperapfl, 6yayqn yxe flpoeeccopov, H B ro xe BpeMr qnTan JreKrrnlr a Axa4euuvecxorr,r Vuun'epir.rreTe, H

ornpasrm

ao.nxuocrb yurep-6r6atorexapr. flpnrov ne 66nHyxcb K efo qecrrl cxa3arb Moxuo, vro on nepnurfi orKpbtJr nyru x c.nonecHbru HayKaM;

63


a naqe K crnxorBopcrBy; npnqeM 6ura nepnufi flpoQeccop' nepeufr crl.rxorBopeq, u nepnufi noaoxueunft rq[HKo rpyAa n np[rexaHuf,

n nepenoie na Poctsficxnfi fl3HK nPenone3Hblx KHHI. CoquneHuq ero H nepeBoabt cyrb cneAypu-(He:

't. ino"o6

Poccn*croro cruxocJoxeHgr' [aneqaraH

s

CaHxr-

nerep6ypre 1735 roaa.

'2."'P"aao"op

c rIpnqreneu o- npaBonucauntl Poccsficrou, crla KHrra i748 roaa n CaHxrnerep6yple' ualeqaraHa '3. K"ntu Poccsficxoft napHac' ne nauevaraHa' [" ']

1787 t. B MocKBe 6tt.rl t{gAaH <AparuarnuecKnft cJloBapb uJrH noKa3aHHs IIo anQaBHry Bcex poccnficKl'lx TearpaJlbHblx coqHHeHHfi il nepeBoAoB, c 03HaqeHHeM HMeH H3BeCTHbIX coq[HHTeJIefi, nepesoAuHKOB H cJIal'arenefr My3blKH, KOTOpbIe KOrAa 6u.nu npe4cTaBJleHbl Ha TeaTpax, H rAe I{ B KOTOpOe

B

BpeMn HaneqaTaHbI>>. cocrasHTenb 3Tofi KHHrH B I'I3AaHHH He Ha3BaH H OCTaJICfl HeH3BeCTeH. ..ApamarnvecKHfi CJIOBapb>> coAepxan nepeqeHb ApaMarnqecKnx npoll3BeAeHufi (u rou qHcJre H nepeBoAHblx), ony6nHKOBaHHblx Ha pyccKoM q3blKe' B crarrRx o6 orAe.nrHblx nbecax 6u6.nuorpaQuqecKue cBeAeHH'l nepeMexaJILICb C ApyrHM TeKCTOM' KaK B 6HO6H6IHorpapoJlb 3aroroBKa crarbn Quuecrnx cnoBaprx. 3ar.nasHe Hrpano oAHOBpeMeHHO cnyxHno nepBblM 3JIeMeHTOM f oII HcaHH f . floc.ne 3anJIa BH fl yKa3blBaJICg xa Hp npol',I3BeAeHH ' aBropa' H HMq nbecH' (AeficrBHft) QauuJtnn aKroB KOJrHqecrBo

croBapq l,l

Ec.nn npol'I3BeAeHI{e flBJlflJlocb nepeBoAoM' orMeqarocb' c KaKOTO fl3brKa cAeJIaH nepeBoA (nnoina [pHBOAHnacs n Qao roM' Mr.UIHtt nepeBoAqHKa). B pnae cnyqaeB ynoMHHanocb KornaHrAenbeca6H.[asPoccltllnpeAcTaBJIeHaHacIIeHe' KTO I{CrloJIHflJI rJIaBHble poJIH' KaKOB 6bln ycnex cneKTaKJIf H T. il., LI JIHllIb B KOHUe IIpHBOAI{IHCb Bblxojl'Hble AaHHble' Ec.nn AanaJIHcb oAHH 6n6;rinorpaQHqecKHe cBeAeHHfl 6es H 3aKoHApyroro reKcra, ro onncaHHe rlpno6perano o6uqsufi qEHHbIft BHA.

Ilprnepu us r,llpauarxuecKoro croBapcr Af PI4OflA. Tpare4nn B ntrb axroB crHxaMH coqHHeHa Baculrer'l Mafrxonulru, npeacraBreHa n nepaoft p.a3 Ha flpu4eopHot'l -rearpe ;'i;;g;^y o;;6p" l3 s CaHxinerep-6ypre, Haneqarana e Mocxge n 1775 roay. fAM.flET. Tpare4nn coqHHeHHs A.nercanApa Cyuapoxoaa no,qpaxaHne nnece r. lllaxecnupa, Ar.nnucxoro nHcareJls; npeacraB' n"po"oft pas a saqane 1750 roaa na Hun.eparopcxoM-rearpe a"ui -C""*tti"""p6ypre, " uane'raraHa B noc.neaunft pas n Mocxae ua VHunepcureicxoft rnnorpa$xu H. H. l78l roaa' 64


OI,I|APOBA XEHI,IAbEA. Koueaxs s nqrR aeficrsmx c necllerpa Arrycra l(apona 4e boruapue, 3uaMeHnroro

HsMr, coqsHenna

Hauero BpeMeHH Qpauqyscxoro KoMnltecKoro aBTopa, HanncaBurero KoMeauro Ceau;rtcxoro l-[upoaruaxa. Ileaofi flapax 6Ha s soauexru yBHAeBTTIH npeAcraBneHuylo a nepnoft pa3 oHyr,o l(oMeA[p Ha rearpe.

Boopyxacr cnepBa Ha Hee Kp[TnKH

3aBoaHnH 6o.nrruue npoiun aBTopa { rxyca o6uqero Bo3paxeHns; 6oporrncr oubtM oqerb AoJtro; HanocneAoK KoMeAuq B3g.rra cBoe, H cro pa3 6ula npegcrauena cpa4y. HeyuoJrxaeMbre pyKonnecKaHln xax4oft paa ee o,qa6pr.rna;rn, r{ eaBa Jrb ecrb Ha @panuyacxou aauxe no4o6uafl nreca, lto.nlxo BHUMaHHa or fly6aarn 3acJryxuBrrar. flepene,qena Ha poccnficKnfi

lsbrx A. Jl,._flpelcrana€Ha s Mocxse Ha BoJrbHoM flerpoacxou rearpe leHrapn l5 ass 1787 ro4a. flepeno4 u npe4craraeulle fly6nurdro o4o6peno; noBTopqeMa 6uaa na reaTpe MHoro pa3 x 3aBcerAa 3pr{TeJItMH Tearp Hano,rlHqrcq. HaneqaraHa HxaqBengeM neDeBoauBrxero s Mocxse e Vrunepcrrercxofi runorpaenn y H. Hoanxoea 1787 rona.

flepnufi B PoccHH 6n6;raorpaQnqecKnri yxa3areJrb ar,rreparypbr rro ceJrbcxoMy xo3flficrBy H crpoHreflbHoMy AeJry 6brn Haner{araH B 1789 n. B xypHare <flpoAoJrx(eHHe TilyAoe BolrHoro 3KoHoMHr{ecKoro o6qecrBa; (v. g). On' '6tr;r osarJraBJreH <ldsgecrHq o nyqrlHx KHr.rfax AoMocTpoHTeJrb_

cTBa> H BKJITOqaI 92 HassaHufl KHfir Ha HHOCTpaHHbtx fl3brKax, orlHcaHt,Ifl KOTOpbTX 6unn cocraBJreHbr Ha pyccKoM ,3brKe. OnHcaune Haqr{HaJrocb c QaMHrHr.t aBTopa B poAnreJIbHoM TIAAC)KE, 3ATCM CACAOBAJIO 3ATJIABI,TE, HC OTACJIflBllICCCfl OT

Qauulul,r

HHKaKr.rM 3HaKoM

co crpoqHori 6yxen;

nperr'HaHLI' H Har{HHaBrueecfl

TaKr.rM o6pa3oM, eaunnua KaK 6u npeBpar{aJracb B nepBoe cJroBo 3afJraBHfl. flOgle 3arJraBHfl npr.tBoAHnHCb CBeAeHr.tg o g3brKe KHHTH, MecTe H

ro,4e r.r3AaHufl.

nnfl

QOpuare,

MHororoMHbrx npoH3;eAeHnft yxasuna_

.iIOCb KOJII]qECTBO TOMOB HJIH qACTCfi. IIOUNUO NPHMHTHBHOTO

xapaKrepa orrHcaHHft, HeAocrarKoM <I,IsBecrifi o caMbrx JIyqUIHX KHHrax AoMocTpoHTeJtbcTBa> gB.rrffJlocb To, qTo KHI,itfi Ha ?rHocrpaHHbrx f3brKax onHcbrBaJrHcb Ha pyccKoM s3brKe, qTo cyulecrBeHHo 3arpyAHsno Hx noHcK H ltAeHrHor.{Karlnrc. Ilprrrrepu xs (llgBecrrrfl o Jryrrunx r(Hxrax AouocrpolTerbcrBa, Kxuro.nAa otrbrrH_oe AoMocrpor{TenbcrBo, Ha,rlarHHcxo}r qgbtxe.

4. B 3pgypre.

1735.

Ee*ruaua ncnbrraHur l.r onbrrH rroceBa recoB, ua Heueuxou qguxe. 5 .racrefi. 4. B Bep;une. 1759. . _ Hosolrso6pegennuft celucxlft AoM, Ha tDpaHqyscxou asuxe.

4. B llapuxe. 1762.2 roua. 5 H. A. HaxrQoponcxar

65


OcHoeonoroxunKoM peKoMeHAarenrHofi 6n6ruorpaQHn H. H. Eanruru-Kamescxrfi, ony6"nnKoBaBuiuft s 1776 r.6o.nruoft peKoMenAare.nrsuft yKa3arenb nnreparypbr no pa3JruqHbrM orpacrqM 3HaHHfl. Sror yxasare.ns,

s

Poccnr.r sBr.rJrcfl

xax 6u;ro

cKa3aHo

B

npeAr.rcJtoBxH, npeAHa3HaqaJrcf, <Bo

6laro craparenbnux nsou:efi>, To ecrb A.ns yqaurefics MoJIoAexr.r. OH 6u;r Haneqaran B KaqecrBe flpnnoxeHufl K u3AaHHouy Eauruureu-KaueHcKnM JIar[HcKoMy yue6unxy puropuxu V. O. byprun (loh. Frider. Burgii elementa oratoria) no,u, JrarlHcKHM 3artaBreu <De noticia librorum rossicorum systematice expositorum> (Onucauue poccttftcxux xHHr, cHcreMarnr{ecKx pacno.iroxeHHoe)

.

Vxasarenr BKJIroqaJr oKoJro 900 HasgaHufi (e ocHoBHoM H3AaHHbrx sa 1755-1775 rr., 6o.nee crapbre LI3AaHLII orMeqarncb Jrnrrb B Br{Ae HcKJlroveuua). Marepua.n pacnoJlarancfl B cucreMarlrqecKoM nopgAKe. Onl,tcaHnq noMeulaJrr.rcb B noA6op, apyr or Apyra oHH orAeJrflJrr.rcb roqKoft u rrpe. Oaun.nus aBropa npuBoAunacb B HaqaJIe onncaHl4fl B po-

naAexe; HMeHa H HHHrrHaJlbt o6uqno onycKaJll'rcb, 3aro HepeAxo Qaunnuu npeAuecrBoaana 6yxsa <l>. (coxp. <<rocnoAnH>) : ..f. Xepacxoea>>. 3ro 6u.no flBHbIM H3JIHLxecrBoM, TeM 6oree qro Bo MHorilx cJlyqaflx B uerqx gKoHoMHH Mecra AeJIaJIHcb r{pe3MepHbte coKpaureHutt. (Dalrunnn rpex

AHTeJIbHoM

JIouoHocoBa, Hau6onee H3Becrnblx aBTopoB roro BpeMeun qacro coKpalr{aJlHcb: TpeguaxoecKoro N Cyuapoxosa <<JlouoHoc.

>

-

r.r.na <JIouoH. >>, << Cyu ap.

>

ll

<TpeAnax.

>>.

floc.ne $auu.nl.u.t aBTopa npHBoAHJIocb 3arraBxe, He orAeJIFBIxeecfl or $auunnn HHKaKIIM 3HaKoM l'l HaquHaBueecfl

o6uquo co crpoqHoft 6yxnnr (xax sro 6H.[o s <<l43nectuqx o caMbrx JIyqIxHx KHHfax AoMocrponTe"rncrsa>): <<f . lllnarTepa onncaHue norpe6Horo AeJta npu MoHerHoM I'IcKyccrBe>). Oqesl r.racro B 3afJtaBHFx coKpauaJlltcb orAeJIbHbIe cJIoBa,

Aaxe

ocHoBHbIe cyulecrBHTeJIbHble:

<6yxe.> (6yxnapu),

(aa6yxa) H r. n. Coxpaqenne cJIoB B 3arJIaBLIflx flBrqrocb HeAocTaTKoM yKa3aTeIq, He rOBOpq y)Ke o coKpaureHnflx Sarnrnnufi Tpex aBTopon. Ho, BosMoxHo, aro 6ut.no <<Ag6.>

Arq

cocTaBr{TeJrs BbrHyxAeHHblM: BeAb yKa3aTeJIb cJIyxHJI

Ht4fl,

O fl3brKe OpHrr{Hana,

npuroxeHueu x yue6HHKy, a o6reu KHLITH se AonxeH 6u.tt 6urr cJrHrrrKoM 6orrmnu. CyurecraeuHuft HeAocraroK qacrur{Ho npeoAocrxqHue $ar,annnn aBTopa c 3arJraBr,reM JreBaJrcff urpaSronuu BbrAeJIeHHeM Qauu.ntu.t, Koropafl neqaraJracb xypcr.rBoM. ,II,rn nepenoAHbrx KHxr coo6ula.nncb cBeAe66

a I{HorAa u o

nepeBoAt{HKe.


BuxoAgsle AaHHbIe BKJII6T{a;H MecTo H roA tl3AaHnr (runorpaQna He- yKa3brBa.nacr), npnqeM repeA MecroM H3AaHHq qacTo He cTaBHJtocb Hr,tKaKoro 3HaKa, qTo npoH3BoAr4JIo c-TpaHHoe B{eqarJreHHe. HassanHq ropoAoB Mocxsa H Cauxr-Ilerep6ypr coKpauraJrr{cl: <<M.>> (uspe4xa <<Mocx.>) r.r <C.>_(n Apyrux 6n6;ruorpaQrqecKnx yKa3areJrflx coKpaulell.rs <<C.>> HaM Bcrper{arb He npuxo4nlocl). .II,na uuororoMHbrx uslatuia orMeqaJrocb o6uee xonur{ecrBo roMoB u.nu qacrefi (o6uvuo pllucxofi un$pori), npn

3TOM B BbIXOAHbTX AaHHbrX npHBOAHIHCb roAbr ti3AaHHq nepBoro H nocJleAHeno r43 ToMoB r{epe3 THpe (xax sro AeJlaercrr H

B Haue nperua), Ho HHorAa 3arlHcbrBaracb roAbr t4gr,alufl KaxAono H3 ToMoB qepe3 Tor{Ky (nepea yKa3aHHeM nocJreAHero roAa craBurcq corc3 <<a>>): <<X rou. C. lT8l-lT6T> unw <<lll qac. 1762. 1763 u 1765>. Eclt B yKa3areJre plrAoM noMeulaJrHcb rlpoH3BeAeH14rr oAHoro 14 Toro xe aBropa, ro Qauulna ero o6uquo [ptrBoAHJlacb JII,llllb B IIepBOM CIyr{ae{ a B IOCJIeAyT,OUIHX 3aMeHqJIaCb croBaMH <<Ero x> (eror nplreu MoxHo Bcrperurb B Ha[re BpeMr B noAcrpor{Hbrx npxMeqaHaax). Hanpnuep: <<1. .IlorvroHogo_B^1 xparxofi Poc. lerol. c poAocJtoBHeM f ocyaapefi r. 1760. Ero )K ApeBH. Poc. ucr-Ao KoHr{HHbr B. K. fpo- 1766>. HHorAa xe s noAo6Hbrx cryr{aflx HcnoJrb3ocJIaBa. C. Barcq Apyroft flpueM: $auwtun aBropa npnBoArrJracb oAHH PA3, A AAJICC IIOA COOTBCTCTBYIOUIHMI-I HOMEPAMH AABAJIHCb orr!4caHurr ero npongBe4euufi

(eror

npnena

raKx(e Bcrpeqaercs

I lloeua noxnuesstrfi roKoH BoJrocoB M. l7gl. 2 Onur o r{eJroBeKe c $p. 1755>. EaHruur-Kauescxnfi npnMeHqn n o6teAuseHllbre oflHcaceroAHq B noAcrpoqHbrx npnMeqaHanx): <<flone

HHq: CBCACHHfl O NCPCH3AAHHqX I,INH IICPCBOAAX TIPHCOEAHHfl. Jrucb K onHcaHHIo nepBoro r.I3AaHHfl IrocJIe coro3a <<u>: <IIyQSenaopQa BBeA. B Hcropnro 3HarH. Enpon. focya. . fir-". C. l7l3^ll Bropr.rqHo c Heu. c [puMer{. H roJtr.rrur{. paccyxA.

.{ac.

I. C. 1767>. B yxaearelb BKJnor{aJrHcb }t

orAerbHbre crarbH H3 pyccKoro nepeBoAa 3HaMeHurofr QpaHqyecxoli <3HuuxnoneAnu>>, npH STOM TIOCJIe 3arJIaBHfl CTaTbH CJIeAOBaJTH CJIOBa <<H3 Enuux.noneAnu c Op.>, yKa3brBaJrucb HoMep .racrn <OHuHKroneAHH>, CTpaHr,t[bl, Ha KoTopbrx [oMeuleHa cTaTbg, MecTo H roA H3.u,aHHfl: <<MllneparoruR vg EHrrl.rx;roneAuu c Op.

9. II. crp.

69.

M.

1767>.

b/


Becrua opnrnHanbHuu n .nn6onbrrHbtM flBHJlcg [pHeM, HcnoJlb3oBagHuft BaHrurueu-KaueHcKnM Bo MHorHx orrucaHHflx: tupHQtonoe BbrAereHHe san6o.nee

cyurecrBeHHbrx

(c rouxn 3peHufl TeMaTHKH xHuru) cJroB 3arJraBnn,?ru cJroBa, rax r $auurun aBTopoB, neqaraJrucb KypcuBoru: <l'. JIotto-

Hoc. nepBbre ocHoBaH. ilerannapeuu HJtrl pyAHbrx

AeJI>;

<KpaQta pyKoBoAcrBo x MareuaruKe h $usuuecrcoil, feoepaQuu c ynorpe6neureu sertHoeo etto6gca u ttandrcapr>>. 3ror npueM s xaxofi-ro Mepe MoxHo crrnTarb npoo6pasou coBpeMeHHO|O MeTOAa BbrAeIeH[q <<KJIrOqeBbtX CJIOB>, npHMeHfleMOrO, B qaCTHOCTH, npH COCTaBJIeHHH nepMyTaUHOHHbrx yxasarenefi. B qe.trou peKoMeHAare.nlsurfi 6n6.nr.rorpaSuqecxnrl yKa3arerr Eanruura-KauescKoro npH BceM HecoBepuencrBe u upesuepuofi KparKocrH 6n6nuorpaQHqecKHx onucaHnft npeAcraBJrrer oco6ufi r.rHrepec 6.naro4apn roMy, qro B HeM ncnoJrbgoBaHbr pa3JruqHbre cnoco6u H npHeMbr, HMerotrtue ueJlbto cAeJrarb orrHcaHHfl

6olee

KoMnaKTHbrmu

u

o6oepn-

MbIMH.

Ilpnnrepn ng <Onncannc poccnficrnx xxnr> H. H. Eanruura-Kauercxoro

a) ns py6pnrn <Acrponounr> Kparxoe L3bqcHeHHe o Acrpono.uuu npu Cexare. M. 1765. l. Kpunona ra6luuu pa3flocru^wuputrbl tt cKlofleHun coJtHqa na C. nerep6. MepeaHaHe C. 1742. - lednegca onilcaHue Konerw n 1744 roay c paicyxa. o cocroflHntl Ir csoftcrnax ecex Koner C. 1744.-1. Pgnoecrcoao Ha6.npaeHue sBJIeHHt Benepw B corHue r Poc. Hunep. s 1769 roAy yrrHHeH. c Hcropnv. rpeAyBeaoMn. C. 1771. I4grscreHnfl npoxoxAeH[n Benepu no consuy, 6Hsuero - C. 1770. 23 uan 1769.

6) Hs py6puru

<EctectgesHaq HcropHs'

Honcrona Harypan. Hcropna o qerBepoHorilx n Apyrux xltBorHblx

ua JIar. n Poc. C.

1731.

Iocraroqxotrt Eeepo unu

Crpettorc

- I snepeft. C. 1744. Batepun MunecoAepx. onncaHHe AIKHX nrHq lt3 3eMnB palozun, fiJrH orrncaHne BctKoro poAa pya, l,l ttcKonaeMblx Jlenanu Munepanoeun c Her'l. C. 1772.seuefi c Her'.r. C. 1763. Munepatozun nr Enqux.rongann c @p. Q. II. crp. 69' M. 1767' l. Jlononoc. nepBble ocHoBaH. Merattgpeuu Hnu pyAnblx Aen' Illtarrepa onucaHHe norpe6uoro aena npu Moneruon C. 1763. HcKyccrBe-1. c Qnryp.2 qacr. C. 1736. - Ero xe o6croRre.nbn. HacraBrleHue t4oHerHotu aeny c onHcaH. pgdorconnoLx rrlecr. 3 qacr. C. 1760. Mutepa HaqaiuH. ocriosaH. yr,loipnre;rrnofi Xuxuu 2 qacr. c Her"r. C. lT74 n 775. f. Jloxonoc. peqb o noJrb3e Xuxuu. C. 1751. 68


B csqsu c reM, qro B XVIII n. o6temaMn

onncaunfl

cTaHoBflTcg, KaK IIpaBHJIO, He pyKo[HcHble, a fleqaTHble KHHrr{, 3HaqHTeJtbHo MeHffercfl xapaKTep 6u6.nuorpa$uuecKoro onucarrfl:. AJtfl tAeHrneuxauHn npon3BeAesnfi Heo6_ xoAr.f Mbr-Te-[e_pb ApyrHe cBeAeHHrr. Kax uu Bn$eilv, Ha nporfl_ xeHHr.t XVIII s. Ha6nrcAaercrr yxe 6olnuroe pasuoo6pasne 6H6.nuorpaQHr{ecKux rpyAoB (rexyuan 6a6.nuorpaSnqbcxas nHQopuauafl, Kararorn 6u6luorex, KHHroroproBble peecrpbr, orpacJreBas 6u6.nnorpa$\s H Ap.). lllnpoxoe pasBurue nony-

qaror KHrroioproBar 6u6nnorpaQus, n 6n6n*toreqsue xari_ (noc"lreAHue qaue Bcero ocraBaJrucb B pyKonncr{). Kax MeroAuKa o[ucaHr.rr, TaK u o6urufi ypoBeHb onucaHufi n 6H6;rnorpaQuvecxux rpyAax aroro neill.roAa 6unn or{eHb pa3rHr{Hbr. BeAs usorHe yKa3arenu npeAcraBJtflJnt co6oft nepBbre o[brrbt B ToM HJIH HHoM BHAe 6n6ltorpaer.ra, H cocra_

lorr

BHTeJIflM npHXOAI.iJIOCb CaMocToqTeJIbHO, He onHpagcb HH Ha KaKHe rPaAuqnu, paspa6arunarb npHHuHIIbr orrficaHHs.

B or4entHtrx_cJryqaflx xapaKrep ontcaHnfi

Ha3HaqeHileru 6l,t6.nuorpaQavecxoro yKa3areJrfl.

onpeAeJrqncs

Tak, npncry_

nafl K H3AaHurc <<Casxrnerep6yprcxnx yqeHbrx ee4ouocreft>, craBHJr 3aAar{y Aarb qr.rrarenn uan6o.ilee rrorHoe npeAcraBJIeHHe o KaxAoM npor.r3BeAeHr.tu, noSTOMy

H. Vl. Hoenxoe

rrpr.rBoAHJr B oflficaHHH MaKcHMyM 6r.r6.nllonpaenqecKHx cBeAe_

HHfi, a g <<Onure ucrop_Hq€cKoro cJroBipr o pocctficxr.rx nncarerflx>, cJroBape 6uo6u6nuorpa@nuecxorr,r, oH onpaHHqH_ BaJICrr npHBeAeHHeM Jrlltxb caMblx KpaTKHX AaHHbrx. B qenou onHcaHnfl coBepueHcrBoBaJlucb MeAreHHo H ,u,o

KOHUA B-EKA NPOAOJIXAJIA OCTABATbCfl AOBOJIbHO NPHMHTHBHbrMH. Ha npurrlepe KHr.rroroprosofi 6lr6ruorpaeuu MoxHo

BHAerb, r{To HHorAa HMeJr Mecro Aa)Ke HeKoropufi <perpecc>:

n 6oree paHHHX

H3AaHHsx orrucaHus oKa3brBarr.rcr 6o.nee rroApo6HuuH H ToqHbrMH, r{eM B u3AaHr.rrx, floflBJlflBluHxcE n03,IlHee.

Teu 6olee Hac nopaxaer BbrcoKnfi yponeul onucaHnft, ans raKHX galreqare.nls*x 6r.r6naorpaSnr{ecKux rpyAoB, noAroroBJreHHbrx s nocneAHefi rpern XVIII n., xax <<Casxrnerep6yprcxue yqeHbte BeAoMocrH> H. H. HonnxapaKrepnbrfi

KoBa r{ <En6.nnorexa poccuficxaR> ,fl,auacxHna (,4. E. Cerue-

Hoea-PyAHeaa),

B

xora caMH grn TpyAbr

r.r oqeHb pa3JrnqHbr.

<<CaHxrnerep6yprcxnx yqeHbrx BeAoMocrrx>> o[[caHHsM 6u.na npucyua oco6as pauxoHarbHocrb, npocrora, qerKocrb 69


H B TO x(e BpeMf nOJIHOTa, AaBaBUI{e BO3MOXHOCTb IIOJIyqilTb

HcqepnbrBaroulee npeAcraBneHHe o KaxAoM npoH3BeB <<En6.nnorere poccaficxofi>, sa4yuaHsofi KaK peflepryap pyccKofi neqarsofi xHuru, .[,auacxNtt npumeuun 4n$-

fcHoe

r.t

AeHHH.

QepenqHpogaHuuft noAxo.u. K otrHcaHHIo: BcecropoHHe

H

c MaK-

cuuanlHofi noruoroli xapaKTepH3yfl uau6o.nee peAKHe Lr IleHHbIe KHHrn, Arq ocTanbHblx oH I{c[oJIb3oBaJI npeAeJlbHo JraKoHHqHyro Sop"y onncaHlrfl. He 6yaer [peyBeJIHqeHHeM cKa3arb, qro Host,txos H AaIr{acKLrH npogBLIJIH noAJILTHHo nayvuuft noAxoA K BonpocaM cocraBJIeHHs onucasufr. V HoBr.rKoBa onucaHufl qBHrHcb xax 6ot npoo6pasou onncannft B coBpeMeHHbrx H3AaHLrnx rexyureft nuQopr'aaunu, a y naB coBpeMeHHbIX H3AaHLrqx HayuHofi perpocleKMacKHHa r il sHofi -H Qopu a qnu, BKJIIoq anulefi peAxue u3l..arufl . r.t


9acrl III 6I{6JIHOTPAOl{TIECKOE ON]ICAHT{E B POCCHII B NEPBON NOJIOBHHE XIX B.

B saqane XIX s. s PoccaH nocJre xecroxofi pearunn 90-x rr. XVIII B. cHoBa o)Kr.rBJrqercfl o6urecrneuuas xH3Hb. flpannrenlcrao Anexcau4pa I npeueuHo uAer HaBcrpeqy rH6epalrHlrM HacrpoeHr.tflM, pacnpocrpaHr.tBrxHMcs B pyccxorvr o6urecrBe nocJre cMepru flaana, il npoBoAur pe$opuu, coAericrsosaBrrlHe s xaxorl-ro Mepe pa3Br.rrr.tn flpocBeuleHns, HgyKH, Jrnreparypbr u 6u6nuorpaQuu. B 1802 r. 6ulo co3AaHo MaHncrepcrBo HapoAHor.o npocBe[reHnq. B lB04 r. orKpbr.nncr Kasaucxufi r.r Xaprxoncxnfi yHnnepcurertr. Etr.nl.r yupixAeHbl JII{IIeH s fpocrasre n a I{apcxom Cene. Pacuupl.rlacs cerb yqaJrltlq H rnMHasrafi. OxneHracb HayqHafl H JIHTeDa_ rypHas AeflreJrbHocru. B 1803 r. 6u.no oclroeaHo Bonrlroe o6ulecrso .nrc6ure.neft HayK, cJroBecHocru tr xyAoxecrs e IIerep6ypre, a l€04 n. O6qecrBo Hcropul,l H Apesnocrefi - o6uecreo ucnirrare.nef, npnpo4u poccrlficxux H Mocxoscxoe (o6a npa MocxoecxoM yHnBepcnrere) n Ap. BosHl.rxJru'pa3JrHrrHbre nHreparypHbre o6teAuHeuus. floqnNnncr HoBbre xypHa!'rbr.

floc,re cHflrHfl 3alpera nogo6Hoennu cBoro AerreJrbHocrb r{acrHbre ranorpa$nH, qHcJro Koropbtx HeyKJroHHo pocJto. Vserra.Ir.tJtocb Korxr{ecrBo exeroAHo BbtxoAgulltx B cBer HgAauvti'r.

Bucrpo

pa38HBaJracb KHr{xHafl roproBJrfl. Eolsuoe

n o6lacru 6n6luorpaeuu: B. C. Conr.rKoB npr.rc-TynnJl K cocraBJreHnro cBoero orpoMHoro rpyla <Onur poccnfi cxoft 6H 6.n u orpa Qu n>, ony6n uxoia Hsoro s 5 roNaax B reqeHr{e 18,13-1821'rr.; A." K. lllropx tl O. n. AAe.nyHr n l8l0-l8l I rr. Bbtrrycrurrn B cBer AByxroMHoe <CacreuaruqecKoe o6ospeHne nnreparypnr a pbco)KHBJTeHHe

ua6"noAanocr

7l


cHH)>, BKJITOqaBIIee CBeAeHHfl O KHHraX, XypHaJIaX U BaXHefi-

unx

xypHaJrbHbrx cTarbflx, o[y6JrHKoBaHHbrx B crpaHe B TeqeHHe nepBoro rlqrurerns XIX s.; Ear. EonxoBHTHHoB HaqaJr pa6ory tto cocraBJreunrc 6uo6u6lr.rorpaSnuecKnx cJronapefi pyccKnx. nucarenefi; B. f. Auacracesuq r,r3AaBaJr xypHaJr <<VJrefi>, B crarbflx Koroporo 3aKJraAbrBaJrHcb ocHoBbr reopxu H Hcroplru 6u6nuorpaQuu; Bo3HHKJra cnaBflHo-pyccxas 6vt6nuorpaQrn. OAuaro neplroA ra6epanrHux peQopnn A.rexcau4pa I AOBOJTbHO CKOpO CMeHr,rJICf HOBbTM HaCTyTIJIeHHeM peaKr{HH. 6u.no yqpexAeHo MuurcrepcrBo nOJTHTIHH, npv

B lSll r.

HeM orKpbrJracn <<oco6ar KaHrleJrflpnfl)>, Ha Bo3.rroxeHbr rreH3ypHbre QyHxuun.

xoropyo

a

6u.nlr

Passurue o6ulecreeHHofi

s Poccnn craJlo BcnqecKn no,u,aBJlflTbct. OreqecrseHHaR sofiHa 18l2 r., cnoco6crsoBaBrxafl npo-

MbIcJIH

6yx4eHuro HapoAHoro caMoco3HaHHn H pocry Hauuosanrsofi pyccxofi KyJrbrypbr, o6ocrpuna BHyrpeHHHe nporHBopeqHq B )KH3Hr.r crpaHbr, yclrJrrrJla KpH3Hc KpelocrHr,rqecroft

cucreuu.

B 6opr6e c peaxuneft pa3Br.rBaracb nporpeccnBHarr ruq oAHa Lrc lpeAnocbrnoK Bo3HHKHoBeHHq e

r{AeoJro-

Poccnlt

- o6urecrs ABopsH-peBonroqlloHepoB, craBHBuIl.tx csoefi rafiHux rleJr bro cB ep xeHHe c a MoAep xaBilA u JtuKBr4Aa uH Io KpenocrHll qecTBa.

3ror oran oceo6oAHreJIbHoro ABHxeHI.rfl 3aBepurHncq BoccragueM Aexa6pncroB, Koropoe 6u.ro 6ecnouaAHo pa3-

rpoMJreHo. flosre pacttpaBbI c yqacrHfiKaMLI ABHxeIIHf, 4exa6pncroB npaBHreJlscreo Huroraq I npnnn.no caMbte cypoBbre Mepbr Anfl 6opr6u c pa3BHrLIeM o6ulecreeHHoft MbrcJrl.r s Poccfiu. B crpaue 6un ycraHoBJIeH rloJlulreficrufi pexuM. B 1826 r. 6uno yqpexAeHo III Orae;reune co6crsensoft eno lrMfieparopcKoro BeJIHqecrBa KaHqeilflpHH, lrpoBoAn.[r.rcb ueH3ypHble petrpeccHH, lrpecJIeAoBaBuHe uanefiruHe flpoflBJreHr.rr cso6oAorb6[sofi MbtcJlH B ner{arH. Hoauft qeusypHufi ycraB, sseAeHHblft B gro BpeMR, 6un npo3BaH <qyryHHbrM>. Paganrne peBonrcIrnouHoro ABH)KeHHfl s 3anaAHofi Eapone s 30-x rr. XIX 8., no.IlbcKoe BoccraHue 1830 r., ueruft pflA KpecrbflHcKl{x noccraunfi (<xolepuue 6yHru>) s PoccNr.r HMeJTH cJreAcrBHeM HoBbte penpeccnn npaBHTeJIbcrBa, noAaBJIeHHe nepegonofi o6urecrseHHoft IrasIc.rln. B 1834 r. 6ur saxpur nporpeccilsHHfi xypHan <MocxoscKnfi relerpaQ>, a s 1836 r. xypHaJI <Te.necxon>, ony6.nuxosasl[Irfi rg <<Osrocosavecxux ruceM>> fI. fl. t{aaAaesa. nepBoe Bce xe, HecMorpfl Ha Bce ycHJIHt peaKIrHI't, Har{aro 40.x 10


rOAOB 03HAMCHOBAJ'IOCb HOBbIM NOAbCMOM OCBO6OAHTCJIbHOTO

ABH)K€HLIS, UeHrpoM KoTOpOfo cTaJ MocKOBcKHft yHr.rBepcH-

rer. B ltpyxKax nepeAoBofi

MoJroAexH reflepb npHHvMailH yqacTHe H pa3HortHHUbr. Bo rJraBe peBonoqnoHHo-AeMoKpa_ TnqecKoro ABH)KeHHfl croflJrn Ee.nnucxnfi r.r lepueH. Penpeccnn uapcKoro npaBHTeJrbcrBa oKa3aJrHcb He B cocroflHur4 ocraHoBr.rrb H pa3BHrHe pyccKofi uayrn, nnreparypbr, HcxyccrBa, a raK)Ke 6u6.luorpaQnn. Oqaraur npocBe[leHnrr H B ro x<e BpeMs nnTeparypHurul_r x;ry6auH flBnr_ Jrucb B Poccnx a nepaofi nonoanHe XiX s. 6u6nuorexu Anr qreHufl, Koropbre c XVIII B. orKpbrBaJrucb npn 6o.nlurnx KHHxHbrx Mara3r.rHax. <<Pocnucn> xpynHefturnx qacrHux 6a6-

JrHoreK, HrpaBtuHx 6onluyro poJrb n xy.nrrypHofi )Kr.r3HH crpaHbr, TaKr.rx KaK 6u6nuorexu B. flJrann.nrurlrxosa u

A. C rll u par.r ua, 6tr.nll BbtAa rourHM ucs 6u6nnorpaQllvecxu

rrl l.r

rpyAaMH rofo BpeMeHil. flocrenesHo pa3Br{BaJracb H orpacJre_ sas 6u6nuonpaQHn. [Iorpe6Hocrr n rny6oxoM s*raH,.tfi ,cro_

p r.rH, aKoHoMHKtr, crarncrrKtr, 14 npa Ba o6yc.noeu;r a rrofl BJreHr.re yxasarenefi lro srHM HayKaM. Hx cocrasurerflMn 6nns, rax npaBHJro, KpyrrHHe yrreHbre. Peaxqus nperrrrcrBoBaJra pa3_ BHrHro ecrecrBeHHbrx HayK, no3ToMy yc.nonufi 4na ny6nuxarrHH orpacJresnrx 6u6nfiorpasnvecxHX yKa3areJrefi s o6racrH ecrecrBo3HaHrlfl B Poccua eule He 6u.no. Texyuyro 6n6flHorpa,Quqecryn uHQoprrrauan nbrrarrca ocyurecisHir s lg25 r. rr. rt. \enfieH B H3aa^B-aB[JeMcr HM )KypHare <<bn6.nuonpaSu_ r{ecKr4e JrHcrbr>. c 1834 r. nocyAapcieeuHaq on6"rrnorilarfaqecKaq perncTpaU[q Beracb cHar{ara Ha cTpaHgqax ..-[irpHana MuuncrepcrBa HapoAHoro npocBeureHfiq>, a noroM B npuJroxeHr.{H K sroMy xypHaJry. perynnpuo ny6nnxonalucl cBeAeHHrr o BHOBb BbrrxeA[rHx KHHrax n 6ra6nu6npaQnvecrnx

OTACJIAX X{YPHAJIOB.

3ror

nepuoA orMeqen H rtoqBreHHeM TeoperHqecxux pa6or 6H6.nuorpa$r.rra. Or4e.nrHue 6n6.nnorpd$HqecKne ipva" (Hanpnuep, <<Ontrr poco.rficxoft 6n6.nuorp'aer"" n- C. id;:

no

KoBa) craJrH npenMerolt KpnTnrrecKoro pas6opa B neqarl. SaBepwnracu pa6ora Eer. EonxoBHTrHoBa no noAforoBKe oHooHoJtHorpaQHr{ecKoro cJloBapf pyccKHX nrcarelefi. ti qe,loru nepBan [oJroBHHa XIX s. s poccilH xapaKTepu_

goBaJracb

H

HTeHcr.rB Hbr

M pa3Br{rHerrl

6u6"n r.rorp

aewn,- xorop

a

n

nocreleHno npHo6pena [oAJrHHHo HayvHuri iapaxrep, non"-

JreH ueM psAa 0yHAa MeHraJrbHbrx 6r.r6luorpasHr{ecKHr rpynoB, He yTpaTHBTXHX CBOefo 3HaqeHHfl AO HacTofftllefo BpeMeHr,t, o6pasonauneM AoBoJrbHo txupoKoro Kpyra Bbrcoxorea.nH$t_

t5


H spyAnpoBaHHbtx 6u6.nnorpaQon. Bce 3ro [o3BoJrrer cAenarb BbrBoA, t{To yxe B 3To BpeMq 6n6.nr.rorpaur.rpoBaHHbIX

0ns crara BcnoMorarerrsofi uayuuoft Ancqrn.nusoft t't pyccKre 6r.r6nnorpaQu nepaoft noJIoBHHbI XIX s. BHecJItl cyurecrBeHHHfi sKnaA B Teopuro

fi

npaKrnKy 6tt6;tuorpaQnn.

<CncreuaruqecKoe o6oapenue Jlltreparypbl A. K. tllropxa n Q. il. A4elyxra

a

Poccnr>

B saqare XIX s. BbmrJlo B cBer <CncreuaruqecKoe o6ospenlrreparypbl B Poccltu B reqeHHe nnrnilervfl c l80l no

Hr.re

r.> (Cn6., l8l0-l8ll, r. l-2). Sror rpya 3aHsJI B lrcropHLt pyccxori 6n6nnorpaSau. Ero cocraBnreJrqrvrn 6burr.r H3BecrHbre yqeHble A. K. lllropx l.t O. n. Aaerynr. Auapeft (feHpnx) Kapnonnv lllropx (1766-1835) po' 1806

BnAHoe Mecro

nuJrcfl a Pnre, yqilflcfl s HeHcxolt n feftae.ns6eprcKoM yHHBepcr{Terax, c 1787 r. xllJt e flerep6ypre. Os 3aHnMarctt x3yr{eHHeM lrcropnll, gKoHoMlrKI,I il crarl'tcrnxn Poccllu, ony6.ttl'lxoBan psA Qyn4arrrenraJlbHbrx HayqHbIx rpyAoB. A. K. lllropx 6u.n oAgnrrr rs xpynHeftInnx B Eapone cneunaJlucros e o6Jlacrr.t noJlr,trr,rqecKofi exogomau Il crarucraKn u crail nepBblM s Poco.rt,t aKaAeMHKoM lo 3rLIM HayKaM (c 1804 r.). lllropx ABJtsJtcfl raKxe BHue-npe3HAeHroM AxaAeuuu nayx. C 1804 no l8ll r. ou I{3AaBaJl Ha HeMeu,KoM fl3blKe xypHaJl <<Russland unter Alexander dem Ersten>>, qeJIbIo xoroporo 6lt.tto

Eeponu c Poccnefi. Aesre.nuHuu xypHara 6su <D. fl. A4enyur @eaop (Opuapnx) flasronNq A4e.nynn ( 1768-1847)

o3HaKoMJIeHHe 3anaAHoft

corpyAHl.rKoM

poAHJIcs s UlretruHe, Ylnnca e .IIefinunrcKoM y_HnBepcHrere, e 1794 r. nepeceJILIJIcq s Poccl-{rc. OH c.nyxn.n n MHHt'lcrepcrne HHocrpaHHbIX AeJI cHaqaJla qnHoBHl'txorrl oco6stx nopyueHufi, a 3areM c l8l4 n. HaqaJtbHltxotrl yue6Horo orAeJIeHHfl BocroqHbrx rr3brKoB npu AsnarcKoM AenapraMeHre, rAe coAeftcrBoBaJr opraHH3aur.tu 6u6.nuoreKn rto BocroKoBeAeHHIo. BuAarculnfics l.rcropHK, apxeoJlor, JtrHrBucr O. n. A4enyHr 6ul q.neuou'

xoppecnonaeHroM AxaAennun Hayx

(c

1809

r.). Ou

lruoro

BHHMaHHfl yAeJrrn 6n6nnonpaQnqecxofi AerreJIbHocrH: I'rM 6n.nlr cocraBJIeHbt yKa3areJlb JIHTeparypbI no caHcKpHrcKoMy fl3brKy, yKa3areJlb crapuHHblx xapr PoccHrr u KpnTH Ko-JIrdrep arypHoe o6oapeu ue nyreuecrBeHH H KoB no P occll n

ao 74

1700 r.


B <CncremarnqecKoM o6ospeuuu> 6u;ru npegcraBJreHbr floqrn c HcqepnbrBanureft noruorofi KHHrr{, ony6;rnxonaHnue e Poccnr{ Ha pyccKoM ssbrKe r.r Apyrnx qsbrKax uapo4on PoccuK, a TaKX(e Ha HHOCTpaHHbtX fl3btKax 3a nepBble nflTb JleT XIX e. flpnaeg,euu raKxe cBeAeHHrr o6 orAsltHbrx KHr.rrax pyccKxx aBropoB, ony6.nrxoaauuux sa rpauuqefi Ha HHOCTpaHHbTX fl3blKaX.

Kax orueqa"r A. K. IIIropx so <BBeAeHHH> K q. I <CucreMarlqecKoro o6oapeHna>>, noco6uxMH Anfl cocraBJteHHrr yKa3areJrfl cJryxr.rJlH: l) cne4entn o KHHrax, noMeuleHHbIe B )KypHaJrax; 2) xnuroropnoBbre pocnncr.r; 3) xara.nor Eu6luorexH AxaAeunu nayx; 4) xypHaJtbHbre peueH3r.til; 5) cntcxu pyxonHcefi, o4o6peuHux K neqarannro uenaypofi; 6) cnl,tcKn KHr.rf, HarreqaraHHbrx c 1801 no 1806 rr., notyqeHHbre or rlnorpaQufi. lllropx ynoMuHaer H o roM, qro cocraBJreHHas H3 3THx cseAeHufi <pocnucb)> 6u.na <gsaruefiurnnan 3AerxHHMH KHr,rfonpoAaBqaMn, a paBHo H MHoTHMH 3HaroKaMH poccufi-

cxoft ;lnreparypbr npocMorpeHa, cBepeHa u 4onoJlHeua>>.t <<Pocnucl KHHraM, A. K. lllropx, coAep- yKa3brBa.tl xHT He roJrbKo noKa3aHuq KHHr H oco6eguo HaneqaraHHbtx (r. e. orAe;rbHo x3AaHHbrx, H. H.) covuueuHfi, Ho raKxe - Xgpnaaoa cero nepuoAa>>.2 H saxHeliuux crarert H3 ryquux

BxrnqeHue n 6u6.irnorpaQNuecxuli yKa3arerb HapflAy c KHHrauu Hau6oJree 3Haqr{TeJrbHbrx xypHanbubrx crareft tBnJtocb HoBoBBeAeHHeM H 6esycnonHo yBeruqnBaro efo. ueHHocrb. B <3axlnqeHHH> K r{. I <CairervrarHqecKoro o6ospeuun>> npHBeAeH nepeqeHb x(ypHaJroB, crarbl lls roropr,rx 6trul.r BKJtroqeHbI s ocgosHofi TeKcr, c coKpaueH[gMn ua3naHnri, rrpHMeHeHHbIMH B OnHCaHHX.

<CncremarnqecKoe o6ospeHue> npeAflonaraJrocb npoAoJr-

xHrb, ny6.nuxya

cBeAeHnq o nareparype 3a nocJre,u,yrculue roAbr, Ho ocyxrecrBHTb 9To HaMepeHne noMe[IaJla OreqecrseH-

l8l2 r. rIepnan qacrr <CncreMarHgecKoro o6ospeHHfl>, oxBarbr-

Haq sofiHa

BaBrrrafl JrnTeparypy Ha pyccKoM qgbrKe, 6ula noAroroBJreHa lllropxol,r, BTopafl, coAepxaBru afl HsAaHHfl Ha uHocrpaHHbrx q3brKax, A4e;rynrou. B nepnofi '{acrn noMerqeHo 1648 Ha- rou gsaHr.rfi (n qncJre 27 nepuogwqecKr.tx r{sAaHHft u 2J2 xyp-

r[Iropx nnrepary_pbr

A. K., AAenysr @. fI. CtcrerraaruqecKoe o6o3peH[e n Poccru B reqesile flrrrJterHr c l80l no lg06 r. Cn6.,'lgl0,

q. I. c. XX. 2 Tau xe. c. XXVII-XXVIII.

75


HaJIbHbrx crarbH), Bo Bropoft-641 Ha3BaHHe. B nepnofi qacrn orrucannq npou3BeAeHnfi n pn4e cryqaeB conpoBo)KAaJlHCb CBeAeHr.rff Mr.t O peueH3r.tfl x.

B xaxAofi ug qacrefi

r.rMeJtocb ABa pa3AeJra:

nr{carerqM>.

B

<<CncreuarnqecKoro o6o3peHus>>

<A. Pocnncn

pas4e.ne

A

KHHTaM)>

u <<6. Pocnncr

flpilBoAr.rJrncb orrHcaHnrr KHlrr

crateft, pacnoroxeHHbre B clcreMarHr{ecKoM

t,t

noprAKe,

a TaKxe onucaHr.rfl )KypHanoB H fa3eT, BbtAeJIeHHbte B oTAeJIbHue py6praxu. Kax nucaJr IIIropx, <Pocnuco KHuea.fit pacnonoxeHa no HayKaM, KaK oHbre no caMoMy ecTecTBeHHoMy H Henpr.rHyxAeHHoMy nopsAKy cJreAyror oAHa 3a Apyfon>>.o (l4rraeercn B BHAy raKoe pacnoJroxeHue, KaKoe npeAcraBnffJIOCb <eCTeCTBeHHbtM

H He[pXHyXAeHHbtM>> CaMHM

COCTaBr,r-

TeJIflM, 3anMcrBoBaBtrrHM x.naccndnxauan H3 seueuxofi 6r.r6lnorpaQnn,) Paeaen B nepeofi qacrn <<CucreMarnqecKoro o6oapenuR> coAepxan

rpu noApa3Aela: l)

<<Pocnncu poc-

cxficxr.rrrr nucareJrffM>; 2) <Pocnucb nucareJtflM, KoHX coqaHeHHf, nepeBeAeHbr Ha fl3brK poccnftcxuft>; 3) <Pocntcb nepeBOAI{HKA M, IICPCJIO)KI,IBIXUU POCCNfi CKHC COqHHCH Hfl HA fl3bIKH

HHocTpaHHbre>. Bo aropofi qacrl.t <Cucrelt,laruqecKoro o6ospeuun> pa3Aen b no4pasaeJtoB He nMeJI.

B <Pocnncn poccuficxxtvt nHcareJlnM> H B <<Pocntcu nepeBoAqr.rKaM, nepeJloxltBlllHM pOCcnftCXue COqHHeHI'rfl Ha g3brKH xHOCTpaHHbIe> 6lt.ttl.t Aasu (noA Qaun"nuruu, pacnoJroxeHHbrMH ro alQannry) cneaeHun o6 anropax H nepeBoAqlKax npoH3BeAeHHfi, sxrroqeHHblx B nepBylo qacrb, a raKxe 3arJlaBHfl 3THx npou3BeAeuufi c HoMepaMI't, noA KoropblMH oHH noMeuleHbr B pa3Aene A. <DaunluH aBTopoB H nepeBoAql'IKOB qacTo conpoBoxAaJlHCb yKa3aHHeM TI,ITyJIOB, qHHOB, 38aUnfi, 6norpa$nuecKHx AaHHbtx, TaKHM o6pa3oM, o6e <Pocnucn>> 6u.ltr nolegnbl He roJtbKo KaK o6btqHble nMeHHble yKa3areru, Ho r.r KaK LrcroqHHKLI AoIIoJIHI{TeJIbHbIx cBeAeuuft o6 aBTopax fi nepeBoAr{HKax, a nJIaBHoe, coAepxaJlI{ nonsufr nepeqeHb npou3BeAeHnfi xaxAoro I43 aBTopoB H rlepeBoAquKoB 3a nflTnrrerne

B

c l80l no 1806

r.

<<Pocnncs nucareJrrM, KoHx coqr,rHeHuff nepeBeAeHbl Ha fl3brK poccnftcxnfi> yKa3btBanucb oAHlt .nuulr $auuJIHH aBTo-

pon (6es nHnuuanon) H HoMepa, noA KoropblMu B pa3AeJIe

A noueuleubr Hx lpor,r3BeAeHnfl, AonoJIHHTeJIbHble cBeAeHI4H o6 anropax (unnu,3BaHHr) npHBoAHJlHcb JlHlllb B BHAe 3 Tau xe, c. XXI. -6


HcKJrror{eHr.rr (Ana

s

rex aBropoB, KoropHe xHJrH H pa6ora.nu

PocclrH).

Becstua npHMeqarerbHo, rrro B 3ToM noApagAeJre cpeAu Qauu"nufi aBropoB H nepeBoArtnxoa (n oAHoM a.nQanrruou pa4y) nolre[teHbr HaHMeHoBaHHrr pqAa yqpexAenufi H opraHlt3auufi, Koropbre paccMarpuBaJrncb KaK aBTopbr. Taxuu o6pa3oM, 3Aecb HcrroJrb3oBarcq npuHIIHrr KoJIJIeKTUBHoTo anropa.a pa3AeJre A npoxsne4eHnr He 6sr.nn onucaHbr noA KoJTJTeKTHBHbTM aBropoM (xax He onncbtBaJrncb oHH B <CncreMarr.rqecKoM o6ospeHan> H ttoA xHAuBr.rAyaJrsHsntl anropolr,r ), B pa3AeJre 6 coxpaur,eHHbre 3auraBnq npon3BeAesnfi B prrAe cryr{aeB 6u.nn nepevHcJleHbt nocJle HaHMeHoBaHHn KoJIJIeKTH-

Xors s

sos. 3rH HaHMeHoBaHHg o6u'lHo noMeuraJrHcb noa

ocHoBHbIM

cJIoBoM (<<axaAeusg>, <<o6u{ecrBo>>, <<yHHBepcHTer> n r. n.), HanpHMep: AxaAeMHq ClannHo-rpeKo-JrarHHcKaq; O6qecrso BoJIbHoe sKoHoMHqecKOe; yHHBepcHTer Mocxoscxufr H r. n. HanpNuep, B pa3Aene E n noApaaAele <Pocntcl poccnficxuu nHcaTeJtgM> 3HaqHTCq: 4. Ara4eutn C;ranauo-lpexo-.Ilarnucxas s Mocxee 3. fpaur'rarHxa fpeuecxan. 5. AxaaeMuq Poccnftcxar, n C. Il.6ypre. 49. lpanrrrlarnxa Poccufi cxas.

p

pqsa".t" A noa coorBercrByrouruMu HoMepaMH (Nb 3 N! 49) noMeureHbr cJreAynune onucaHnfl:

n

3j fpauuar_xxa, lpeve-c-xaa, cos. Mocxoscxofi Cnaeano_fpexoJlaruucrcort Axadenuu. M. 801. 8. !9. - -fparuuaruxa Poccuficxar, coq. poccuficrcon n. 802. 8.

Arcadenuen.

Jln6onurno, qro B pa3Aene E s <PocnHcu poccnficxurvr nHcaTe,'tqM> B Kar{ecTBe K0JIJ|eKTHBHOTO aBTOpa paccMaTpH_ BaJIcfl <<Eayxrcxnfi opAeH> (a pas4ene A noueureriu <<.Ilaruucxan fpauMaraKa, cou. Esyurcrcoeo opdeHe> H <KparxaR Qpauuyscxaa lpauuarnKa, H3A. B noJrb3y roHourecreb, o6yqao[lerocfl B r.uKoJrax Esgutcrcux>). Ecrl u raxoft xonnextsnHuft aBrop, KaK <<Boc[HraHHHKr.t Mocx. VH[rs.>> (n pas4ene {

Ha 9ro o6paru.l BHHMaHHe M. A. EpncxMaH, orMeqaBurrfi, uro <npHHqH[ ,,KoJtreKTrBHoro, aeropa"_ npHMeHeH 6u.n enepnue A. K. lllrop_ xorrl> (EpncKMaH M. A. B. f. AHacracennv. M., lg'b8, c. 180). 77


A

noueureHur c6opgr.rxu <H orAux B noJrb3y, l.l.nl.r co6pauue coqrHeunft fi [epeBoAoB B crnxax r.r B npo3e>> n <<Vrpeuuna 3apr>, npeAcraBJrtrIoutue co6oli <<rpyAbr BocnuraHHuKoa M o c rco e c rco eo U u ua e p c ur er c Koe o 6 n ae op od noe o naru c uon a>>) . B raxaofi H3 AByx qacrefi <<CncreuatuqecKoro o6ospeHHn> r.rMeJlocr <<BgeAeHHe>, B KoropoM AaBaJIacb xapaxrepHcrHKa oco6eunocrefi Aausoro uJAaHVfl H npr.rHrrr{noB, rroJlox(eHHbrx cocraBHTeJIflMH B ocHoBy ux pa6oru, a raK>xe <<3axnrcveHne>, coAep>raBttree ctatuctnqecxuli aHaJIH3 MarepHaJIoR, BKJnoqeHHHx

s

r.r no3BoJrsBuee cyAHTb

cocrorrHun nnTeparypu

o

<(CucreMarHqecKoe o6ospeHue>>, a PoccHa

XIX a. Bo <<BseAeHr.rH>> K q. I <CucreMarnr{ecKoro o6ospeHua> lUropx cltequaJrbHo ocraHaBJrHBaJrcfl Ha Bonpocax onilcaHHfl. B HaqaJre

OHn 6u;rr.r H3JroxeHbr 3Aecb B BocbMH rryHKrax, Koropbre e caoeft coBoKynHocrr{ npeAcraBJrflJrr.r co6ofi caoeo6pasuyro MeroAuKy 6u6.nuorpaQHqecKoro onucaHHs. Onucanue s <CncreMarHqecKoM o6ospeurn>, KaK npaBHJto, HaqrHaJlocb c 3aruIaBl,rfl. Jlgurs B BnAe HcKJuoqeHHR B HaqaJre yKa3blBatacl $auu.rlna aBTopa B poAI,lTeJIbHoM

naAexe, ecJIH 3Ta Qaun.nna BxoAHJIa B COCTaB 3ar,'laBHs: <Beilnana pyKoBoAcrBo K 3HaHHIo u ynorpe6neHun peK>.

Illropx orMeqaJl Bo <<Bne4eHnn>: <kls BecbMa Art'IHHbrx saenaeuil KHHI noMettleHo roJIbKo cyqecrBeHHoe t.l orJHr{HTCJIbHOC, HO TAK, T{TO, HCCMOTPfl HA COKPAIUEHI'Ifl' KHHTA BcerAa orbrcKaHa 6url It,toxet>.5 Coxpauleuue gar.naslrft 6u;ro o6yc.lroBJleHo reM, qro [ocJIeAHHe B STor nepnoA qacro oTJrHr{aJI

Hcb upear,aepHofi rpoMo3AKocTbto.

Iloc.ne 3arJIaBHq npHBoAHnHcb cBeAeHHfl o6 aarope (uur, Qauunnn, a B pflAe cJlyqaeB TaKxe rHryJI, 3BaHHe HJIH

AorxHocrb), KaK npaBnno, nocJle coKpauleHHoro cJIoBa <coq.>. flocxo.nrxy raKoe coKparqeHne Morro o3Haqarb I'l <<cor{HHeH14e>>, H <<coqHHHJt>>, H

<<coqHHeuHufi>, QamN.nnn aBTopa

craBHJIacb coorBercrBeHno .ttn6o B poAnreJlbHoru,

lu6o

B HMe-

,rn6o e BHHHTeJIbHoM rtaAexe: <<coq. AxaAeMHKa A. Mropxa>>; <<coq. Ceneru Coconoau'a>; <<coq. Ko.irn. Coe. Saxapuen f opnutrcuruom> (ro xe HMeJIo Mecro H npn yKa3aHHTeJIbHoM,

HHH nOCJIe CJIOBa <<COq.> HanMeHoBaHHfl KOJIJIeKTI{Ba, Harlp.' KaK Mbr BHAeJIH, <co\. MocKolcKoti Cnaenuo-fpeKo-JIdruH-

crcort Arcadenuu>

H

<coq. Poccuilcrcon Arcadenuep>\.

slII rop x A. K., Aae.n yn

c. XXIII-XXIV. I6

r

<D.

fl.

Cucreuaruqecxoe o6oapeHue" ',


Ecru npouaBeAeHr.re 6u.no nepeaeAeHo c Apyroro fl3brKa, To B onucaHnu o6uqso coo6ulanucr cBeAeHHg o r3brKe opurnHal,a H o nepeBo,u,quxe. CoxpalueHHoe cJIoBo <nep.> MorJIo o3Harlarb Id <[epeBoA>, I{ <flepeBeJl>, u <<nepeBeAeHo>>, noaroMy Qauu.nnn nepeBoAqr{Ka npprBoAr{aacb coorBercrBeHHo .nn6o a poAHTeJIbHotu, lu6o B HMeHureJttsou, .rlH6o B TBopt{reJrbHoM naAexe: <flep. c Heu. npo$. lpueopun fnunrcu>i <nep.

c Heu. THr. cos. Maroert Pesanoa>; <nep. Muxattnon

Muxattnoaotu>>.

<H.uena eo4uture./teit, a ectu KHHra nepeBeAeHa, To H lllropx, KypcHBnepeao}uurcoa, - nncaJr - Haner{araHbr HbIMH JrHTepaMn. Ec.nn coqngHTeJIH rrJrr nepeBoAqr.rKr.r He HaHMeHoBaJIa ce6g, Ho HMeHa I{x cAeJlarucb MHe H3BecrHbIMl.r, To oHbre BKJnoqeHbt s cxo6xn, a paBHoMepHo Lt ocraJlbHbte

6yxau

r.rMeH, KorAa coqnHr{TeJrb HauMeHogar ce6g roKMo Har{aflbHbrMn 6yxnamu, Hanp., K.(apn) f .(a6nuq)>>.6 B onncagsn orMer{aJIncb cBeAeHHfl o [oBTopHocrrl HgAaHHfl, KHr.rrH: <<2-e rgA.>; <IlsA. HoBoe HcnpaBJreHHoe> H T. n. O uecre H3AaHr.rr (uasunaeuou lllropxom <<MecroM neqaraxua>) no BeeAeHaH roBoprlJrocb, qro B onncaHHrrx Bcrpeqarorcfl ToJrbKo l5 HagsaHnfi ropoAon r{ qro HeKoropbre rr3 3Tr.rx HassaHr.rfr Aalorcr coKpaueHHo. Tyr xe rroMeu{aJlcff llepe-

qeHb coKpaueHHbrx o6ogsaqeuuft Aecsrn ropoAoB: <MocKBa

M.>>, <<Casxrnerep6ypr

n.)>, <<CuoreHcr

H rp.7foAsr r{sAaHuR (HasneaBuuecfl lllropxot"t

-Ctto.n.>>

<<r'oAaMH

neqa-

tauua>>), KaK nncaJt caM cocraBHTeJIb, <<o3HaqeHbt c BbtnyueHHeM TbtcgqH>, TO eCTb B OnHCaHr.tr4 TTpHBoAHJIHCb JILllXb TpH nocJleAHHe quQpu roAa, a repBas uuQpa (<<e4uHuua>) onycKaJracb. Hanpnrrrep, roa 1805 B onLrcaHHH yKa3btBaerctl

uuQpofi 805. Tax xe coxpaqar roA H3,a,aHnq no3AHee B. f . AHacraceBr.rq a <<Pocnncu>> 6n6nnorexn B. A. I-lras[nonrr.rKoBa. Bo nropofi xe qacru <CncteltarnqecKoro o6oapeunn>> A4e.nyHf B onHcaHHH roA H3AaHr,rff o6osHaqar o6uquo, To ecrb qerbrpbMa qnQpauH. B onr4caHHH npHBoAHncs Qoprr,tar vsAaHHn (npanaa, B orAerbHbrx cJryqaflx oH nor{eMy-To He yKa3aH). HHor4a or6 Tau xe, c. XXIII-XXIV. 7 B Hacrosuee BpeMf, H3 srLx coxpauleHaft flpnMeHqercq, KaK npaBr.rno, ro.rrro <M.> (Mocxna). Corpauleune Ha3BaHrrt <Canxr-Ilerep6ypn> o4Hofi cqurarb vAaqHbrM' n B ApvrHx vKa3arentx o'o

:JX".%;T;;J;=J":t"

79


MeqaJrocb HaJrHqHe HJrnrocrpauxfi (nepea BbrxoAHbtMr.r AaHHbIMH HJIn B KoHue onrcauua): <c $arypaMn>; <c 25 xaptun-

fi T. N. B onncaHln

KAMH>

MHoforoMHbrx us1aHtft vKa3btBaJrocb KoJIHqecrBo qacreft HJrH ToMoB. Pnucxne unQpu, o6osHauarcu:,ne B vzAaHHIl HoMepa qacreft HJIll ToMoB, B onHcaHHH 3aMeHfl.lulcr apa6cxuuu (xax 9ro AeJraercfl B Harue epeun). Ecln B OnrcaHHH npHBoAnnucb cBeAeHHq o Bcex qacTflx HJILr TOMaX Hsn..aHHr, rlu$pil rroMeura./rucb nepeA coKpaqeHHbrM o6o3HaqeHI.{eM cJIoBa <qacrb> }rJtLI <ToM>: <3 q.>: <2 r.> H T. II. Ec.nll xe AaBaJrHcb cBeAeHHfl ToJrbKo o HeKoropblx r{acrflx HrH ro_Max, ro quQpu noMerr1aJrHcb lrocJle coorBercrByroulero o6osnaqeHxfl: <r{. 2. 3; r. 3. 5> I r. n. MexAy qiOpaMH B AaHHOM Cnyqae CTaBHJIaCb TOqKa. B rex cflyr{aflx, KorAa K onflcaHnqM KHHrH HJIH crarbH npHcoeAr.rHqJr[cb cBeAeHHfl O perIeH3HH, [OCJre OIIUCaHHfl IIpHBOAHJIOCb Ha3BaHHe XypHara, rAe noMeqeHa perleHgHq

(n coxpaqeHun), tolr,r, rracrb H crpagnua: <Cee. BecrH. II. 136>; uXypn. Poc. Cros. I. 54> H r. n. OnucaHag xypHaJtbnbrx crareft 3ax.[lo,{anucl s cxo6xx.

flo

c

sceri BepoflTHocrn, cxo6xt

B AaHHoM

cflyr{ae npnMeHflnacb

uenbro KaK-ro BbrAeJrnrb olHcaHnfl crarefi cpeAx onficawuit KHr.If , B onHcaHHI.I rrpHBoAHJrHcb 3arJraBHe crarbx (n or4e.ntubrx cryrtaflx H KaKHe-To rroA3afoJIoBoqHbIe AaHHue), cBeAeHr.rr o6 aBTope, AJrf, nepeBoAHbtx crarefi o f3blKe, c KoToporo cAeJIaH [epeBOA, H O nepeBoArIHKe, a raKxe o x(ypHane, B KoropoM noMeureHa. crarbs (nepea

srHMH cBeAeHr.trMr.I r.r.rpe He npocraBJrflJrocb) : coKpauIeHHoe Ha3BaHHe xypHana (fleqaraeMoe KypcHBoM, KaK n Saut.rrr.rr.r H I{MeHa aBTOpOB H nepeBoAqHKoB), TOM, qacTb l{ cTpaHHua, Ha xoropofi noMeureHo HaqaJro

crarbx. foA

HsAaHaR He yKa-

3brBaJ|cq.

B onncauuu xypHanoB H raser. npHBoAHJrHcb Ha3BaHr.re Lr3AaHLrr, cBeAeHr.rfl o ero H3Aarene (neuaraeuue xypcuaou), Mecro H roAbr u3AaHHfl,, Sopr"rar, yKa3aHHe nepHoAnr{HocrH, HoMepa roMoB r.r.nu qacreft.

CeeAeHr.rs o nepeBoAax npou3BeAeHrfi pyccxnx aBropoB Ha nHocrpaHHbre fl3brKll, noAo6uo cBeAeHHrrM o peqeHsr.tsx, npHcoeAHHqJrHcb K OnHCaHHTO npoH3BeAeHHt H TIOMeUIaJIHCb

c Hosoft crpoKn.

Oco6oe BHUMaHHe yAenflJrocb rouy, uro6tr <<coKpaureHufl npH rr.rryJre coqr.rHHreJrfl HJrH r{HAe (r. e. rAe-HN6yal a ApyroM Mecre, H. H.) BcrpeqarcurHecq> 6u"nu <<Bpa3yMHreJrbHbl

-

80


6es o6tscneHrfl>.8 Peqr runa o roM, qro B onncaHnflx coKpauIeHHq CJroB BO BceX CryI{aflx cAeJIaHbl e raxol? Qopue' ,{ro6u ogn 6u.nn noHflTHbt qHTareJIIo 6es AononuuTeJlbHblx noqcHeHnft.

B nepaofi qacru <<CHcreMarHrecKoro o6ospeuHtl>

xofi o6osHa.{arHcb

3Be3Aor{-

c

uHocrpaHHblx f3brKoB. Bo eropoft qacrn 3Be3Aoqxofi orMer{a"'lncb npoH3BeAeHrlg pyccKLIX aBTOpOB, HaneqaTaHHble 3a rpauauefi. Bo nropofr qacrtt B onHcaHllqx KHHI Ha norbcKoM fl3blKe H Ha r3btKax HapoAoB flpn6a.nrr'rxH rIocJIe 3arJIaBHtl B Kp-yrJlblx cxo6rax npr4BoAHJIcr ero nepeBoA ua pyccxufi q3blK. Onxca-

KHHrLt, nepeBeAeHHbte

uacru HepeAKo conpoBoxAaJlHcb aHHOraIIHqMH, COAepXaBllJI'lMH AOIIOJIHHTeJIbHbIe cBeAeHHg O KHnfax. HHfl BO nropoft

Cocraanienu <<Cncrel,,tarnqecKoro o6ospeHnR> paspa6o-

TAJIH CBOIO METOAHKY ONHCAHHfl, OCHOBHbIC NOJIO}KCHHfl KOTOpoft 6unn u3JIo)KeHbt lllropxorta so <<BeeAeHHH> K nepaoli

qacru. 3ro cer.IAereJlbcrByer o6 ux cepbe3noM orHoueHHH K BonpocaM 6ra6.nnorpaQHqecKoro orHcaHHq. Paspa6orra

a H3JIoxeHHe npHHuI{[oB cocraBJIeHHn onHcaHHft so <BBeAeHHH>> s xaxoft-io uepe o6lerqaJlo qHTareJIIo norb3oBaHHe 6lr6.nuoMero,u.HKH cnoco6creoBaJla eAI'IHoo6pasHIo onHcaHHfl,

yKa3areneM. rpaQuuecxuM ' Kax cnpane4.nHno yKa3blBaJI H. B. 3Ao6Hos, onHcaHnr s .<C HcreM aruqecKoM o6ospeunH > orJIHq aJI Hcb <<gH a'{urerbHofi

roqHocrbro (He yxasauu JIHlub rHnorparlua x qHcJIo crpaHHIL .{ro 6brno rorAa o6H'{HblM qBreHI'teM, Ho orcraBaJlo or pyccKon npaKrHKH XVIII n.)>>.e HanoMHHM, ,rro B <<CaHrrnerep6yprcKHX yqeHbrx BeAoMocrnx> H. 14. HoeuxoBa B onxcaHuflx

OTMCqAflOCb KOII,TTIECTBO CTPAHHII

H

YKA3bIBAJIACb THNO-

npaQua.

'

,[,anexo He Bce pelueHnq, npHHtlrble Illropxorr,t n Ag,enyurorvr B oTHoIIIeHHH 6u6.nnorpaQHqecKHx onncaHnfi, flBJIflJIHcb

yAaqHbtMLt (nanpnrr,tep, onucaHfie Bcex npoH3eeAeHfifi noA 3arJIaBHeM, xoTfl 3TO 6U.nO xapaxrepHo H Anq MHOnHX nOCJIeAyroulnx 6r.rfuInorpaQuqecKux rpyAoB).,Bce xe ue.nufi pa4 nuroxesnfi B Hx MeroAuxe 6u6.nsorpaQuvecxoro oIIHcaHHfl 3acJIy)KLtBaer oAo6peuua H coorBercrByer rosAHefiuJefi

(snrorr Ao Haurux Aneft)

6a6.nuorpaSuqecxofi rpaKruKe'

8

lllro p x A. K., A4e.n yn r O. fJ. Cncreuarnqecxoe o6oapeuue..., e 3.qo6nos H. B. I'IcroPnr pyccrofi 6u6luorPaQuu Ao Haqana

c. XXIX.

XX seKa. 3-e uga. M., c. 6 H. A. IlnxrQoPoncxan

147.

8t


Eo"ruruHu AocrouHcrBolrr <<CNcreuarHqecKoro o6ospeHnn>

ro, t{To Hprfl n savunna aBropa BKJrroqaJIHcb B ol,HcaH'e Aa)Ke rorAa, KorAa oHH He 6lr"ryg o6oggaqeHH B KHHre, Ho Cra,'iH Ii3BeCTHbl COCTaBHTeJ.TflM H3 ApyrfiX HCTOqHHKOB, 6ar"no

a raKxe HcnoJrb3oBaHue B arHX cnyqaqx

cxo6ox. OAHaKo n HeonpaBAaHHbtM B cKo6Kax HeAocralounx

npeACTaBJIfleTCq H3JIl.ltxHHtvt II€AaHTH3MOM ycJro)KHeHHeM on HcaHr4fl np HBeAeHxe

6yxa .lnuHoro fiMeHH aBropa HJIH nepeBoA,{nKa.l0 Moxno

orMernTb, qro npu noAo6sorvr [eAaHTH3Me [Iropx cqeJr Bo3MOXHbTM B TeKCTe <<cncreir,tatuqecKoro o6ospennr> Bo MHOTHX

cJryr{aflx soo6ue He yKasbrBarb B onHcaHHr.r He roJrbKo JrnqHono r.rMeHH aBTOpa HJIH rrepeBoAqr,rKa, Ho Aaxe ero HHHTIHaJIOB.

Ilpaa4a, sro qaqe scero 6unaJro B Tex cnyttaqx,

KorAa

aBTop HJrr{ nepeBoAqnx 6u.[l.r AocraroqHo xopouo r{3BecrHbr qr.rrareJrn,. HanpnMep: <<cou. XepacKosa>; <Co6pauue pa3Hblx coqnHegufi B crHxax u npo3e Jlononocoea> r.I Ap. flonesHHrr,r qBrfl fl ocb H npH MeHeHae o6.r,eAnHeHHoro on ncaHHq : npHcoeAr.r_ HeHHe K onHcaHHflM npoH3BeAeHHft cseAenHfi o perreH3r.tflx

H nepeBoAax.

Hana npeAcraBflqercfl yAaqHbrM perueHHe coKpaqarb croBa rax, qro6u 3rH coKpaqeHnfl 6brnn 6H noHqfHH 6es noqcHeHr.rft. CoxpauleHflq s Ha38aHHflx xypHanoB 6unn pacurnQpoeaHbr ABaxAH: so <BBeAeHfiH> (a iinsn c vnoMaHaHheM o peqensnax) u n <c3ax;loqeHur.t> (rae norrreuten neper{eHb xypHaJroB, crarbu H3 Koropbrx BKJrroqeHbr s <<CrcreMarnqecxoe o6ospeHre>). Kax H3BecrHo, B Ha[rH AHH rrpu HeooxoaHMocTH HCrrOJIb3OBaTb TaKHe COKpauIeHHr, KOTOpbte Moryr 6trtl uenoHqrHbr qHTareJIIo, Aanrcfl cnHcKH coKparqe_

HHli c lrx pacruuQponxori. B cflncKe r{cnoJrb3oBaHHbrx HcroqHrrKoB, lrpnraraeMou x 6r.r6;rnorpaQuuecxoMy yKa3areJrlcl,

KAK NPABHJIO, AAroTCq XAK IOJIHbIC, TAK H COKPAIIICHHbIC Har,rMeHoBaHHr nepuoAnqecKnx wzI.ap.uit, crarbn r.t3 Koropbrx BKrroqeHbr

s

AaHHHfi yKa3areJrb.

Bo

<BseAeHHH>

[Irbpx qt$p

cneunaJrbHo oroBapaBaJr 3aMeHy B OnHCaHnH purvrcxux

B yKa3aHHr.r roMoB r.r ,{acrefi apa6cxnrrln. Oro coorsercrnyei

coBpeMeHHofi npaxruxe.

Herusq He orMernTb

<<C

HcnoJIb3oBaHHe

ncteu aruqecKoro o6ospeu

nR >>

ltpn Hutr

n nepeoti qacrn

na

<KoJrJIeKTHBHof o

aBropa)>. Tax, e pa3AeJre E a no4pasAere <<pocrtHcl pocu.rfiCKHM trHcaTeJrfM> KaK aBTOpbr paccMaTpHBaJrHCb HeKoTopbte l0 CeroAug n 6r6.nnorpaSlqecKux yKa3areJlf,x, KaK flpaBuno, rrpuBo-

ArITCfl TOJfbKO HHHr{haJIbt aBTopa Hnu [epeBoAqHKa. 82


yqpexAeHLIfl H OpraHH3alIHIt, noA HaHMeHOBaHnqMI'l KOTOpbIX 6n.rH co6paHbl cBeaeHnr o npoH3BeAeHHax, H3AaHHblx or Hx HMeHH (Aaeanocl coKpaureHHoe 3ar,'laBHe npol'l3BeAeHHfl c HoMepoM, IIoA KOrOpblM oIIHCaHHe sroro npoH3BeAeHHf 3HarrHrocb B pa3AeJIe A). HauueuoBaHl'lq 3rux KoJIJIeKTHBoB TaK )Ke, KaK I'lMeHa H B OIInCaHHqx neqaTaIHcb KypcHBOM

B coapenaeHHofi Qauu"tul.t HHAtiBnAyarbHblx aeropon. . qacru 6n6nhorpa6u6.nHorpa$nqecxofi npaKrHKe B ocHoBHofi

Quvecxoro yKa3areJltt oIIHcaHHe noA KoTJIeKTHBHbIM aBTopoM npHMeHlercs peAKo, Ho ecJIH ueo6xoAnt'to co6parn e oAHoY Mecre Mareptranbt, ony6.tturoaaHuble or I4MeHH yqpexAeHlllt u opraHn3aurafi, sro MoxHo cAeJlarb c rloMourbto BcnoMoraTeJIbHOfO yKa3aTeJIf, BKJIIOqalouero Hal{MeHOBaHHfl KOJIJIeK^ Tr.rBoB. HpteuHo raK I,t locrynal lllropx. B uenou 6r-r6.nnorpaQnqecxHfi yKa3areJlb lllropxa n AAeryHra xapaKrepH3oBaJICfl BbICOKHM AJtfl CBOero BpeMeHH ypoBHeM 6n6.nnonpaQHr{ecKofo orlHcaHI'ttl, rBopqecKHM rr BAyMr.rHBbrM IIOAXOAOM COCraBHreJIeil

x peueuno ptlAa Bax-

Hbrx BonpocoB, Kacan[rnxcr rIpHHuHnoB cocrasreHHs 6s6.lurorpaSuuecxux onscasufi . Irg q CrcreuatnqecKono o6oepex-nn pyccxofi nxTeparypblt Ilpnmepu -

A. K. lllroPxa x O.

A.

[1. A4otYnra

tlepBaq r{acrr (cocr.A. a) o4Horoltulle

K.

lllropx)

H3aaHHfl

Kparxue I{ Ha onblTHocrl{ ocuoBaHHble 3aMeqanl-lf, o S.nexrpult o cnoco6gocrn 3.lerrpnuecKl'Ix MaIuuH K nouoraHnlo or pa3Hblx 6o,negsefi, c aso6paxenneM H onHcaHueu naunpocrefiurero Do,(a Maultn n pa3Hblx cnoco6og, ynorpe6.naelrux npu BpaqeBaHHH ult3Me

Anlpeil 6otoroe. n. 803. 8. Onur o qeJIoBeKe noeMa r. Ilone, nep. c @p. cruxaun r. IIa' noecKut. M. 802. 8. r.rua 6o.resHefi. Co,a.

OnucaHIle 3aBoaoB noA BeaoMcrBor"r ExarepnH6yprcKoro ropHoro HaqarbcrBa cocrotulux. Cou. O6ep-Eepr-laynruauou H e. fepnanon' Erar. 1804. B JIHcr.

6)

uuonorouuble H3AaHI'lfl

Kaau n laprtronux, ApeBHee noBecrBoBaHue' cou. Xepacxoea, 2-e ugt. 2 q. M. 801. I. 84. Mocx. Xypn. - -nepnoft necHfi llep. Hoe. Puxrep B CBoeM xypH. Orpuror Russ. Misc.

* HaMu

flo.nnoe co6panue coqurleusfi f ecnepa, nep. c Hervr', c {ap^lH.9' l. 802; q- 2. 803; q' 3 s 4' 804'

s noprperoM coqHHHreJIq. M.

83


B' XypHanbHbte

cTaTbH

(HstacHenlre reopnn aepocraroB; cort, npoca.804. l. Sit.

_.

(O

cyurecrBoBaHuu

Kpgeenwre.pna. Texu.

II.

paxnaaoaa, npge

[anucoooft 3eMnH; coq. Oaora l(anaraHa

XApn r. III. q. I. t62. q. II. l3+).-'-

(Map$a lgcaaunqa HJ'rH noKopeHHe Honropo4a, r.iopnu..*"" noBecrh cou..l(apansunotu. Becr. Eap. yll. I. i0B. l93). ' , uep. -sa Heu.-Hoe.^llrTr^p B cBoeM xypn. Russ. &lisc. Ha <Dp. Auoirr.rr',r. M. n Jlefinu. 80S. 12. _ (unxa). _(Hevro o crroBecHocrH .laruureft. C Heru. nep. l"p. (ueopuri) fn. Cea. Becrn. V. b4).

r)

xypua;lur

Texuo,roruqecxnft xypxaa, u.llr co6paHue coquHerruft u rsaecrufi, orHocrulHxcq Ao 1-exHonorllu l,t npu.lloxeHflfl yr{HHeHHbIx B HavKax mxpurnfi K npa*r'_qecKorrry ynm'pe6.le""o, *isA.

Arc_adenuerc Hitsrc. C._gnr.-

n.

i";;p;r;;;;:;; E;;.;;;;"";'r:.r;;;; a*ra.""* ?l i ;;:;;':

S04_AOS.

a 2,{acrsx. (O-xoro _XypHuri rraurJro"' Ces. Becrr. II. 136.'

8.

"":

Bocnura Huf,, trsr,. Bnad. Hanafrtoawn. . flarpnor.)Kypnan ^ 12 8. rerpa4efi a 4 ,racrgx. Ces. BecrH. II. 136. Xypx. pocc. c.rros. I. 54.

lvl.

ffi4.

,4) ra3erH CaHxrnerep6y^prcKn-e_

n. 801-803. 4. 8d4-80S Mocxoecxl,e

Belouocrlr (ns1. ArcaAenuen B Jrricr_

.ue{9M99TH, ^(.514.crcoil runoepaSuu). M. 801_90b. 4.

b.

Hagrc).

npu Mocxoacrcort !aueepcurer-

Bropar qacrl (cocr.

O.

fl.Aa.ayHr)

Handbuch der wissenswffrdligsten und zur Bef<irderung einer gliicklichen medicinischen und ihirurgis.hu; F;;i;-""iitiiiiir, geeigneten neuesten _Bemerkungen un-d Entdeckung.n. H"r'*i-

von D. Adotph Friedrih Loff ter, nrrr- (rlr.-'Holirtt", Medicinar-verwartung der Gorjvernements weissreuisen Gebursthelfer etc. Erster Eana. Erliit i-rba. A. 656 S. - -- -----'-

g.egeben

der

Auch unter dem Titer: die neuesten und nritztichsten'praktischen wahrheiten und Erfahrungen ffrr Aertzie und wunaart'zie'u. r'w. lyteg_ter.Baad. Nebst voilftandigem Rugirt"r. Eb.;d.-i8b;. Xii ;: 924 S.

<Onur poccuficKofi 6t6.nnonpaext> B. C. Connxoea Han6o;lee 3Har{HrerbHbrM qBreHHeu n pyccxoli 6u6.nuoroa_ Qar.r nepnofi veraeprH..XIX s. 6urn orporuHurfi rpyA B. a. e;-

H Ko Ba On lrr c uitcxoir 6 u6nuor p a ..poc S vH H Jt t4 no.nHsr fi c;roBapb coqHHeunfi u nepeBoAoB, Ha[IeqarrHHbrx Ha cJraBeHcKoM

rr

84

<<


H poccHftcKoM H3brKax

or

HaqaJIa 3aBeAeHHfl THno_fpaoHfi Ao

l-5. Cn6., l813-1821). (8. C. Congxos yMep, He ycneB 3aBeprrHrl csoft rpyA, I'l r. 5 6ul noAI'oroBJIeH K neqaru B. f. Anacracennqelt). l&13 roaa> (I{.

Bacunuft CrenaHosr.r.I Conuxoe (1765-1818) po4n.ncn n CysAane B Kyfle'{ecKofr ceule, 6ul cauoyuxofi, c,ryxul npuKa3rlHKoM e xHfixHoft JIaBKe, a s 1788 r. orKpbrJl n flerep6ypre cBoro KHH)KHyro JtaBKy c ny6,'tllvuofi <6n6.nsorexoft AJIn qreHr.rg>.

Kara.nor arofi 6u6nnorexu, coAepx(auHft 6o.nee 1500

HassaHr.rft, 6rt.n ugAas s 1800 r. Connxos 3aHHMaJIctl raKxe H3AareJIbcKoft n nepenoA,{ecxoft AetreJIbHocrblo, B qacrHocrH, oH nepeBeJl n ony6;rnxoBaJl rpyAbt QpaHuyscxt'tx qpocBeJu-

XVIII e. Borsrepa, Mapeurans, Mourecxle. B lSll r' Conuroe nocrynnJl o fly6nuuuyto 6n6lnoreKy, rAe B corpyAHnqecrBe c 14. A. Kplt.nonuu npoBoAHJI pa6ory IIo KoMIIJIeKToBaHLrro SoH,aa pyccxofi KHHTH. Oxo.no l2 ;rer Conilxoe 3aHHMaJIcr noAroroBKoft <<Onura poccuftcxofi 6n6nnorpaSnH>>. B cocraBJIeHHu <Onura>> eMy oKa3brBaJIH roMoutb Apyrue sllanlte 6u6nnorpaQu: EeI.. EonxosHrt'tHoB, K. <D. Ka.nafiAoBHtI n B. f' AHacracesnt{. Co6upaa cBeAeHHs o KHHrax, Connxoe rloJlb3oBaJIcs 6u6nuorpa$uuecxnMH yKa3areJltlMH, KaraJloraMu 6n6nnorex, KHI'IroToproBbrMH pocnHcflMn, a raKxe KHHxHbIMH o6laueunRun,

renefi

ny6.nnxonaeurLrMttcfl s <CaHKTnerep6yprcxHX BeAoMocrflx>> H B <<MocxoscKHx BeAoMocrflx>>. Kpoue roro, cBeAeHHtl o KHHrax 6unu nonyueHbl HM <<or pa3Hblx oco6>>. OcHoeHofi saAa.{efi, Koropyro craBLUI nepeA co6ori Conu-

penepryapa pyccKolt neqaTgofi xsnnn. Buue MbI ynoMHHaJIH o rtonbtrKax co3AaHnfl TaKoro penepryapa, rpeArpHHffrbtx s XVIII s. H. H. EasrltureuKaueHcxnu H enrlcKonou Aauacrnndrvr (A. E. CeMeHosntMPyanenuu), rpyAbt Koropbrx He 6n.nn AoBeAeHbl Ao KoHua H oCrarncl He ony6.ttHxoBaHbr. Conuxony )Ke B 3HaqHre.nluofi Mepe yAaJrocb Bbrno,'tHHrb 3ry c.noxHetiuylo u Heo6ltxHoBeHHo TpyAoeMKyIo 3aAaqy, xorfl H y Hero HMeJIHCb nponycKH orAeJIbHbIx npou3BeAeHufi. OruernM, r-tro <Onur> BKJIIoqaJI He TOJIbKO KHH|H, HO H neplloAHqecKHe H3AaHutl: XypHaJIbl H

KOB, flBHJIOCb CO3AaHHe nOJIHOTO

exeroAHHKH.

CosAaeaq penepryap pyccxoft KHHTH, Connxon B

ro

x<e

BpeMfl crpeMr.rrcq npl.IAarb <<onury>> xapaKTep peKoMeHAa'

rerbHoro H KpHrHqecKoro 6n6nnorpa$HqecKofo noco6Hq. C arofi u,€irblo oH BbtAerqr B orIHcaHHH KypcHBoM (u"rn, xax BbrpaxaJlcfl cau ConuxoB,

<<KocblMl't

6yxearrlu>) 3afJlaBl'lfl Tex 85


KHur, Koropbte, no ero MHeHHro, BHHMaHHfl Hatur.tx

<<6brJu,r Aocroftgu oco6oro qurareleft> H Koropble <<Bce coBoKynHo

Moryr cocraBnrb He6onturyrc ns6pauHyro 6ra6.ntorexy, Hav_ raqe Arq rex, KoH cauu co6oro, 6ea pyxonoAcrBa onbrrHbrx r{ 3Halournx JInAefi, He B cocronHuH ug ronnKoro MHo)KecrBa KHHr cAeJrarb HaAJrex(aqero nu6opa>>.ll Kporue rolo, Conaxoe

corrpoBox{AaJr MHorHe onHcaHr,rfl aHHoTaur.rflMH, HocfluIHMH

B psAe cryqaeB

peKoMeHAarennsulli HJrH rpurnvecxnft

xapaKrep. ConHxoe xoreJr raKxe, uro6u ero rpyA rlror 6url HcrroJrb_ 3oBaH n KaK xpecroMarufl IrJtH KHHra Arq r{TeHr.tfl. C groft

ueJrbro oH HepeaKo rrpHBoAHJr Bbtr[rcKr.t r{3 TeKcTa npog3BeAenr.tit, np[r{eM HHorAa BecbMa 3HarrHTeJrbHbre nd o6reuv (HalpHM_e_p, oH rroMecru;l l-rc a 3-ro necHn, unu uxuurui,

rloaMbr 14. O. 6orAaHosrqa <!,yureulra>>, 3aHflBuHe B <<Onnre> 65 c.). OAHaxo nolbrrKa coBMecrnrb B paMKax oAHoro HsAaHilfl ABa BHAa noco6uft _ 6u6.nnorpaegvecxoro yKa3areJrfl_ H xp_ecroMaruu (unu KH14rH AJrff qreHHs) oxasalacu HeyAauuori: o6urupuue BbrrnrcKn H3 TeKcra nponseeAeunfi

3arpyAHflJru AJrfl qr{TareJrfl [pocMorp <Onura>> H HerroMepHo yBerutlxBaru o6teu HsLaHHfl. floerouy B [ocJreAHHx r{acrrrx <Onura> Conuxos orKa3aJrcfl or npHBeAeHH, orpbrBKoB H3 reKcra, a B. H. Poroxns, floAroroBr.rBurafi (cnycro nourn cro rer) Honoe r.r3AaHHe rpyAa Conaxona, onycruJr Bce orpbrBKr4, noMeureHHbre B nepBoM H3,.arnu <Onnra>.

floqrr Bce <<aBTopcKHe> KHurH onncaHbr Conuxoesrr4 noa 3ar,'raBHeM. 3ro c;leAyer pacqeHr.rBarb KaK rrlar Ha3aA no cpaBHeHHIo c <Or.naereHlreM KHHr, KTo Hx cJIoxxJI)> Cu.nlBecrpa MeAeeAeea, <<6n6laorexori poccnficxoft>> !,auacxaHa H KaraJroraMu 6u6nuoreK, B Koropbrx HMfl u $auunua aBTopa, KaK npaBr,rJro, npeAuecrBoBaJrH 3ar.JraBaro. .IIuut B oqeHb peAKHx

cryqasx Conaxoe npHBoArlJr B Haqare olrncaHH,

H HMq aBTopa B poAHTeJrbHoM rraAexe, [pnqeM HMrr aBropa (oHo o6uvHo AaBaJrocb B coKpaueHHn) sar.nrcvaJrocb B Kp_yrnbre cxo6xa, 3arJraBne x(e rrncaJlocb co crpor{Hofi 6yxesr u o6uqHo orAeJrflJrocb or HMeHH aBropa sansrorl (no nubr4a 3aflsras He 6u.na npocraBneHa). Tax onucbrBaJrncb r{aure Bcero repeBoAHbre KHfirH, H3AaHHbre e XVIII a.: <Egxnepa (4_oeana1, MaHr{pa o crpoeHHr.r xpenocrefi...r, uBe,lidnelpa (Hoan. <Dpudp.) aptQuernKa...> H i. 4. Taxan Qoprr.ra codr_

Qauu.nnn

rrConfixos B. C. Onsn poccuficxofi 6u6.nnorpa$r.ru. M.,

q. 2, c. VIIL 86

lgl4,


BeTCTBOBaJIa OnHCaHHsM B KaTaJrOraX 6n6rHOTeK H KHI',IfOTOp-

roBbrx peecrpax XVIII s. BosN'toxHo, Conuxos 3aHMcrBoBaJI toToBble onHcaHufl I,r3 STHX peecrpoB H Kara.[oroB.

B noAaerqrcureM xe 6olrurnHcrBe cryr{aeB

oIIHcaH}ls

cocraBJlflJlucr ConHxoebtM noA 3arJIaBI{eM, nocJle Koropolo npHBoAHnHcb HMfl N Qauunua aBropa, qaure Bcero B poAHTeJIbHoM naAexe (o6uruuo nocre coKp. <<coq.>>' o3HaqaBuero

B TBopt'lreJlbHoM (nocre coKp' <coqr.rHeHnen), tto HHorAa <coqHH.)>, o3HaqaBuero <<cor{HHeHUUIft>>)' Eng [epeBoAHblx xunr coo6ulaJlHcb cBeAeHI'ltt o fl3blKe, c KaKoro cAeJIaH flepeBoA, a raKxe vMfl A Qauunun nepeBoAqHKa. HsorAa nocJle 3arilar,nfl, ynoMHHaJIocb o HaJInquH B KHHre nllncrpauufi: <c Quryparr,tl,t>>, <<c pHcyHKaMH>, <c qeprexaMH>> H r. n. I4g sF't' xo,[.HbIX AaHHbtx B onucaHHe o6utqno BKJIloqaJIHcb roJlbKo Mecro H roA H3AaHHr, a H3AareJIbcrBo n rnnorpaQtfl AaBa-

JIHcb JrHrrIb B or{eHb peAKHx cryqarx. Mecro n3Larvr, npHBoAHJrocb, KaK npaBHJIo, B I,tMeHHTeJIbHoM rlaAexe' Mocxsa A

Casxr-flerep6ypr coKpailraJIHcb coorBercrBeHHo <<M.>) vl <<Cn6.>. B eLIAe HcKJIloqeHHs npH onilcaHHI'l HeKoropblx cra-

pHHHblx KHI,lf MecTo ag&a}ll./.-fl' CTaBUJIOCb B npeAJIO)KHOM rla-

/lex(e: JrHcb

<<B

MocKee>,

raKxe

<<e

BunuHe>> H T.

n' B onHcauun orlleqa-

xapaKreQoprraar H ueHa KHHTH. KonuqecrseHHar

or Apyra 6u6nuonpHMeHflJI roqKy o6ltqno Connxos cseAeuufi rpaQnuecxux c'sanaroft, Ho nepeA cBeAeHHflMH o Qopruare craBnJlocb rnpe'

pHcrHKa onycKaJlacb. A,rn orAe;leHntl Apyr

a

unx (nepea yKa3aHHeM uenur) craBI.{JIacb roqKa. B onucasuu MHororoMHoro I{3AaHHtl o6ut'{Ho ynoMHHa-

noc,ire

Jrocb JrHrrIb O6Uee KOIHI{eCTBO TOMOB, a B BbIXOAHbIX AaHHblX npHBoAHJIHCb foAbl H3AaHUfl nepBoro n nocJIeAHerO TOMOB (vepes rHpe). CneunQHxaunq AaBaJIacb xpafiHe peAKo, npuqeM s Heri He yKa3blBarncb roAbl t43AaHVA orAeJlbHblx TOMOB.

B onucauufi rtepnoAnqecKoro u3AaHlzfl nocJle 3arJIaBHfl o6rtqgo itaBaJIHcb roAbl BblxoAa u3AaHHfl' KoJll{qecrBo BblrlycKoB, HMfl u $auwnua H3AareJIl, Mecro H3AaHHfl, Qopr',tar u uesa. Cnequ$nxaunn, KaK rlpaBHJIo, He IIpI'rBoAHJIacb. Ec.nH s 3arJIaBHh Ha THTyJIbHoM JtHcre cyurecrBl{TeJlbHoMy

npeAuecTBoBaJIO npHJIaraTeJIbHOe, TO B Orll{caHHH 3TO rlpl{JlaraTeJrbHOe noMeulaJlocb nocJle cy[lecrBHTeJIbHoro (B KpyrJlblx

cxo6xax) : <<BunnnoQnxa (Apeeuaa poccltlicx4R) >, <AHatoul.tR (coxpaureHuan) > r.r r. n. OAuaxo 3ror npHHuHn' 3aHMcrBoBaHnufi,' no ecefi aeponrHocrll, H3 HeMelrKoit 6u6nnorpa$nu, BbIACP)KHBAJICfl HC BCETAA: HANPI{MCP' NPHJIATATCJIbHOC

87


BO MHOTHX Cnyqaqx npocraBJlflJrocb nepeA cyqecrBr'rreJrbHbrM (rax, xax oHo cror.rr Ha rr.rryJrbHorrl .nncie), xorq cxo,4Hoe c HHM npnJlarareJlbHoe <<nepBoHavaltubrfi>, KAK I,I 6OJIIIIHHCTEO APYrI,IX NPI.iJIAI'ATCJIbHbIX, NOMCIIAJIOCb <<HaqaJIbHbrr?>

nocne cyulecrBlreJrbHoro B KpyrJrnx cxo6xax, HanpHMep: <OcHosaHHn (nepnouava.ntnde) Jrarr.rHcKofo fl3brKa>.

KpoMe Toro, npHJraraTeJrbHoe coxpaHflJlocb B HaqaJIe onHca_ HHfl B Tex cJryqaflx, KorAa [poH3BeAeHr.rfl aBropa 6unn co6_ paHbr B oAHoM Mecre noA py6puxofi, BKJrroqaB[refi

darr,trlllto

aBTOpa.

B csqsu c reM, qro IIoqrH Bce KHHIH 6unu onncaHbr rIoA 3afJIaBHeM, npoH3BeAeHHrr oAHoro aBTopa s <<OnbrTe>> o6H,rHo noMerqaJtucb B pa3Hbtx Mecrax. oAHaXO conHxos,

BI.IAHMO,

xe orAaBaJI ce6e or,ler B ToM, qro quTareJrro MoTJIH rrorpe_ 6osarlcq cBeAeHHs o Bcex npou3BeAeHnflx oAHoro aBropa, [o-3roMy oH BBeJr py6pnxra <<CoqHHeHHq r.. fiepxanr.rHar, Bce

r.

Bo.nlrepa, [epeBeAeHHbre c Opu"irvsc*oio", On.nnAuur.a)> }t r. n., KaxA ag, uz Koropbtx nepeqeHb npoH3BeAeHuft yxasauuoro nHcareJrs. ,BKJrroqaJra no noAoo.Hbrq pyOpHKH AaHbr JrHtub Anq Har6oree H3BecrHbrx nHcareneft. B_ pas4ele, flocBruIeHHOM KHHTaM uepxonuofi [eqaTH, n py6pnxe <Cnona noyq[TerbHsre> Conuxo" *r_ qecrBe <<CoqHHeHHq

<CoqHHeHHfl

n.

noApy6pax nprlBeJr HMeHa H 3BaHHfl aBropoB (uepxoa_ " Hbtx AeflreJlefi), uro AaJro Bo3MolKHocrb co6pirt i oi"o" MecTe BCe noyqHTeJr bH bre a )>, n pHH aAJrex a rllHe oAHOM y -cJroB

(ii-, 1.1^y

<<

noapy6pnxa <<OeoSaHa flpoxononHva, apxuenHCKONA HOBTOPOACKOTO>) BKJIIOI{AJIA CBbIllIC ABAAUATH ErO <(cJ'IoB)> )

.

p"oa cryr{aeB Connxon pacKpbrBaJr coAepxaHue KHHr. ,,_-B l,lHorAa oH noJrHocrbro BocnpoH3BoAHJr ornasrbHne. Tax. oH

rrp

H

BeJr [oJr Hocrbro

o_6_ur

gp H-oe o rJr

a BJr eH

He <A pe n n e ri pocc n fi _

H. V. Hoenxosa. OnncaHuq :i?.i :llr"ognxr> qacTo conpoBoxAaJl KHHr LonHKoB

crapaHHbrx

npHMeqaHHgMH O TOM. rlTo KHHIa <peAKa>, <<upesauuariHo peAKa> H T. n., HJtr,r aHHora_

IIHf

MH'

XAPAKTCPI]3OBABIIIHMII

OCO6CgUOCT

H

KHHTH

I4JIT4

oTAeJIbHbrx ee 3K3eMnJrflpoB; B HeKoTopbrx cryr{afx yKa3brBaJIOCb H MeCTOHaXoxAeHHe AaHHoro 3K3eMnJIgpa. Orcyrcrnae B usAaHHu cseAeHnri o Mecre H roAe Connxon orMeqaJI B npuMer{aHNn: <<6e3 o3HaqeHng Mecra H foAa)>, <<6eg osHaqeHufl Mecra>), <<6ee o3HaqeHnrr r.oAa>). ec,,r, Vaa"al .noct npn6.itr,t3r{TeJIbHo ycraHoBHTb roA H34aHHfl, 3Tor roA

trpHBoAHJrcfl

B

onxcaHHr,r: <<6es 03HarreHHfl Mecra

(oxono 1525 roaa)>. 88

fl

foAa


.[,oeolsHo']acro ConHKoB rrpnMeHs.n o6teAuHeHHHe onncaHHq, npHcoeAHHrrfl K onHcaHHro nepBono r.r3AaHxfl cBeAeHHfl o ApyrHx H3AaHr.rqx, a B orAeJrbHbrx cJryqarrx fi o nepeBoAax npoH3BeAeHHq Ha HHOCTpaHHbre fl3brKH: q3btK nepeBoAa, Mecro H roA H3AaHHfl u Qopuar. Ecnn xHHra nepeu3AaBaJracb MHoro pag, BMecro o6reAuueuHoro orrHcaHr.rq Connxon AaBaJr

o HaJrHt{I,tH MHOTOqHCJIeHHbTX nepeNSAaHnfi: <<floc.ne MHoroKparHo 6u.na nepeu3AaHa>. HHorAa K orrucaHHto npHcoeAr.rHflJlacb AaHHbre o peueHsrlH Ha KHHry (coxpauIeHHOe HaHMeHOBaHHe X(ypHanA, B KOTOpOM nOMeuIeHa penpHMer{aHI.Ie

ueH3Hrr, r'oA, Mecflu HnH HoMep).

Kax cKasaHo n

<<flpe4yne4oMJleHilH>

<<Onbrra >>, Kpecrr,rKoM noMeq

ssegAo,txofi

arocb

<<cor{HHeHr4e, [epeBeAeHHoe

fl3brKa>, <<coMHHTeJIbHbre>

xe

TeJIbHo Koropbrx cocraBHTeJ'no

Ko 2-fi

<cor{HHeHr,re poccr-r

coqHHeHHn

c

fi

qacru cxoe>>,

HHocrpaHHoro

(r. e. raxue, orHocH-

6Hro HeHsnecrHo, HBJIflr,orcfl JIH 6lr.ru <<ocrasnentr 6eg

oHH opnruHaJraMH HJrH nepeBoAuuuH) BCflKOTO 3HaKa>.

B

<IIpegyae4oMJreHHH> ConHxos H3Jro)KHJr HeKoropbre

IIp HHrlHrrbr, KoTopbrM H oH pyKoBoAcrBoB aJrcf npr{ cocTaBreH

onucaHuft. Tax,

ou npeAylpexAaJr qurarena:

H

H

<<flpocrpau-

uefiurne H MHorocJtoBHbIe. qacro HeJIeIIbre 3arJIaBHfl r noqeJr 3a Hyx{Hoe coKpaTr.rTb, yAepxHBafl r,t3 HHX ToKMo HyxHoe H cyxlecrBeHHoe, Ha6JrnAar, npr rom, uro6sr sesAe 6Hr nolsnft cMblcr rI gcHoe noHflTLIe o cauoft KHHfe. a HHarIe [oMeIIreHHeM oHbrx or cJroBa Ao cnoBa KHHra Mos 6es eu,u.HMofi noJrb3br yBernrrr4racr 6lr noqru BABoe>. <<flpu ncRxoft KHure, cKoJtbKo MHe I{3BeCTHO, He ynyCKaI q O3HaqaTb HMq CoqHHHTeJIf H rrepeBOAr{r,IKa, C KaKOTO g3blKa OHa nepeBeAeHa (xoTfl B 3arJIaBHfX Toro H He cxasauo), cKoJrbKo 6u.no onoft us1aruit, rAe HaneqaTaHa H B KaKyn Aonto Jlttcra. 3anaeqeHo npHToM, ecrfi cor{HHeHHe HMeer floxHoe Ha3BaHHe aBTopa, Kax-ro Pouau IIJ,acrau-

aaui con}a? Ha3BaH corrHHeHHeM r. Mapnoureltn, Brecro Moauntona r r. n.>. ilpusunnu onHca HHq, HgJro)KeHHbre ConHrossr r,a a <flpeayBeAOM,'leHfiH>, IIpeACTaBnfltoTcfl BIToJIHe pa3yMHbtMr.t, Ho,

K coxaJteHrro, caM Conaxoe Ha [paKTHKe He BcerAa HM cJIeAoBaJr. 3ar.naelrs KHHr HepeAKo coKpau{aJrltcb qpe3MepHo,

a

xHorAa H Ao Hey3HaBaeMocrn r{cKaxaJrucb. ,[,a.nero

He

BcerAa ycraHaBJrHBaJrHcb Qaun.nr.rn H nMfl, aBTopa, orcyrcrBoBaBtulre B H3AaHHH (nasr nueeru B BHAy raKue cJryr{afi, KorAa

cAeJlarb sro 6srro BnoJrHe nosuoxHo). Eolee roro, ecJrn cBeAeHr.rf 6urna

3TH

s u3AaHHH npuBeAeHbr, Ho IroMeu{aJIHcb He Ha 89


THTyJTbHoM JrHcre,

a B Apyrou Mecre, ConnKon, KaK npaBnJro,

HX He yKa3btBaJI. <<Mgorne Hg aHoHI.rMoB. orMeqaJ'I - ConHB. V. CauroB, o6tscHqrorcr r.t3 cpaBHeHHfl rpyAa KoBa c ApyrnMH- KaTaJroraMH, Hanp. flrasr.ursrqHxona, Cmup-

AnHa v oco6eHso H3 HenocpeAcrBeHHor-o cpaBHeHHfl c noAJIHHHnKaMr.r>. Camomy Canrory <yAanocb o6rqcHr.rrr cJrHrrrKoM nflTbcor aHoHHMoB>, BcrpeqaBluuxcn y ConnKoBa.12 B. H. PoroxHH B npeAltcroBni? K noAroroBJreHHoMy HM ne-

pen3AaHlrn <<Onura poccnftcxofi 6ra6nuorpaQHH> ConHxosa nHcaJI, qro nyreM crar{eHnff <<Onuta> <<co MHorHMu 6u6nnorpaQHuecxuun noco6asMn H MarepHaJraMH> eMy <<yAaJrocb

u otnu6xu, unu Ha MHorr{e [poTHBOpeqHfl yKa3aHHr Connxoga, a raKxe BoccraHoBHTb H

r,fJIH BnoJrHe uctrpaBHTb MHorHe HeroqHocrH

xe

ToJtbKo BbtflcHHTb l.t _yKa3aTb

H c6HBqHBbte pacKpbrrb HMeHa u Qauunuu MHorux aBTopoB H [epeBoAqr.tKoB TaKHx HgAaHHfi, Koropbre B TpyAe ConHxoea gaseceHu 6tr.nl.r aHoHHMHbtMu>>.13 B cBoeM u3AaHAv PoroxaH Bce onucaHHq Bocrrpon3BeJr B ToM BHAe, KaK oHu 6urnu Aasu ConuKoBbrM,

a sce oufi6Klr ofoBoplJt B npuMeqa*vflx.

flepeaa peueH3r.rfl sa <Onrrr pocclrricxofi 6u6nuorpa$uu> 6n.na HanucaHa u3BecrHbrM yqeHbrM-apxeorpaeotvr u 6u6nuorpaQorvr fI. M. Crpoeesrrra (1796-1876) n rroMeuleHa B r.t3.u.aBaeMoM HM xypHare <<ConpeueHHuri Ha6"nr,oAareJrb poccnricxor? cJroBecHocTl.r>. o rpyAax conHxoea B perleH3riH crrpaBeAJrHBo

roBopnJrocb, qro oHr.t <<4ocrorlntr 6laro4apHocrn uauefi reu 6o.nee, qro 6u6.nl.lorpaQnn ecrb y Hac eule HoBafl MaJron3Becr-

Has, vt, cJreAcrBeHHo, qpe3Bbrqaftuo rpyaHafl HayKa)>. B ro >xe. BpeMrr fl. M. CrpoeB BbrcKa3brBaJr H KpHTHqecKrle 3aMeqaHr.tfl, <<Koropbre r. Connxosy n 6yayuruu 6u6.nnorpaQalr pyccxrau

Moryr Surs se

BnoJrHe 6ecnonesHH>>. Ho npexAe Bcero peueH3eHT nonbrraJrcf onpeAefiHTb <<o6ggauuoctt>> 6u6nuorp a$a B orHorueH H H cocraBJreH r4r 6u6 nvorp aQuvecxnx onHc a uufi u ycraHoBaTb, KaKHe H3 gJreMeHTon (nolrumo aBTopa H

sarilaeufl,

<<caMo co6oli pasyuenur,Hxcn>) HenpeMeHHo npuBeAeHbr B onucaHHr.r. BsrcxagsreaHHq Crpoeaa npeAcraBrsr,orcs AocraTor{Ho fiHTepecHbrMH,

AoJIlKHbr

n. M.

6urt

B HHX MO>KHO BHACTb OAHH H3 NCPBbIX I{3JIOXCHI,I' MCTOAHKI,I ONHCAHHf .

IOCKOJIbKY

t2 C au

OTIbITOB

ros B. 14. 3auerxu n pa3rrcHeuria r cOnury poccHficxoft B. Conrxosa. Cn6., 1878, c. 3. 'o Conilxos B. C.-Onur poccuficxofi 6r.r6aronpa$uu/pea., uptueq.,

6u6.nuorpaQnn>

Aon. H yKa3are;ru B. H. Poroxnsa. Cn6., 1904, q. L, c. V. 90


Ha aonpoc: <<B qeru 3aKrroqaercs o6qsaHHocrs 6n6nuorpa$a?> fl. M. CrpoeB orBel{aJt: <<flpeAnoxnrb HaM flcHoe ro-

o

Hrrr.re

KHHnax (coqHHeHHe, nepeBoA, coKpauleHHe, HoBoe

; o3Har{HTb Mecro Hx nertaraHua (Mocxna, C. ilerep6ypr, Pura), runorpaSuo, fAe oHa ner{araHa (npn AxaAeMHH HayK, npu CuHo4e, y raKoro-ro); Qopr'lar (n .nncr, s 4, a 8), uncno crpaHuu; HMelorcfl JII{ npn HHx KaKHe-To KaprHHbl' nJraHbr, qeprexn H T. rl.>>.14 B 4aunou BbrcKa3blBaHI'lH rlpeAcraBJrflerct yAauHofi o6uras Qoprtry;rnposxa <<o6q3aHHocrH 6n6nnorpaQa>, a nMeHHo <<npeAJloxtlrb HaM rcHoe noHtlrue o xsnraxn. B ro xe BpeMs <o6q3aHHocrr 6n6.nuorpaQa> rpaxToBaJracb Crpoenuu yxe, uenn MbI noHHMaeM ee ceroAHs. Ha apyrofi Bortpoc: <<Tot{Ho .nn r- ConnxoB BblrloJIHI'IJI 3rH npannra?r, n. M. Crpoes AaJI orpuuarellsltfi orBer: <<Het, oH He ynoMHHaer o rnnorpaQHqx, B KOHX ner{araHbl KHHrU; He noKa3blBaer rnasHefiIrero, T. e. qHcra crpaHHII B KHHre' H noroM He BbtcqnTbtBaer Bcex usr,a:g.uil BbIUeAIUHX KHHI. floc;reAHee upesnuuafiuo Ba)KHo; He AoBoJIbgo cKa3arb: TaKafl-To xHnfa 6rt.na seoAHoKparHo nepeileqarasa, raxofi-To KHHrH BbruJJIo npeMHoro HsAaHlrfi' Dra6.nuorpaQ o6qsaH ua4aHue)

BbrcqnTarb HX Bce coBepuleHHo>>.'o

o6Hapyxn.n, qro ConnxoB <<BHAeJI BecbMa qro ero cocraBJleHa no oAHI'lM En6luorpaQna n KHH|

n. M. Crpoen

MaJro

KaraJIoraM KHHfonpoAasuis

u

ny6nuuHutx

6n6'nHorex>>'16

HeconsegHo, to o6croflTeJlbcrBo, qro 6o.nuuoe qficJIo onncaHHfi cocrasneHo ConnxoBbtM He de visu, qro oH <<onHcbIBaJI KHHrH 6o.rlure no Hcror-rHHKaM, no yKa3aHHqM, co cnoB Apy-

rnx>>,17 H flBHJtocb rrasHofi npuunnoft Bo3HI'lKHoBeHnfl B eno TpyAe 3Har{HTerbHoro KoJIHT{ecrea oulI'r6ox. flpr'r sroltt CorH-

KoB HHKaK He orMeqaJI KHI'trH, onncaHHble He de visu. B. M. VHao.nrcxufi [HcaJI B cBff3ll c 3rHM: <<OAHo, qero Herb3tl H. H.) rpocrurb, t{ro He orMerHJI, KaKyo ervry (ConuxoBy, KHlrry oH BHAeJI caM, KaK To Aeran rillareJrbHblfi Kennen B cBoeM cnHcKe nepBoneqarHblx KHHr>>.18 laConpeueuuufi na6ltoaarell poccuficxofi cJIoBecHocrH' l8l5'

Nb 15. c.90. l5 Tau xe, c. 91. 16 Tau xe.

Canros B. H.3auexn H pa3'bflcHeH,lfl..., c.6. tt MeABeAeB C. Or.naglesni xnnr, Kro I{x cJloxHtl Vzl,' B' Vu-' Ao.lr,crfifi. - tlresns s O-se llcropull u 4pennocteil poccuftcrnx, 1846, rs. 3, ora. 4. Cuecs, c. XVIII. 17

9l


<<Turarelluuni>> fI. H. KenneH, o6pautaa BHHMaHHe Ha 6o,rruroe KorHr{ecrBo oneqaroK e (<Orbrre> Controna, yKa3brsar: (<CaMbte o[eqarKH B coquHeHnnx raKoro poAa MeHee rrpocrHTeJtbHbt, He)KeJrr.t rAe-JIH60, I,r B cJ'ryqae raKoBbtx norpe_ ruentfi c Haueri cropoHbr Mbr oxorHo caun ce6e noAnHcusaeNr npHroBop: u6o one.{arxu 6u6luorpaSru nouru croflr rrorperxsocret? e ra6nnqax lorapnQuoB, o KoHx, ecJIH KTo raKoBble 3aMerHT, Torrlac noMeulaeMbt 6ursator H3BecrHn B yqeHbrx BeAoMocrnx>>.le BbrcKagbrBaHufl n. M. Crpoena, B. M. VuAoJlbcKofo *t tl. Vl. KenneHa, npHBeAeHHbre HaMH, cBuAerer,rbcrBytor o roM, r{ro MHorHe pyccKHe 6n6lHorpaQu nepeori noJroBnHbr XIX s. npeKpacHo noHr.rMaJru 3HaqeHHe ror{Hocrr.t 6u6.nnorpaQHqecKoro onHcaH Hfl . Hecuorpa Ha ro r{ro Bce, rrHcaBlune o6 <<Onlrre>>, o6paulaJIH BHHMaHHe Ha HMeroluaecrr e Her{ ouJra6KH I{ HeroqHocrH,

3ro He Meuaro r.rM orAarb AoJl)KHoe rpyAy Connxosa H B qe_ JroM BbrcoKo oueHHTb ero. <TpyA Connxona, - clpaBeAJrHBO orMer{aJr HseecrHuft 6n6nuorpa$ nepnofi noJroBr.tHbr XIX n. H. H. Caxapon, ecrb rsraurcxrfr noABHr AJIR ero Bpe- He3a6BeHHa Arq pyccxoft 6n6;rnorpa$lrH. MeHn. . . flarrlqrl (.ro HaqHHaq caofi rpyA, oH nepecMorped'r Ka3eHHbre H rracrHbre 6u6nuorexw, co6par pyKorrucHbre KaraJrorn n 6o.nnruyrc uacrl OCMOTPCJI THIiHO I,I BCC 3TO N3AAJI NOA CKPOMHbIM HA3BA- qeJroBeK, npuHnnurHficq HHeM onbrra. . . Kar 3a rpyA, He HMeB-

urlfi

pyxonoAilTeJrfl, oH He He6exar ouJH6oK'u ueucnpanHocrefi; Ho Bce ero HeAocrarKr.t HcKynarorcfl H ero 4o6puu HaMepeHHeM u rpyaonn6HBbrM H3brcKaHHeu>.20 Moxso noJrHocrbro corJracnrbcr c o6ulefi ouesxori TpyAa Connxona, AaHHofi c_oBercKHM 6ra6nuorpaeo" ,arop"^o" 6n6nuorpa$r.rn H. B. 34o6HosnrM, xoropufi" nHcaJr, rrro <<HecMorpfl Ha HerroJtHory u owu6xn (uacro BecbMa cv_ ulecrBeHHble), ,,Onur" ConHxoea ocraercfl oAHHM Hs caN{Hx BbrAarouHxcs 6u6luorpaQr.rvecxnx naMflrHHKoB pyccxofi sauuoHa.nrHoft 6u6nuorpa$uu noqrn sa rpexcornerHnri flepnoA KHuroner{araHHfl Ha pyccKoM s3ltKe>>.21 Xorg <<Onrrr>> ConnxoBa HecoMHeHHo rBJrfercfl BbrraoIllHMCfl TpyAOM, OH B rO X(e BpeMfl Moxer cJryxt4rb H noyqH-

l9 20

c. 92

10. 2l

Bu6,rnorpaSnuecKHe rrncrbr, 1825, Ne 3, c. 4.

C a x a po

s H. H. Pyccxr.leapeBHHe

3Ao6nos H. B. Hcropun

naMsrHHKH. Cn6., 1842,

pyccxofi 6u6,rr.rorpaQnu,

c.

srrn. l,

177.


Toro, KaK HeAocrarKu 6n6lHorpaSHvecKono onHcaHilq cnoco6HH so MHoroM orpHuareJrbHo cKa3arbcfl Ha Kar.recrBe Bcefo H3AaHrlfl B lreroM. B xaxofi-ro uepe gTu HeAocrarxH (sHavnreJlbHarr qacrb nx, KaK Mbr ynoMHHaJIH,

TeJIbHbrM rrpuMepoM

6uua

NcnpaBJreHa

B. H. PoroxuHuu), nocJtyxllB

noBoAoM

K o6cyxAeHflr,o BonpocoB onHcaHHfl B peueH3r.rgx H B nocreAyrouux pa6orax, nocBnureHHbrx <<Onlrry>, cblrparx poJrb rroJre3 Horo ypoKa Ar'r q ro3AHe fi w vt x 6u6 nuonp a Qoo, no6yxAa g ttx o6panlarb cepbe3Hoe BH14MaHHe Ha ror.rHocrb H rrod'rHory onncaHr.rfi.

Ilpnrrrepu ng <Onura poccnficxofi 6n6arorpaQnnD B. C. Connxona

l. CrapHHHoe

H3AaHHe

Anocro,r, l.tru AeqHHt H nocJ'raHnt Anocro.nscxne, nepeBeAeHd c ,Ilaruscxoro nepeBoaa, [MenyeMoro By.nrara, ,fl,oxropor'r @paHqus 8. cxou Cxopr.rxon ng flo.noqxa; n Bx.rrHe, 1525

-

Ilpepedrcaa xnuea.

B Poccllr

MHe H3BecrHbl ronbKo ABa gK3eMnJrqpa

cero

BecbMa

vs[arufli oAHH HaxoAHrcs g 6u6rr.rorexe 6Hsuero f. Ilpo$eccopa Mocxoscxoro yHHBepcxrera Bayae, a apyrofi s 6u6Jr. peAKoro

fl. f.

r{aaaaeea.

oxorHnKoB Ao apeBHocru coo6uralo gAecr o6croRre.rssoe n3Becrrre o ceM qpe3Bbruafiuo pegrou H3AaHHH..,

A;rs ap6onurHbrx 2. V

g

t

a tt

il

q XVIII-XIX

ss.

a) onucaune noA Sauuauefi anropa IIgQSendopSa (Carrr.) aueaenne B HcropHro Eaponeficryn; nepea. c JIarnucKoro, noBeJreHre flerpa Be.nxxoro, HepouoHaxou lanpHHJloM

byxHHcxnu, Cn6. l7l8

6)

-

s

n.

onncanne noa 3arraBneM

OcHosaHus (nepnsre) ecrecreeuHofi HayKH, uJtrr SHauxr; co,t. Ilerpa S6epzapda; nepeB. c Her*1. A;rexcefi Mapron; c SnrypanaH;

Cn6.l78l-n8.4p. MuHeparorur, HJIH orrlrcauue BcrKoro poAa pyA r{ ucKoflaeMbrx Ter u3 3eMrH; cor{. r. Ba:nepuai nepeBen c Heueq. Hr. lll;rarrep c Qrrypaur.r; Cn6. 1763 a 8. I p. O6ospeHue (xparKoe- HcropHvecroe) orKpbrrnr ocrpoBoB llopry-

raJrbuaM[, JrexaulHx n Tnxou Oxeaue, co6p. Cenenon 3g6rcoeoL,tt;

Kypcx, 1804

- s 12. 70 x.

n) unororouuoe

HgaaHHe

coq.. r, Cnzann; c Heueuxono HeKoropbrMH npHMeqaHHf,MH H npu6an.neunRuu

Kypc (uaua.nr4ufi) @n.noco$tlr; s3brKa nepeBeJru H

c

93


u3aa;l.n Kagascroro Vnunepcnrera Agrnuxru AlexcaH4p JIy6xHu H flerp KoHlurpea; 5 vacrefi; KasaHr, l8l3-1814 n 8.

Co4epxanre oxoro: Sunupuvecxaa flcHxororuq, uan ua6ntolareJlbHoe

tlacrr I. AyuecJIoBHe.

9acrr II. Jloruxa

H KparKas MeraQnauxa.

r{act III. Sctersxa l-tnH KplrrnKa BKyca. 9acrr IV. tlacrs

V. <Du.noco$un.

HpanoyueHfie H npaBo ecrecrBeHHoe, HpascreeuHoe Bepoyr{eHne o6oapeuue l4cropHx

u

r)

o6teauHeHuoe on[caHue

Onucanue eeu.nu KauqarKr.r; cor{. flpoQeccopolrl Crenanon Kpawenunnuxoeotn;2 q. co MHoTHMtl pHcyHKaMH ]t naHAKapraMH;

Cn6.1755.-s8. Tocrc, nza.

nrop. 2 q. Cn6. 1786

<Dpauqyscrnft repeBoA; Tocrc, usa. Bropoe;

2 ,t. Jlnor

flapax

1768

s 4. 1767

s r. 2- .1. l77l

n

8.

Toilc, us4. rperr.re; Aucrepganr; - s 12. 1764 Aur.nnficxufi nepeBoA AoKropa fpaftaa; f.nouecrep,

a) Becruurc Eoponot

fla

1802

-

s

a

ce6e

4.

xypHa;r

u

1803 eodor, codepcrauquil

uuocrpatHA,o ctoaec+ocrb, orqacru u Poccuficr,ue co4u+eHun u no.ruruKg; usdaaan Hurcoaalt Kapatsun; (rcaccdwrt eo) codepxur a ce6e 24 KHuJtcKu uau uonepa); Mocxsa s 8.

-

Totrc, sa 1804, 1805, 1806 n 1807 roAbr, u3A. Muxafito Kaqeuoecrcuil; Mocxsa-s 8. Tox, ua 1808 roa; r!3AaBaJr Bacu.rtuii Xgrcoacrcufr; Mocrna s 8. Tocrc, na 1809 u l8l0 roAbr, u3A. M. Ka,reuoecrcud u B. Xg-

-

rcoacxurt:Mocxga-s8.

l8ll,

Tocrc, na l8l2 xoacrcutT; Mocrsa-e 8. Kax,quft ro4 no 12 p.

x l8l3

roAbr; H3AaBan Muxafiao Kaqe-

Cefi xypna.rr npoaonxaercr na Itenailnoe.

e)

l8l4 roa;

fl3Aarenb Bnadunup

exero4Hr.rx

Cnucox (o6urnfi ue4r.rqxHcrufi) sa To*, na l8l0 roa; Cn6. l8l0 s Togc, sa l8l l roa; Cn6. lSl l - n Totr, sa l8l2 roa: Cn6. l8l2 - e

-

1809 8. 8. 8.

roa; Cn6.

1809

-

s

8.

(Pocnlcb pocclrficKnM KHHTaM ,qJrs qreHuc lr3 6rt6nuoTeKn B. Il.nas[JrunxoBa) B. F. AnacraceB[qa K uan6o.nee 3HaqHred,rbHbrM 6t,t6rHorpaOHqecKHM TpyAaM, rroflBHBr.lrHMcfl B Poccr.tH B nepBori [OJroBHHe XIX 8., oTHOCHTCfi <<POCnnCt poccHficKHM KHHTaM AJIfl qTeHHf H3 94


6u6nnorexu B. nrasrlrburuKoBa, cncreMarnqecKuM nopflAKoM pacnoJroxeHHas> (Cn6., 1820) . CocrasHrererl <<Pocnr{cn> flBJrflJrcr esrAalouHftca pyccxufr 6u6,ruorpaQ B. f . AHacraceBnr{ (ony6.nuxoaaHa oHa 6una aHoHurvruo). B acn.irufi f puroprenuq AHacracennq ( I 775- I 845 ) poAuncs a Kueae, yqnrcfl s Knescxoft AyxooHoft aKaAeMHH, 6u.it yunre"neM B noMeuluqrefi ceMbe, 3areM nocrynHr Ha BoenHyro cnyx6y. floste BbrxoAa B orcraBKy ou s l80l r. nepeexaJl a flerep6ypr, rAe cny)KLIn a BoeHHofi KOJIJIeI'HH, pa6ora;r nHcbMoBoAHTereM KaHue.nnpnn lrofleltHreJIfl BnneHcxoro yue6uoro oKpyra AAartra 9apropuficxoro,

s

no cocraBJteHLno 3aKoHoB, ueH3opoM, a 3areM ocraBuJr c.nyx6y. B. I'. AHacraceBr.rq 6ur gecrMa o6paaonauubrM qeJIoBeKoM, 3HaJI HeCKOJ|bKO LTHOCTpaHHbIX fl3blKOB, gBJIgJICg TUIeHOM O6utecrna .nn6ure.neft poccuficxofi cJIoBecHocrH. B re'{eHne MHoTHX Jrer oH 3aHr.rMaJrcr nepeBoAr{ecxoft, nureparypHo-

npHHHMaJI yr{acrr4e

c

r.6u.r

1826 no 1830

Kp r.rr nrrec Ko

it n

Ko}tHccHH

6u6 twrorpa Qnuecxoft AerrreJrb

Hocrro. An a cr a -

ceBxg BbrcrynaJr lpornB KpelocrHoro npaBa, o6lnqa,r nopoKH ABopflHcKoro o6ulecrBa, 6u.n uo6opHHKoM xeHcKofo o6paso-

pflA crareft no reopLIH 6n6nuorpaQuu. B l8l l-1812 rf oH u3laBail xypHarl <V.nefi>, B KoropoM HeMaJIo Mecra yAeJlflJlocb BonpocaM BaHr.rfl. AHacracesuqy npHHaAJIexan

6N6.nnorpa$uN.

<Pocnucl> 6u6nuorexu fIJraelulsIrlfi KoBa npeAcraBJrqer co6oft pacrroJroxeHHlrfr s cficreMarnr{ecKoM rropflaKe nepeqeHb KHHr, HMeBur.rxcr e 6u6ruorexe, orxpuroft npH KHHxHoM Mafa3Hi{e u3BecTHoro KHHfoH3AaTeJIg I.l KHHrOIIpOAaBUa B. A. IlrasuJrblur.rKoBa. ?ra 6n6nuoreKa orJlnt{aJlacb no"rrHoroft n xoporxHM no46opou KHHr, no3ToMy s <<PocrtHcH> 6rtla orpaxena BecbMa 3Har{HTeJIbHaf qacrb pyccKrx KHI4r XVIII H Har{ara XIX e., a raKx(e MHorHe pyccKue nepiloAl.rqecKHe u3AaHHfl. fsnsqca ueHHbrM 6u6.naorpaQHqecKHM cnpaBoqHr.rKoM, rpyA AHacracesHqa npeAcraBJlrer r{Hrepec KaK c roqKH 3peHr.rs npNnnrofi B HeM x.iraccuQuxaur.ru JILITeparypu,22 raK H c ror{Kn 3peHl{s MeToAHKH 6u6rnorpa$HuecKoro onHcaHflq. AHacraceeaq orHIoAb ue Qopma;rbHo, a rny6oxo co3HaTeJrbHo H TBOpqeCKLT nOAXOALIJI K pellIeHHIO BOIIpOCOB, CBtl3aHHbIX C COCTaB.rreHHeM OIIHCaHnfi, Crpemu.itcq K roMy, qro6rt 22

flo4po6uee

o

r.naccnQuxaqnu AuacraceBnqa cM,:

M. A. B. f. Asacracennq. c. 140-161.

Dpltcxuau


onHcaHHf yAoBJrerBopqn[ Tpe6oBaHHfl M roqHocTH, noJrHorbr, KpaTKOCTr.t H eAr.rHoo6pa3r.rfl. ToqHocrb onncaHHs B 3HaqHTeJtbHofi Mepe o6ecneqHBaJracb reM, qro KHHrH onHcbtBaJIHcb de visu. Kportre rofo, oHa AocrHraJracb rularerbHocrbro noAroToBKH H3AaH:afl, BHHMareJlbHbtM orHo[reunem AgacraceBnqa K BocflpoH3BeAeHnro 6u6lr.rorpaQHqecKHx cseAeHHft. AHacraceeuq yAaqHo cor{erar rpe6onaHua noJrHorbr H KpaTKOCrtr onrcaHHr: oH

coxpaHffl B onHcaHHH Bce CBeAeHr.rfl,

ueo6xoAnulre AJrr xAeHrnQuxaunN r{ xapaKTepncruK}t

H3Aa-

HUfl H B TO Xe BpeMfl HCKJInqaJT H3 TeKCTa OrrHCaHHfl OTAenbHbre cJIoBa, He rrMeBlrrfie cyurecrBeHHoro 3HaqeH[q. Tax, coKpauaq qpe3MepHo A.rrHHHoe 3arJraBHe, oH coxpaHflJr B oflprcaHHH Ty ero qacrb, Koropaq ueo6xoAl.rtrla AJIq roro, qro6u uAeHrn0nurpoBarb KHHry H noryrrr.rrb flpeAcraBJreHfie o ee

M. A. EpncxuaH yAaqHo cQoprray.nnpona.rr ocsonuofi npHHur4n coKparr{eHHs gar.nannfi s <Pocnl.lcH>> 6u6nuorexn flranHrbuluxosa KaK or6pacuaaHae <<bcero, coAepxaHHH.

qTo tro cyulecTBy rroBTopflno HaqaJrbHbre cIoBa 3aruraBr.rfl, qTo He pacKpbtBaJlo AonoJIHHTeJIbHO COAep)KaHHfl KHHIH, a '.BJtflJrocb Jrr.rub caoeo6paaHbrM yKpaueHHeM, HepeAKo r{rpano npocro peKJraMHyro po.lru.23 OnyureHuue cJroBa 3afflaBHfl AHacracesaq o6sr,{Ho 3aMeHrJr coKpar.ueHHbrMH o6osHaqeHHflMH <<H trpoq.> LtJtH <H np.>: <<TearpallHsrft co6ece4unx, rur-r Co6paHHe BeceJrbrx H 3aHuMareJrbHbrx aHeKAoroB il [p.>. K arort.ty Mo)KHo Ao6asgrr, qro coKpaqexr{e 3arJraBnft AocrnraJrocb l{ saMeHoft nepBoro cJroBa npoqepKoM B Tex cJryqaflx, KOrAa prrAoM cTotJIH onHcaHHt, HaqHHarculHecfl c oAHoro H

Toro

xe

cJroBa (ero c.nono npHBoAHJrocb Jrnurb B [epBoM

onucaHnu).

Crpeuacr K MaKcHMaJrbHoMy coKpaureHHro o6teua onrcagttg, AHacraceBuq HcKrtoqar x3 olrucaHnr cJroBa <corIHHeHHe>, <<H3AaHHe>> H T. n., CTOflUIHe Ha TXTyJTbHOM JTHCTe nepeA Qauunnefi aBropa, a raKxe cJroBo <<lrepeBoA> (n onacauuu

neu.>, <<C rar.> u r. n.), xorfl Bce (aa r 6olee nosAHne) 6u6nuorp_aQsr tx o6uquo coxpaHrJrH (npan4a, B cor(pauleHHoM BHAe: <<Cou.>, <<HgA.>>, ufl"p.r, n r. n.). AHacracesnq cr{eJi Bo3MoxHbrM onycruTb 3rH cJroBa, noroMy qro u 6eg Hux 6u"no B KaxAOM OTAeJIbHOM CJIyqae flCHO, gBIteTcfl JrH yKa3aHHOe B OI]HyKa3brBarocb n-pocro

<<C

coBpeMeHHbre AHacraceeHuy

caHHH

JTHTIO

aBTOpOM HJIH nepeBoAqHKorrr. @aun.nHq aBTopa

" EpncKMaH M. A. B. f. 96

Auacracenuq, c.

l7l.


B poAHreJIbHoM naAexe, Qauunua )Ke nepeBoAqHKa AaBaJracb nocre cseAeHr.rfi o rr3brKe, c Koroporo cAeJraH nepeBoA, B HMeHHreJrbHoM naAex(e. He nepeuocr.t.n AsacraceBHq B onHcaHHe H coKpatu.eHHoe o6osHaqeHlle cJIoBa <<rocloAnH> HJIH <<focnox{a>> (coxp. <<r>), HepeAKo npocraBJrfleMoe B KHI4fe [epeA Qaun.nuefi, a raKxe He yKa3btBaJr 3BaHHe r{JIu AOJIXHOCTb aBTOpa Hrh nepeBOAtIUKa (apyrue 6u6.nuonpaSu o6uqHo cqHraJIH HyxHbtM 3rH cBeAeHHfl npHBoArarr). Brr,recro florHoro HMeHH aBTopa UJIH nepeBoAnpHBoAHJIaCb rrocJle 3afJraBHrr

quxa AHacraceBuq, KaK npaBHJIo, npr.rBoAllJI ToJIbKo HHHI{HaJlbl (.irnurr HMeHa HeKoropbrx LIHocrpaHHbtx aBropoB s <<PocnLIcH> AaBaJrr.rcb

no.nuocrrn). Tax, e onHcaHHH poMaHa, Ha ruryr'tb-

HoM Jracre Koroporo 3Har{Hrocb: <<Vluxu, nnn PaspyrueHue flepyancxofi HMnepnn, cot{HHeHHe r. MapuoHrer'lfl, Hcropno-

rpa$a

H qJIeHa OpaHuyacxoti axaAeunn. flepeae,la

c

Q_paH-

uy3cKoro Mapna Cyurxona>>, s <Pocnucu>_ yKa3aHo: <<Vlttxu, u.tru PaspyureuHe flepyancxofi nunepuu; Mapnonrenn; c Qp. Cgutrcoaa>> (eclu 6st nepeeoAl{HKoM 6utn vyxvuHa, ro <c 0p. M. Cyturcoer). [Ipu B onHcaHHH 6u.no 6nt yKa3aHo COKpaUla/'l roJIbKo yKa3aHHH MeCTa H3AaHI'tfl AUaCtaCeSHLl coHaHMeHoBaHHfl I'opoAoB Mocxea n CaHxr-flerep6ypn

M.

-

orBercrBeHHo <iM.>> u <<Cn6.>>. lo,u. HsAaHufl, KaK IIHcaJI caiu AuacraceBuq B <<l43lqcHeHHH 3HaKoB H coKpaueHHfi>>, nolteureHHoM B <<Pocnucu>>, BcerAa yKa3HBaJIcfl <<HaquHag He c rbtcfiqenetuit, a c corHefi>, TO eCTb B OIIHCaHHII rlpHBoAHJlHCb JIHIUb nOcJIeAHHe TpH unQpu (Hanpnrrrep: 803). B :rolt AsacraceButl cJIeAoBaJr

lllropxy, xoropsrti e nepnofi qacrr.r <<CucreuaruqecKoro o6ospeuna JrHreparypbt n Poccl*t B reqeHHe rlflTnJIerHfl c 1801 no 1806 r.)) raKxe yKa3brBa,'r roA <<c BblIIylueHHeM Tbrcflr{H> (no aotpaxeHuo lllropxa). AuacraceBHq onpaBAbl-

uuQpu B yKa3aHHH roAa reM, qro <<KHHrl'l soo6ue HaqaJIHcb neqararbctt roJ'tbKo c noJIoBHHbl XV eeKa>> (nHuull cJroBaMH, flepBaff uu$pa N{oxer 6uru ronuxo eAHHH-

BaJr nponycK nepeofi

uefi, noerouy Her Heo6xoAHMocru noBropflrb ee B Ka)KAoM xe, KaK Mbt roBopHJIH, gra ycJloBHocrb He npuBHJracb, H yxe n <<flpu6aa"neHurx)> x <<Pocnucu>> 6n6lnorexu flnaeHJIbur,HKoBa roA craJl o6oguaqartctt qerblpex3Har{HbrM qHcJIOrnr. BOnlurylo 3KOHOMHIO MeCTa AaBaJIO tXllpOKOe nprlMeHeHHe AHacracesHqet\4 o6leAuseHnoro oIIHcaHHr. On o6reauun.n (c noMoulbro o6osHaqeHua <<Tox<>>) pa3Hble onHcauun). Bce

v3/]..a}{nfl OAHOTO U rOfO )Ke IIpOH3BeAeHHf Aa)Ke B TeX CJIyqarrx, KorAa npoH3BeAeHHe BbIXOAHJIO nOA pa3HblMH 3an,'la-

7 H. A. Hrxr$oporcxan


BHgMn, H IIpH gTOM BCefAa OTOBapHBaJI 3arIaBHe npOH3BeAeHHff. HuorAa oH o6reAuHrrJr B onHcaHHH cBeAeuur o pa3Hbrx H3AaHr.rFx 6es o6osHaqeuns <Tox>, floMerqas AaHHbre, orHo-

cflurnecr K neper.r3AaHnro (noc.ne corcea <n>) He

c

Hoeofi

crpoKfi, a KaK HelocpeAcrBeHHoe npoAonxeHHe TeKcra onHca-

Hanpnuep, B onncaHnrl <<Coqnuesnfi> KapansuHa nocJre 3arJraBr.rr u Qauunuu aBropa AaHbr crleAyroruue cBeAeHHr: <8 q. M.803 r 9 q.814 (12) 75 p.>. 3ro osuavaer, qro nepBoe HgAaHHe BbrrrJro s 8 qacrsx s qacrsx l8l4 n., Mecro H3Aae 1803 r., a c.reAyrouree - 9HsAaHHft soAHHaKoBbr (Mocrea, xxa, Qopuar r.r rreHa o6oax s l2-rc Aorrro rrncra, 75 py6.). AHacraceeuq crpeM[Jrcfl rro Bo3MoxHocrn ocyruecrBnTb Hr.rfl nepBoro H3AaHr.rq.

u rpe6oaaHue eAnuoo6pagufl. B <Pocnncu> onficaHufl

KHHr

BcefAa coAepxaJrr.r onpeAeneHHuft uarNuylr cseAeHr.rfi, Koro-

crporo ycraHoBJreHnoft noc.neAoBareJ'rbHocru: aBropa (eft o6lr.{Ho npeArxecrBoBaJr yKa3aHHHqHaJT n.nu nua), A.rrr nepeBoAHbrx flporr3eeAenrlft - nepeHHe Ha s3brK, c Koroporo cAeJlaH nepeBoA, n Qauu.nna BoAqHKa (nepe4 Heft raxxe o6uqno npuBoAr.tJrcs r.rHnrrnaJr r.r.rrr.r lrrvra), roA H3AaHHa (ana MHofoToMHbrx l{sAaHXft [pr.tBoAHJlocb KoJIHqecrBo roMoB nnn qacreft H roAbt BbrxoAa nepBoro l,t nocJreAHero rouon), Qopuar (n rpyr.nux cxo6xax) n ueua.2a KorHqecreeHH at xa p aKrepHcrHKa B orrHcaH HH orcyrcrBoBana (xax uu BHAeilu, ee ue 6u.no H g <CncreMarnqecKoM o6ospeHHr,r Jrr.rreparypbr B Poccur.r> A. K. Illropxa u (D. fl. Aaelyura, H s <<Onbrre poccnficxofi 6u6nuorpa$nlr> B. C. Conxxona, H B sHueAueft nocJle rpyAa AHacraceeu,{a <Pocnncn> 6s6nsorexu A. Crvrrpanna). He yKa3brBanocb H HaHMenoBaHHe rNnorpaQnn (ouo cra.no npr.rBoAr.trbcfl Jrnurb s <PocnHcH> 6n6ruorexu A. Crranpanna). E4uHoo6paane onncasufi s <Pocflncl,r> nposBntocb H B ToM, uro Qaruu.nnfl aBropa BcerAa craBr.rJlacb B poAr.rreJrbB ITMeHHTeJIbHoM. HoM naAexe, a QarvrH.nHH nepeBoAqr,rKa rI coBpeMeHApyrne xe 6n6.nHorpaQu - flpeAurecrseHilfiKr.I cqHTaJII{ HyxHbIM Bocnpou3BoAlrb HHKH AHacracesaqa Qauu.rrr.no aBTopa B ToM naAexe, B KaKoM osa 6ula AaHa Ha THrynbHoM Jrucre. Crpeuneuue r e4uuoo6pa3uro H orKa3 pbre AaBaJrHcb B

3arJIaBHe, Qauu.rIna

ta [orecoo6paouoct yKa3aHHt qeHH .qliKToBalacb TeM, qTo KHHTH, s (Pocnacb), uorau 6utr npro6perenu B KHnxHoM Mara3uHe B. IlraBfiarr[[xosa. BKJloqeHHble

98


R psAe cJlyqaeB

or

<<Qororpa0upoeaHun> ruryJrbHoro Jrncra

cJreAyeT paccMaTpr.rBaTb KaK rrporpeccr.rBHyro TeHAeHTIHTO B Me-

roAHKe 6n6;rNorpaQHqecKoro onHcaHHfl AHacracesa.{a.

E4nuoo6paene oflHcaHnfi s (<PocnHcH>> orHroAb He o3HaI]ANO OTCYTCTBHfl HHAHBHAYAJIbHOTO NOAXOAA K ONHCAHHIO orAed'rbHbrx xuur. B pflAe cryqaea AHacraceBurr BKrroqar B orlucaHne HeKoropbte AonoJIHHTeJIbHbre cBeAegug. Tax, on HepeAKo oTMeqaJr HaJrHrtHe B KHHfe MaTepHaJtoB, npeAcTaBJrrrou{Hx caMocrorrre.nsHufi r{HTepec (uanpnuep, <<c npucoBoKynJreHHeM llo6ontrruux acrpoHoMuqecKux ri HcropHqecKHX crarefi ), HJrJrrocrparluft (H anp r.rnrep, <<c pHcyHKa M H>>, <c Qrzry>>

paMH)>, <(c qepTexaMH>>).

B npuueueur.ru sHaKoB npenuHaHufl AJrr pa3AeJreHnrr

gJre-

MeHToB orrncaHHfl n Hx ,{acrefi AHacraceanq raK>xe crDeMHJrcr'

co6nnAarr eAuHoo6pasHe. Xors ri3peAKa n Ha6,roAarorcq clyrraH 3aMeHbr oAHofo r,r3 3HaKoB Apyr-HM, 3rO, nO nCefi BepoqTHocTL, cJIeAyeT OTHeCTH 3a Cr{eT OleqaToK. B onucauuflx rrepHoAHqecKHX H3AaHHI?, BbrAeJreHHbrx y AHacracesnqa n oco6ufi pas4e.l, npr.rHrrHn eAHHoo6pasHfl BbrAep)Kr.rBaJrcfl B MeHburefi crenesu: oHH To 6olee no4po6Hu (co cneqn$Nxaunefi), ro AaHbr n o6o6uteHHou BHAe. Ho no Bcex cryr{arx npHBoAHJIr,rcb Ha3BaHHe H3AaHuq, roAbt, B KOTOpbre r.r3AaHHe BbTXOAHJTO, KOJrflqecTBO BbrnycKoB HJrH HoMepoB n Sopuar. HsonAa yKa3brBaJracu n Saun.nufl, a3!.arens. Oqesb qacro orMer{aJracb H ueHa (se orAe.nuHbrx BbrnycKoB, a KoMnreKTa). flpo4olxanuluect H3AaHnfl houeulesu AHacracesu.{el,I He B pa3AeJr <<flepro4NuecKHe H3AaHHs>, a B ocHoBHyr,o qacrb <<Pocnucn> B oAHH pflA c KHHrauu. Ogu n onncaHbt KaK KHHrH

(no rnny onncaHuft 'MHonoroMHbrx neaaunfi): [ocJre 3arJtaBns us4a*Ltfl, yKa3brBaJrocs o6uee KoJtnqecrBo roMoB r.r.lrr.r uacreft, a TaKxe roAbt BbrxoAa nepBoro H nocJreAHero ToMa. Oco6o cJreAyer noAqepKHyrl, uro AuacraceBr.tq He orpaHu-

I{HBAJICfl CBEAEHNSMI,I, NPI,IBCACHHbIMH HA THTYJIbHOM JII,ICTC, CTYIIACB YCTAHABJIHBAJI H YKA3bIBAJI B ONI,ICAHI,IH 3 g PHACaBrOpOB (paMHIHH H nepeBOArrHKOB, OTCyTCTByIOuIUe B KHHre

Lt,IU [OMeUleHHbre He Ha THTynbHoM JrHCre,

a B

ApyroM

uecre (uanpnMep, B npeAHcJroBHa). 3ro rBJrsJrocb ero 6onsuofi sacnyrofi xax 6r6luorpaSa. CneAesua o6 aoropax n NCPEBOATINKAX, 3AIIMCTBOBAHHbIC HC C TI,ITYNbHOTO JIHCTA, Agacracegnq 3aKrror{ar B Kpyrnbre cKo6Ka, KaK gro AeJIaJIH

Illropx u

A4e.nynn.

99


BnonHe opnrr.rHarbHrrr"r u Han6oJlee HHTepecHbrM B MeroAHKe 6u6nnorpaQHqecKoro onHcaHt,tn AHacraceaaqa 6u.n cnoco6 Bocnpor{3BeAeHHff ga rr a n ufi xu ur. OnHca HHq AeJr arHcb TIOA 3ATJIABI,ICM, HO AAJICKO HC BCCTAA HAqHHAJII,ICb C NCPBOTO

cJIoBa 3arJIaBr,rfl HJIH xorfl 6u c nepeoro cyulecrBHTeJIbHono B HMeHr.rreJIbHoM naAe)Ke (c raHnepcuefi croqurero nepeA HHM

rrpr,rJrarareJrlHoro), KaK B <<Onure poccnficxoli 6a6nuorpaQnn> B. C. Conuxona. Kax npaBr.rJro, Ha nepBoM Mecre B onHcaHilr,t AHacracesaq trpHBoAHr raKoe cJIoBo r,rJIr,r cJ'IoBocor{eraHHe H3 3afJraBufl, Koropoe nBJIflJIocb Han6onee xapaKTepHbrM HJu.t cyuecrBeHHbrM AJItr onpeAeJreHufl reMarHKH xHHru. 3rH cJIoBa cJryxHJrH A.na co6upaHr,rr B oAHoM lrecre <<PocrIHcH>> npoH3BeAeHHri, nocBruleHHbrx oAHoMy H ToMy xe [peAMery c ueJrbro noMorrb r.rr{Tare,r}o nafiru Hy)KHyro eMy JrHreparypy. MoxHo cKa3arb, r{To raKhe cJIoBa Llrpailu poJlb npeAMerHbtx py6pnx B paMKax cucreMarr,rqecKofo rroApa3AeJra. Cnoea xe, KOTOpbre

Ha

THTyJTbHOM JtHCTe npeAlxeCTBOBaJIH CJIOBaM,

BblHeceHHblM B HaqaJto onilcaHHfl, 3aKJIloqaJIHcb B KpyfJrbte cxo6xn; TaKHM o6pasou, H3 onucaHurr BcerAa 6luo saAHo, qro B HeM AonyqeHa HHBepcHfl. B <<HsbrcHeHHH 3HaKoB H

corpau{eHufi>> AHacraces14,{ rroncHrrJr:,.Arq c6.nuxeHfiq MexAy co6orc cxoAHbrx lto coAep)KaHuro KHHI B HeKoropbrx

Ha3BaHl,tflx nocraBJleHo n cxo6xr.r caMoe HaqaJIo 3arJIaBHfl>). Pagnnque MexAy npxHunnaMr4 onncaHnr y Conuxoaa N AHacracesurra craHoBltrcq oco6eFrHo HarJIflAHbtM npn conocTaBJIeHHH sarnaeufi oAHHX H Tex )Ke xHnr. OrpaHnrtuMcfl <<HacragJreHne (xparxoe) oAHHM rrpuMepoM: y Connxoea o [qeroBoAcrBe AJrs ropoAcKHX- H AepeBeHcxr.rx xHreaefi>, y AHacracenaqa <<flqeroeoAcrne (xparxoe Hacran.neuae o) AJrfl ropoAcKHX H- AepeBeHcKHx )xzrerefi>>.

9au-(e Bcero BrrepeA BbrHocHJIocb

cyurecrBHTeJIbHoe,

yKa3brBarollee Ha ocHoaHofr npeAMer KHHrH: <<Eorauuxr.r (uauarlHnre ocuonauua)>>. <<Cyeeepufi (c.ilonapr pyccxrlx) >>, <<BoAoxoAcrea (xparxoe onucauue) BHyrpeHHero Poccuficxofi HMneplru>> H T. rr. I,lsorAa )Ke fiepBbrM cJIoBoM 6lr;ro npH,rrarareJlbHoe. flpu erou H3 AByx npuJlafareJrbHbrx, orHocflr{Hxcfl K OAHOMy H rOMy )Ke CJIOBy, B pflAe Cflyr-raeB B HaqaJIO OnHCaHHfl BbTHOCHJIOCb JIHTUb OAHO, a Apyfoe, He flBJIflrOUIeeCrr AOCTaTOqHO XapaKTepHbtM, 3aKrrOqaJrOCb BMeCTe C OCTaJrbHbrMr.r cJroBaN.rH e cxo6xn: <<Kpacu.ttbHbrx pacreHafi (xparxoe

orrncaHue eaxuefiulr.rx) H cnoco6rr pa3BeAeHufl rrx B Poccr.lz>>. JIHurl e xpaliHe peAKHX cryrraqx g <<Pocnlrcrl>> BMecro BbrHeceHHr B Haqaro onHcaHur Hau6o.nee xapaKTepHbtx cJroB Ae,rla100


Jracb npocro HHBepcHq nplJranareJrbHoro (KaK y Connroaa): <<OnucaHue (o6cronre.nlHoe) npoucxoxAe*nfl n cocroflHHfl

Manaxypcxoro

HapoAa>.

HHnepcna He npHMeHqJIacb B rex cryr{arx, KorAa B 3auraBr,rH Ha n-epBoM Mecre yxe croqrr.t AocTaroqHo xapaKrepHbre

: <<Mereopo,rof uqecKl{e H a 6,rrcAeH n q pr p a gHbte r$uenuecKr.re 3aMeqarufl>>. HsorAa orcyrcrBue HHBepc[n o6.bqcHqJrocb, no-Br.tAHMoMy, c.rryuafiHocruro, <<HeAocMorpoM)> co-

cJIoBa

craBHTeJItt. Tax, s noApa3AeJle ,.VApasJu4Ka)> Htr B oAHoM onncaHrrr.r Her HHBepcuu. B gaa6onee cJro>KHbtx 3arraBuqx KHHr nO MaTeMaTHKe H MeXaHHKe HHBepCng He cAeJraHa, Bo3Mo)KHo, H3-3a roro, qro cJtHurKoM TpyAHo 6lr.no eu6parl

Hau6o.nee xapaKrepHoe cJroBo. Bno.tse 3aKoHoMepes

6nr.n OTKA3 OT HHBCPCHH C,TOB SATJIABHfl B PA3ACJIC, I'AE NOMCUIAJIUCb

onncaHufl xyAoxecrBeHHbrx npou3aeAeuuri: sAecr He 6tuo HHKaKOTO CMbrcJra rrpoH3BoAr{rb fpynnHpoBxy MarepHaJra rro ltpeAMerHbrM py6puxau. ,rlnu:l HspeAKa B sroM pa3AeJre npon3BeAeHa HHBepcilfl npuJrarareJrnHoro (xax y Conuxooa) : <<CerureHHHK (BaxeQH,rlcxori), HcropHfl>, <<Xa3Hr (AocronanrarHan) 4eeuqbr KJapHcu faplos>>.

B

KaqecrBe rrpeAMerHoro cJIoBa B HaqaJto onHcaHHtl u Savutun r'Inua, KoropoMy nocBgtueHa KHUfa, rITo no3Bor,rrlo co6parb B oAHoM Mecre Bce xHHrfi o6 storu BblHocud'tacb

"nrue. EclH $avunuu npeAuecrBoBaJro LtMq, To oHo 3aK,'roqa"rrocb BMecre c npoqHMH cJtoBaMH e cxo6xn: <<MeHutuxosa (xu:ul KHr3s A.nexcau4pa !,auHlonuua), $aaopnra flerpa Be.nlrxono>>, <<floxapcxou (6H6nraonpaQuvecxue cBeAeHHr o KHrr3e !,rr,ttrpur.r MHxafi.irosnue) >. Ha nepBoe Mecro B orrucaTaKX{e HMeHa aHTHqHbtx aJIL cpeAHeBeKoBbtx M n ocBfl ureHa KH Hra : <<Anexca u4pe Be,nuxor'r KApqua HcropHrr o) IJ,ape Maxe4oHcxom>>.

HH14 BbtHOCr,|JIr,rcb

Aeqrerefi , Korop

br

(Keunra B HeKoropbrx rroApa3Aerax pa3AeJra

<<Cnoaecuocru>>

(1EacHr.r, cKa3KH H rrplzrqr.r>>, <<CruxornopeHua (no anropau) >>, <<Co6paHHe poccHficxnx co,{HHeHHfi }r nepeBoAoB>>,'<<l4HocrpaHHar c,roBecHocrb, nnu flepenoAbr pa3Hbrx HHocrpaHHbtx

nacare.nefi B crr4xax H npo3e (no anropaM)>) B KaqecrBe

npeAMerHoro cJroBa 6una npHuara Qaunlua aBropa, Koropafl rroMeulaJracb B HaqaJre onHcaHHg. Taxun,I o6paeou, 6es napyueHHfl o6ulero npHH!{Hrra orrHcaHHs noA 3arJraBneu xHllill 3Aecb 6brJru orrucaHbr oAHoBpeMeHHo H noA $auu.rrneri aBropa (ara Qarrlu;rHfl B KHHrax roro BpeMeHH BXoAHJTa B cocraB

sarnanHa). Br,rHocq Sauunun aBTopa B Har{aro onHcaHHn,

t0t


AHacracesHq 3aKJrnqaJr B cro6ru Bce cJIoBa 3arJlaBHf , npeArxecrBoBaB[rne erofi $auunuu, B ToM qLrcJIe urutryail nilLr HMf aBTOpa, KOTOpbIe B OTJTI{t{ne Or OCTaJIbHbIX CJIOB BbIAeJIflJlr.rcb KypcxBoM, KaK u Qauu.nufl aBTopa: <<Kpotnoaa (6acHn LI.)>, <CgnapoK,oaa (flo.nHoe co6pauue Bcex coquHeHrft s crnxax r.r B npo3e A.)>, <Pa6enepa (Co6paHHe coqr.ruennfi I'ornu6a Bunoeenona\>, <Bguuuort (cenucxue Beuepa A.)> H r. n. B pas4e.ne <Eoroc.ltosne> B noApagAene <<TsopeHufl cB. oreq r{ qepKoBHbrx yunre.nefi> B psAe cryqaeB B HaqaJIo orucaHLIfl BbTHOCHJIOCb r.IMfl aBTOpa, BXOAfl UIee B 3afJlaBHe: <Aerycrnua (ayx n.nr.r MbIcJIH 6naxeHHoro), ts ncex on[cagxft efo H3BreqeHHbte>, <HoaHua 3.naroycroro (6eceau us6paHHsIe)> H

r.

n.

HauMeuosaHlrn opraHusaqufi HrI't yqpexAeuufi Asacra' ceBI{qeM B Haqaro onHcaHHfl He BbIHOCI'IJII'ICb, tlO3TOMy He npnxoAr.ITcfl roBopxrb o6 ficno.nusoBaHHI'r B ocHoBHoM TeKcre

uFocnncuu npHHuI{na KoJIJIeKTuBHoTo aBTopa. Bce xe <<Pocnncr> Aaer Bo3MoxHocrb noJlyql'lrb cBeAeH[q o6 HsAa-

Hr.rsx yqpexAeuuft u opraHH3aqnft, nocrcorlKy B noMeureHuoM s Haqiri <Pocnflcn> <<Vxasarere poccuficxnu H I'lHocrpaHHblM nHcareJlttM>, noMLtMo Qarrannr'rfi aBTopoB H nepeBoAqI'IKoB' BKnroyeHbl TaKxe u HaHMeHoBaHHfl yqpe)KAesufr H opraHu3a-

IIHft (xax aro 6uno H B yKasare.Ile K <<Cncreltlarnr{ecKoMy o6ospeHnn nureparypbl a PoccHI'I> n u. I (lllropxa): AxaaeMuR HayK, Meanxo-xnpyprnqecKan aKaAeMHfl (a <VxasareJre>-icAxaAeuns lVie4r'rro-xupyprnuecran>), BonrHoe SKoHoMHqecKoe o6ulecrso (e <Vxagare.ne> - <Bonluoe o6utecrso (aroHotrlnuecroe) a C.-flerep6.>) n ap. K coxaJIeHnIo, HeJIb3q cKa3arb, qro unrepecHefiuNfr onblT AHacracesuqa no HcnoJlb3oBaHHIo caMoro reKcra ofl]rcaHlrfl 4ln o6paaoBaHltfl [peAMerHblx py6pux yBeHqaJtcfl noJIHbrM yclexoM. H He clyuaftHo_oH He I4MeJI flocJleAosarereft.

<flpu6anreHnqx> x <Pocnucn> 6u6nnorexl flna6ltoAalcq nocreneH su ft orxoA or np H MeHeHI4 fl a B nocreAnxx Bbl[ycKax <<flpu6aueunfi>> cnoco6a, aroro oH yxe coBceM He npnMeHn.nca). flpaeAa, gror cnoco6 umen ue;tito o6.nerqum qHTareJlro noJIb3oBaHHe <<PocnHcslo>, floMoqb Hafitn KHHtLt no HHTepecynulefi ero reMaraKe, Ho B ro xe BpeMt oH co3AaBaJI I{ AOnOnHHTeJIbHble rpyAHocTH. HcxyccraenHafl neperpyflnupoBKa cJIoB B 3arJIaBHI't, HapyrrraBuras o6uuHyto rpaMMarfiqecKylo nocJleAoBarerbHocrb' BbrHy)KAana rrr.rrarerfl n 6n6;lnoreKapfl AJIff noryqeHns KHHr (,Il,axe

i

Br{Jlbrqr.rKoBa ga

.lo2


s 6lr6rrioreKe <peKoncrpyHpoBarb> B

HAqAJIO OIIfiCAHHfl CJIOB

B

3arutaBne,

a

BbtHeceHne

IIAACXE NPOI,I3BOAHT B pqAe cnyqaeB crpanHoe, LrHorAa Aaxe sa6aeHoe BfleqarJreKOCBEHHOM

sne: <Deuresofi co6axu H or ys3BJreHfifl 3Mer{ (nuneruuuft cnoco6 JreqHTbcf c HacraBJreHHeM, KaK Mox(Ho npocroMy HapoAy Jreq{rbcfl or yrpbr3eHun) >, <3apase (rparxoe paccyxAeHre o), cBupencrByroueft B HeKoropbrx ry6epunnx Mex< poralbrM cKoroM>, <fla4exax (xparxoe HacraBreHue o cKorcKux) n rarnu o6pasou Bo BpeMq oHbtx nocrynarb HA,ITJICXI,IT)> I,I

T.

N.

Kpoue roro, npaMeueHuufi AHacracega,{eM cnoco6 He

BcerAa Aocrt{raJl r{eJl{, nocKoJlbKy oH, noAo6no MHort{M HoBbIM HaqHHaHHIM, BnepBbre BHeApqeMbrM B xr.t3Hb, 6un He AO KOHTIa npOAyMaH H He BO BCeX CJryqasx IpOBOAHJTCfl

c AocraroqHoft noc"neAoBareJrbHocrln. He BcerAa, KorAa gro rpe6ona.nocl, 6sr.na cAeJraHa HHBepcHq. Hepeaxo <<cyulecrBeHHoe)> cJIoBo, BbIHocHMoe B HaqaJIo oltucaHHfl, 6sI.no su6paHo HeyAaqHo: <<O pox4eHuu MeraJrJroB (c.nono)...>, <<BerHqectsa Pnrt,tcxoro HapoAa (pasruuuneHne o npuvnnax) u ero yrraAKa> (Hrxorrry He npfiuJro 6u s rolony pa3brcKnBarb Jrnreparypy o MeraJrJrax noA cJroBaMu <<O po>xAeHHH>, o <<pHMcKoM HapoAe>> noA cJroBoM <Be.nu.recrBa>). He BcerAa co6;tnAa.racb nocJleAoBareJtbHocrb n nu6ope cJIoBa, BbIHocHMoro Ha nepBoe Mecro: <<EcrecrgesHoe (npano)...>, Ho <llpano (yro"noeHoe)...>, <flptpo4Horo (nauepranue npana)>>, Ho <<flpaoa (onur HaqepraHHfl yrononHoro)>. B pesyrrrare oar.rH r.r ror )Ke <<npeAMer> oKagbrBarcfl B pa3Hbrx Mecrax anQannra. Haxoueq, B 3anJraBHrx BnepeA BbrHocHJIHcb cJroBa, yKa3brBarourue Jtuub Ha. oAHH H3 <<npeAMeroB>. B npnaeAeHnoM <<EeureHoft co6axu . . . H T. A.> onlacaHue Bbrue [pr4Mepe AaeT BO3MO)KHOCTb nOCTaBHTb 3Ty KHr.rfy B OAr.rH pflA C ApyrHMil, rrocBrlxleHHbrMn <6erueHulvt co6axau> (uru neueuan or yKyca 6enresoli co6axu), Ho B py6puxy, nocBflueHHyro <<3MerrM>) (nnu .neueHuro or gMeHHux yxycoa) KHr4ra He rtoraAaer. .IItrurl B HcKJIroqHTeJIbHbrx cflyqaflx g <<Pocnrcn>> Aanrcfl orcbrJrKr.r or AaHHoro npeAMerHoro cJroBa K ApyroMy (nanpnyKa3aHHbrM lrep: <<Hranlrn (Aur.nna u), cu. Nb 2597> - noA HoMepoM 3Haqurcq KHHfa <AHr.nns u Vranwa>l OAsaxo HecMorpr Ha Bce HeAocrarKu raKofo cnoco6a, MOXHO BnOJIHe COrJIaCLlrbCrr C

M. A.

EpHCXUaHOM, CI{HTaIO-

II-IHM, I{TO, XOT'I OH H <<NPI,IBOAHJI, KOHCqHO, K OqEHb CJIO}KHOMY

103


a noAuac H x HaHsHoft sro 6nlr 3HaqHTeJIbHlrfi ruar

H crpaHHoMy nocrpoeHul,o 3arJlaBHfi, rpynnl,tpoBKe>>, Bce )Ke

<<B

ue,qoM

BnepeA B MeroAr,lKe cocTaBJIeHHq cHcreMaTl{I{ecKoro yKa3areJlq>.25 flponpeccueHocrb MeroAa AHacraceBHqa cJIeAyer BXAeTb B TOM, qTO OH He OrpaHr.rqHBaJI 3aAaqk OilnCaHHA

Sopn,ra.nruofi perucrpaunefi cseAeHr.rfi o [poH3BeAeHHH, a crpeMlJlcfl pacuupl.Irl SyHxurlr otrncaHufl, I{cnorb3oBaB coAep)Karqnecs B 3arJIaBLrH Han6onee cyurecrneuuofe (ann pacKpbrrHf reMarHKH npoH3BeAeHHf) cJIoBa KaK npeAMerHble

py6pnxu B rrpeAeJrax cncreMarHqecKHX pa3Ae,roB, qro o6.ner-

qaJro quraTeJrr,o Haxo)KAeHr{e JIHTepaTypbr tro r.rHTepecynulefi

ero

TeMe.

He 6yaer npeyBernqeHneM cKa3arb, r{To B nolbrrKe fic-

noJlb3oBaHr,rq Har.r6oree cyulecrBeHHbtx cJIoB 3anJIaBHfl B Ka-

qecrBe npeAMerHbrx py6pux AnacracesHq HaMHoro onepeAHJI cBoe BpeMf H B ero MeToAe Mo)KHo BHAeTb xaX 6rt SapoAbllx rori uAeu, Koropaq Jrerra B Ha[rH AHH B ocHoBy cocraBlfleMbtx c noM oxlbto 3JreKrpoHHo- Bbrq HcJrHTeJrbHbrx M a rrrH H n ep Myra qH oHHbrx yxasare.nefi. B taxrx yKa3arerqx AeJ'raercfl rrepecTaHoBKa CJIOB B 3arJIaBI,tH I{ Ha nepBoe MeCTO BbtHOCflTCfl HC3ABHCHMO OT TIAACXA TAK HA3bIBAEMbIE KTIOqCBbIE CJIOBA, Hfpanurxe poJrb npeAMerHbrx py6puK, noAo6Ho roMy, KaK Aerarocb s <<Pocnncn>> 6u6.nuorexn fl[asr.urlrqnxoBa. Orue-

Kcraru, qro Ha nepnuft B3rJIsA BbrHeceHHe BnepeA cnoB naAexe B nepMyTaUHOHHbrX yKa3aTeJrsx npor.r3BoAHT eue 6onee crpaHHoe B[el{arreHHe, r{eM e <<Pocnfict4>> 6n6nnorexn flnaenrluluKoBa, nocKoJrbKy B arHX yKa3areJrsx or6paclrnaorcrl orAe./rbHbre cJIoBa uilH qacrr cJIoB, He yMeulanurnecq B crpoKe, orseAeHHoft B yKa3areJle AJIfl pa3Mexre-

Tr.rM,

B

KOCBeHHOM

HHfl KTIOqEBbIX

CJIOB.

Paaymeercn, npLtHuHrtbt, KoropblMH pyKoBoAcrBoBaJIcfl AHacracesHq s <<Pocnucn>> 6u6nuotexw flnaenruurt4xona, He BnoJIHe aHaJIOnHqHbl TeM, KOTOpble npHMeHtlloTcf npH cocraBJreHHH nepMyrauHoHHbtx yxasarenefr, noflBHBIUHxcn crrycrfl norropa croJlernn. CyutecreeuHbtM pa3rttt{fleM rBJIflercrr, HanpuMep, ro o6crostenucrBo, tlro llepMyraunoHHble yKa3aTeJIH qaule BCerO HcrloJlb3yloTct B cor{eTaHHH c TpaAHr{HoHHbrMH 6n6nraorpa$Hr{ecKHMH, coAepxaufi[,t14 o6ll,]HHe no $oprtre ottucaHul (6ea nHeepcHu cJIoB s aar.naaun). Baxuo TaK)Ke H TO, IITO B nepMyTaul,loHHblx yKa3areJlfx oAHo H To xe " Bp"cKMaH M. A. B. f. r04

AHacraceenq,

c.

170.


3afJraBHe

6lreaer HepeAKo npeAcraBJreHo

cJIoBoM (c"nonocoveraunerr,t

(pasrnuuux xou6nsaquri

)

, a

He oAHHM KrroqeBbrM UeJrbrM prrAoM TaKHx cJroB

cJroB 3arJraanr)

, 6naroAaps qeMy

oAHO H rO >Ke npoH3BeAeHHe orpaxaeTcf IIoA pa3HbrMH npeA_ MerHbrMH py6pnxaua. flpaeAa, B 3roM 3aKJrroqaercr He roJrbKo

npenMyuecrBo, Ho H onpeAereHHurl ueAocraroK nepMyrauHoHHbrx yxasarenefi: MarrJHHa B orJlur{He or qeJIoBeKa -6u6nuorpaQa uHofi pas sl,r6upaer He roJrbKo saH6o.nee cyulecrBeHHbre cJroBa, cnoco6Hlre cry)Kurb rrpeAMerHbrMu py6pnxavu.

14gorAa

<(KJtroqeBbrMH>>

craHoBqrct cJIoBa, Koropbre

He

f BJIrrroTcfl AocTaTOr{HO XapaKTepHbrMI,r c ToqKH 3peHHfl pacKpbtTHf TeMaTHKH rrpOH3BeAeHHf, He rroMofarcT HaxoAHTb Hyx{Hoe npoH3BeAeHHe, a Jrr.rrub <<3acoprrroT>> yKa3aTeJIb (uanpHrraep, TaKHe cJIoBa, KaK <<3HaqeHHe>), <<HCCJIeAOBaHHe>> H r. n.). Bce )Ke Herb3rr He yBHAerb o6urHocrn catrofi uAeu, a HMeHHo HcnoJrb3oBaHHfl san6olee xapaKTepHbrx, HJ:H cyurecrBeHHbrx, cJroB 3arJraBHf

(n

conperraeHHofi repr,,txuo.[o-

cJroB) Ailn opraHu3ar{nH MaTepHaJra no [peAMerHoMy npH3HaKy, Hro6H o6ner,{r4ru qHTareJrro noHcKr.l nHreparypbr rro HHrepecyoulsu er.o BonpocaM. B ncropnu pa3BHTHfl npHHrIHrroB onuiaHuq s Haueri ore_ qecrseHHofi 6a6nrzorpaQuH rpyA AHacraceaN,{a <<pocnncs poccnficxnrtr KHHTaM Arf qreHfir us 6u6nuorexn B. fl.nanH.nr_ tLlH

K,rrroqeBbrx

rrrHKoBa> npeAcraBJrfler co60ri 3aMer.rarerbHoe flBJIeHHe. Sror TpyA orrHr{aer ror{Hocrb, noJIHora, KparKocrb n eAnuoo6pasae onucaHtfi, orcyrcrBne Sopualnsrraa, crper,t.neHHe no Bo3Mox_ HOCTH YCTAHABJ'IHBATb I] IPHBOAHTb B ONHCAHHH OTCVTCTBVIOurae B KHure cBeaeHnfl, seo6xoAumure AJrq ee xapaxrep^crixr, a raKxe cMeJroe HoBaropcrBo, noHcKH nyreri r coaepureu_ crBoBaHHro 6lt6nuorpa$Hr{ecKoro otrHcaHufl H pacrlnpeHHro

eno Qyuxuuli.

Ilpnuepu xs cPocnncu poccaftcrun x',,raM.qrf, qre*il, ,3 616.luorexn B. Ilrasrrrnrxxoea> (cocr. B. F. Auaciace;;;i-""-'-""

a,

oAHOTOMHbTe n3aaHH'|

Tpouqxoro Cepr.H-ena MoHacrupa (cxasauue o oca4e) or flo_ 'Aapanua

lrrKoB H ,rlurnu, fi o 6Hsullx noro* s boaclll Mrrexax; Ilaautptua. M. TB4. (a) 50 p. 9an lr xoQe (ncnsrraxue-cnoficrn), raKxe fi rex nposa6eHuft, xoH nue-cro xo@-e a qaq MoxH_o c norrb3or,o ynorpe6;raiu. K. Mieja, c Hen. I/. Ocrpoeopcrcuil. Cn6.787. (8) 3"t. Jl eccuHea (ns6p^annsre 6acHu E.), npo."; ^ -'" - "Yvr\ c Herrl. B. IIanaLwee.

Cn6. 816.

(8) i p.'25 r.

"

r05


6) uuororouuble H3AaHHq Kyra (no4po6noe H AocroBepnoe --o[[caune

x<lr3Hu

H

Bcex

nweurlcrslift Ann.nnficxoro rrropexo4qa l(anuraHa); c Qp' T' Mo' iallcrcud. 2 q. Cn6. 790. (8) 8 P. Tpedanrcoacrcoeo (covuneunl rl nepeBoabr' crHxaMI{ rr nposop; B.). 2 q. Cn6. 752. (8) 5o p.

n)

onucanue c npoqePKoM <cyurecrBeHHoro) cnoBa 3ar;IaBHr

Mtueoalornn, HJln ecrecrBeHHofi ucropnn HcxotraeMHx re'l (nepnure ocHoaaHnn;; B. Ceaepeunai 2 q. Cn6. 798. (8) l0 p' HnH KparKoe uao6paxenue ocHoBaHnt' npupa-(ncropra), n ycoBeplxeHcrB6aaxHg oxoi uayxn; A. Tepneaa. Cn6. uteuHr

810. (8) 8 p. aauePraxue); B. Ceaepeuna; Cn6. 804. (8) 2 P. - (xparxoe (xparroe Paccyxaenue o) noo6rqe; A. Tepneaa; Cn6. 796. (8) I- p. 50 x.

r) Taccoaw 6Aenns;

II.

Tox, apyrofi

o6leAnHeusoe onrlcaHt,te

c Hraa. A. Illuwxoe. Cn6' 808. (8)--3 p'

[epeBoA, noA Ha3BaHI{en: Taccoaot Ho'tu,

Onoaonbe; Cn6. 808. (12) 3

c Hrar'

P.

noA gauaineu: Taccoaw Meqranns' c ljra:l.' - HoBoe fi3trafille, sa Hraluancxotl u PoccuficxoM fl3HKax; c KaprHHaMIt' H. Ocroaonoa',

819. (E) l0 Cn6. -"-'i;;;ri;pa 799

s

8ll.

(8) 7

P.

('6acxu H cKa3KH

LI.\; z 'r' Cn6' 782' n 3 't'

P.

4) xypuaa Xypnaa (oceo6urnft) npave6xur

HayKH,^Ha

lSll roa' Hsa'

A*"a"nnen; 6 rsux' Cn6. (8)' l5 p' '-Toxr """*6-'*novoi"ue"*oi ni-i812 roa. 6 xttsx. Cn6. (8) 15 p' l8l3 roA, 6 xsnx. (8) 15 P. - xa na l8l4 roA, 6 xxrx. (8) l5 P. - na l8l5 ror, 6 xnux. (8) l5 P. - na 1816 roa, 6 xsnx. (8) 15 P'

-

cP(rcnrtcb poccilficKnM KHnraM

Ars qrenns $3 6H6nHoreKH

A. CnnpAnna> ony6nHKoBaHI'rR <<Pocnncn pocqreHHR H-s 6H6rHoreKil B' fl'nasl'ulllqlrcHfrcKHM KHI4raM Ans nocneAHero (4-ro) <flpu'noxeBblxoAa *ouu, u 2 roAa nocJle 6r'r6'nnorpaHoBblfi noflBHrcq QyuAartaenranbHblft K Heft HHr>> <PocnHcb coAep>xaHI'tq rpyA aHaJIornqHoro

Cnycrn 8 .ner nocJle

qreHl4tl As 6u6Jtr4oreKn -AneKcaH'u'pa fo"C"lcrnnn ririnran,t AJlr b""pa"or", ct'IcreMarHqecKI'lM nopsAKoM pacnoJloxeHHatl> (Cn6., 1828).

$u,recxnft

r06


Ilocl.e cMeprr.r B. A. flnasuJrbrqr.rKora (o lg23 r.) ero xsuxuufi Mara3r4H H HMeBujaflcs npH Mara3HHe 6a6luorexa nepeunu x A. tD. Cr',rnpauny. <Pocnncu 6n6laorexu Crrrnp_ AnHa HacqxrbrBaJra oKoJro l0 ruc. HassaHnft (e xeri 9984 Hb_ uepa). Bnocre4crnun BbnrJrr{

\\flr -K

Hefi

, npo4o.rr

)Ka

B trr

B cBer ueroip" <Ilpr6an.ne_ "u{"oc Hos Hor? <<poc n u c s > He HyMep a rlnro

(Cn6., 1829-1856; Bb,rn. 3 n 4 noqnuJrr.rcb y)Ke rocJre cMeprH CurpAuHa, KorAa BJraAeJrbueM 6u6nuorexu crar fl. IA. KbarrreHr.ruHr.rKon).

l8

6ulo

Bcerq c <IIpt6as;reHHsMH>> n <<pocnucu>' 3a

nouenleHo csbr[Ie l8 ruc. onncauufi. flounuo KHr.rr, B <Pocnucu> BKJIIoqa.nI4cb cBeAeHHfl H o nepHoAHqecKHx .ner

H3.IIAHI,IflX.

CocrasneHne <Pocnuclr> 6u6;rnorexn CuupAlrHa rpaAx_ f. AsacraceBnqy. OAnaxo, KaK noKa3aJr Epucxruan (Ha Haru B3r.rrsA, BroJrHe y6e4r.rrensHof, *: t AHacraceBHr{ He 6un cocraBureJreM Hosoft - ..pocnncur.i5 HNrq noArHHHoro ee cocraBrireJrs ocraercg Her.r3BecrHbrMMoxuo npeAnoJroxr.rrb, qro HaA <pocnacup> pa6orala ueJrafl rpynla Jrr.rq, rroJryqaBruafl yKaga*nf, (a r6rrr qacJre H B orHotrreHln MeroAaxn onncauua) HerrocpeAcrBeHHo or caMoro BJraAenbUa 6n6nuorexH. B <Pocnncu> 6a6.nuorext CuHpAaHa, KaK H s <pocnuct,t> Ufis npanHcbrBae? B.

6n6nuorexu flJraelusurnKoBa, Marepual 6ul pu"ntno*"" B cr.rcreMarr{qecKoM nopflAKe, uo xnaccuQHqnpoeaH coBep_ ueHHo HHar{e. Hosar xnaccaenxarlrff tto cpaBHeHHrc c rofi, KOTOpafl 6nrna HcnoJrb30BaHa s <pocnllcu> 6a6;rnorexn fllanu.nsulnKoBa, flBnJracb uaroM HasaA. <B Hefi, _ ;;;;;; M. A. 6pucxrr,laH, oTBeprHyTo npo_rpeccHBHoe H HOBaTOp- cHcreMbr no o6rexraM qeroBerrecKoro cKoe qJreHeHHe scefi tr03HaHHrr, AaHHoe AHacracesrqeM, a qpe3MepHafl apo6_ npHBoAHJra K pacnbr.reHHro oAHopoAHoro Mare_ loc1b... pna!:, qro 3arpyAHqro norb3oBaHue srofi ,,pocnucro,,>.iz MeroAuxa 6N6nuorpa$Hr{ecKoro onrcaH"q s upocflficfi, 6n6.lnorexs CuapAtHa raKx(e Bo MHoroM. orrnqaJracb or Ietoanxu, paapa6orauHofi Anfl, <pocnnca> 6N6laorexr.r I lpex4e ncero 6pocae.r.c, B rJla3a, qro 1rJrl:HJrburHxosa. B < Hoc n r4c'>> OHOTHOTeX, C rrr np4UH a noJlHocrbro orcvrcrBvr,OT cJryqaH uHBepcl,tn cJroB 3arJraBr{q, Koropyrc Auatracennq

M. A. B. f. Alacracesuq, il27 Sp"cKMaH Tau xe, c.212.

c. l9b_233. 107


ruHpoKo npHMeHflJI c ueJlblo co6paTb BMecre KHHTH, nocBtluleHHble oAHoMy npeAMery. He Aelalocb H HHBepcilH npHJIarare,rrbHoro, KaK 3To 6nt"[o s <<Onure poccuficxoft 6u6lnorpaQnn> B. C. Confixosa, 3aHMcrBoBaB[Iero AaHHslli npueM H3 seueuxofi 6n6nuorpaQnn. Bce onucauufl B <<Pocnncr>> 6H6;tnorexu CunpAuHa HaqHHaJrHCb C 3afJraBr,rfl. vus, n sauuun aBTopa oKasblBaJlHcb B OnHCaHHH Ha nepBoM Mecre TorAa, KofAa c HHx HaqHHaJIoCb 3arJIaBHe. tlaule Bcero raKne cJIyqaH Bcrper{arHcb B onncaHHnX npoH3geAeHnfi, [epeBeAeHHblX C rarllHcKofo: <<Banepnn

Maxcuua napeueutft u AeJI AocronaMflTHblx AeBrrb KHHf>), <BapHanu BpnccouttR, rraBHoro a flapuxe Ceuaropa

o flepcxom

uapcrBe>>.

3arranun, Aa)Ke qpe3MepHo rpoMo3AKHe, KaK npaBHJIo' lpHBoAHJIHcb B onHcaHHH noJlHocrblo (B orrHr{ue or [paKrHKI'r lllropxa, Conaxoea u AsacraceBl'Iqa, Koropble coKpau{aJlH

3arraBHfl, onycKan rlacrb cJIoB, He HMenUIHX 3HarleHHq Arfl uAeuruQnxaunu KHur u AJtn toro, vro6u rloJlyquTb

AJIHHHbte

npeAcraBreHue o ee coAep)KaHIrH). Hanplrraep, e <<Pocnucu>> 6ll6.nnorexH CuupAnHa SarraBne oAsofi n3 KHHr BblrJIlAHr cneAytorIrHM o6pasou: <<Hauepraune no.nuofi xyneuecxoft cnc-

TeMbr, KynHo c HaqaJIbHblMH ocHoBaHHaMH ropronofi uayxu. u c npno6ureHueM KparKofi ucropnu o roproBre, BoAoIo H cyxHM

nyr-ertr ornpan.narcu:,eftcr, H3 XOrOpOrl MOXHO npHroM ycMorperb Hacrofltrlee cocroflHI're Enponeficxofi ropron'nu' r{acrn nponssoanureficq t,t B Apyrue '6u6luorexucB€ra>- 3ar.flasne rofi xe

I-lrasl'ulsunxosa 6u'no *it"a, s <<Pocnucn> AaHo B coKpatuenHoM BI'lAe: <Kyneuecrofi cucreuul (uauepra-

sne no;lsofi), c uauallHblMu ocHoBaHHflMH ropronofi HayKH, n c nplo6ureHlteM rpatrofi HcropHH o roproBJle' t.t [poq'>' a e uonHre poccnficxoft 6n6nuorpaQuu> ConnxoBa npHBoAHrocb eure 66nee KparKo: <Haveprauue nonsofi xynevecxofi cHcreMbI, c HaqaJIbHblMt'l ocHoBaHHtlMn ropronofi HayKH>> (rax xax Connxos He npocraB.[qfl o6osHar{eHue <n [poq'>' H3 olncaHHq MoxHo 6utlo no.nyuHrl ouru6oqHoe npeAcraBJleHHe, 6yato 6H garraene orpaHnqnBaerctl npHBeAeHHblMH c.noeart,tu;. B <Pocnncu> 6n6.nnorercu CunpAuHa 3HaqHreJlbHo qattl.e, qeM s <Poclucu> 6n6nnorexH flnanl{JlbuluKoBa, B onn-

caHl.tH npHBoAHJIHcb Bce noA3aroJIoBoI{Hble AaHHble' B arort't cocronJlo HecoMHeHHoe npeHMyuecrBo uoeoli <<Pocnucu>>,

s 6oruulHHcrBe cJlyqaeB 6H.[H no,resHbl AJttt no.nsofi xapaKTepxcrnKl'l KHHIH'

TaK KaK coAepxaB[Iuecfl B HHx cBeAeHuq

flocre r08

3a

rr aBl,rq

HJI

I,t noA3a roJloBoq Hbl x Aa

H Hbl

x

IIoM euraJl Hcb


cBeAeHHfl 06 aBTOpe, rlpfiqeM B onHcaHHe rrepeHoclrJrHcb cJroBa, cToqIIHe Ha Tr.rTyJIbHoM JIHcTe nepeA HMeHeM UJ\H !4HU\AAJIaMH aBTopa: <<cor{HHeHHe)>, <<l3AaJI>), (<co6paJt>> H T. n. (Kax rrlu BHAeJTH, s <<PocnHcH> flJraeHrlrrIHxoea noAo6uure cJroBa

onycxanucr.) flaAex, B KoropoM craBnJracb B onrcaHuH $aunnta, onpeAerqrcfl rrpeAuecrByroulnM cJroBoM: <<coq. A.nexcasApa flyurxuua>>, <v3,.an H. lpev>, <<r{3AaHHoe <D. flpucr.neeM)> H r. n. Hus aBropa npuao4unocr .nn6o NOJIHOCTbI.O,

AU6O N BHAC HHHIIHAJIOB, B 3ABHCHMOCTH OT TOrO,

KaK oHo 6uno o6osHaqeHo B KHHr-e; ecJru >xe HMf B KHHre orcyrcrBoBaJto, B orrHcaHril AaBaracb oAHa Qannn.nnn (aaxe B Tex cJryqaflx, KorAa ul{q 6Hro r.t3BecrHo unu uorlo 6urrl 6es rpyaa ycraHoBJreHo). <<l_[e.nufi psA Qar,ru.nnri anropoa, HMeHa Hilu urlr\uaJrbr Koropbrx 6lr.nu n yKa3areJte flnasr.urt_ UIHKOBA YCTAHOBJICHbI, IIPHqCM NPABI,IJIbHO YCTAHOBJICHbI,

B cMHpAHHcxofi <<PocnncH> ocraJrncl 6es HMeH, 6es HnHuHa_ JtoB, c oAHHM HMeHeM BMecro AByx-Tpex>>.28

B <<Pocnucr> 6n6luorexn CrrrHbauua B orJruqxe or <Pocnncn> 6n6nnorexu flrasr.trsulfixbea Qaruurr" uuropo"

[por{3BeAeHnfi, ony6.ntxoBaHHbrx aHoHHMHo HJu4 tror. nceBAo_ HHMoM, pacKpbrBaJrHcb JrHrub n xpaftue peAKHx cnyqaffx. l lpH 3ToM cyuecrBeHHbrM ynyueHHeu 6sr.no ro, qro orcyrcrBo_ BaBuafl B KHHre Qaunnna rrpHBoAnJracl 6es cxo6ox.-

AJrff rrepeBoAHbrx KHHr yKa3brBaJrHcb cBeAeHHfl o fl3brKe, c-Korop_oro cAeJIaH nepeBoA, H o nepeBoAr{HKe: <<nep. C AHr. HeaH KosroB>>, <[ep. c <Dp. M. Cyruxooa>>.

B auxo4Hlrx AaHHbrx, ttoMHMo Mecra H foAa H3AaHLrfl. npnBoAnnflcb raKxe cBe.Aenhfl o rnnorpa$HH, r{ro no cpaBHe_ HHr,o c <<Pocnactn>> 6u6;rsorexn finaennlunxona - 6u.ro Croso <<rHnor.pa$urr>) coKpauanepeA snru o6olqHo crasHncq rrpeAJror' <<B>): <<B T. CnaupanHa>>, <<B T. AxaAeuuH HayK>>. foA HsAaHr.{rr yKa3btBar'rcfl qerbrpex3HaqHbrM r{HcroM c 6yrroft noJre3HbrM HoBoBBeAeHHerrl.

.nocl oAuoft 6yxeofi

<<T.>>,

(coKp. <<roA>>), qTo npeAcTaBJIfleTCfl H3JIHIIIHHM. KonH.recrneHHaq xapaKTepHcrnKa He yKa3brBaJtacb (xax u y lllropxa, Connxoaa n-AHacraceenua). floc.ne roAa u3AaHHfl orMeqaJrcfl Qoprrrar (n xpyrlux cxo6xax) H ueHa. CseAeHNq o HMerou{ilxcfl B KHHre l.rJrJnocrpaqaflx H qeprexax, o npnJto)KeHr.tflx, o AonoJrHeHr.rsx HJIH coKparleHurrx (no cpao_ HeHHIo c Apyruun HSLaHHflMLT rofi xe xunrn), o ToM, rlTo <<n,>_

--

I aM

Xe.

tno


LaHHafl KHHra gBJtflercfl rracrbro Apyrofi, BKrroqarHcb B onucaHHe TOJTbKO B Tex CJIyqaflX, KOrAa OHr.r O6O3HaqeHbI Ha THrynb-

HoM Jrr.rcre

(e <Pocnucu> 6u6nuorexil flrasr-IrbturaKoBa oHH

npHBoAr.rJIHCb AaXe rorAa, KorAa orcyrcrBoBaJlH Ha THTynbHoM JIHcre, u aro 6nno rpaBIlJtbHo, nocKoJlbKy raKne cBeAeHLtr

Arfl rtl{TareJrn npu nu60pe una ls4auun). <<Pocn.ncn> 6a6.nnorexu flrasHnruHxoaa olrucaHLrfl oAnofi n rofi xe KHHTH, ony6raxonaHnoli noA pa3HbIMLt 3arJlaHMenT 3Har{eHHe

B

BHgMr,r, cBfl3brBarHcb Mex(Ay co6oti rtpnMer.raHHflMH H ccbtJlKaMH, B <Pocnncn> 6u6nnorexn CunpAuua groro He AeJIaJIocb.

B

anQasnrHoM yKa3areJle K <Pocnucn> CuupAnua coBceM

He HCnOJIb3OBarcq npHHIIHn <KOJIJIeKTLIBHOTO aBTOpa>>, npI,IMe-

HsBrrrnficr lllropxoru

r

AsacraceBl{qeM.

B gaxnrcqeHHe cJleAyer cKa3arb, ,no pa6ora cocraBnTeJlfl (nnu cocraeHrenefi) <Pocnncu> 6u6nuorexu Cr,,rr.rpAuua orrHqaracb Ao6poconecrHocrblo I'l rIIIareJIbHocrbIo. B ro xe BpeMfl cepbe3HbtM HeAocrarKou <Pocnucn> 6un Qopualnsu, npogBJlgBlunficg e roM, tITo [eAaHTI'tr{Ho BocrlpoHSBoAHJIHcb Bce AaHHbte, noMeuleHHble Ha rilTyJlbHoM JII'lcre, n rpafiHe peAKoAenaJIHCb nonbITKtl ycTaHoBHTb H BKJIIOqI{Tb B OIIHCaHI'Ie cBeAeHI,Ifl

,

OTCyTCTBOBaBIIHe Ha TI'lTyJlbHOM JII{CTe.

Ilpnnepu nl <Pocnncn-poccnf,cxnn

KHrrraM AJrs qrenils

rs 6l6rrortrfi A. CnrPAlua> a) oAHorouslte Ir3AaHIrt

fiEPBOE MopcKoe rlyrelxecrBl{e PocorsH, npeAlpr'lHtroe -ant peuenrrq leorpaQuvecxofi eaaaql: coeAuntercq rH Aeuq c Arrlefrxoo? H coBepllrenHoe s 1727, 28 n 29 roAax noa HaqarbcrBoM <Dlora Kanntana l-ro panra Blryca Bepunra c npllcoBoKynnelreM KDarKoro 6sorpa6nqecroro cBeAeHHq o Kanurage Bepnnre il 6Hsunx c'xnu oQuqepix;'rgaa.tr Bacuaud Bepx. Ct6., s T. Axaaeurn Hayx 1823. (8) 5 py6.

|AMJIET,

g5

.qefic., noapaxaHue lllexcnnpy,

co.r. Crenana Bucrcoearoaa. Cn6., s Mopcxofi

T.,

l8ll r'

B

crlrxax;

(8) 5 py6.

OBIIIHE flpaB]tra Boenxoro HcKJccrBa; cou. )I(onunu-;- ne,p. Qp. Muxafino fpu6oecxurl. Cn6., n T. frapaeftcxoro [llra6a, l8l7 r. (8) I p. 50 x.

c

6)

tunororouHoe H3tragre

HOBAT n noJtgat cscreila npaKrnqecKoro Cellcroro ,U,ouoBoacrBa, coAepxaqafi Bce, qro onblTbt AoceJe noKa3a.[n no.negsefi-

urnMrl B 3eMJreae.lnH, KaK no crapoMy, TaK H no HoBoMy cnoco6y ae.nonpoH3BoacrBa, H TaXXe BCe, qro KaK aJIq BCf,KOTO CerbcKolo xo3f,HHa.

rix r

A.nq yrpaureHnil tocnoAcKux xuenufi cnyxurb Moxer; coq' upucoBoKynJleHHeM 3arrltcoK x-osaftcmeHuoro nyreurecrBur Aprgpo lOnea s pa3nblx nosefiuux orxpurufi B 3eMJIe-

Ilttcoua Munnca,

ll0

c


AenHH, pyKoAenHr{ tt npoq.; vgaaPlo Bo,rb$br.n EKa$oilu4ecKut O6uqecraox; l5 qacreft. Cn6., s T. fuaayuora u n T. Hrr,rneparopcKori,

1807-l8ll r. (8)

80 py6.

n)

o6re4uueuuoe on[cauue

6axuucapaficrufi Qouran; co't. Arreacaudpa IIgaxuna. M.,

s T.

CeMeHa, 1824

Cn6.,1827

r.

r.

(8)

(16) 5 py6.

- Tox

H3aaHHe

2-e,

ucnpaareHuoe.

flo.nuoe co6paune coqHHeHHft M uxauta Bac uaoe auqa JI oxouocoaa, c npEo6uIeHHeM XH3HH coquuHTerq fi c npu6anneuueu MHornx.

efo,

Hr,rrae eure He HaneqaraHHbrx

rropenuft. 6 vacrefi; l,z,gaalnre 2-e u n 1803-1804 r. (4) 60 py6.

3-e. Cn6., s T. AxaAeuuu Hayx, 1794

r)

xypHan

Becrsux Eapouu, c 1802 no 1828 roa, n3aaBaJru nepBbre aBa roAa H. Kapaneux, 1804 roa II. Cgnaporoe, 1805, 1806 u 1807 n.

M. Kaqenoecnad,

1808

r. B.

Xgrcoacnun, 1809

n l8l0 r. M. Ka,re-

noecrufi v B. Xgxoecxufi, lSll r. B. Hsnailtoa, c 1815 no 1828 roa M. Ka4exoecrun; 156 qacreft. M., a VHurepcurercxori T., 18021827

n. (8) 600 py6.

IIpoAo.nxareneM rpaAnuHlt <roproBo-6u6rHoreqHofi 6u6nHorpaoHH> (no repuuHo.rrofHH H. B. 3ao6nooa) sBHflcR M. A. O.nrxr.rn (1806-1853), orxpnnuufi B flerep6ypre KHHxHyr,o_naBKy H_ ocHoBaBUHfi npu Hefi 6n6rr.toreKy Anfl qreHnfl. flosAHee Onlxnu ony6.naxbna.n <<CscrelrarnqecxNfi pescrp pyccKnM NHHfaM c l83l no 1846 r.> (Cn6., 1846)

CHCTCMATHI{ECKHfi KATAJIOT KHHr, XMCBlxHXCfl B CrO 6U6|UOTeKe AJrfl qTeHHfl. cOCrasarereM <<PescTpa> 6bur Br.rAHbrft 6a6ruorpa$ roro BpeMeuu V. fI. Eulcrpon. Oror <peecrp>

clry)KHn KaK 6u npoAo.n)KeHr.reM <<Pocntcn> 6a6lnorexn CunpAnua r BKJrrcqafl 6815 naaaaHnfi. IIpu cocraureHr.rrl onHcaHHri Ans <Pe3crpa> V.fl. EsrcrpoB npfiAepxr{BaJrcfl B ocHoBHoM Tex xe npHHur{IIoB, qro aHoHHMHbrft cocraBr{TeJrl <Pocnncn> 6N6.nnorexn CuapANHa, AonycKafl pacxox(AeHHs JrHrub Bo BropocTeneHHbrx AeTaJrflx, HanpHMep, He npHBoAHnacb 6yKBa <<r.>> (coxpauleuuoe o6osHar{eu[e croBa <<roA>) B BbrxoAHbrx AaHHbrx, He craBHJracb 3anqTas nepeA yKa3aHHeM Tr{norpaoHH, nepeA roAoM I,I3AAHHfl BMCCTO 3A[flTOfi CTABNJIACb TOqKA I,I T. II. CneAyer o6parnTb BHnMaHr4e Ha oAHo HHrepecHoe HoBoBBeAeHr.re <<Pescrpa>> cepufiHux ueI.a:Huia noA - orrhcaHHe HaSBaHHeM CepHH. B erou onHcaHHr.t yKa3brBaJIHcb Ha3BaHHe cepau, ee lrgAareJrb, o6uee KoJrHqecrBo BblrrycxoB (vacrefi,

rouoe),

BbIXoAHbte AaHHbre

(npx

erorr,1 r{epe3 THpe OTMerra-

lll


Jrncb roAbr H3AaHHfl nepBoro fi nocneAHero BbtnycKa),

$opuar

H r{eHa. B 4nyx cnyqarx orucaHue 6u.no 6onee noApo6Huru: rrocJle Ha3BaHHq cepHI{ npHBoAHJIHcb $auu.ttHtr aBropoB I'l

3arJraBHtt npou3BeAeHnfi, noueuleHHbrx B orAeJlbHbrx Bbtnycrax (ctvt. noc.neAsufi npultep). Ilpunrepu ng <CscreuarnrrccKoro pescrpa pyccxnm KHrrraM

c l83t no 1846 ron> a) o4Horouuue Lt3aaH[fl

OcHosaHHq acrpoHoMlr.r. Co'r.

naHooa. 1842. (4) 7 p.

l5

L.

Ilepeaouqurcoea.

M. B r.

Cre-

x.

Kopo.ns JIr.rp. Tpareanq e 5 Aeftcrnnnx. Coq. Aerccnupa. flep. c AHr.l. Bacu.trutl flrcunoa. Cn6. s r. lrnqe. 1833. (8) I p.50 x.

6)

r'lHororoltnoe [3AaHHe

CoqHHeHnq Anexcaudpa IIgwrcuna.

ll

roMos. Cn6. B

r.

Sncne-

anrr. 3aroroBJI. focyaapcrn. 6yr'aar u n r. f.naayuoea. 1837l84l (8) 8 p'

n)

o6reanseHHoe on'caH'e

fepoft naurero BpeMeH[. Co\. M. Jlepnonroaa. 2 qactn. Cn6. Tox, 2 e usaaHtre. Cn6. B r. f'ra:yB r. frieyu. u Ko. 1840, (8). nosa H Ko. 1841. (12)'-Tox,3e H3AaHHe. Cn6. B r' f'nasyHooa H Ko. 1843. (12\ 2 P.

r)

xypHan

flasreoH Pyccroro u Bcex enponeficxux rearpoB. Pe4axrop Q. A. Kosn. l/'saaune B. florsxosa. S qacreft (24 norlrepa). B r. flnrcuapa H Ko. 1840-1842. (8) 12

a)

P.

cepnH

En6;rrorexa poMaHoB, nouecrefi, HcropHqecKux 3anucoK, nyreuecrstlft u np. H!4. H. Vlnrltuutvt. l2 qacreft. M. B r. CrenaHosa.

t842-43. (12). ll P.50 I(aprnuxr Pycixux

x.

HpaBoB.

IIIect xsuxex' C

pxcyHraun

rpaBHpoBaHHbIMl{ Ha AepeBe EapoHotrl Klorou, ero yqesnrou JIaH xolr,,tiac,rossttr n Eapouorrl Herre.n uropcrou. Ca.nonsl qa, cou. <D. Ey;lrapuHa; Kopuer, coqHH' ero xe; flerepro$cru-fi-npaa4unx,

B. Tnnrrla,

coqun. I'i. Mar.nena; Heecxufi napoxoA A. lpeua; HaxoAql'rsoe Jlyraucxoro; flpeQepanc, cou. H. B. KyCn5. B r. Journal de St.-Petersbourg. 1842-43. (2a) 3 p.

noKoJreHl.ie; cor{HH. Ka3aKa B. Kod,rbHr.rKa.

Orpac.neean 6n6.nnorpaQilq H Apyrne BI{Abl 6x6nnorpaQnn

B nepnofi no..iIoBHHe XIX e. B PoccHH norBHJIcr ueJlblft prA oTpacreBblx 6l{6JII4orpaOHrlecKHx yKa3arerefi . OnucaH ns B HHX, KaK npaBHJIO,6Ur.nu eule BecbMa HecoBepueHHbl' tt2


B KHHre K. O. feprt,taHa <HcropuqecKoe o6oapeHue crarHcrHKH, B oco6eusocru Pocct'tficxoro rocyAapcrBa> (Cn6., l8l0) onucaHHr BKJIIoqaJIU JIHIltb Qaul"nun aBropa iHr,tn vxaslrBarocb xpafiHe peAKo)' 3arJIaBHe (B curbHo io*fuur.""ou eu4e) H roA H3AaHAfl. B.nepevHe pa6or no BonpocaM npaBa, [oMeuleHHoM B KHHre il' LI' Aeras <<floco6un' u npaBHJIa H3yI{eHHtl pocct'lticxt'lx 3aKoHoB t-t'll'r Mare-

Hanpuuep,

pHaJIbt K 3HUHKJrOneAr4H, MeTOAOIOTHLt H HCTOpHH poccl.tticxoro npaean (M., 183 I ), onncaHnn coAepxar'II'l roJlbKo 3arJIaBHe H aBropa' (nueua t4Jttr t4lvu:aa,rlbl He yxaaunarucn), S;;;"; roA H3AaHLIT onycKaJlcr, nocKoJIbKy HrpaJI po'nl py6puxll'

B yKa3areJle JIHreparypbl,

noMeuleHHoM

B

npHJIo)KeHI'lH

x neoeeoav xHnru A. Enasxu <<PyronoAcrBo K noJII4THqecKoH ,*o*oult", (Cn6., 1838) (ero cocraBHJl B' C' flopoluHH Ha ocHoBe yKa3areJlr B.nauxu), He 105 onncaHufi e 24 orcyt' crBoBaJIH CBeAeHHfl o foAe I43AaHuf, a s 94._o Mecre' Buecre c reM HeJIb3tl He orMerHTb roro, t{To B KHI'lre fepuaua H B nepeqHe JlnTeparypbl, npHJ'Io)KeHHoM K KHHre B,rasxu, Ha nepBoM Mecre aBTopa,

B orHcaHHI4 croflJIH Qarrlu'rua H HMtl BpeMeHH

,no s 6u6nuorpa$nvecxofi npaxrnKe roro

Bcrpetlafloct xpatiHe PeAKo. b.puH"ueHnufi o6ierta KHHI'H He IIO3BOJItler uau noApo6HO ocTaHoBnTbctt Ha xapaKTepe onucaHHfi eo Bcex orpacreBblx yKa3arerqx AaHHOTO nepuoAa, H Mbl paccMoTpHM onHcaHHf JrHrub B rpex H3 Httx (ony6.nuxoeaHHblx B pa3HHe AecflTl4JIerrla), n Koropbtx ypoBeHb onucasHfi ,ll.Jltl roro epeueuu 6stn

aoBoJrbHo BbrcoKI,rM. 3ro <<BoegHble nHcbMa H 3aMeqaHur, orHocflulnecq x Hesa6eeHHoMy 1812 roay u nocJleAyloulHM)> A. A. flncapesa, <Bceo6nlas 6u6nnorexa Poccl'tl'l . . .>>

(xara.nor geprxoscxori 6ll6.nuorexu) u <<CelscxoxogsficreeH-

Hbre coqHHeHntr, H3AaHHble r{acrHblMH JIHuaMH H o6ulecrBaMH c 1844 no 1849 roA>>. B KaxAoM H3 HHX orltlcaHufl cocraBJ'ltlJIHcb no,u, 3arraBHeM. floc.le 3aulaBHtl HepeAKo orMeqaJIHcb

noA3aroJloBotlHbte AaHHble (a.na nepeaoAHblx KHI'lr

cBeAe-

s3brKe opunuHaJla u $auulna nepeBoAqHKa). hua n Qaun.nun aBTopa noMeurarucb nocre 3arJIaBl'rr HJII'I tto.lL3aroJloBoqHbrx AaHHbtx (o6uuno co cJIoBaMI'l <<Cou.>>, <<CoquHeHHe>> H T. n., OnpeAerflBlllHMH naAe)K' B KOTOpOM CTaBHJIacb Sauu.nun). B sutxoAnblx AaHHblx npHBoAl'{,1}rcb Mecro H foA isr,ur^^ (uauueHonaHl4e rHIIorpa$nH onycKaJlocb! OrueqaJIcr Qof rtlar (sa HcKJIroqeHHeM onHcauHfi s <<BoeHHblx

HHn

o

rrHcbMax...>>. Ko.[HqecrseHHas xapaKTepHCTHKa np14BoAI'rJIacb JIHrub B onficaHilflx B Kara'rore tleprxoecxofi 6u6nuo-

8 H. A.

HrxrtPopoecxan

l13


TeKH, HO O6brqHo yKa3brBaJrocb HaJrHqfie B KHHfe llnnrocTpaqHfi,

KapT, nJraHoB, qepTexeft H ra6JrHu. K nsru.nerxo Ore'.tecrnesnoft sorinsr l8l2 r. vrracrHnKoM ee reHeparori,t A. A. flucapeeurrl 6oI.tt noAroroeren-6r.r6nuorpa_ QHuecxxli rpyA <<BoeHHbre nhcbMa H 3aMeqauufl, orHocflr[Hecs

x

Hesa6aeHHorray

c

l8l2 rcay H nocJreAyrorqHM> (M., lglT).

oco6eHHofi Trlare"nbHocrbto a no;lHorofi BocnpoH3BoAH.n 3arJraBurr npofl3BeAeHufi, o qeM yrroMI{HaJI B npeAHcnosnn: (<3a Hy)KHoe noqaTaro Aaxe elinHcbrBarb LocraBHTeJrb

noJIHoe HaHMeHoBaHlde .KHHrH, 6oscs xaxnu-nu6o nDonvcKoM He orHflrb ueuur oHofi>>. HeAocrarxoM yKa3areJlq 6trro ,b, uro KHHI.H, H3AaHHbre Ha fiHocTpaHHbrx fl3brKax, o[HcbrBaJlr.Icb Ha pyccKoM fl3brKe, Ho 3TOT HeAOCTaTOK qaCTHqHO KOMneHCHpO-

BaJrcfl TeM, r{To rrocJle onilcaHHq B CXO6XaX npXBoAHnOCb u $auunun aBTopa Ha flsbrKe HgAaHns,.

3arJIaBHe

Ifpxrrreprr xs (BoeilHHx

n,ceil

r

sauerarnf,, rar6oaee oT'ocruurxct

x tega6nennory l8l2 ro4y x nocneAypqxnr A. A. Ilxcapera

a)

o4xoronrnue n3AaHr{fl

Paccyx4exne o nofiue l8l2 roaa, coqlrxenre IIorxosnHra 9yf,xenuta, c ra6anqalrn ficqHcJreHtlt HenpHsreJrbcKlx cltJr, Borxeaurux n Poccnro, n norepn _HenpuRre.nrcxoft B KaxAoM cpax(exnr{ H AeJre

c Haqara

Cn6. 1813. o npe6unanan e Mocxpe (DpaHqysor ro4a, coqr{HeuHoe oqeBrAqeM Knqgeir lllaluroguu, i n.linonr KaMnaHtlH.

-^__HcropuuecKoe H3Becrfie

l8l2

Mocrnu, o3Haqarcu{aM croperbre Mecra B ropoAe. M. lglg.

6)

unororouHoe rl3aaxtle

Co6paHne crrxornopeunfi, orHocrurHxcs l8l2 roay, 2 Qacru. Mocraa, l8l4 roaa.

n) xnlra xa

x

gega6gennouv

QpauqyacxoM r3brxe

I,lcropur nofiHH s Poccns n fepnrautu or flepenpaBu qpe3 peKy Heues HrcHs l8l2 roaa 4o orcryn.neuuq ga pef,H HoiOpa lSlg roaa.

Coqnxesue_ Cappase_ua.

flapux. l8lb roAa. C xaf,rofi

poccuu,

.Ilanseu. (Histoire de la guerre de Russie et-d'Allemagne, par Sarrazin).

HeAaHHofi

K orpa_clenoli 6u6nnorpa0Hn orHocurcf, n KaraJrof l{eprKoBcKofi 6u6luorexu, BKJrroqaBlUHfr B ocHoBHoM pa6oiu, Koroprre coAeplKaJrH MarepHaJr Anrr H3yqeHHf pyccKoft HCTOpl.rn.3ror KaraJror 6rr.r asAau B 1838 r. a MociBe noa sarnaBHeM <(Bceo6wan 6u6nvoreKa Poccl.nr HJIH Kararor KHfir AJIfl H3yqeHHtr Ha[refo oTer{ecTBa Bo Bcex oTHo[JeHHfx I,I nOA_ 1t4


po6Hocrtx>. A"nexcasAp AuurpnenHu 9eprxon -(1789co6pal 6onluryn ucropnK, apxeorlof H HyMn3Mar tgSS)

x HHocrpa HHblx KHH r'Koropble noJl Hocrblo ze (x xoHuy lr.nu ,{acril.{Hb'6u;rn nocBflureHbl pyccxofi HcropHH t{eprxooa ero 6n6nnoreKa BKJIoqaJIa oKoJlo 9 000 roxH3HH ruoe). OauoBpeMeHHo c nepBblM H3AaHH_eM KaraJlora BblllIJIo uflpurepBoe <<flpnbaeleHue>> K ielty, a s 1845 r. - Bropoe 6asreHr.re>>. B 1863-1864 rr. 6u.no ony6"nnKoBaHo Bropoe' -

6u 6.nnorery pyccKnx

AOIOJIHeHHOe, HsAaHHe KaraJlora.

OnHcaHHq B KaraJlore 9eptxoncxofi 6n6naoreKH cocraBJIeHbl TUIaTeJIbHO H' KaK IIpaBI'IJIO' OT"lHqalOTCfl TOIIHOCTbIO'

noJrHorori n eAnsoo6pa3neM. IIeuHuu qBJlrJlocb BKJII'or{eHHe B onncaHHe KorurrecrBeHHoft xapaxrepucraKu KHHTH. tlpesMepHo AJrHHHbre 3arJIaBHf npHBOALIJIHCb B COKpaUIeHHOM BHAe, rtpuqeM coKpaureH]rs 6ot.ttu cAe,laHbI TaKHIvl o6pasou, t{To He

npeltrrcrBoBaJIH u.qeHrNQuxaunn KHHf H H B03MoxHocrH noryr{Hrb npeAcraBJIeHHe o ee coAepxaHnn. Ec.nn xslra 6u;la nocBrureHa'sceo6uefi ucropgH, B npHMer{aHHH s cxo6xax OTMEqAJIOCb,

HA

KAKHX CTPAHI]UAX IIOMCIqEH

MATEPHAJI!

orHocqquftcs K pyccKofi ncroputt. Onncauns KHHr Ha HHo' cTpaHHblx tsblKax cocTaBJIflJtHcb Ha q3blKe n3AaHAfl, HO CJIOBa <crp.>) H <qacrb> o6uqso npHBoAHJIHCb Ha pyCCKOM g3blKe. Ec.nn Qar"rH.nHq aBTopa orcyrcrBoBaJla B H3AaHHH, Ho 6bula ycTaHoBJIeHa COCTaBHTeJIeM, OHa B OiIHCaHHH 3aKJrIOqaJIaCh n cxo6xN; ecJru B KHHre orcyrcrBoBaJlH Mecro I{nH roA I{3AaHnR, 06 3ToM AeJlaJrocb [puMer{aHne (n cxo6xax): <Eeg osHa-

qeHr,rfl Mecra rrer{araHHr>,

<6ee o3Har{eHHq roAa>>;

ecJIH

B KHHre HMeJtHCb HeHyMepOBaHHble CTpaHHllbl, oHl.l noActlHTbl-

B KoJll{qecrBeHuoft xapaxrepncrnKe oco6o, HanpnMep: <75 neper'aeqeHHbtx u l2 HenepeMeqeHHbtx crp.>. Bce 3TH yKa3aHHs cBHAereJIbcrByIor o eltcorofi 6u6nuorpaQnuecroft xynurype cocraBHreJIefi xaranora. BaJrHcb H npHBoAHnHcb

B xaranore ttpHMeHflnocs o6reAuHeHHoe olrHcaHHe: cBeAeHr.rfl o nepeH3AaHHflx npHcoeAHHfJIHCb K OnHCaHHIO rIOCre o6o3HaqeHHs <Tox>> nln <lbidem> (a.ns HHocrpaHHbtx xxnr). B onncasnu MHororoMHbrx H3AaHHfi s srtxoAHbtx AaHHbIX orMeqaJrr.rcb roabr H3AaHHq nepBoro H nocJleAHero roMoB (vepee rupe) no Qoprrae: 1826-27, nocJle qero.npHBoALInac_b KOJTHqeCTBeHHas XapaKrepHCTHKa

rOMOB LrItLl qacreft:

gcK.ruoqeHfif, B KaraJlor BKJIIoqaJIHcb H xyAoxecrBeHHHe sau6olee H3B€crHbIx pyccKHx nncarerefi .

'9 B sHAe

rrporr3BeAeHar

8l

ll5


<2 qacrll_:-s l -ri 184, so 2-ft 202 ctp.> 52, 64,62 n 60 cro.>.

Ilpruepu

rr

cBceo6ulefi

HJrH

<<B

6 qacrsx:

6T

, Tl,

6l6,llorern pocctr.,.>

(Karanora rleprxoncxofi 6n6anorexu)

a) oluorouulte

H3AaHHfl

Kparxoft Poccnfict<ofi Jleronuceq, c poaocr,toBr_reM, co,r. M. JIo_ rroHocola. C.-Ilerep6ypr. 1760. TS repeMeqeHHbrx u i2 nen"peoaeqeHHbrx

crp. s

8.

lutuapa Kgpaca coKpatrleHHar VHunepca,ruHa a Actopua. BHoBb nepeBeAeua c npu6aeleHneu Kparxofi poccnftcxofi Hcropnr,r c BonpocaMu H orBeraMH. Cn6. 1762. 323 crp. n g. (poccaftcian

HcropHR

or 291 ao 323 crp.)

Tables de St.-Petersbourg, ou Lettres sur la Russie 6crites en 1810, I I et l2 par Ch. Miller et traduites d'allemand par avec un pla-n de St.-petersbourg. paris et Mayerice. 9.,Lrggr, 1814. XVI et 551 o. in 8.

6)

lruororoMHbre r3aaHnt

klcropun ropo4a flcxosa, cort. Hnouncrcuil. Cn6. 1790_95. s 6 qacrsx: 67,71,52, 64, 62 tr 60 crp. n 8. CoquxeHnq A.tercau4pa I7gwrcina. Cn6. lg3g. 3 uacrn; r l-f, 439; so 2-fi 376: a 3-ilt 242 crp. s 8.

n)

o6te4uneHnoe onHcaHHe

Ee4a a ocrpoe rrc6gn. [Iepene4eHa c <Dpauqyscxoro Ha pyccxofi qpe3 cryAeuTa Bacarsq Tpeanaxoacxoro'n nfunncaHa Ero CnsreJr6-crBy-KHr3ro A.nexcau4py bopncoorruy KyparuHy. 1730. 210 crp. s 16. (Bes o3HaqeHHq Mecra neqaraunn).-Tox, nepenevaraio c nsraHilfl 1730. Mocxea. 1834. 235 cro. s 12.

B 1849 r. B KHHre <<O6sop AeficrBnft .Il,enaprarrleHra ceJrbcKoro xo3rficTBa B Ter{eHHe nrrrH dreT, c 1844 rlo l84g rol> (Cn6. 1849; usa. 2. 1850) 6ul onv6nHKoBaH vKa3arerrb

pyccKofi JrHreparypbr rro ceJrbcKouy xosnficrny

(si 5 ner):

<Ce"ntcxoxo3fficrBeHHbre coqHHeHHfl, r.r3AaHHbre qacrHblMH

H ooulecrBaMH, c 1844 no 1849 roA)>. OnHcaHHr B aroM nepeqHe coAepxa"rlH MHHHMyM 6H6.nHorpaQfirlecKHx cBeAeHHfi, y-c-ra HoBJreHHbrfi AJrfl 6n6"rr norp aQ HqecKHx rpyAoB K cepeAH He

JrrqaMH

XIX B. (Her roJtbKo H HaHMeHOBaHHTT THnof

KorHqecrBeHHofr xapaKrepHcrtlKH

paQnu

),

npHBeAeHHbrX B OnpeAeJreHHoft

nocJIeAoBaTe.rlbHocTH. B BbrxoAHbtx AaHHbrx oTcyTcTBoBaJr roA H3AaHr.tfl, nocKoJrbKy oH HrpaJr poJrb py6pHKH.

il6


f|pnuepu rg <CettcxoxossfictseHHblx coquneHnft ...r O ceneicrae lepecKosblc pacrenud, c oco6ennatn ucctedoeaxuen ceodcraeu,notx C. Ilerep6gpecxoti $nope, u npeuilAulecroeHHo Anor' pe1uretanou e xosnficraetTnoJ,t, Te)(Hu4ecKon u epaue6xoll orHoueaunx. Co". f . A.nexcau4poenqa. Cn6., s 8 a. r. c 5 ra6.ltlq. pHcyHKoB.

2) noa py6pnrofi

<1845 roaa>

Hcrpe6aenue coptrbtx rpaa. Cou. nepen. A. Tupen. Cn6., s 8 A. r.

3) noa py6pnroft

O. B.

@paHxe.

C

HeDreIr.

<1846 roaa>

Onotr gueuua o noaaJtbftbtx 6oaesunx ileiledg doilauHunu tcuaorflbtnu. Coq. B. Bcegoroaosa. Vgp,.2-e, yMHoxeHHoe JreHHoe.

t,t HcnpaB-

Cn6., s 8 a. r.

B o6.nacrt 6uo6u6nuorpa0nH

nepBor? noroBHHbr

XIX

e.

3aCr'lyXHBal,OT yIIOMHHaHI,ltl CJIOBapH AyXOBHbIX l{ CBeTcKHX nHcaTeJ|eti H yqeHbrx, cocTaBJIeHHbre MHTponoJIHTOM EsreHHeN.l

DonxosxrHHoBbrM ( 1767-1837). Hcropilx, qneH PoccHficxofi

AKAACMHH, NOI{CTHbIft qJICH AKAACMHH HAYK, TIJICH MHOI'HX yqeHbrx o6ulecrB, EorxoeHrraHoB Ha nporsxeHHH MHorrrx reT rpyAHncf HaA cocraBJreHHeM 6no6u6nuorpa0HqecKHx croBapefi. Eue s 1805- 1806 rr. oH HariaJr neqararb cBoti <<Hoebrfi onbrr HcropHqecKoro cJroBapfl o poccuficKHX nncareJIflX, npUpOAHbrX H r{y)KeCTpaHHbrX, yMepluHX H )KHBbIX> B xypHare n. V. Xsocroea uApyr npocBeuleHHq>). B cBr3H c npeKpaUIeHHeM BbrxoAa xypHaJra ny6JIHKauHf cJroBapfl

o6opnanacr Ha 6yKBe <<K>>. flosAHee BorxoBHrHHoB ils1alr <<Cnosapr HcropHqecKnfi o 6unuHX B PoccHH rrHcareJrrx AyxoBHoro qHHa rpeKo-poccuficKofi qepKBH>> (u. l-2. Cn6., l8l8). B 1827 r. BbnrlJro Bropoe, <<HcnpaBJreHHoe H yMHoxeHHoe>>, H3AaHHe sroro cnoBaps. B 1837 r. 6lr.[ ony6JrHKoBaH nepBbtfi ToM noAroToBrreHHono Eo.lxonnrHHoBbrM <<CJroBaptr

poccHficKHx cBercKHX nucarerefi> (Cn6.). Bropofi roM rorAa BbrnyueH He 6but, Ho s 1845 r. o6a roMa 3roro c.noeapn 6unH r.r3AaHbr

M. n.

floroAHsHna

no

pyKonHcH Eo"'rxoBHrHHoBa.

Onncasnr o <<Croaapax>> Eo.nxosHTHHoBa 6H.lrH secrr4a KparKHMH. B OnfiCaHfiqX KHI,rr npHBOAHJIHCb 3arJIaBHe, MeCTO r.r roA H3AaHHfl H oopMar (uun H QaMHrHf aBropa onycKa-

JrHCb, nocKor'rbKy oHr.r Hr-paJrH poJrb py6pHKu), xonuuecTBeHHarl

xapaKTepHcrHKa He orMeqaJracb,

Ho B

TeKcTe orlHcaHHfl

ynoMHHaJIOCb HaJ'rHrrHe B KHI{re fin"nocTpauHft.

Ang MHoroToM-

Hbrx H3AaHHfi yxasuraalocb KoJtuqecrBo roMoB HrH qacrefi. Llt


B onncaxnu

npor.rgBeAeHufi, ony6nuKoBaHHbrx

B xypHaJrax,

NOMHMO 3AfJIABHff, NPHBOAI,IJIIICb HA3BAHHC )KYPHAJIA Irpnnrepu

," .3:l#l;

E#::fi;"nTlx

EeJnes, Ocsn flerponnu,

H

H

rOA.

nxcareaen>

a4oopuufi CoserHr.rx.

VHreo-

6n6.lnorexaps npu C.-flerep6yprcxofi Axaaeunu Hayx, nnca.n rrlnorie crHxorBopeHur v u3!.aJt Hx coBoKynHo oco6on KHnxKoro, noA Ha3Ba_ uneu: Mgsa, unu co6pauue paailbtx sa6asHbtx cotaunevufr, a cruxax, C.-Ilerep-6ypr 1794, s _8; 2) coullnal no4po6noe onucagne I1yHs1KaMepbr Axageuuvecxoft noa HaasaHr.reul. Ka6uner IIerpa Beaixoeo, rutil, onucavue aocKoaoeo eeo uso6patiexua, aoenuofi u epatc)ancrcort

eeo odexdot, co6creennopyut oeo ezo ugdenun

u

npou., uzlau.

nepBbtM TrcHeHueM corpau{eHHo s 2 \actsx, n g 4o.nro, 1793 r., a BTopbfM npocrpaulee rroA Ha3Bauuem: Ka6uner lTerpa Beluxoeo, trJtu onucaHue ecert Kgucrrcanepb,, c Kaprv*aur, n 3 qacrsx, lg09 r.,

n 4;

o6a Hareq. B C.-flerep6ypre J')

ICx Ilerpa Benurcoeo',

Il_nneparopa Bcepoccuricxoeo i ionepnuxa eelo Kap,oa XII, Ropotn Aeedcrcoeo, Haneq. B C.-flerep6ypie, lZgg, s g. OH cr<oHqa,rcf,

n

1807 ro,ay.

flonnrxa ocyil{ecrBuTb reKyr{yo perr{crpaugro KHHr fi nepHoAHqecKHX HSAaHHir, BbrxoArruIHx B POCCHr.r, 6trna rrpeAnpr.rHrrra B 1825 r. n. H. Kenneuou B r{3AaBaB[eMcfl u peAaKrHpoBaBrrreMcfl HM 4ypsale <Bu6aHorpaQuuecxue Jrncrbr>. flerp HraHoBHq KenreH ( 1793- 1864)'-'ogun us HaH6oJree BHAHbrx 6u6.nnorpaQoB XIX 8., yqeHblft, 3aHHMaBuHftcq BorrpocaMH Jil{HrBHcrHKH, apxeonorHH, reorpaOHH, 3THOfpaQHlt, cTarilcTHKH, ecTecTBo3HaHHfl, CeJrbcKoro t4 JIecHoro xo3qficrBa. Oco6oe BHr.rMaHHe Kennes o6paulafl Ha H3yqeHHe Poccr.l.r. OH ser4rcs oAHHM H3 yr{peAnre.rleli (r l8l6 n.) Borrsoro o6urecrBa nro6nreneti pocir.licxoft cJroBecHocr;,

B 1837 r. Kennes 6ul l.ls6pau s axa4eunxu, oH npHHHMaJr AeflTelbr{oe yqacrHe B yqpex(AeHuu Pyccxoro reorpaoHr{eCKOTO O6UIECTBA, MHOTO CACJIAJI AJIN PA3BI,ITHfl CJIABflHOBEAE-

HHfl B POccnu.

B <bx6luorpa$HqecKux Jrxcrax> (xypna.ir BbrxoAHJr B rer{eHHe oAHoro JrHurb 1825 r.) noMeulanacb HHoopMauHfl o HoBbrx KHrrax H nepHoAHqecKfix H3AaHHflX Ha pyCCKOM H Apyrflx fl3brKax, onyorHKoBaHHbrx B PocCr.ilr, a TaKxe o reorpaoHqeCKHX Kaprax, nJraHax, u3o6pa3HTeJrbHofi npoAyKuHr.t H Horax. B xypna.ne Bbl6opor{Ho neqaraJrucb cBeAeIrHs H o BaxHefiueri r.rHocrpaHHofi nnreparype, B flepByro oqepeAb o Tex HHocTpaHHbIX KHr{raX, KoTopble coAepxaJrH Marepr.raJl, oTHOCqIqHfiCfl

K PoccHH. Bo uHornx cnyqaflx onHcaHnrr n8

n <En6;lnorpaeu-


qecKHx JIHCTaX> COnpoBoxAaJIHCb aHHOTaUH fl M H' pacKpbl BaIOIUI4MH COACPXAHHC KHHTil, NJIH PCUCH3H'IMH.

OnucaHl.rn e <EH6ruorpa$uuecxux JIHcrax>> orJtnqarncb ToqHocrbro u no.nuorofi. Bce rHuru onucblBaJlncb noA 3afJIaeuel,r. HMq (nununa;ru) u.nn $auu.nnfl aBropa noMelrlaJlncb

locJle garrasnfi (o6uutto co cJIoBaMH <<cor{HHHJI>>' <<coquHeune>>, <co6paJt> I,t r. n., onpeAenflIourllMI't naAex' B KoropoM croflJla Qauunnn). ,[l.na nepenoAHblx KHHr npHBoAHJIHcb cBeAeHHfl o fl3brKe opHrfiHaJla H o nepeBoAt{t'lxe. B BblxoAHbtx AaHHbrx yKa3blBaJIHCb He TOJIbKO MeCTO H rOA H3AaHl',lfl' HO H THIO-

HaHr,teHosaHI{H ee coKpa[laJlucb orAeJlbHble cJIoBa: <s Tnn. Aen. H. II., (r. e. <B rHnorpaQnn .[lenapraMenra Ha-

rpadus. B

poAHoro npocneureunx>), HHorAa- c.IIoBo <runorpaQua>> coKpauaJlocu oAsofi 6yxeoft <t'>>. B orIHcaHHIl orMeI{aJIHcb KoJrHr{ecrBeHHan xapaiTepHcrHKa, Qoprraar H ueHa' Taxnu

o6pasou, onHcaHnfl KHHn BKJIIo.{aJIH Bce ocHoBHble 3JIeMeHTbl' B pa4e cnyqaeB yKa3btBarcfl Mara3HH, B KoropoM npoAaBa.nacs xnnra. ,[,ocrouHcrBoM rpyAa Kennesa'6st.lo to, qro oH ycraHaBnHBaJI OTCyTCTByIOUHe B H3AaHHH CBeAeHHtl H npHBo-

AHJI Hx B onucaHHu B Kpyrnblx cxo6xax. B onncaHuu MHororoMHbrx HsAaHIrfi npHBoAHJII.{cb cBeAe' HHfl O TOMAX I,UIH qACTflX, OTMCqAJIHCb TOAbI I43AAHHfl H KOJIH-

qecrBeHuas xapaKrepucrnKa KaxAoro roMa. flpuueHa.nocl l't o6reAuHesgoe olncaHfie, npH 3ToM cBeAeHHr o [epeH3AaHHqx KHHrH npHcoeAHHflJIHcb K ortficaHuro nepBoto HgAaHHq 6es o6ogsaqennq <To xe>. B onucasnlt xypHaJIa nocJle 3arJIaBHfl noMeulaJlHcb cBeAeHHfl o6 HsAarene HnH peAaKrope' yxa3blBarocb KorHr"tecrBo HoMepoB B roA; o6uqHo orMeqaJtcq raKxe o6r,eu u3AaHllfl (xo.nuuecrao crpanH( H,lH JIHcroB s Houepe) a Qoprr,tar, a n cxo6xax npl'IBoAHJIacb rnnorpaQna -(uecro r.r3AaHnfl o[ycKaJlocb, TaK KaK oHo HfpaJIo pons py6puxn),

B

KOHUe

qacro yKa3blBaJIaCb

UeHa.

Ilpr,ruepu na <En6atorpaQxuecrux JtucroBt

a) o4uorounue

Il. H. Kennena

H3aaHHt

Eazenui Oueeun, Pol{aH s crHxax' Coquseune Anerccandpa lluwrcuna. Cn6. s THn' Aen. H' n' 1825. XXIV n 60 c. n 6' 12' (5 p.; c nepec.6 p. B KHrIx. marag. H. B. Clenuua). 3enaedetoqecxan Xunun, c npeABaPureJrbHblM I'I3JIoxeHlieM

K ceH

qacru H xo ecefi uayxe Ce.nr,cxorc xo3gftcrga nptaroroBnre'lbHblx caeAelrnft ue EcrecreiHHblx HayK' c noKa3aH[eM pa3Hblx cnoco6os

It c HaqepraHHeM npaBHJI naxaHl'ls' CoctaereHa Muxau,ttoi I!aatoeoLn, Flaas. Coe. npn H. Moc. Vu' Mugepa'lornu gevJevao6peHHfl

ll9


H CenbcK. [orr,ron. IIpo$eccoporra II. O. MeqHuHHbr .[oKroDoM. yqpexAeHHoft npu H. Mocx. O6utecree Celscxoro Xoeqftcrsa 3eMne_ Ae.ll,recrofi llko.lu ,(npexroporlr fi pa3Hbrx yv. O6ur. r{.nenou. M. s Tun. C. Ce.nfigaHoscxoro. 4-b6 c. s'g. CM. Ces. fl,reru Nb 85 n 84; Mocx. Te.rerp. N! 21, c.90_gg. I( onucauun npucoe)uneuot ceedenua o peqevgutuc.

6)

rrlHororonrxoe H3aaHHe

II parcr uuec rco fi X up g p e uu, lrsr araeMofi B H acro, rqeM ee cocrorHHH Ha HaqaJrax IlaronorHqecxofi n Xupypruuecxoii ANaroulln-, c xa prunauu._CorruHeHne C a.ug ua a Kg ne pa,' u,rena Kop. I-"pyp.. Ko;rrersn n np. flepeee,r c Aurnuhcxoro haan Kocronapob. Ky_s-Heqosa. Kn. I, 1824 r. VII n 842 c., c I ueprexeu; S. "-Inl.^!. Ks. II, 1824 r. lY n228 c., Ks. III, IV r 329 c. e 8, c 4 uepiexar,rn. H aue p r anue

n)

o6te4uHeuuoe onucaHHe

Vepneq, KHescxaq noBecrb. Cor{}iHeHne Haaua Kostoea, fI. n Trn. Aen. H. tI. 1825. 64 c. s 8. ugAauue 2-e. fI. n Tnn. Aen. H. n. 1825. 64 c. s 8 (5 p). flonecrs o rlepnqe oKaHqHBaercq

cefi xnnxxu

3aHHMaer noc,'raHfie

Ha c. 3g-fi,

ocrarbHyto xe qacrb

K Apyry B. A. Xyxoncxouy.

r) xypna;r - Becrnurc E_aponot, cocrasrqeMHft (Cr. Con.) MHxafi.lorrr (TpoOuuonuv_e-nr )_ KaqeHoscxHrrt, fl po$eccopor,.r, floxroporrl OH.n ocoQ ur, 9lenou H. P. Ax. r.t ApyfHx yueHux o6ulecrg. no-Asa .N! g Meiqu. He MeHee 80 cc. xaxAufi; (neu. n VHun. Tnn.). Ilena 3a roaoBoe H3AaHHe 20, c nepec. 25 (n M.24) p. B,Enp. us4aercq c 1802 r. PeAaxropoM oHoro no uuse 6ulu: - BpeMeHa i1. Cyrrlapoxoe, H. M. Kap_au-ar.rH, rroroM B pa3Hbre B. A. Xyxoncxufi, B. I,lgruafi.non H, HaKoHerL yqacrBoBaBuHft s ce^, nsAaniu yxe-c M. T. KaqeHoncxuft, xoropuft HHHe npoaolxaer ^1805-roaa poccHn (lglg.g) osoft-. Cv. _Marepua.tur HcropHH npocseqeHlln s xn. I, c. 44, rae roJlbKo B orHoueHnr.r K H3AaHHro oHofo B'1g04 ;. AoJfixHo cKa3arb, qro, Haqar raKoBoe flanxp. Cyuaporoe, a AoBepuHn M. T. KaqeHoecxnft. Taxnu o6pasou u ctrr.nacyrorcff tr3Becrur, coo6ulexsue f-rtr lllropxorrl H nor. Conuxosbrr,,r.

C 1837 no 1855 r. ..XypHal MuHncrepcrBa HapoAHoro npocBerrleHHq> ny6IHKOBaJr <<yKa3areJrb BHoBb BbrueIuHX KHHr>>,30 gaAaqefi Koroporo 6u,ro ocyu{ecrBreHHe rocyAapcrBeHHofi 6u6lr.rorpaSHrlecKofi pef HcrpaUHH B pocolH.3r 30 llepnue ABa roaa <Vxagareno> neqaraJ,rcq Ha crpaHrruax caMoro xypHar'ra, a c 1835 r. B orAerbHo H3aaBaeMbrx <flpu6an,reurxx> K HeMy (v. 3,. <Bu6,rxorpa$uuecrae np r.r6aeneHu n> ) . o' Kax noqcHqer H. B. 3ao6Hos, gTa perlJcrparlHq BbrlorHflra noru_ qeficxo-qeusypuue^Qyuxuaa (cnr.: 3ao6nos H. B. Vcropwn pyccxoi

6a6.naonpaQnr.r,

t20

c. 258-261)

.


Cocrasnrenu yKa3areJlfl onttcblBaJln KHHrH c 6o,lsruofi ru.abHocrbro. On ncaH H q cocra BJI ttJt Hcb noA 3 ar,rl a B HeM' flocle

TeJI

3ANJI A BHfl I,IT

H NOA3 A TOJIOBOqHbIX AA HHbIX IIP

I,I

BOAHJI HCb CBCAE'

o6 aBTope (vacro co cJIoBaMH <<cor{HHeHHe>>, (<cot{.>> H T. n.), QauulHn craBHJIacb B poAHTeJIbHoM naAexe. ,II,na nepenoAHbtx KHHr coo6r[a,rucl cBeAeHI'1fl o R3blKe opnHHq

rd o nepeBoAqnxe. B BbtxoAHblx AaHHbIx yKa3blBaJll'lcb Mecro HgI..aHvfl, runorpaQnn u roA H3AaHHfl,. Aaea,'Iacu Korur{ecrBeHHafl xapaKrepucrtlKa H $opruar. flpu onncauun MHororoMHbrx lrsaaHI.{ti orMeqaJlocb o6uree KoJlHqecrBo ToMoB n.nu qacrefi H I{HcJIo crpaH}ru B Ka)KAoM H3 ToMoB. B ue,rou oIIHcaHHfl s <<yKa3arere BHoBb BblueAUI4x KHHr>>

ruHaJIa

orJrHqaJrHcb BecbMa BbtcoKHM ypoBHeM (Anq ceoero nperraeHu), coAepxaJlH Bce ocHoBHble 3JIeMeHTbl.

IlpnrepH ng cVraeareJc

a)

BHoBb

BuueAilrrx KHIrt)

oauo'rouHrre H3aaHHfl

rrrepax, npnHsrbtx s Poccuu K nooulpeHltto H ycoBeplxeHcrBoBaHHro ceJrbcKoro xosRf,crsa soo6qe. Cou. flpo$eccopa Xapsxoncroro

O

Hs. flraroHosa. C. n. 6. s run. MuHucrepcrna Bs. Aer. 1839. l2l crp. in 8. -

Vuunepcurera

Hosue nosecrr A,rercau4pa .[,rorrra. flep. c iDp. @eaop Cyponuos.

C. n. E. s run. A. CHqesa, 1839. 135 ctp. in

6) uuororouuo€

-

12.

fi3AaHHe

Iloc,neanufi Hosfix uJru 3aBoeBaH{e Jlu$;rnu4un B qapcrBoBaHlte flerpa Be;rnxoro. Hcropuuecruft pouaH. CoquueHue Hsana JlaxeqHEKoBa, g 4-x qacrsx. I,lsAaHue rperre co Bropofo 1833 ro.qa. C. n. 6. e rHn. BuHre6epa, 1839. 225, 251, 219, 207 crp. in 8.

-

Texyuan nu$opuauna o BHoBb BbtxoAtrrtlnx KHHrax n peqeH3HH Ha HHx ny6.nnxona.nncb B pflAe JlHreparypHblx x(ypHaJroB nepBofi noJIoBr,rHbr XIX e. OnucaHuR KHHr, noMeIIIaB-

uHecrr B xypHarax, KaK IIpaBHJIo, 6nt.nu AocraToqHo noAp06Hbr, coAeplKaJIH Bce ocHoBHble 3JIeMeHTbl, BKJ'Il,oqafl 06blqHo H KOJrHqecTBeHHyro xapaKTepHcrHKy. He ocraHaB,'IHBattcb

AeraJrbHo Ha oco6eHHocTflx onHcaHHft B pa3JlHqHblx XypHaJIaX, OnpaHHqUMCfl rlpHBeAeHI,leM HeCKOJIbKHX npHMepOB. He xypna.na <Cus oteqectga> (1826, u. 106) 6acnu llaana KpoLaoaa. B cerrrl.r KHHrax. Hoeoe, ucnpan.neHuoe

n nononHeHHoe n3AaH[e. n. 1826, n rnn, .[,enapraMeHTa Hapo4Horo flpocseueHuq, s 8, 312 c.

t2l


Vt xypnata

<MocroscKnft re.nerpa$> (1833,

N, l8)

fope or gna. l(oueaun B qerbrpex 4eftcrautx, e crnxax. CoquHesne AlercasApa CepreeBnqa fpu6oe4ora. M. 1833. B r. A. Cer',resa. 167 crp. in 8.

-

Ha xypHa.na <Conpeueuuur> (1836,

r.

4)

Xusfis

Hano.leosa Douanapre, r.rMneparopa @panuygog. Coq, cupa Ba;rrep-Cxorra. IIep. c AHrruficxoro C. ae IIIan.ner. Tou t{acru: nepeuft. l, 2,3 u 4. C. II. E.

B HcropHu 6a6nHorpaQrqecKoro orrucaHur B PoccfiH rtepBar rroJroBHHa XIX B. ffBHJracb nepHoAoM rroHcKoB BeAyTTIHMH 6u6nHorpaQaMn Hau6oJree pauHoHaJrbHbrx MeroAoB orrucaHHr. B nepBofi rpern XIX B. rroflBuJrucb QyHAaMeHraJrbHbre

lpyAu:

<<CHcrerr,larnqecKoe 0603peHHe JrHreparypbr B PoccHr.r>>

Ijlropxa u A4enyHra,

<<Oflbrr poccuficxori 6u6nuorpaQuu>>

<<Pocnucn>> 6n6.nnorex flraeilnlufiKoBa K CraupAHHA. MCTOAHKA ONHCaHHfl B 3THX VgAaHHflx 6uI,ra He BTIOJTHe

Connxoaa,

oAr.rHaKoBa. flpuuuunnaJrbHoe pa3rHqHe KacaJrocb caMoro

Har{aIa onHcaHHfl: Illropxou a AAe,'IyHroM, a TaKxe

s

<<Po-

cnHcH)> 6u6luorexg CrtrrapAuua KHHIH onHcbtBarr,rcb rroA nepBbrM cJroBoM 3arJraBr,rfl, connxonnru noA nepBbtM cyulecTBHTeJIbHbrM 3arJraBHf B HMeHHTeJTbHOM naAex(e, AHaCTaCeBHqeM noA cJIoBot\{ HJIH Cd'tOBOCOqeTaHLIeM B 3arJIaBHH, KOTO-

-

poe -sBJrflJlocb HaHooJree cyuIecTBeHHbrM HJIH xapaKTepHbrM

C TOI{KH 3PCHHfl TCMATHKH KHHII].

Heo6xoAuuo oco6o noAqepKHyrb, r{To B nepBcli

noJIoBHHe

XIX e. cocraBareJrr{ 6ra6"ruorpa$HqecKax yKa3arereri B npeAHCJTOBHflX

K

CBOHM

TpyAaM HepeAKO H3JraraJrr.r BOlpOCbr Me-

roAr,rKH on4ca:Hun. 3ru xe Bonpocbr HeoAHoKpaTHo 3aTparHBaloTcfl H Ha cTpaHHIIax ner{aTn, B r{acTHocTH B pelleH3Htlx Ha <<Onlrr poccrlficxofi 6n6.nuorpa$HH> ConfiKoBa.

Vxe saqnuafl c rpyAa LUropxa u A4eryura

B yKa3areJrrx

BCTpeqaroTcg cIyqaH aHaJIHTHqecKofo onHcaHnfl, a TaKxe IIpHcoeAilHeHHs K onHcaHHro npo[3BeAeHHf cBeAeHr.rfi o peueH3I,IflX.

B orpacreeofi 6u6nuorpaQnu pasnurne npHHuHnoB onHca-

6u6nuorpaQun (ne 6nno eAnuoo6pa3r.rfl, Bcrpeqarucb npotrycKu orAeJrbHbrx 3JreMeHroB), xorfl B HeKoTopbrx TpyAax, B nepByr,o orrepeAb B KaraJrore t{eprxoecxoi't 6u6nuorexu, onrcaHHfl

Hr.rfl, KaK rrpaBHJro, orcraBaJro oT pa3Burr,rs caMOfi

122


oTJlHqaJIHCb nOApO6HOCTbIO H TOr{HOCTbIO. AOBOJIbHO tsblCOKHft

6ul xaparrepeH Aflq rocyAapcre,euuofi ieryurefi perilcrpauun, a raKxe AJIfl xypHanon, ny6nuxo-

ypoBeHb onr.rcaHnfi

BaBurr.rx peueH3HH Ha KHHTH. B qenou B Ter{eHHe nepnor? nod'toBnubt

XIX s.

TexHI'tKa

onHcaHHfl nocTeneHHo coBep[IeHcTBoBaJIacb, H B cepeAHHe XIX B. ycraHoBr.tJlca onpeAeleuuuli MHHLtMyM ceeAeHnfi, npHBoAHMbrx

B oflilcaHuH, a

TaK>Ke tIocJIeAoBaTeJIbHOCTb,

a xoropofi ltpr.rBo.u,HJIHcb srn cBeAeHNs. OnucaHue coAepxaJlo y)Ke Bce cicHoeHne 3JIeMeHrbr. Or rofi Qopult, Koropafl [pHMeHflercf B Haue Bpeil{fl, oHo oTJIr{qaJIOCb B OCHOBHOM TeM, qTO KHfiFH HHAHBr.rAyaJIbHbrX aBrOpOB OflHCbIBaJII{Cb nOA 3arJlaBHeM, a He roA Samnnneft aBropa. floAsoAq Hrorr{, cJleAyer orMerlrrb, r{To nepBafl rtoJIoBI,tHa

o3HaMeHoBaJracb B Poccl-rl co3AaHHeM prAa BbIAarorquXcH 6n6l uorp aQfi qecKHX rpyAoB, rBJIrIoulnxct ropAocrblo saureft oreqecrBeHHoft 6n6"nr.rorpa$un r.r Ao cr{x nop He yrpaTHBrrIux cBoero 3HaqeHr.rr. 3ror nepuoA xapaKTepr.r3oBaJlcfl

XIX s.

raKxe oco6ur',r BHHMaHHeM, Koropoe

6u6.nuonpaQbI craJIH

I4uesso B 3To BpeMfl K onr{caHr.rro HaqarH npeArflBJrrrbcq re rpe6onauun, KaKne cAeJIaJIr.rcb o6ssareruHbrMH H AJrfl nocneAyroutnx 6r.r6;rrorpaQon (nnnorr Ao HatuHX aHeft).

y,rleJrflTb BonpocaM olrficaHufl.


3AKJIIOTIEHI,IE

H a npe4rr4yruux crpa H r.rqax Mbr npocd'reAr.rJr H 38oJrlouH ro 6n6;ruorpaSnr{ecKono ofificaHns n Poccau Ha rrporrr)KeHnr.r 6o;Iee ceuu c noJroBuHofi eexos. !,onraru 6u.n nyro, npofiAenHufi 6n6.nrorp aSnvecxn M orrHcaHH eM, MeAJreH HbrM H cJro)KHbr M 6ur npouecc craHoBd'reHlrq ero ocHoBHbrx nplrHIrHrIoB, Qoprt,tnpoBaHr.rfl efo npHeMoe. CeroAHr 6u6nnorpaQbr, 3aHHMarou{Hecr cocraB,'reHHeM 6u6.nuorpa$HqecKHx onucaul.li, u qHTATEJIH, UCNOJIb3YIOUIHC 3TH OIIHCAHH'I AJI'I HAXO)KACHN'I Hy)KHbrx HM npoH3BeAeHufi, aa,TeKo He BcefAa orAator ce6e orqer B ToM, rrro co3AaHHe coBpeMeHHofi, raxofi, xaaa.irocn 6nr, npoc'rofi Qoprrru oH6.nHorpaQfiqecKoro onHcaHHr nBxJIocb pe3yJrbraroM ycunuit MHoTHX noxo.uesurl 6u6;rHorpaQoa. BlrAar,outHecq pyccKHe 6u6nuorpaQu rocrottHHo BeJILT HHTeHcHBHbre noHcKH uaH6oaee par{HoHaJlbHbtx H coBepueH-

surx cnoco6oB onucaHun, npu aroM B pHAe cryr{aeB

oHH

onepexaJrH cBoe BpeMfl, cMelo 3KcnepHMeHrHpyfl H Hcrlo,'lb3yfl raKue rrpHeMbr, Koropbre BHeApI.rJIHcb n 6u6aNorpa$uuecryn npaKTr.rKy roJrbKo B HauH 4Hra. fIpan4a, aro He 03Haqaer, rrro coBpeMeHHbre Harvr 6H6nHorpaQbl SaHMcrBoBaJIH 3Tfi npHeMbI HenocpeAcrBeHHo r.r3 crapbrx 6u6.naorpaQHqecKHx rpyAoB. MHoroe 6u.no <<orxpr,rro)> HMr,r 3aHoBo. Teu He MeHee HHTepecHo H noyqHreJlbHo, qro lt s o6racru 6u6ruorpaQuqecKol'o OII14CaHHfl qe.llOBeqeCKaq Mblcd'lb OKa3aJ'laCb CnOCO6ua npeABocxHTHTb ro, rITo Hau,rlo npHMeHeHHe JIHlrIb B oTAareHHona

6yayuer'r.

Onrrr gauer{are,'tbHbrx pyccKHX 6u6,ruorpaQoB npo[IJlot-o yr{HT HaC H CerOAHfi He MeXaHHr{eCKH, a TBOpqeCKU nOAXOALITb K peueH14ro orAeJIbHblx BonpocoB onHcaHHfl, ,{ro6H oHo t24


IIoJIHOCTbtO OTBeqaJIo TeM KoHKpeTHbrM 3aAaqaM, KoTopbte nepeA HUMH craBnr Aa"'rbHefiuee pa3BHTHe 6r.r6nuorpaQuu.

Xorq B paccMaTpaeaeMlrfi nepHoA npo6leua ynusuxauau 6n6.nuorpaQuqecKofo onncaHnrr He roJrbKo ue ruorna 6srru pa3perueHa, Ho Aa)Ke etue He 6ula nocraBJreHa, B npaKruKe BeAyrrlnx 6n6nnorpa$oB HaqaJrr{ cKJraAbrBarbcx Hexoropue eAlrHbre ocHoBHbre npHHur.rnbr, KoTopbrMH oHH CTaJTH pyKOBOA-

crBoBarbcfl npH cocraBreHtr.t onucaHufi. Taxuu o6pasorra, nocreneHHo co3AaBarr,tcb npeAnocbtJIKH, o6rerqusuHe s Aa.ntuefiu:e.M (yxe s co_eercxufi nepuoa) yc[euHoe pa3peueHue eroti npo6,relrur. B Hacrorrulee BpeMn oKa3ad'rocb Bo3-

MoxHbrM ocyurecrBJreuHe yu u$ u x a\uu 6u6nuorpa$uu ecxoro onucaHHtr He roJlbKo B rrpeAeJlax oAuofi crpaHbr, Ho r.r B Me)KAyHapoAHoM uacurra6e. EolruruHcrBo H3 ocHoBHbtx npHHrIHnoB MeroAHxu 6u6nuorpaQnuecroro orrucaHul cJro)KnJrocb yxe B cepeAuHe XIX s.,

H NO CYUICCTBY

EAHHCTBEHHOC NPHHIII,INHA,'IbHOC OTJIHqHC

6u6nnorpaQfiqecKnx onucaHnfi ror-o nepuoAa

or

onucauufi,

HcrroJlb3yeM brx B coBpeMeuuoft 6u6.n norpaQ uqecxofi np a Krr.rKe, cocToHT B TOM, tlTO B HallrU AHr,r onHcaHr.rfl <<aBTopcKHx> KHHf

o6brr{Ho HaqHHatorcn

c

Sauu.lulr.r aBTopa

B

HMeHHTeJIbHoM

naAelKe, B To BpeMq KaK TofAa B rroAaBJrflrotueM 6orbrluHcrBe yxasarereft Bce npongBeAeHr4rr orrHcbrBaJlr.tcb noA 3arJraBHeM. BseAeHHe B KaqecrBe nepBoro 3JreMeHTa onHcaHr.tfl aBropcKofo 3aroJloBKa flBHJIOCb CyUIeCTBeHHbTM AOCTr,txeHHeM, rIocKod'tbKV BbrABHfaJro Ha nepeufi [JraH BaxHufi npusuax aaropcrna, a TaK)Ke cnoco6cTBoBaJro c6Jrr.t)KeHHro onHcaunn o 6H6.nuorpa@nvecxux yKa3areJrflx c KaraJIorH3aur,toHHbrM onHcaHHeM, B KoropoM aeropcxHri 3afoJroBoK npHMeHrrJrcfi yxe B XVIII e.

Bruecre

c reM HeJIb3g He orMernTb, r{To H B Hacroflulee

BpeMn B pffAe usl..aHuit rexyuleft unSopnaauun (a uacruocru

a

peSeparHnuux xypua,lax) npHMeHrrercfl orrncaHHe noA

3anJraBHeM Bcex npor.r3eeAeHt.tri npH yc.rroBHa urpueronoro BbrAeJ'reHHrr QauH.nuu aBTopa. Taxofi cnoco6 onHcaHHr rrpH3HaH AonycruMbrM KaK Ha[rHM fOCTor,l 7.1-76 <<BH6.nHorpaQuuecxoe onucaHue npoa3BeAeHuri neqarn>>, TaK H <<Mex4yHapoAHbtM craHAaprHbrrrl 6n6.nuorpaQuuecxuu onncaHHeM>> (I'ICEA). Taxurra o6paaou, B orAeJrbHbrx cJryr{ax npoucxoAur Bo3Bpar x npexHefi $oprtae onucaHHfl, ll cnoco6, npuueuRetrnrr)i 6u6,rHorpa$aMil flpotxJtofo, He flBJrrercrr AJrr Hac noJrHocrbro <<ycTapeIbrM>>.

K coxa,neHHro, He6oJrbruoft o6r'eu KHHrH He rr03BoJrr.i,rr npoAeMoHcrpnpoBarb Bce pa3Hoo6pasHe npaKrHKH 6u6nuot25


rpaQHqecKoro onlrcaHHfl, 3acTaBHJr HcKrror{HTb MHorr{e npH-

Mepbr. Terrr ge MeHee Mbr HaAeeMcfl, qro HaM yAatocb, nycrb B caMoM o6ueM BHAe Bocco3Aarb Kaprr.rHy pa3BHTr.rn 6u6nuorpaQnuecxoro onucaHr.rs s PoccHH.

Ilpuuepu,

npHBoAHMbre B

c raKr{M pacqeroM, qro6u

reKcre, 6unu au6paHbr

HaMlr

Bo3MoxHo 6o.nee nonxapaKrepe 6n6nr.rorpaQrve-

oHr.r AaBaJIH

Hoe H scHoe npeAcraBJreHr.re

o

cKoro onncaHus B pa3Hbre nepnoAbr Hcropr.ru. B ro xe BpeMfl Mbr crpeMr.rJrucb K roMy, qro6u npr{Mepbl He npocro HJrJuocrpupoBaJIr,r reKcr, Ho H lro3BoJIunu 6ut qHTareJlIo nor{yBcrBoBarb <Ayx>> 3rroxll, B Koropyrc 6unn cocraBlreHbr on]IcaHHt, TBopr{ecKylo HHAHBHAyarbHocrb cocraBr.rreJrs, ero crr.rJrb, ceoeo6pae-

Hufi <novepK>

r.r

Aaxe

AocraBuJrr.r r{HTareJrro cBoero poAa

9CTeTnqecKoe yAoBo.n bcrBHe.

Ecrn

ogsaxoMJreHr.re

c rsurofi noMoxer qilTarerro [ory-

qHTb [peAcraBJIeHHe o AfiHHHOM r.r CJIO)KHOM rryTH,

rrlJro pa3Bu'rue 6u6nuorpa$uvecxoro o[HcaHHq

s

KOTOpbrr\{

Poccan,

a raKxe o npnrruHax, o6yc.nonnsurux cneurQr.rKy onucaHHrr B Tor HJIH llHofi nepuoA, Mbr 6yaeu cr{Hrarb cBolo gaAar{y sllnorHeHHofi.


OTJIABJIEHHE

ctp.

0r

pe,qaxropa

3

Bnegeare

I

ac

rr

rl a c r

5

l. En6.lnorpaQrqecKoe ongcalfle s Poccru .qo XVill

n.

CnHcxn <[crHHHbtx> H (JIoxHbIx> KHHI Onncu rHur MoHacrbrpcKux 6n6.tuorex

t4

<Vxaseq> Apceuur Bucoxono <Orrasneu[e KHHI, KTo Hx cJroxuJr] Culsnecrpa Measeaesa

22 25

r ll.

35

Et6lnorpaQulecxoe onrcaHtre

9

s Poccr[ s XVlll n.

Peecrpu xnur H. @. Konueecxoro u <Peecrp KHHfaM rpaxAaHCKHM)

.

Knuroropronar

38

6n6luorpaSua

4l

<CaHrrnerep6ypfcKne yqenbre BeAoM@TH,

H. H. Hosuxosa

Penepryap pyccrori KHnrn. <Eu6lsorexa

48

poccuficxaa>

p,auacxuna ([. E. CeneHoBa-PyAHeBa) SB Orpacleraa 6u6auorpa$un u Apyrue snAu 6u6rnorpaQtn 6l

9acrr lll.

Er6nnonpa$luecxoe on{caHle

noroBilHe

XIX B.

s

Poccur

<Cucreuarsqecxoe o6ospeuue nHTeparypbr

r

nepoofi

Zl

s

PoccuH>

A. K. Illropxa H @. II. AreryHra <Onur poccuficxofi 6s6.nuorpaqul> B. C. Conuxosa

74 84

<PocnHcr poccuficxnu KHnraM Anq qreHuq ug 6u6lnorexn

B. IlJasurrq[xosa> B. I. AHacracesgqa <Pocnuct poccnficxuu KHrraM Anf, qrenlr Hg 6s6.ntorexH A. CrrrHpAuua>..

S4 106

'Orpacnenar 6u6.lnorpaQHa r{ Apyrue e}rAbl 6n6rriorpa<pnu I 12 3axlroqenne

124


HaAexla AlexceesHa H 6l.t6Jr

nxuQ

HofPAOl{qEcKoE on

HCAH

op o e c ra

l{E B

Orepx rcroprr Ao cepealtrH XIX

ltoepxdeto

n

POCC}l t{

B.

K neqaru

6u1auoretol Aradetuu aagr CCCP

Jl. K)qetxo Xyloxnrx B. Il. Cucaror

PeAarrop x3rarenhcrBa B.

TexHrqecKxft pe.(axrop A. n.'lrcrcKoBa Koppexropu O, B. Oaexacxan x Jl. A. IlpnranoBa

HE Nr 20l3l Caauo e Ha6op 15.05.81. flo,u,nucaHo K neqarx 05.1 I.81. M'43564. OopMar 84x l08r/ir. 6yMara rnnorpatpcxaa }l-b l. FapHrrypa araeparypnat, <Doroua6op. fleqaro sucoxaq. fleq. a. 4:6.72 yca. neq. a. Vq.-ugr. a. 7.13. Trpax 3800. H3a. Ne 7817. Trn.:ax. 396. Llena 75 xon.

'-

H3aarenbctBo <Hayxa>, trleutHrpaacxqe or,(eieHHe 199164. ,rleHrHrpaa, B-164, Melaeleeecran alnrq, I

Opaim Tpyaoao.o Kpacnoro 3raueuH flepraa rnnorpaSxn xsaatealcraa <Hayrar l99034,,rleurnrPar, B'34, I ilHtils, 12


?5 n.

<HAYItAT JTDHT,THTPAACLOE

OTAEJIERI,TE


Никифоровская НА - Библиографическое описание в России - Л.,1981