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‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕߺŸ° A binder house.

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«— ¥ÿ·≈–‚§√ß √â“ß ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕߺŸ° Materials and structural designs of a binder house.

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°≈Õπ∑’Ë „™â ‰¡â√«°¡’º‘«¡—πµ“¡∏√√¡™“µ‘ ‡¡◊ËÕ„™âµÕ°ºŸ°¡—¥ µ—∫®“°°—∫°≈Õπ π“π‰ª‡§√◊ËÕß¡ÿß°Á®–‡≈◊ËÕπ≈ß¡“ ∑”„Àâ µâÕß´àÕ¡À≈—ߧ“∫àÕ¬Ê ·µà∫√√æ™π‰∑¬°Á „™â¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“∑’Ë ™“≠©≈“¥ §âπÀ“«‘∏’ºŸ°¡—¥‡§√◊ËÕß¡ÿß°—∫°≈ÕπºŸ°„Àâ¡—Ëπ§ß ¥â«¬°“√„™â«∏‘ ∑’ ‡’Ë √’¬°«à“ ‡Õ’¬È «§Õ‰°à «‘∏º’ °Ÿ §◊Õ „™âµÕ°¡—¥√–À«à“ß µ—∫°—∫‡§√◊ËÕß¡ÿßÀπ÷Ëߧ√—Èß ·≈â«„™âµÕ°∑’ˇÀ≈◊Õ¡—¥°—∫°≈ÕπÕ’° Àπ÷Ëß√Õ∫ ¥÷ß„Àâ·πàπ ®“°π—Èπ®÷ߢ¡«¥„Àâ·πàπ·≈⫇°Á∫ª≈“¬ µÕ°°—π§≈“¬ °“√¡—¥ÕâÕ¡°≈ÕπÕ’°Àπ÷Ëߧ√—Èßπ’È¡’≈—°…≥– §≈⓬°—∫°“√‡Õ“‡™◊Õ°¡—¥‡Õ’Ȭ«§Õ‰°à ®–∑”„Àâ°“√ºŸ°·πàπ¢÷Èπ Ù. °“√ºŸ°¡—¥‚§√ß √â“ß π—Èπ ∫“ß®ÿ¥®–µâÕß„™â≈Ÿ° ≈—° ª√–°Õ∫„π°“√ºŸ° ‡™àπ °“√ºŸ°¥—Èß°—∫Õ°‰°à ®—π∑—π°—∫Õ°‰°à ‚§π¥—È ß °— ∫ ¢◊Ë Õ ¢◊Ë Õ °— ∫ ‡ “ µß°— ∫ µÕ¡à Õ ‡ªì π µâ π °“√„™â ≈Ÿ° ≈—°π—Èπ¡—°®–„ à≈Ÿ° ≈—°ºà“πµ“¡®ÿ¥µà“ßÊ ·≈⫺Ÿ°¡—¥ ≈Ÿ° ≈—°∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ·µà¡’∫“ß®ÿ¥∑’Ë ‰¡à “¡“√∂‡®“–‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ≈Ÿ° ≈—°ºà“π‰ª‰¥â ‡™àπ °“√ºŸ°¬÷¥‡ “°—∫¢◊ÕË ∑’µË Õâ ߇®“–‡ “‡æ’¬ß ¥â“π‡¥’¬« ·≈â«®÷ß„ à≈Ÿ° ≈—°´÷Ëß°“√ºŸ°√–À«à“ß≈Ÿ° ≈—°°—∫¢◊ËÕ ®–‰¡à·πàπ ‡¡◊ÕË ∂Ÿ°¡—¥≈Ÿ° ≈—°®–À¡ÿπ∑”„Àâ «à π∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¥à “â ππÕ° ‡™‘¥¢÷πÈ À«“¬®–À≈ÿ¥®“°≈Ÿ° ≈—° ·µà¥«â ¬¿Ÿ¡ª‘ ≠í ≠“¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ °“√‡®“–‡ “‡æ◊ËÕ„ à≈Ÿ° ≈—°®÷߉¡à‡®“–µ√ßÊ ·µà®–‡®“– ∑·¬ß¢÷Èπ¥â“π∫π ‡¡◊ËÕ„ à≈Ÿ° ≈—°‡¢â“‰ª ª≈“¬≈Ÿ° ≈—°¥â“π„π ®–‡™‘¥¢÷Èπ à«π∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¥â“ππÕ°®–Õ¬Ÿà „π≈—°…≥–∑·¬ß≈ß ‡«≈“ ºŸ°À«“¬®–√—¥≈Ÿ° ≈—°∑”„Àâ „Àâª≈“¬≈Ÿ° ≈—°∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¢à “â ß„π¬—πÕ—¥ °—∫º‘«„π¢Õ߇ “‰¡â ‰ºà ¬‘Ëß√—¥°Á¬‘Ëß·πàπ π—∫«à“‡ªìπ¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“ ∑’Ë™“≠©≈“¥¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕߺŸ°‡ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬¬ÿ§·√°¢Õß∫√√æ™π‰∑¬ °àÕπ∑’®Ë –«‘«≤— π“°“√‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ß —∫À√◊Õ‡√◊ÕπΩ“°√–¥“π

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‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬· ßÕ√ÿ≥  ¬“¡ ¡“§¡ °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ A traditional Thai house called “Ruean Saeng Arun” at Siam Society in Bangkok.

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ ¿“§µà“ßÊ ‡©æ“–∑’Ë √â“ߥ⫬‰¡â®√‘ß Õ¬à“ß∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫ π—Èπ ·µà≈–¿“§¡’√Ÿª·∫∫µà“ß°—π‰ª ·µà‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬∑’ˬա√—∫°—π«à“ߥߓ¡ ·≈–‡ªìπ‡Õ°≈—°…≥å¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬ §◊Õ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬„π«‘∂’ ‰∑¬ ·¡â‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ßºŸ°®–‡ªìπ∑’ÕË ¬ŸÕà “»—¬‰¥â¥µ’ “¡§«√·°àÕµ— ¿“æ°Áµ“¡·µà‡¡◊ÕË §√Õ∫§√—«¡’§«“¡¡—πË §ß¡’ ¡“™‘°‡æ‘¡Ë ¢÷πÈ ®÷ß®”‡ªìπµâÕߢ¬“¬‡√◊Õπ„Àâ „À≠à¢÷Èπ ¢≥–‡¥’¬«°—π°Á§«√¡’§«“¡¡—Ëπ§ß·¢Áß·√ß ®÷ß √â“߇√◊Õπ¥â«¬‰¡â®√‘߇ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà Õ“»—¬·∑π‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ßºŸ° Õ“§“√∑’ÕË ¬ŸÕà “»—¬ª√–‡¿∑ ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ß —∫ À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ߢÕߧπ‰∑¬„πÕ¥’µ¡’√ªŸ ·∫∫ ·µ°µà“ß°—π‰ª µ“¡ ¿“æ¿Ÿ¡‘ª√–‡∑»¢Õß·µà≈–¿“§ §«“¡‡™◊ËÕ·≈–¢π∫ª√–‡æ≥’¢Õß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ·¡â ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª‡ªìπ ‡√◊Õπ„µâ∂ÿπ Ÿß·≈– √â“ߥ⫬‰¡â®√‘߇À¡◊Õπ°—π°Áµ“¡ ·µà√Ÿª∑√ß‚§√ß √â“ߢÕ߇√◊Õπ®–µà“ß°—πµ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡¢Õß ·µà≈–∂‘Ë𠇙àπ ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ‡√◊ÕπÕ’ “π ·≈– ‡√◊Õπ¿“§„µâ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ª√–‡¿∑‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫‡À≈à“π’È  √â“ߢ÷Èπ®“°¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“¢Õß™à“ß∑’ËÀ≈Õ¡√«¡¢π∫ª√–‡æ≥’ «—≤π∏√√¡  ¿“æ·«¥≈âÕ¡  √â“߇ªìπ‡√◊Õπ∑’Ë¡’ ª√–‚¬™πå„™â Õ¬ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å  Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫«‘∂’™’«‘µ¢ÕߺŸâ§π·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ

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ÀÕæ√–‰µ√ªîÆ° «—¥√–¶—ß‚¶ ‘µ“√“¡«√¡À“«‘À“√ ‡¥‘¡‡ªìπ∑’˪√–∑—∫¢Õßæ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á® æ√–æÿ∑∏¬Õ¥øÑ“®ÿÓ‚≈°¡À“√“™ °àÕπ§√Õß√“™¬å The scripture hall of Wat Rakang Kositaram was the former residence of King Rama I.

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ∑’Ë¡’√Ÿª·∫∫‡©æ“–‚¥¥‡¥à𠇪ìπ∑’ˬա√—∫°—π ∑—«Ë ‰ª«à“‡ªìπ —≠≈—°…≥å¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ‚¥¬‡©æ“–À≈—ߧ“®—«Ë ™—π ¡’ªπíô ≈¡ª≈“¬·À≈¡‡ ’¬∫øÑ“π—πÈ ‡ªìπ‡Õ°≈—°…≥å‚¥¥‡¥àπ°«à“ ‡√◊Õπ¿“§Õ◊πË ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ß —∫¢Õß¿“§°≈“ß®÷߇ªìπ —≠≈—°…≥å ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬∑’Ë¡’√Ÿª∑√ßߥߓ¡ ·≈–¡’√Ÿª·∫∫ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫ «‘∂’™’«‘µ¢Õß™“«¿“§°≈“ß∑’Ë à«π¡“°‡ªìπ‡°…µ√°√ Õ“»—¬Õ¬Ÿà ∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë√“∫≈ÿà¡√‘¡·¡àπÈ” ≈”§≈Õß ª√–°Õ∫Õ“™’æ∑”π“ ∑” «π‡ªìπ à«π„À≠à ¿“§°≈“ß®÷߇ªìπÕŸà¢â“«ÕŸàπÈ”∑’ËÕÿ¥¡  ¡∫Ÿ√≥å¢Õߪ√–‡∑» ‡ªìπ»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߢÕß°“√ √â“ß∫â“π  √â“߇¡◊Õß¡“À≈“¬¬ÿ§À≈“¬ ¡—¬ µ—Èß·µà ¡—¬ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ®π∂÷ß√—µπ‚° ‘π∑√å ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“߉¥â√—∫°“√æ—≤π“ √Ÿª·∫∫„Àâ‡À¡“– ¡°—∫°“√Õ¬ŸÕà “»—¬‡√◊ÕË ¬¡“®π¡’√ªŸ ·∫∫¥—ß∑’Ë ª√“°ØÕ¬Ÿà∑ÿ°«—ππ’È ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß¡‘ ‰¥â‡ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬¢Õß “¡—≠™π ‡∑à“π—Èπ ·¡âæ√–¡À“°…—µ√‘¬å ·≈–‡®â“𓬙—Èπ Ÿß„πÕ¥’µ°Á ª√–∑—∫æ√–µ”Àπ—°‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ‡™àπ æ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–æÿ∑∏ ¬Õ¥øÑ“®ÿÓ‚≈°¡À“√“™ √—™°“≈∑’Ë Ò °àÕπ‡ «¬√“™¬å°Á∑√ß ª√–∑—∫‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ·∫∫‡√◊ÕπÀ¡Ÿà ´÷Ëßªí®®ÿ∫—π∂«“¬‡ªìπÀÕ‰µ√ «—¥√–¶—ß‚¶ ‘µ“√“¡«√¡À“«‘À“√ («—¥∫“ßÀ«â“„À≠à) ‡¢µ ∫“ß°Õ°πâÕ¬ °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡®â“𓬙—Èπ Ÿß

„π ¡—¬µâπ√—µπ‚° ‘π∑√å°ªÁ √–∑—∫µ”Àπ—°‡√◊Õπ‰¡â∑√߉∑¬ ‡™àπ µ”Àπ—°‡¢’¬« µ”Àπ—°·¥ß (ªí®®ÿ∫—πÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥± ∂“π ·Ààß™“µ‘æ√–π§√ °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√) °“√ √â“߇√◊ÕπÀ¡Ÿ‡à ªìπ æ√–µ”Àπ—°¢Õßæ√–¡À“°…—µ√‘¬å ¡’µàÕ¡“®π∂÷ß ¡—¬„π ¡—¬ √— ™ °“≈∑’Ë ı æ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–®ÿ ≈ ®Õ¡‡°≈â “ ‡®â “ Õ¬Ÿà À— « ‚ª√¥‡°≈â“œ „Àâ √â“߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ æ√–µ”Àπ—°‡√◊Õπµâπ „πæ√–√“™«—ߥÿ ‘µ °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√  ”À√—∫‡ªìπ∑’Ëæ—°ºàÕπ æ√–√“™Õ‘√‘¬“∫∂ ·≈–‡ªìπ∑’Ë√—∫√Õ߇æ◊ËÕπµâπ ‰¥â·°à ‡æ◊ËÕπ ™“«∫â“π∑’Ë∑√ß√Ÿâ®—°√–À«à“߇ ¥Á®ª√–æ“ µâπ‰ªµ“¡À—«‡¡◊Õß µà “ ßÊ æ√–µ”Àπ— ° ‡√◊ Õ πµâ 𠇪ì π ‡√◊ Õ π‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ª√–‡¿∑‡√◊ÕπÀ¡Ÿà Ω“ª–°π ¡’»“≈“∑à“πÈ”·≈–¡’∫—π‰¥≈ß  √–πÈ” µà Õ ¡“„π ¡— ¬ √— ™ °“≈∑’Ë ˆ ‡¡◊Ë Õ æ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–¡ß°ÿƇ°≈Ⓡ®â“Õ¬ŸàÀ—« ∑√ß √â“ßæ√–√“™«—ß π“¡®—π∑√å ∑’Ë∫√‘‡«≥ √–πÈ”®—π∑√凡◊Õßπ§√ª∞¡ °Á ‚ª√¥‡°≈â“œ „Àâ √â“ß æ√–µ”Àπ—°∑—∫¢«—≠ ¢÷Èπ„π∫√‘‡«≥æ√–√“™«—ß æ√–µ”Àπ—° ∑—∫¢«—≠‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ¡Ÿà Ω“ª–°π ·µà‡¥‘¡À≈—ߧ“¡ÿß®“° ·µà ªí®®ÿ∫π— ‡ª≈’¬Ë π‡ªìπ¡ÿß°√–‡∫◊ÕÈ ß ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥„À≠à À≈“¬À≈—ß ¡’™“π√à«¡‡™◊ËÕ¡∂÷ß°—π °≈“ß™“π¡’µâπ®—π∑πå ¢π“¥„À≠à æ√–µ”Àπ—°∑—∫¢«—≠‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ∑’ßË ¥ß“¡¬‘ßË 155

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‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß A central Thai-style house.

Ω“ª–°π ·≈–Àπ⓵à“ß ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß The paneling wall and window of a central Thai-style house.

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‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫ ∫â“π¡–¢“¡≈â¡ ®—ßÀ«—¥ ÿæ√√≥∫ÿ√’ A joint house in Ban Makhamlom, Suphan Buri.

°“√ª≈Ÿ°‡√◊Õπ„π¿“§°≈“ß House construction in the central plains.

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°“√ª≈Ÿ°‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ¡’¢—ÈπµÕπ¥—ßπ’È °“√‡µ√’¬¡∑’Ë ”À√—∫ª≈Ÿ°‡√◊Õπ µâÕ߇≈◊Õ°æ◊Èπ∑’Ë „Àâ‡À¡“–  ¡·≈–∂Ÿ°µâÕßµ“¡§µ‘§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ‚∫√“≥ ‡™àπ ‰¡àª≈Ÿ°‡√◊Õπ §√àÕ¡µÕ ª√—∫¥‘π„Àâ‡√’¬∫ ¢ÿ¥À≈ÿ¡‡ “ °àÕπ¢ÿ¥À≈ÿ¡‡ “ µâÕßπ” æ√÷ß ¡“«“ß∫π æ◊È π ∑’Ë µ √ß®ÿ ¥ ∑’Ë µâ Õ ß°“√ª≈Ÿ ° ‡√◊ Õ π ‚¥¬«“ßæ√÷ß„Àâ ‰¥â©“° ·≈â«À“µ”·ÀπàߢÕ߇ “ ∑”‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬µ”·ÀπàߢÕ߇ “ ·≈⫇Փ‰¡â‡≈Á°Ê ªí°µ√ß»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߢÕ߇ “∑ÿ°µâπ ‡√’¬°«à“ ªí°©¡∫ ‡ √Á®·≈⫬°æ√÷ßÕÕ° ¢ÿ¥À≈ÿ¡√Õ∫©¡∫„Àâ≈°÷ Ò »Õ° ¯ π‘È« À√◊Õ Ò »Õ° ˘ π‘È« À√◊Õ Ò »Õ° ÒÒ π‘È« °√–∑ÿâߥ‘π „Àâ·πàπ (Õ“®¡’∞“π∑’ˇ√’¬° °ßæ—¥ ·≈– «—« ¬÷¥‡ “) ‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â ƒ°…嬓¡µ“¡∑’Ë°”Àπ¥®÷߬° ‡ “‡Õ° ‡ “‚∑ ‡ “µ√’ µ“¡ ≈”¥—∫ ‡¡◊ÕË ¬°‡ “µ—ßÈ ¢÷πÈ §√∫ (¯ µâπ) ‚¥¬¡’‰¡â§È”¬—π¬÷¥‰«â·≈â« ®÷ß„ à √Õ¥ ∑’‡Ë  “∑ÿ°µâπ ¡’™“à ߪ√–®”‡ “¬◊π‡À¬’¬∫„ à ‡µâ“ ‡æ◊ÕË  «¡ À—«‡∑’¬π ¢≥–∑’ˬ°‡ “„À⇢â“∑’Ë ™à“ß∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¢â“ß∫π®–µâÕß µ–·§ß ¢◊ËÕ ‡æ◊ËÕ «¡ „∫¥—Èß ( à«πª≈“¬¢Õ߇ “¥—Èß) ¬°‚§π ‡ “¥—ßÈ ∑’µË ß—È §√àÕ¡Õ¬Ÿ∫à π√Õ¥ ¡’ “¡‡ “  à«πª≈“¬¡—°∑”·∫π ‡√’¬°„∫¥—Èß ´÷ßË  «¡ºà“π¢◊ÕË ¢÷πÈ ‰ª√—∫Õ°‰°à ®“°π—πÈ „ à·ªÀ—«‡ “ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ·ºàπ‰¡â¬“«‡∑à“§«“¡¬“«¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‡¢â“°—∫ª≈“¬¢◊ËÕ∑’Ë ∫“°‡ªìπ√àÕ߉«â „À⇢â“∑’Ë ‡æ◊ËÕ∑”Àπâ“∑’ˬ÷¥‰¡à „Àâª≈“¬‡ “≈â¡ ÕÕ°∑“ߥâ“π√’À√◊Õ¥â“𬓫¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ®“°π—πÈ µ‘¥ æ√÷ß „™âµ–ªŸ®π’ µÕ°¬÷¥°—∫‡ “‰¡à „À⇠“≈â¡ ª√—∫ √–¥—∫µà“ßÊ „À⇢â“∑’Ë·≈⫪Ÿæ◊Èπ‡√◊Õπ‚¥¬‰¡àµâÕßµÕ°µ–ªŸ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâª√—∫√–¥—∫©“°¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰¥â –¥«° ¬° ·ºßÀπâ“®—Ë« ¢÷Èπ‰ªµ‘¥°—∫√àÕß·ªÀ—«‡ “  «¡ Õ°‰°à ‡¢â“‡¥◊Õ¬·ºßÀπâ“®—Ë«∑—Èß “¡·ºß ¬° ·ºßΩ“ ‡¢â“∑’Ë µÕ°µ–ªŸ®’π∑’ËΩ“ Ω“≈– Ù µ—« µ‘¥ ‡™‘ß™“¬∑—Èß ’Ë¥â“π‡¢â“°—∫ª≈“¬‡µâ“ µ‘¥ªÑ“π≈¡°—∫·ª≈“π ·ªÀ—«‡ “ ·≈–Õ°‰°à ‚¥¬µÕ°µ–ªŸ®“°„µâ·ª °≈∫À≈ÿ¡‡ “„Àâ·πà𠵑¥ °≈Õπ ‡æ◊ËÕ¡ÿßÀ≈—ߧ“µàÕ‰ª Õ“®¡ÿߥ⫬°√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“ °√–‡∫◊ÈÕß¢Õ ¢—πÈ µÕπ°“√ª≈Ÿ°µ—«‡√◊Õπ¥—ß°≈à“«π’È Õ“®„™â‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕππÕπ À√◊Õ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—°¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ®“°π—πÈ Õ“®®–µàÕ à«π ∑’ˇªìπ‡√◊Õπ§√—« √–‡∫’¬ß ™“π √—È«™“π ´ÿ⡪√–µŸ ÀÕπ—Ëß ÀÕ π° ·≈–∫—π‰¥¢÷Èπ≈ß À—«∫—π‰¥¡’ ‚Õàß ”À√—∫„ àπÈ”≈â“߇∑â“ ∫√‘‡«≥π’®È ß÷ ¡—°ª≈Ÿ°‰¡â «π§√—« ‡™àπ µ–‰§√â ‚À√–æ“ °–‡æ√“ æ√‘° ‡æ√“–‰¥âπÈ”®“°°“√≈â“߇∑â“∑”„Àâæ◊Èπ¥‘π™ÿà¡™◊Èπµâπ‰¡â ßÕ°ß“¡ ‡√◊ÕπÀ¡Ÿà¡’µ—Èß·µà ÕßÀ≈—ߢ÷Èπ‰ª µ“¡∞“π–¢ÕߺŸâ‡ªìπ‡®â“ ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ  à«π‡§√◊ËÕ߇√◊Õπ·≈–°“√µ°·µàß°Á¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫∞“π– ¢ÕߺŸâ‡ªìπ‡®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π ‡©æ“–‡√◊Õπ§À∫¥’®–¡’ ‡§√◊ËÕ߇√◊Õπ ·≈–µ°·µà߇√◊Õπµà“߉ª®“°‡√◊Õπ™“«∫â“π∑’Ë¡’

·ºßΩ“ ¡’À≈“¬·∫∫ ‡™àπ Ω“ª–°π Ω“≈Ÿ°øí° Ω“ “¬∫—« Ω“‡√◊Õπ¡—°¡’Àπ⓵à“ß ª√–µŸ ¥â«¬ Wall panels come in various designs.

‘ßË ¢Õ߇§√◊ÕË ß„™â‡∑à“∑’®Ë ”‡ªìπ ™“π‡√◊Õπ¢ÕߧÀ∫¥’À√◊Õ‡®â“π“¬ Õ“®µ—ßÈ °√–∂“ßµ–‚°¥—¥ ‡¢“¡ÕÀ√◊Õ·¢«π°√ßπ°‡¢“‰«â¥‡Ÿ ≈àπ πÕ°®“°µ—«‡√◊Õπ∑’Ë „™â‡ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬À≈—°·≈â« §π‰∑¬ „πÕ¥’µ‰¡à¡’‡§√◊ËÕ߇√◊Õπ·≈–‡§√◊ËÕßµ°·µàß∫â“π¡“°‡À¡◊Õπ ∑ÿ°«—ππ’È ®–¡’∫“â ß°Á‡©æ“–ºŸ∑â ¡’Ë ∞’ “π–¥’‡∑à“π—πÈ ‡™àπ ‡√◊Õπ¢Õß π“ß»√’¡“≈“ „π‡ ¿“ ‡√◊ÕË ß¢ÿπ™â“ߢÿπ·ºπ ¡’‡§√◊ÕË ß‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ∑’Ëπà“ π„®À≈“¬Õ¬à“ß ¥—ßπ’È ç.. Õ®— °≈—∫µ“¡«“ß°√–®à“ß· ß ‡®â“µ°·µà߇§√◊ÕË ß‡√◊Õπ‰«âÀπ—°Àπ“ ‡§√◊ÕË ß·ªÑß®—¥µ—ßÈ ‰«âÀ≈—ß¡â“ ¢—π≈â“ßÀπâ“æ“π√ÕߢÕߺŸâ¥’ ‡§√◊ËÕßπ“°‡§√◊ËÕß∑Õß Õß ”√—∫ ‡√’¬ß≈”¥—∫«“߉«â‡ªìπ∑’Ë∑’Ë ‚∂¢’Ⱥ÷Èß·ªÑß√Ë”πÈ”¡—πµ“π’ ‚µä–À«’µ—È߇√’¬ß‰«â‡§’¬ß°—π ‚µ°æ“πÀ’∫ªí¥®—¥µ—Èß´âÕπ ∑—Èߺ⓺àÕπæ—∫‡√’¬∫∑ÿ° ‘Ëß √√æå ‡§√◊ÕË ß‰À«âæ√–π—πÈ ®—¥Õ—≤®—π∑√å §—π©àÕß·°–ß“‡ªìπÀπâ“æ√À¡ °√–®°„À≠à„ àµ—Èß∑—È߉¡â Õ¬ Õÿ∫–ÀâÕ¬√◊Ëπ√«¬¥Ÿ «¬ ¡  –Õ“¥ –Õâ“π≈“πµ“πà“π‘¬¡ æ≈“ß™¡¡à“π°“ߢâ“ß∑’ËπÕπ æ◊Èπ‰À¡„ à∑Õ߇ªìπ≈“¬ªí° πà“√—°√Ÿª√à“ß∫“ß™–ÕâÕπ.. é ‡§√◊ËÕ߇√◊Õπ∑’˪√“°Ø„π‡ ¿“π’È ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕ߇√◊Õπ∑’Ë¡’ ª√–‚¬™πå „™â Õ¬µ“¡ ¿“槫“¡‡ªìπÕ¬Ÿà¢Õ߇®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ¡’√Ÿª·∫∫ߥߓ¡ Õ¥§≈âÕ߇À¡“– ¡°—∫√Ÿª·∫∫¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ·≈–«‘∂’™’«‘µ‰∑¬„πÕ¥’µ 161

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Houses along the Bangkok Noi Canal, Bangkok.

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æ√–π§√»√’Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ®—ßÀ«—¥æ√–π§√»√’Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ‡√◊Õπ¢ÿπ·ºπ ∑’Ë«—¥ªÉ“‡≈‰≈¬å µ”∫≈√—È«„À≠à Õ”‡¿Õ‡¡◊Õß ®—ßÀ«—¥ ÿæ√√≥∫ÿ√’ ´÷Ëß √â“ß®“°À≈—°∞“π∑’˪√“°Ø„π∫∑‡ ¿“‡√◊ËÕß ¢ÿπ™â“ß ¢ÿπ·ºπ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬„πÕÿ∑¬“πæ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–æÿ∑∏‡≈‘»À≈â“π¿“≈—¬ Õ”‡¿ÕÕ—¡æ«“ ®—ßÀ«—¥ ¡ÿ∑√ ß§√“¡ ·≈– ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ „π‡¡◊Õß‚∫√“≥ ®—ßÀ«—¥ ¡ÿ∑√ª√“°“√ ∫√‘‡«≥¿“§°≈“ß„πÕ¥’µπÕ°®“°π‘¬¡ √â“߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬‰«â µ“¡√‘¡·¡àπÈ”≈”§≈Õß·≈â« ∫“ß∑’° Á √â“߇ªìπ ‡√◊Õπ·æ ‰«â „π ·¡àπÈ”≈”§≈Õß ¡—°„™â‡ªìπ∑’˧ⓢ“¬·≈–Õ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬‰ª¥â«¬ π‘¬¡∑”‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ∑√߉∑¬‡µ’È¬Ê „™â ‰¡â ‰ºà∑—Èß≈”¡—¥√«¡°—π

‡ªìπ®”π«π¡“° ∑”‡ªìπ ≈Ÿ°∫«∫ ”À√—∫√—∫πÈ”Àπ—°‡√◊Õπ µ—« ‡√◊Õπ‡≈Á°·≈–‡µ’¬È °«à“‡√◊Õπ∑—«Ë ‰ªÀ—πÀπâ“ÕÕ°·¡àπÈ”À√◊Õ§≈Õß ¥â“πÀπâ“„™â‡ªìπ∑’Ë¢“¬ ‘π§â“®÷ß¡—°∑”‡ªìπ ∫“π‡øïô¬¡ ‡æ◊ËÕ„À⠪ªî¥‰¥â –¥«° À√◊Õ∑”‡ªìπ·∫∫Ω“∂—ß‚¥¬„™â·ºàπ°√–¥“π ‡√’¬ß°—π„π·π«µ—È߉«â „π√“ß ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ªî¥°Á¬°ÕÕ° À√◊Õ∑”‡ªìπ ·ºß —ß°– ’ „™â ‰¡â§È”‡ªî¥ÕÕ° æ◊Èπ‡√◊Õπ¡—°∑”‡≈¬®“°µ’πΩ“ ÕÕ°‰ª∑”„À⇥‘π‰¥â√Õ∫ ‡√◊Õπ·æ Õ“®‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—߇¥’¬«À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥ ÕßÀ≈—ß ·æµâÕß„™âÀà«ß‡À≈Á° À√◊Õ‚´à¬÷¥‰«â°—∫À≈—°‰¡âµ“≈ À√◊Õ‰¡â ‰ºà ‰¡à „À⇧≈◊ËÕπ∑’Ë·µà≈Õ¬¢÷Èπ≈߉¥âµ“¡√–¥—∫πÈ” ¥â“πÀ≈—ß·æ¡’  –æ“π∑Õ¥‡¥‘π¢÷Èπµ≈‘Ë߉¥â ‡√◊Õπ·æ∫“ßÀ≈—ßµ°·µàß™àÕß≈¡ ·≈–®—Ë«¥â«¬‰¡â©≈ÿ„Àâ «¬ß“¡ ‡√◊Õπ·æ‡ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬¢Õߧπ‰∑¬°≈ÿà¡Àπ÷Ëß ‡¡◊ËÕ§√—Èß °√ÿ߇∑æœ ¬—߇ªìπ‡«π‘ µ–«—πÕÕ° ºŸâ§π —≠®√¥â«¬‡√◊Õ‰ª µ“¡·¡àπÈ”≈”§≈Õß ·¡à§â“®÷ß √â“߇√◊Õπ·æ‡ªìπ√â“π§â“·≈– ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬ §√—Èπ¡’°“√ √â“ß∂ππ¡“°¢÷Èπ√â“π§â“®÷ߢ÷Èπ¡“Õ¬Ÿà ∫π∫° ‡°‘¥ µ≈“¥∫° ·∑π µ≈“¥πÈ” ‡√◊Õπ·æ®÷ß≈¥®”π«π ≈߉ª¡“° ∫“ßÀ≈—߬°¢÷Èπ‰ª √â“ßÕ¬à“ß∂“«√∫π∫°À√◊Õª≈Ÿ° „π∑’ˇ¥‘¡ ·µà „™â‡ “Ωíߥ‘π√—∫µ—«‡√◊Õπ·∑π≈Ÿ°∫«∫ ‡™àπ ‡√◊Õπ √‘ ¡ πÈ” ∫√‘ ‡ «≥§≈Õßµà “ ßÊ „π‡¢µ∫“ß°Õ°πâ Õ ¬ ‡¢µ ∫“ß°Õ°„À≠à °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ·≈–∫√‘‡«≥Õ”‡¿Õ∫“ß°√«¬ ∫“ß„À≠à ®—ßÀ«—¥ππ∑∫ÿ√’

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‡√◊Õπ·æ√‘¡πÈ” ®—ßÀ«—¥°“≠®π∫ÿ√’ Raft houses in Kanchanaburi


‡√◊Õπ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ A northern Thai-style house.

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πÕ°®“°‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß·≈–‡√◊Õπ·æ¥—ß°≈à“«·≈â« ¬—ß¡’‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§Õ◊Ëπ∑’Ë¡’√Ÿª·∫∫·≈–·∫∫·ºπ°“√ √â“ß∑’Ë¡’ ‡Õ°≈—°…≥凩擖∂‘Ëπ ∑’Ë· ¥ß¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“¢Õߧπ‰∑¬Õ¬à“ß πà“ π„® ‰¥â·°à ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈ ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ß·∫∫Àπ÷ËߢÕß ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ´÷ßË Õ“®æ—≤π“¡“®“°‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ÕË ßºŸ°À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â∫«—Ë ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈º—߇ªìπ ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡º◊πºâ“ ¡—°ª≈Ÿ°‡√◊Õπµ“¡µ–«—π ÀπⓇ√◊ÕπÕ¬Ÿà∑‘»‡Àπ◊ÕÀ√◊Õ∑‘»„µâ‡æ◊ËÕ√—∫≈¡ µ“¡§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ∑’Ë «à“∫â“π„¥∑‘»µ–«—πµ°‡©’¬ß„µâ ßŸ ∑‘»µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊յ˔ ·≈–∑‘»µ–«—πµ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊յ˔  ∂“π∑’Ëπ—Èπª≈Ÿ°∫â“π®—°¡’ ‚™§≈“¿¥’π—°·≈ ‡ªìπµâπ ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈π‘¬¡ √â“߇ªìπ‡√◊Õπ ÕßÀ≈—ß·Ω¥µ‘¥°—π ‡√’¬°«à“ ç‡√◊Õπ ÕßÀ≈—ß√à«¡æ◊πÈ é √–À«à“ß™“¬§“¡’√“ß√‘πÀ√◊Õ √“ßπÈ” ‡æ◊ÕË √—∫πÈ”Ωπ ·¡â®–‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥·µà‚§√ß √â“ߢÕß ‡√◊Õπ°Á‡ªìπ·∫∫ Õߢâ“߉¡à‡∑à“°—π (Assymetrical Balance) À√◊Õ·∫∫‰¡àÀ¬ÿ¥π‘ßË (Dynamic Balance)  à«πª√–°Õ∫µà“ßÊ ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰¥â®—¥«“߉«âÕ¬à“ß≈ßµ—«‡À¡“– ¡ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫ ª√–‚¬™πå „™â Õ¬ æ◊Èπ∑’˵à“ßÊ ∂Ÿ°„™âª√–‚¬™πåÕ¬à“߇µÁ¡∑’Ë µ—Èß·µàÀ—«∫—π‰¥®π∂÷ßÀâÕßπÕπ ∫—π‰¥ ∑”¬◊ËπÕÕ°¡“µà“ßÀ“°πÕ°µ—«‡√◊Õπ¥â“π °—¥¢Õß ™“π ·≈–¡’À≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡ À√◊Õ∑”µ—«∫—π‰¥„ÀâÀ≈∫Õ¬Ÿà „µâ™“¬§“ ¡ÿ¡´â“¬¡◊Õ ®÷ß¡’‡ “≈Õ¬√—∫‚§√ßÀ≈—ߧ“ °≈à“«°—π«à“‡ “π’‡È ªìπ ‡ “·À≈àßÀ¡“ §◊Õ „™âº°Ÿ  ÿπ¢— Àπâ“∫—π‰¥ªÑÕß°—π§π·ª≈°Àπâ“ ‰¡à „Àâ¢÷Èπ‡√◊Õ𠇵‘Î𠇪ìπ à«π∑’Ë ”§—≠¢Õ߇√◊Õπ Õ¬Ÿà∂—¥®“°™“π∫—π‰¥ ‡¢â“‰ª ‡ªìπÀâÕß√–‡∫’¬ß‚∂ßÀπ⓪√–µŸ∑“߇¢â“‡√◊ÕππÕ° ∑’¬Ë ° æ◊πÈ  Ÿß¢÷πÈ ®“°™“π „™â‡ªìπ à«πÕ‡π°ª√– ß§å „™â‡ªìπ∑’√Ë ∫— ·¢° ∂Ⓡªìπ·¢°ºŸâπâÕ¬ ‡®â“¢Õß∫â“π®–π—Ëß∫π‡µ‘Îπ ·¢°®–π—Ëß∑’Ë ™“π∫—π‰¥ ·µà∂â“·¢°‡ªìπºŸâ¡’»—°¥‘Ï Ÿß°«à“ ‡®â“¢Õß∫â“π®– ‡ªìπΩÉ“¬π—Ëߵ˔°«à“ ‡µ‘Îππ’ÈπÕ°®“°®–„™â√—∫·¢°·≈â« ¬—߇ªìπ ∑’ËπÕπ¢Õß·¢° ‡ªìπ∑’˪√–°Õ∫æ‘∏’°√√¡µà“ßÊ µ≈Õ¥®π ‡ªìπ∑’Ë√—∫Àπÿà¡∑’Ë¡“·Õà« “«„π‡«≈“°≈“ߧ◊π¥â«¬ ¥â“π¢â“ß ¢Õ߇µ‘πÎ ‡ªìπΩ“ Ÿß¡’Àß‘È æ√– ¥â“πÀπⓇªìπºπ—߇µ’¬È ∂â“∫â“π„¥ ¡’‡π◊ÕÈ ∑’®Ë ”°—¥ à«π„µâÀ≈—ߧ“¡—°®–∑”‡ªìπ ΩÑ“ ¥â«¬µ–·°√߉¡â ‰ºà  “π‚ª√àßÊ ‡√’¬°«à“ 秫—Ëπé ‰«â‡°Á∫¢Õß„™âµà“ßÊ ∫√‘‡«≥‡µ‘Îπ π’¡È °— ®– √â“ß √â“ππÈ” ´÷ßË ‡ªìπ∑’«Ë “ßÀ¡âÕπÈ”¥◊¡Ë ‰«â¥«â ¬‡ ¡Õ À“° ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥„À≠àÕ“®¡’‡√◊ÕππÈ”µâπ‰«â‡°Á∫ πÈ”µâπ ¥â«¬ ÀâÕßπÕπ §◊Õ à«π∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà∂—¥®“°‡µ‘Îπ‡¢â“‰ª µ‘¥°—∫µ—«‡√◊Õπ ¥â“π °—¥´÷ßË ‡ªìπΩ“∑÷∫ ª√–µŸÕ¬Ÿ¥à “â π¢â“ß·≈–¥â“π °—¥ ¡—°‡ªìπ ª√–µŸ∫“π‡¥’Ë¬«‡ªî¥‡¢â“„π‡√◊Õπ ¡’°√Õ∫ª√–µŸ ·≈–∏√≥’ ª√–µŸ ”À√—∫ «¡‡¥◊Õ¬ª√–µŸ ¡’ ‰¡â¢à¡À—«∏√≥’ª√–µŸ ‡Àπ◊Õ ª√–µŸπ‘¬¡¡’ À”¬πµå À“°‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥„À≠à®–·∫à߇π◊ÈÕ∑’Ë ÕÕ°‡ªìπ Õß à«π  à«πÀπ÷ßË „™â‡ªìπ∑’πË Õπ Õ’° à«πÀπ÷ßË „™â‡ªìπ ∑’‡Ë °Á∫¢Õß √–À«à“߇π◊ÕÈ ∑’∑Ë ß—È  Õß°—πÈ ¥â«¬ ‰¡â·ªÑπµâÕß ‡æ◊ÕË ·¬° 165

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‡√◊Õπ°“·≈ ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ß À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷Ëß ¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊ÕÀ√◊Õ≈â“ππ“ ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢ÕߺŸâ¡’Õ—π®–°‘π∑’Ëæ—≤π“¢÷Èπ¡“ ®“°‡√◊Õπ‰¡â∫—Ë« À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕߺŸ° ‡√◊Õπª√–‡¿∑π’È¡—°µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà„πÀ¡Ÿà∫â“π ∑’ˇªìπ™ÿ¡™π§àÕπ¢â“ß„À≠à µ—«‡√◊Õπ„™â ‰¡â®√‘ß À≈—ߧ“¡ÿß°√–‡∫◊ÈÕß ¬°„µâ∂ÿπ Ÿß ¢π“¥¢Õ߇√◊Õπ¢¬“¬„À≠ൗÈß·µà Ú ÀâÕßπÕπ¢÷Èπ‰ª ‡√◊Õπª√–‡¿∑π’È ¡’Ωï¡◊Õ™à“ß Ÿß ¡’·∫∫·ºπ∑’ˇªìπ¢Õßµπ‡Õß ‡©æ“–ªíôπ≈¡ À√◊ժѓπ≈¡∑”‡ªìπ‰¡â‰¢«â°—π ‡≈¬Õ°‰°àÕÕ°‰ª À√◊Õ∑”‡ªìπ·ºàπ‰¡â ¬÷¥µ‘¥°—∫ª≈“¬ªíôπ≈¡‡Àπ◊ÕÕ°‰°à  ≈—°‡ªìπ≈«¥≈“¬ ‡√’¬° °“·≈ °ã“·≈ À√◊Õ °–·≈ ≈«¥≈“¬¢Õß°“·≈¡’À≈“¬≈“¬ ‰¥â·°à ≈“¬°√–Àπ° “¡µ—« ≈“¬‡§√◊Õ‡∂“ ·≈– ≈“¬‡¡¶‰À≈ ‡ªìπµâπ


À”¬πµå ·ºàπ‰¡â·°– ≈—° ‡ªìπ≈“¬„∫‰¡â ¥Õ°‰¡â ≈“¬°â“π¢¥ œ≈œ À√◊Õ©≈ÿ‚ª√àßÊ µ‘¥‰«â‡Àπ◊Õª√–µŸ‡√◊ÕππÕ° ‡™◊ËÕ«à“™à«¬ªÑÕß°—π ‘Ëß™—Ë«√⓬ ‰¡à„À⇢Ⓣª„π‡√◊ÕππÕπ “Hamyon” is a decorative piece of wood in intricate foliage designs fitted atop the door, serving to ventilate and to protect the house from evil spirits.

°“·≈ ‡Õ°≈—°…≥å¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ “Kalae”-a unique piece of northern-style house.

»“≈ªŸÉ¬à“ A spirit-house usually located inside a little beyond the fence.

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æ◊Èπ‡√◊Õπ∑—Èß Õß à«π®“°°—π ·≈–„™â‡ªìπ∑“߇¥‘πÕÕ°®“° ÀâÕßπÕπµÕπ‡™â“ ¢≥–∑’˺ŸâÕ◊Ëπ¬—ßπÕπÕ¬Ÿà ‰¡â·ªÑπµâÕß®– ™à«¬‰¡à „Àâæ◊Èπ‡√◊Õπ‰À« À√◊Õ‡°‘¥‡ ’¬ß‰¡â‡∫’¬¥µ—«°—π√∫°«πºŸâ ∑’ËÀ≈—∫Õ¬Ÿà „πÀâÕßπÕπ¡’‡ “¡ß§≈°—∫‡ “π“ß´÷Ë߇ªìπ‡ “  ”§—≠∑’ËΩ“‡Àπ◊Õ ∑’ËπÕπÀ√◊Õ¡ÿ¡ÀâÕß¡’™—Èπ«“߇§√◊ËÕß∫Ÿ™“ ‡æ◊ËÕ∫Ÿ™“∫√√æ∫ÿ√ÿ…À√◊Õº’ªŸÉ¬à“ ºŸâÕ“»—¬®–µâÕ߇´àπ‰À«â·≈– ∫Õ°°≈à“«‡¡◊ËÕ¡’‡Àµÿ°“√≥å ”§—≠‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ„π§√Õ∫§√—« ‡™à𠇮Á∫ªÉ«¬ ·µàßß“π À√◊Õ¡’·¢°¡“æ—° À“°‰¡à∫Õ°°≈à“«∂◊Õ«à“ º‘¥º’Õ“®∑”„À⇰‘¥‚∑… ®–µâÕß∫«ß √«ß‡´àπ‰À«âº’ ¢Õ¢¡“∑’Ë ≈à«ß‡°‘π‰¡à∫Õ°°≈à“«µ“¡ª√–‡æ≥’ √–‡∫’¬ß∑“߇¥‘π ·≈–™“π‡√◊Õπ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ°“·≈Õ¬Ÿà¥â“π  °—¥∑“ßÀπⓇ√◊Õπ ¥—ßπ—πÈ Ω“¥â“π¢â“ߢÕ߇√◊ÕππÕπ ®÷ß«“ß ¢π“π°—𮔇ªìπµâÕß¡’√–‡∫’¬ß∑“߇¥‘π‡ªìπµ—«‡™◊ÕË ¡ à«πµà“ßÊ ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ‡¢â“¥â«¬°—π ™“π‡√◊Õπ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ°“·≈¡—°‡ªî¥‚≈à߇ªìπ ·π«¬“«¢«“ß°—∫®—Ë«‡√◊Õπ ®—Ë«¥â“ππ’ȇªìπ®—Ë« ”§—≠¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ‡√◊Õπ§√—« ¡—° √â“߇ªìπÀ≈—߬àÕ¡Ê ·¬°ÕÕ°¡“®“° ‡√◊ÕππÕπ ¿“¬„π§√—«®–¡’·¡à‡µ“‰ø∑’Ë∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡ªìπ°√–∫–  ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡ Õ—¥¥‘π·πàπ  Ÿßª√–¡“≥ Ò §◊∫ ‡ªìπ∑’˵—È߇µ“‰ø ·≈–¿“™π–Àÿߵ⡠Ω“‡√◊Õπ§√—«¡—°∑”‡ªìπ™àÕßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ√–∫“¬ §«—π·≈–„ÀâÕ“°“»∂à“¬‡∑‰¥â –¥«° Ω“‡√◊Õπ ‚¥¬∑—«Ë ‰ª‡ªìπΩ“‰¡â·π«µ—ßÈ ¢â“ß∫π‡Õ’¬ßÕÕ° ‚¥¬ µ—ßÈ ‰¡â‡§√à“¢÷πÈ ‰ª¬÷¥°—∫‰¡â·ªµ√ß°≈“ßÀ≈—ߧ“ªï°π° Ω“∑’‡Ë Õ’¬ß ÕÕ°π’È®–‡Õ’¬ß·µà‡©æ“–¥â“π¢â“߇∑à“π—Èπ ¥â“π °—¥À—«∑⓬ ‡ªìπΩ“µ—Èßµ√ß Ω“¥â“π¢â“ß¡’Àπ⓵à“߇≈Á°Ê ∫“π‡¥’¬« °“√ ∑”Ω“º“¬ÕÕ°Õ“®∑”„Àâ≈¡À𓫉¡à‡¢â“‰ª„π‡√◊Õπ ‡ “  à«π¡“°‡ªìπ‡ “°≈¡À√◊Õ·ª¥‡À≈’¬Ë ¡ ‡ “¥â“π °—¥ ®–„™â‡ “¬“«®“°æ◊Èπ¥‘π®π∂÷ߢ◊ËÕÀ≈—ߧ“‚¥¬‰¡àµàÕ ∂—¥®“° ‡ “¢÷Èπ‰ª‡ªìπ‚§√ß √â“ߢÕßÀ≈—ߧ“∑”‡ªìπ√Ÿª “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡ §≈⓬‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬∑—Ë«‰ª ·µà ‚§√ß √â“ßµà“߉ª∫â“ß ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈ π‘¬¡¡ÿߥ⫬°√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“ ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡ À√◊Õ„™â°√–‡∫◊ÈÕ߉¡â À≈—ߧ“∑’¬Ë π◊Ë æâπ®—«Ë ÕÕ°¡“Õ¬à“ß∑’¿Ë “§°≈“߇√’¬° ‰¢√“Àπâ“®—«Ë ªíôπ≈¡ À√◊Õ ·ªÑπÀπâ“°âÕß ∑”‡≈¬ à«π —πÀ≈—ߧ“ÕÕ°‰ª ‰¢«â°—π ‡√’¬°«à“ °“·≈ À√◊Õ °–·≈  —ππ‘…∞“π«à“¡“®“° §«“¡‡™◊ËÕµà“ßÊ °—𠇙à𠇙◊ËÕ«à“∑”‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡‡ªìπ ‘√‘¡ß§≈ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫∫â“π‚∫√“≥„π¡“‡≈‡´’¬ ·≈–«‘À“√´‘π‚µ¢Õß ≠’˪ÿÉπ À√◊Õ∑”‰«â‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π‰¡à „Àâ·√âß·≈–°“‡°“–À≈—ߧ“ ´÷Ëß∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ‡ π’¬¥‰¡à‡ªìπ¡ß§≈ ®“°§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ·≈–√Ÿª·∫∫ ∑’Ë·ª≈°µ“¢Õß°“·≈ ®÷ß¡“‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ°“·≈∑’ˇ√’¬° ◊∫ µàÕ°—π¡“®π∑ÿ°«—ππ’È ∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π·µà‡¥‘¡π‘¬¡∑”√—È«‰¡â ‰ºà ‚ª√àßÊ ª≈Ÿ°µâπ™“ À√◊Õµâπ‰ºà ‡ªìπ·π«√Õ∫∫â“π‡æ◊ÕË · ¥ß¢Õ∫‡¢µÕ¬à“ߧ√à“«Ê ∫â“π∑’¡Ë ∞’ “π–¥’Õ“®∑”‡ªìπ√—«È ‰¡â®√‘ß∂—¥®“°√—«È ‡¢â“‰ª„π∫√‘‡«≥ ∫â“πª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ µ—«‡√◊Õπ ¬ÿâߢ⓫ À√◊Õ À≈Õ߇¢â“ ∫àÕπÈ” 167

√â“ππÈ” ‡ªìπ à«π ”§—≠¢Õß∫â“π ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ¡—°∑”‡ªìπ√â“πÀ√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‡≈Á°Ê ‰«â∑’Ë™“π∫â“π¡’À≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡  ”À√—∫µ—Èß À¡âÕπÈ”¥◊Ë¡ª√–®”∫â“π „™â°√–∫«¬ ∑”¥â«¬°–≈“¡–æ√â“«µ—°¥◊Ë¡ πÕ°®“°√â“ππÈ”∑’ˇªìππÈ” –Õ“¥ ”À√—∫ ¥◊Ë¡·≈â« ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ∑ÿ°∫â“π ®–µâÕß¡’ πÈ”≈â“߇∑â“ Õ“®∑”∫àÕ À√◊ÕÕà“߉«â∑’ˇ™‘ß∫—π‰¥ ‚¥¬„™âπÈ”®“°∫àÕ „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π A water-jar house, where drinking water is kept, is an important part of a northern household, usually located on the front porch away from the sun, with a long-handled dipper made from a small dry coconut shell.

§√°°√–‡¥◊ËÕß ∑’ËÕ“∫πÈ” (µäÕ¡πÈ” À√◊Õ µäÕ¡Õ“∫πÈ”) Õ“®¡’ »“≈ªŸÉ¬à“ Õ¬Ÿà¥â«¬ ∫√‘‡«≥∫àÕπÈ”·≈–∑’Ë≈â“߇∑Ⓡ™‘ß∫—π‰¥∫â“π ¡—°ª≈Ÿ°¥Õ°‰¡â·≈–æ◊™ «π§√—« °“√„™â∫√‘‡«≥‡™‘ß∫—π‰¥‡ªìπ ∑’ªË ≈Ÿ°µâπ‰¡âπ¡’È ‘‰¥â¡‡’ ©æ“–∫â“π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡∑à“π—πÈ ·¡â „π∫â“π ¿“§°≈“ß ·≈–¿“§Õ’ “π°Áπ‘¬¡‡™àπ°—π ‡æ√“–°“√≈â“߇∑â“ °àÕπ¢÷Èπ‡√◊Õπ∑”„À⥑π∫√‘‡«≥‡™‘ß∫—π‰¥‡ªï¬°™◊ÈπÕ¬Ÿà‡ ¡Õ ‡À¡“–∑’Ë®–ª≈Ÿ°‰¡â¥Õ°·≈–æ◊™º—° «π§√—« ‡°‘¥ª√–‚¬™πå ∑“ßÕâÕ¡·∑π∑’Ë®–‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ß∑’Ë≈â“߇∑Ⓡ撬ßÕ¬à“߇¥’¬« Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷ßË ∑’¡Ë ‡’ Õ°≈—°…≥凩擖∂‘πË ™—¥‡®π ·µàª®í ®ÿ∫π— ‡√◊Õπ ª√–‡¿∑π’‡È À≈◊ÕÕ¬Ÿπà Õâ ¬¡“° ‡√◊Õπ∑’ Ë √â“ߢ÷πÈ „À¡à¡°—  √â“ßµ“¡  ¡—¬π‘¬¡ ¡’√Ÿª·∫∫µà“ßÊ °—π®π‰¡à¡’√Ÿª·∫∫‡©æ“–∂‘Ëπ ‡√◊Õπ°“·≈ ®÷߇ªìπ¡√¥°∑“ß¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“„π°“√ √â“ß∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà Õ“»—¬¢Õß™“«‡Àπ◊Õ∑’˧«√Õπÿ√—°…åÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß

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πÈ”µâπ ¿“™π– ”À√—∫„ àπÈ”¥◊Ë¡ ∑”¥â«¬¥‘π‡º“√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬º≈πÈ”‡µâ“ ´÷ËßÕ“®æ—≤𓧫“¡§‘¥¡“®“° °“√π”º≈πÈ”‡µâ“¡“„ àπÈ” °àÕπ∑’Ë®–∑”¥â«¬ ¥‘π‡º“ ·≈–°“√‡√’¬°πÈ”µâπ°ÁÕ“® °≈“¬‡ ’¬ß¡“®“°πÈ”‡µâ“ À√◊Õ‡ªìπ‡æ√“– √Ÿª∑√ߢÕßπÈ”µâπ§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—∫º≈πÈ”‡µâ“¡“° µàÕ¡“‰¥âæ—≤π“√Ÿª∑√ߢÕßπÈ”µâπ „Àâ¡’√Ÿª√à“ß·ª≈°Ê ·µ°µà“ß°—π‰ª µ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ „πß“π‡≈’Ȭߢ—π‚µ°™“«≈â“ππ“ „™âπÈ”µâπ‡ªìπ®ÿ¥°”Àπ¥„Àâ·¢°π—Ëß ‚¥¬¡’°√–‚∂π ·≈–¿“™π–Õ◊ËπÊ ª√–°Õ∫ πÈ”µâπ‡ªìπ¿“™π– ”À√—∫„ àπÈ”¥◊Ë¡ ∑’Ë¡’ª√–‚¬™πå„™â Õ¬‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫¢«¥πÈ” À√◊Õ¢—ππÈ” ∑’Ë„™â√—∫·¢° ·≈–‡ªìπ®ÿ¥°”Àπ¥„Àâ·¢°π—Ëß ‡æ◊ËÕ√—∫ª√–∑“πÕ“À“√µ“¡ß“πæ‘∏’ ∑’Ë∫â“π À√◊Õ∑’Ë«—¥¿“§°≈“ß„πÕ¥’µ


‡Œ◊ÕπÕ’ “π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬Õ’ “π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬Õ’ “πÀ√◊Õ ‡Œ◊ÕπÕ’ “π ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ ∑’Ë¡’‡Õ°≈—°…≥凩擖∂‘ËπÕ’°·∫∫Àπ÷Ëß ‡©æ“–‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ß À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ∑’˪≈Ÿ° √â“ßÕ¬à“ß∂“«√π—Èπ ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ À≈—ߧ“®—Ë« ‚§√ß √â“ß∑—ÈßÀ¡¥∑”¥â«¬‰¡â Ω“‡ªìπΩ“‰¡â·∫∫ Ω“ “¬∫—« À√◊Õ∑”≈”≈Õߥ⫬‡ ◊ÕË ≈”·æπ ¢÷πÈ Õ¬Ÿ°à ∫— ∞“π–¢Õß ‡®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ Àπ⓵à“ß¡—°∑”‡ªìπ∫“π‡¥’¬«‡≈Á°Ê À≈—ߧ“¡ÿß °√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“  —ß°– ’ À√◊Õ ·ªÑπ‰¡â (°√–‡∫◊ÈÕ߉¡â) ‡√◊ÕπÕ’ “π‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ„µâ∂πÿ  Ÿß‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡√◊Õπ¿“§Õ◊πË Ê Ωï¡Õ◊ ™à“߉¡àª√–≥’µπ—° ¡—° √â“ßÕ¬à“߇√’¬∫ßà“¬ ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ ‡√◊ÕππÕπ À√◊Õ ‡Œ◊Õπ„À≠à „™â‡ªìπ∑’ËÀ≈—∫πÕπ ‡°¬ ™“π‚≈àß ‰¡à¡Ω’ “·µà¡À’ ≈—ߧ“ µàÕ®“°‡√◊Õπ„À≠à ·≈–æ◊πÈ µË”°«à“‡√◊Õπ„À≠à „™â‡ªìπ∑’Ë√—∫·¢° À√◊Õ‡ªìπ∑’ËπÕπ¢Õß·¢° °‘πÕ“À“√ π—Ë߇≈àπ

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™“π·¥¥ æ◊πÈ ∑’∂Ë ¥— ®“°‡°¬ÕÕ°¡“ „™â‡ªìπ∑’πË ß—Ë ‡≈àπÀ√◊Õæ—°ºàÕπ µÕπ‡¬Áπ ‡æ√“–‰¡à¡’À≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡ µâÕßÕ“»—¬‡ß“¢Õ߇°¬·≈– ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à æ◊πÈ ™“π·¥¥¡—°µË”°«à“‡°¬ ‡Œ◊Õπ‰ø À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ§√—« ¡—° √â“߇ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—߇≈Á°¢π“¥ Ú ™à«ß‡ “ Ω“¢—¥·µ–‡æ◊ËÕ „Àâ≈¡ºà“π√–∫“¬§«—π‰øÕÕ°‰¥â –¥«° ‡Œ◊Õπ‰ø‡™◊ËÕ¡µàÕ°—∫ ™“π·¥¥ ¢π“π°—∫‡√◊Õπ„À≠à À√◊ÕÕ¬Ÿ¥à “â π °—¥¢Õ߇√◊Õπ„À≠à Œâ“ß·ÕàßπÈ” ∑’«Ë “ßÀ¡âÕπÈ”‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫√â“ππÈ”¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ¡—° √â“߉«â¥â“πÀπ÷ËߢÕß™“π·¥¥µ√ߢⓡ°—∫∫—π‰¥ ‚¥¬¬° „Àâ Ÿß®“°æ◊Èπ„π√–¥—∫∑’ˬ◊πµ—°πÈ”¥◊Ë¡‰¥âæÕ¥’ Õ“®¡’À≈—ߧ“ §≈ÿ¡‰¡à „Àâ∂Ÿ°·¥¥‡æ√“–®–∑”„ÀâπÈ”√âÕπ‰¡àπà“¥◊Ë¡ ‡√◊ÕπÕ’ “π‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª·∫à߇ªìπ Û ·∫∫§◊Õ ‡Œ◊Õπ‡°¬ ‡Œ◊Õπ‚¢àß ·≈– ‡Œ◊Õπ·Ω¥


´â“¬-¢«“ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬Õ’ “π À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ Õ”‡¿Õπ“¥Ÿπ ®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ left - right A northeastern Thai-style house in Amphoe Na Dun, Maha Sarakham.

‡Œ◊Õπ‡°¬ ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥‡≈Á°ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬‡√◊Õπ„À≠à (‡Œ◊Õπ „À≠à) ¡—°¡’ Û ™à«ß‡ “À√◊Õ Û ÀâÕß ·∫à߇ªìπ à«πÊ §◊Õ ÀâÕß ‡ªîß ‡ªìπÀâÕßπÕπ¢Õß≈Ÿ°™“¬ Ω“¡’Àß‘È µ—ßÈ  ‘ßË ‡§“√æ∫Ÿ™“ ‡™àπ æ√–æÿ∑∏√Ÿª ‡§√◊ËÕß√“ߢÕߢ≈—ß ¡—°‰¡à°—ÈπΩ“ ÀâÕßæàÕ-·¡à °—ÈπΩ“ À√◊Õ‰¡à°—ÈπΩ“°Á ‰¥â ÀâÕß à«¡ À√◊ÕÀâÕßπÕπ≈Ÿ° “« ¡’ Ω“°—Èπ¡’ª√–µŸ ·≈–°≈Õπª√–µŸ À“°≈Ÿ° “«·µàßß“π°Á „Àâ πÕπ„πÀâÕßπ’È ∂—¥®“°‡√◊Õπ„À≠à‡ªìπ‡°¬À√◊Õ™“π¡’À≈—ߧ“ ™“π·¥¥ ‡√◊Õπ§√—« ·≈–Œâ“ß·ÕàßπÈ” ‡Œ◊Õπ‚¢àß ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥°≈“ß ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬‡√◊Õπ„À≠à ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡√◊Õπ‡°¬ ‡Œ◊Õπ‚¢àßÀ√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ‚¢àß¢π“¥¬àÕ¡°«à“ ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à Õ“® √â“ߢπ“π°—π®πÀ≈—ߧ“™π°—π ¡’Œ—ß√‘πÀ√◊Õ √“ß√—∫πÈ”Ωπ‰¡à „Àâ ‰À≈≈߇√◊Õπ ‡√◊Õπ‚¢àß¡’‚§√ß √â“ß·¬°®“° ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à æ◊Èπ‡ ¡Õ‡√◊Õπ„À≠àÀ√◊Õ≈¥√–¥—∫„ÀâµË”°«à“ ¡’ ™“π·¥¥∑’ÕË “®¡’™“π‡¥’¬« À√◊Õ¡’™“π¡π‡™◊ÕË ¡°—∫Œâ“ß·ÕàßπÈ” ·≈–‡√◊Õπ§√—« ‡Œ◊Õπ·Ω¥ ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥„À≠à ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬‡√◊Õπ„À≠à¢π“¥ Û ™à«ß‡ “„™â‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕππÕπ ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥¡—° √â“߇≈’¬π·∫∫ ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à ¡’√“ß√—∫πÈ”Ωπ®“°À≈—ߧ“√à«¡°—𠂧√ß √â“ß À≈—ߧ“·≈–æ◊Èπ„™â√à«¡°—∫‡√◊Õπ„À≠à Ω“‚≈àß À√◊ Õ ∑”Ω“ ‡©æ“–¥â“π °—¥ ¥â“π∑’ˇ™◊ËÕ¡°—∫‡°¬·≈–™“π·¥¥‡ªî¥‚≈àß ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥¡’‡°¬ ™“π·¥¥ ™“π¡π √â“ππÈ” ·≈–‡√◊Õπ§√—« ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡√◊Õπ‡°¬ ·≈–‡√◊Õπ‚¢àß

™“«Õ’ “π à « π„À≠à ¡’ Õ “™’ æ ∑”π“∑”‰√à ‡ ™à 𠇥’ ¬ «°— ∫ ¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ®÷ß¡—° √â“߬ÿâߢ⓫À√◊Õ‡≈ⓢ⓫‰«â „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π ¢π“¥¢Õ߇≈ⓢ⓫·≈–«— ¥ÿ∑’Ë „™â √â“߇≈â“¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫∞“π–¢Õß ‡®â“¢Õß πÕ°®“°π’È™“«Õ’ “π¬—ß¡’Ωï¡◊Õ¥â“πÀ—µ∂°√√¡Õ’° À≈“¬Õ¬à“ß ‡™àπ ∑պⓠ‡§√◊ËÕß‚≈À– ‡§√◊ËÕߪíôπ¥‘π‡º“ ®÷ß ¡—°„™â „µâ∂ÿπ‡√◊Õπ‡ªìπ∑’Ë∑”ß“πÀ—µ∂°√√¡ ·¡â‡√◊ÕπÕ’ “π®– ·∫àßÕÕ°‡ªìπ Û ·∫∫ ¥—ß°≈à“«°Áµ“¡ ·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ·µà≈– °≈ÿà¡™π®–¡’¢π∫π‘¬¡∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—π ∑”„Àâ√Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß ‡√◊Õπµà“ß°—π‰ª∫â“ß

‡Œ◊Õ𠇪ìπ§”∑’Ë™“«Õ’ “π „™â‡√’¬°∑’Ëæ—°Õ“»—¬∑’Ë¡’‡ “¬°æ◊Èπ„Àâ Ÿß „µâ∂ÿπ‚≈àß ‡™àπ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ß∑’Ë„™â‡ªìπ ∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬°—π∑—Ë«‰ª ·µà∂â“¢π“¥„À≠à ¡’À≈“¬ÀâÕ߇ªìπ∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¢Õ߇®â“‡¡◊Õß ‡√’¬° ‚Œß À“°‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ‡≈Á°‰¡à¬°æ◊Èπ ‡√’¬° º“¡ ∂Ⓡªìπ∑’Ëæ—°™—Ë«§√“«  ”À√—∫‡ΩÑ“‰√à∑”ß“π‡√’¬° ‡∂’¬ß À√◊Õ ‡∂’¬ß‰Œà ‡∂’¬ßπ“ ·µà∂Ⓡªìπ∑’Ëæ—°À≈∫·¥¥‰¡à¬°æ◊Èπ À√◊Õ¬°æ◊Èπ°Áµ“¡ ‡√’¬° µŸ∫

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‡Œ◊ÕπÕ’ “π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬Õ’ “π

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‡√◊Õπ‡°¬ Ruean Keiy (House with a roofed balcony)

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Ò ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à Ú ‡°¬ Û ™“π·¥¥ Ù ‡√◊Õπ‰ø ı °√–‰¥ ∫—π‰¥ ˆ Œâ“ß·ÕàßπÈ”

Ù Ò Ú

ı

Û

ˆ ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥

Ú

Ruean Faed (Twin houses)

Ò ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à Ú ‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥ Û ™“π·¥¥ Ù °√–‰¥ ∫—π‰¥

Û Ò Ù

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Ò Û Ú

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‡√◊Õπ‚¢àß Ruean Khong (Big houses)

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Ù

√Ÿª·∫∫∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õ߇Œ◊ÕπÕ’ “π 171

‡Œ◊ÕπÕ’ “π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬Õ’ “π

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Ò ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à Ú ‡√◊Õπ‚¢àß Û ™“π·¥¥ Ù ‡√◊Õπ‰ø ı °√–‰¥ ∫—π‰¥ ˆ Œâ“ß·ÕàßπÈ”


‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ A southern Thai-style house.

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ¿“§„µâ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ ¡’≈°— …≥–µà“ß®“°‡√◊Õπ¿“§Õ◊πË ‚¥¬·∫àß ÕÕ°‡ªìπ Ú °≈ÿࡧ◊Õ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâµÕπ∫π µ—Èß·µà ®—ßÀ«—¥™ÿ¡æ√≈߉ª®π∂÷ß®—ßÀ«—¥ ߢ≈“ ·≈–‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¡ÿ ≈‘¡ ¿“§„µâµÕπ≈à“ß„π®—ßÀ«—¥ªíµµ“π’ ¬–≈“·≈–π√“∏‘«“ 

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâµÕπ∫π à«π¡“°‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢Õß™“«‰∑¬æÿ∑∏ √Ÿª·∫∫§≈⓬°—∫ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ·µà¡≈’ °— …≥–‡©æ“–∂‘πË ∑’·Ë µ°µà“߉ª ‡™àπ µ—«‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥‰¡à „À≠àª√–¡“≥ Ú ∂÷ß Û ™à«ß‡ “ ∑√߇µ’Ȭ °«à “ ‡√◊ Õ π‰∑¬¿“§°≈“߇æ◊Ë Õ ≈¥·√ߵ⠓ π≈¡„πƒ¥Ÿ ¡ √ ÿ ¡ ¬°æ◊Èπ‰¡à Ÿßπ—°‡æ’¬ß°â¡À—«‡¥‘π≈Õ¥‰¥â æÕ„Àâ≈¡ºà“π‰¥â  –¥«° ™à«¬¢—∫‰≈৫“¡Õ—∫™◊Èπ∑’Ë¡’¡“°°«à“¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ Õ¬à“ß∑’Ë °≈à“«°—π«à“¿“§„µâ‡ªìπ¥‘π·¥π Ω𷪥·¥¥ ’Ë §◊ÕΩπµ°∂÷ß

µ’π‡ “ ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ The lower part of house posts in a southern Thai-style house.

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‚§√ß √â“ߢÕ߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ The structure of a southern Thai-style house.

·ª¥‡¥◊Õπ Ωπ‰¡àµ°‡æ’¬ß ’ˇ¥◊Õπ æ◊Èπ¥‘π®÷ß™◊Èπ°«à“¿“§Õ◊Ëπ ™“«„µâ®ß÷ ·°âª≠í À“‡ “‡√◊Õπºÿ‚¥¬‰¡àΩßí ‡ “≈ß„π¥‘π ·µà „™âÀπ‘ ‰¡â À√◊Õª–°“√—ß √—∫‚§π‡ “‰¡à „À⮡¥‘π µàÕ¡“®÷ß∑” µ’π‡ “ ∂“«√‚¥¬°àÕÕ‘∞©“∫ªŸπ Ÿßª√–¡“≥ Ò »Õ° À√◊Õ Ÿß®π∂÷ß√Õ¥ ‡ªìπ∞“π√Õß√—∫‡ “‰¡à „À⮡¥‘π ¿“¬À≈—ßπ‘¬¡∑”µ’π‡ “ „Àâ «¬ß“¡¬‘ßË ¢÷πÈ ‡™àπ À≈àե⫬ªŸπ´’‡¡πµåº ¡∑√“¬‡ªìπ™—πÈ Ê À√◊Õ∑”‡ªìπ∫—«´âÕπ°—π ·≈⫵àե⫬‡ “‡√◊Õπ µ’π‡ “µÕπ≈à“ß ¡’ ‰¡â √â Õ ¬∑–≈ÿ ∑ÿ ° µâ 𠵓¡§«“¡¬“«¢Õ߇√◊ Õ π‡æ◊Ë Õ „Àâ ‚§√ß √â“ß¡—Ëπ§ß πÕ°®“°µ’π‡ “´÷Ëß¡’≈—°…≥–摇»…µà“߉ª®“°¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ·≈â« ™“«„µâ¬—ßπ‘¬¡∑”‡ “‡√◊Õπ„Àâ «¬ß“¡¥â«¬°“√≈∫ ‡À≈’ˬ¡‡ “ À√◊Õ‡´“–√àÕß·≈–∑”∫—«À—«‡ “‡ªìπ≈«¥≈“¬ Õ¬à“ß «¬ß“¡ ·¡â‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ®–‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë«°Áµ“¡·µà ‰¡à ™—π¡“° ¬Õ¥ªíôπ≈¡‰¡à·À≈¡Õ¬à“ߪíôπ≈¡‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß À“ߪíôπ≈¡ ‰¡àπ‘¬¡∑”‡ªìπµ—«‡Àß“ ·µà∑”‡ªìπ√ŸªÀ“ߪ≈“ „µâ ‰¢√“µ“¡·π«·ª„™â ‰¡â·ºàπ‡≈Á°Ê µ’‡√’¬ß°—π®“°„µâÕ°‰°à®π ∂÷߇™‘ß™“¬ À≈—ߧ“¡—°¡ÿߥ⫬°√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“´÷Ëß à«π„À≠à ∑”®“° ‚√ß°√–‡∫◊ÈÕß∫â“π∑à“π“ßÀÕ¡ µ”∫≈πÈ”πâÕ¬ Õ”‡¿Õ À“¥„À≠à ®—ßÀ«—¥ ß¢≈“ Ω“‡√◊Õππ‘¬¡„™â ‰¡âµ’‡°≈Á¥µ“¡·π« πÕπ À√◊ÕΩ“ “¬∫—«„π·π«µ—Èß ª√–µŸÀπ⓵à“ß„™â·°πÀ¡ÿπ «ß°∫‡¢â“‡¥◊Õ¬ ≈—°·°–‡ªìπ√Ÿª¥“«À√◊Õ¥Õ°‰¡â Õ°‡≈“ ∫“π ª√–µŸ∫“πÀπ⓵à“߇´“–√àÕß ·°–‡ªìπ≈«¥≈“¬ ∫“πÀπ⓵à“ß ∑”‡ªìπ°√Õ∫≈Ÿ°øí° °√Õ∫∫π·≈–°√Õ∫≈à“ß·°– ≈—°‡ªìπ ≈«¥≈“¬À√◊Õ©≈ÿ‡ªìπ≈“¬‚ª√à߇æ◊ËÕ√–∫“¬Õ“°“» æ◊Èπ‡√◊ÕπªŸ

¥â«¬‰¡â°√–¥“πµà“ß√–¥—∫°—π æ◊Èπ‡√◊ÕππÕπ®– Ÿß°«à“ √–‡∫’¬ß·≈–™“π ∫—π‰¥‡√◊Õπ¿“§„µâ§≈⓬°—∫∫—π‰¥‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ¡’µÿà¡πÈ”À√◊ÕÕà“ß„ àπÈ” ”À√—∫≈â“߇∑â“°àÕπ¢÷Èπ ‡√◊Õπ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâπ‘¬¡ √â“߇√◊ÕππÕπÀ√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ„À≠à¡’ √–‡∫’¬ßµ“¡¥â“𬓫 ·≈–¡’À≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡ µàե⫬™“π‚≈àß À“°µâÕß°“√ √â“߇√◊Õπ‡æ‘Ë¡¡—° √â“߇ªìπ‡√◊Õπ§Ÿà ‡√◊Õπ‡§’¬ß ‡™◊ËÕ¡°—π¥â«¬™“π ¡’‡√◊Õπ§√—«¢«“ߥâ“π °—¥ °√√¡«‘∏’°“√ √â“߇√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ ‰¡àµà“߉ª®“°°“√  √â“߇√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫¢Õß¿“§°≈“ß¡“°π—° §ß„™â«‘∏’°“√∫“° ‡æ◊ËÕª√–°Õ∫ à«πµà“ßÊ ‡¢â“¥â«¬°—π ·≈⫬÷¥Õ¬à“ß¡—Ëπ§ß ¥â«¬ ≈—°≈‘Ë¡ ‚¥¬‰¡àµÕ°¬÷¥¥â«¬µ–ªŸ ´÷Ëߙ૬„Àâ‡√◊Õπ§ß√Ÿª Õ¬Ÿà ‰¥â·¡âÕÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘®–‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ßÕ¬Ÿà‡ ¡Õ°Áµ“¡ πÕ°®“°π’È ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ¡°— À≈’°‡≈’¬Ë ß°“√‡®“–‡ “ ‡æ√“–®–∑”„À⇠“ ≈¥§«“¡·¢Áß·√ß≈߉ª ®÷ß¡—°„™â‡ “§ŸàÀ√◊Õ∑”µ—«‰¡âµ‘¥°—∫‡ “ √—∫ à«πª√–°Õ∫·∑π°“√‡®“–‡ “ ‡™àπ „™â ‰¡â§“â ߧ“«ÀâÕ¬À—« À√◊Õ ‰¡âÀπâ“æ√“π √—∫√Õ¥ ®—π∑—𠇪ìπµâπ Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ ·¡â‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ®–‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—«Ë ∑’ËÕ“®‰¥â√—∫Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈¡“®“°‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß°Áµ“¡ ·µà™à“ß ‰¥âª√—∫„Àâ¡’√Ÿª·∫∫‡©æ“–∂‘Ëπµ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡ ¢π∫ª√–‡æ≥’ «‘∂’™’«‘µ ·≈– ¿“æ¿Ÿ¡‘ª√–‡∑»¢Õß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ·µà¿“¬À≈—ß Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈®“°¿“¬πÕ°∑”„À♓«„µâÀπ— ¡“ √â“߇√◊Õπ·∫∫„À¡àÊ ‡™àπ ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“ªíôπÀ¬“ Õ¬à“ß∑’Ëπ‘¬¡ √â“ß°—π„πÀ¡Ÿà™“« ‰∑¬¡ÿ ≈‘¡ ‡ªìπµâπ 173

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ

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Õ°‡≈“ ‰¡â∑’Ë∑“∫∫π∫“πª√–µŸ À√◊Õ∫“πÀπ⓵à“ß ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∑—Èß Õß∫“π ª√–°—∫°—π ‰¡à‡ªî¥‡≈¬ÕÕ°‰ª ¡—°∑”‡ªìπ —π µ√ß°≈“ß∑”‡ªìπ √Ÿª ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡¢â“«À≈“¡µ—¥ ‡√’¬° π¡Õ°‡≈“


√Ÿª·∫∫‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¡ÿ ≈‘¡„π¿“§„µâµÕπ≈à“ß Muslim Houses in the South

‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“ªíôπÀ¬“ À√◊Õ ≈’¡–Œå Li-mah house built on posts with a hipped roof.

‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë«¡π‘≈“ À√◊Õ ∫≈“πÕ Bla-nor house with Manila gables.

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174


‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë« À√◊Õ ·¡·≈– Mae-lae house with high gables.

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâµÕπ≈à“ß ‰¥â·°à‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¡ÿ ≈‘¡∫√‘‡«≥®—ßÀ«—¥¬–≈“  µŸ≈ ªíµµ“π’ ·≈–π√“∏‘«“  ª√–™“™π„π∫√‘‡«≥π’È  à«π¡“°π—∫∂◊Õ»“ π“ Õ‘ ≈“¡ ·≈–ª√–°Õ∫Õ“™’æµà“ßÊ °—𠇙àπ ∑”π“ ∑” «π º≈‰¡â  «π¬“ßæ“√“ ª√–¡ß ·≈–§â“¢“¬ ®÷ß∑”„Àâ‡√◊Õπæ—° Õ“»—¬¡’√Ÿª·∫∫µà“ß°—π‰ªµ“¡§«“¡®”‡ªìπ„π°“√ª√–°Õ∫ Õ“™’æ¢Õ߇®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ‡©æ“–‡√◊Õπ‰¡âπ—Èπ  à«π¡“°‡√◊Õπ ®–‡ªìπ√Ÿª°≈àÕß ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡º◊πºâ“µà“ß°—π∑’Ë√Ÿª∑√ߢÕßÀ≈—ߧ“ Õ“®‡ªìπ À≈—ߧ“®—«Ë À≈—ߧ“ªíπô À¬“ ·≈–∑√ßÕ◊πË Ê ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ ¬°æ◊πÈ  Ÿß ∑—ßÈ ∑’‡Ë ¥‘π≈Õ¥‰¥â·≈–‡µ’¬È Ê ‡¥‘π≈Õ¥‰¡à ‰¥â ¡—° √â“ß ‡√◊Õπ‡√’¬ß¢π“π°—π  à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õ߇√◊Õπ∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–‡¥àπ µà“ß®“°‡√◊Õπ¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ‰¥â·°à ‡ “ ·≈– ∞“π‡ “ ‡ “‡√◊Õπ „™â ‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Áß«“ß∫πµ’π‡ “ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ µÕπ∫π Ω“‡√◊Õπ„™â ‰¡â°√–¥“πµ’∑—∫´âÕπ°—π‡ªìπ‡°≈Á¥ À“° ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ§À∫¥’Õ“®∑”¥â«¬‰¡â·ºàπ ’‡Ë À≈’¬Ë ¡ª√–°Õ∫°—π Õ¬à“ß Ω“ª–°π≈Ÿ°øí°·°– ≈—°≈“¬∑’™Ë Õà ß· ß ·≈–™àÕß√–∫“¬Õ“°“» ·µà∂Ⓡªìπ‡√◊Õπ™“«∫â“π∑—Ë«‰ª¡—°„™â —ß°– ’À√◊Õ‰¡â ‰ºà “𠇪ìπ·ºß À√◊Õ¢—¥·µ–¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫∞“π–¢Õ߇®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ Àπâ “ µà “ ß ¿“…“∂‘Ë π ‡√’ ¬ ° ªî µŸ π “·µ À¡“¬∂÷ ß Àπâ “ µà “ ß∑’Ë §≈⓬ª√–µŸ ‡æ√“– Ÿßµ—Èß·µàæ◊Èπ¢÷Èπ‰ª ∑”‡ªìπ∫“π‡ªî¥∑—Èß  Õß∫“π ∑’Ëæ◊Èπ∑”≈Ÿ°°√ß°—π‡¥Á°æ≈—¥µ° ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ªî¥ÕÕ°®–√—∫ ≈¡‰¥â¡“° ´÷Ëß –∑âÕπ„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«—≤π∏√√¡¥—È߇¥‘¡¢Õß™“«‰∑¬ ¡ÿ ≈‘¡∑’Ë™Õ∫π—Ëß∫πæ◊Èπ‡√◊Õπ

À“°‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ∑’ˇ¢â“¥â“πÀπ⓪√–µŸ®–∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡ªìπ∫“π ‡øï¬ô ¡ ∂Ⓡªìπ‡√◊Õπ¢π“¥‡≈Á°®–∑”ª√–µŸ∫“π‡ªî¥ ª√–µŸ‡√◊Õπ ¡—°∑”‡¬◊ÈÕß°—∫ª√–µŸ¥â“π„π‡æ◊ËÕ‰¡à „À⺟⡓‡¬◊Õπ¡Õ߇ÀÁπ µ√’ ∑’ÕË ¬Ÿà „π‡√◊Õπ ™“«¡ÿ ≈‘¡‰¡à𬑠¡∑”ª√–µŸÀÕâ ß·µà „™âº“â ¡à“π°—πÈ „πÕ¥’µπ‘¬¡∑”´ÿ¡â ª√–µŸ∫“â π ´÷ßË ·∫à߇ªìπ Ú ·∫∫§◊Õ ´ÿ¡â ª√–µŸ ∑“߇¢â“∫â“π ∑’Ë°—ÈπÕ“≥“‡¢µ¢Õß∫â“𠇪ìπÀ≈—ߧ“∑√ß®—Ë«¡ÿß ¥â«¬ —ß°– ’ À√◊Õ°√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“ ·≈–´ÿ⡪√–µŸ‡¢â“‡√◊Õπ ®–Õ¬Ÿ‡à Àπ◊Õª√–µŸ‡√◊Õπ√Ÿª∑√ß·≈–«— ¥ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫´ÿ¡â ª√–µŸ∫“â π ªí®®ÿ∫—π‰¡àπ‘¬¡∑”´ÿ⡪√–µŸ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‰¡àπ‘¬¡∑”√—È«∫â“π ¥â“πÀπⓇ√◊Õπ¡’∫π— ‰¥¢÷πÈ ≈ß æ◊πÈ ‡√◊Õπ ªŸ¥«â ¬‰¡â°√–¥“πµ“¡ §«“¡¬“«¢Õ߇√◊Õπ ¡—°¡’√–¥—∫‡¥’¬«°—π∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ à«πÀ≈—ß Õ“®≈¥√–¥—∫≈߉ª∫â“ß æ◊Èπ§√—«π‘¬¡ªŸÀà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ√–∫“¬πÈ” ·≈–„ÀâÕ“°“»∂à“¬‡∑‰¥â –¥«° À≈—ߧ“ ‡ªìπ à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õ߇√◊Õπ∑’¡Ë ≈’ °— …≥–µà“ß°—π‰ª ‡©æ“–∑’ˇªìπ‡√◊Õπ‰¡â®√‘ß∑’Ëπ‘¬¡ √â“ß°—π∑—Ë«‰ª¡’√Ÿª·∫∫µà“ß °—π Û ·∫∫ §◊Õ ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“ªíôπÀ¬“ ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë«¡π‘≈“ À√◊Õ ∫≈“πÕ ·≈– ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë« ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“ªíôπÀ¬“ ™“«æ◊Èπ‡¡◊Õ߇√’¬° ≈’ ¡ –Œå ´÷Ë ß ·ª≈«à“ ı À¡“¬∂÷ß ‡ âπ —πÀ≈—ߧ“ ı ‡ âπ¢ÕßÀ≈—ߧ“·∫∫ ªíôπÀ¬“∑’Ëπ‘¬¡ √â“ß°—π∑—Ë«‰ª„π¿“§„µâ ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—«Ë ¡π‘≈“ À√◊Õ ∫≈“πÕ ‡ªìπ‡√◊Õπ∑’¡Ë À’ ≈—ߧ“ ‡ªìπ·∫∫ªíôπÀ¬“·µà¡’®—Ë«Õ¬à“ßπâÕ¬ Û ®—Ë«§◊Õ ®—Ë«‡√◊Õπ·Ω¥ ·≈– ®—Ë«¢π“¥‡≈Á°¢Õ߇©≈’¬ß¥â“πÀπâ“ ¬Õ¥®—Ë«µ°·µàߥ⫬ 175

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ

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ªîµŸπ“·µ Àπ⓵à“ß Ÿßµ—Èß·µàæ◊Èπ¢÷Èπ‰ª A high window from the floor, called “pi-tu-na-tae,” in a southern Thai-style house.


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≈«¥≈“¬©≈ÿ ‡√◊Õπ·∫∫∫≈“πÕÕ“®‰¥â√—∫·∫∫Õ¬à“ß¡“®“° ∂“ªíµ¬°√√¡¢Õß™“«ŒÕ≈—𥓠‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë« À√◊Õ ·¡·≈– ‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—ߧ“®—Ë«  “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡ Õ“®‰¥â√—∫·∫∫Õ¬à“ß¡“®“°À≈—ߧ“‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬ ¿“§°≈“ß ‡æ√“–¡’ªíôπ≈¡‡À¡◊Õπ°—π·µà ‰¡à∑”¬Õ¥·À≈¡ ·≈–‰¡à¡’µ—«‡Àß“Õ¬à“ß®—Ë«‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§°≈“ß ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª®–¡ÿßÀ≈—ߧ“¥â«¬°√–‡∫◊ÈÕߥ‘π‡º“  —ß°– ’ À√◊Õ ®“° µ“¡∞“π–‡®â“¢Õ߇√◊Õπ À≈—ߧ“‡√◊Õπ§√—«¡—°∑”À≈—ߧ“ ‡≈Á°´âÕπ°—π‡æ◊ÕË √–∫“¬§«—π‰ø ™“«¡ÿ ≈‘¡‰¡à𬑠¡∑”ΩÑ“‡æ¥“π ®÷ß¡Õ߇ÀÁπ‚§√ß √â“ßÀ≈—ߧ“ °“√∑”ΩÑ“¡—°∑”‡©æ“– à«π ‡™àπ ÀâÕßπÕπ ·≈–„™â«— ¥ÿ∑’Ë ‰¡à∂“«√ ‡™àπ ºâ“ À√◊Õ‰¡â ‰ºà “𠇪ìπ·ºß  à « πª√–°Õ∫À≈— ß §“∑’Ë  ”§— ≠ ¢Õ߇√◊ Õ π‰∑¬¡ÿ   ≈‘ ¡ ∑’Ë · ¥ß‡Õ°≈—°…≥凩擖∂‘πË ™—¥‡®π§◊Õ ®—«Ë Àπâ“®—«Ë π‘¬¡∑”‡ªìπ √Ÿª√—»¡’¥«ßÕ“∑‘µ¬å ‚¥¬„™â ‰¡âµ’´âÕπ∑—∫°—π®π‡ÀÁπ‡ªìπ·π« √—»¡’ À√◊Õ∑”®—Ë«‡√’¬∫·≈â«„™â ’‡¢’¬π‡ªìπ≈“¬¥Õ°‰¡â ·≈– Õ—°…√Õ“À√—∫ À√◊Õ·°– ≈—°‰¡â‡ªìπ≈«¥≈“¬·≈⫪î¥∑—∫Àπâ“®—«Ë ¬Õ¥®—Ë«¡’‡ “‡≈Á°Ê ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â°≈÷ß À√◊ÕÀ≈àե⫬ªŸπ´’‡¡πµå Õ¬Ÿàµ√ß°≈“ß  Õߢâ“ßµ°·µàß≈«¥≈“¬∑”¥â«¬‰¡â©≈ÿ  —ß°– ’ À√◊ÕÀ≈àե⫬ªŸπ´’‡¡πµå ªíôπ≈¡‡ªìπ·ºàπ‰¡â‡√’¬∫Ê ‰¡à¡’ ≈«¥≈“¬ πÕ°®“°µ—«‡√◊Õπ´÷Ë߇ªìπ∑’Ëæ—°Õ“»—¬·≈â« „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π ¬—ß¡’ ¬ÿâߢ⓫ À√◊Õ ‡√◊Õπ¢â“«  ”À√—∫‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ∫àÕπÈ” ∂Ⓡªìπ‡√◊ÕπÀ≈—߇¥’¬«®–¡’∫àÕπȔլŸàÀπâ“∫â“π À√◊Õ ¥â“π À≈—߇√◊Õπ À“°Õ¬Ÿà√«¡°—πÀ≈“¬À≈—ß„™â∫àÕπÈ”√à«¡°—π ∫àÕπÈ” ®–Õ¬Ÿà°≈“ß·®âß®÷ß¡—° √â“ßÀ≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡ ∑’ËÕ“∫πÈ” ™“«¡ÿ ≈‘¡ ®–Õ“∫πÈ”∫√‘‡«≥∫àÕπÈ” Õ“®„™â·ºàπÀ‘πÀ√◊Õ≈“π´’‡¡πµå √Õ∫∫àÕπÈ”‡ªìπ∑’ËÕ“∫ À√◊Õ∑”‡ªìπ§Õ°¥â«¬„∫®“°„∫¡–æ√â“«  Ÿß·§à ‰À≈à¡’Ω“ “¡¥â“π‡æ◊ËÕ∫—ß “¬µ“ ¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß‚≈àß ”À√—∫ µ—°πÈ”®“°∫àÕ‡¢â“‰ªÕ“∫ ‡ “·¢«π°√ßπ°‡¢“™«“ ‡ªìπ«—≤π∏√√¡Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷ËߢÕß ™“«‰∑¬¡ÿ ≈‘¡„π¿“§„µâµÕπ≈à“ß π‘¬¡„™â ‰¡â ‰ºà ‰¡â®√‘ß À√◊Õ ‡À≈Á° ∑”‡ “ Ÿßµ—ßÈ ·µà Ù ‡¡µ√¢÷πÈ ‰ª ”À√—∫·¢«π°√ßπ°‡¢“ ∫“ß∫â“π¡’°√ß ”À√—∫‡≈’¬È ßπ°‡¢“™«“‚¥¬ √â“߇ªìπ‚√߇√◊Õπ ‡≈Á°Ê ‰«â „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π πÕ°®“°‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬∑—Èß ’Ë¿“§¥—ß°≈à“«·≈â« „π¿“§„µâ¬—ß¡’ Õ“§“√∑’Ëæ—°Õ“»—¬‰¥â√—∫Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈®“°®’π ·≈–µ–«—πµ° ‡™àπ Õ“§“√∑’Ëæ—°Õ“»—¬ª√–‡¿∑‡√◊Õπ‰¡â ∑’Ë ‰¥â√—∫Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈®“°®’π ∫√‘‡«≥Õ”‡¿Õ “¬∫ÿ√’ ®—ßÀ«—¥ªíµµ“π’ Õ“§“√°àÕÕ‘∞∂◊ÕªŸπ ∫√‘‡«≥∂πππ§√„πÕ”‡¿Õ‡¡◊Õߠߢ≈“ ®—ßÀ«—¥ ß¢≈“ ·≈– Õ“§“√∑’Ë ‰¥â√—∫Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈®“°µ–«—πµ°·≈–®’πÕ¬à“ß∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ ™‘ ‚π-‚ª√µÿ°’  (Sino-Portuguese) Õ”‡¿Õ‡¡◊Õß¿Ÿ‡°Áµ ®—ßÀ«—¥¿Ÿ‡°Áµ ‡ªìπµâπ

‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬∑—ßÈ ’¿Ë “§¥—ß°≈à“« · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁ𧫓¡™“≠©≈“¥ „π°“√ √â“ß∑’ËÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬´÷Ë߇ªìπªí®®—¬°“√¥”√ß™’«‘µ∑’Ë ”§—≠ ªí®®—¬Àπ÷Ëß ∫√√æ™π‰∑¬‰¥âæ—≤π“√Ÿª·∫∫¢Õ߇√◊Õπ·µà≈– ¿“§„Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫«‘∂’™’«‘µ ¢π∫ª√–‡æ≥’ ·≈– ¿“æ ·«¥≈âÕ¡¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ®π¡’‡Õ°≈—°…≥凩擖∂‘Ëπ∑’Ë·µ° µà “ ß°— 𠉪  ‘Ë ß ‡À≈à “ π’È §◊ Õ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ªí ≠ ≠“∑’Ë · Ω߇√â π Õ¬Ÿà „ π ‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§µà“ßÊ Õ¬à“ßπà“ π„®

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‡√◊Õπ‰∑¬¿“§„µâ

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Õ“§“√™‘‚π-‚ª√µÿ°’ Õ”‡¿Õ‡¡◊Õß ®—ßÀ«—¥¿Ÿ‡°Áµ Sino-Portuguese building in Phuket.


Thai Wisdom: Thai Ways of Life

Chapter Three

The Prototype of Thai Houses Ò˜¯

178


Local architecture is the unique identity of each locality. It is a societal heritage derived from group wisdom, initiated, created, and developed through experiences, knowledge, and skills to solve local problems. It has been passed down from generation to generation until it has become a pattern, a tradition, or a convention for living in harmony with the environment. In Thailand, there were initially two housing styles, which reflected local wisdom in architecture: the binder house and the joint house. The first style, the binder house, was often for temporary shelter and could be built in one day with no need for skilled labor. Construction materials were the locally available bamboo bound together with binding materials such as ropes or finely thin bamboo strips, and roofed with atap palm leaves. Labor was voluntary hands from neighbors. There was no need for expert constructors. Construction could be done with ordinary household tools. It later developed into the more sophisticated housing style: the joint house.

Thai Houses in Thai Communities Binder houses could actually provide sufficient shelter. But when a family was more stabilized and extended with more members, people usually needed to build a more secure house, a joint house. Joint houses are made from hard wood. All parts of the house were made to connect and fit together with different kinds of joints. They differ from region to region. In the North, for example, it is called ruean kalae, after the specific style commonly utilized in the northern region.

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The Prototype of Thai Houses

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A traditional Thai house called “Ruean Saeng Arun” at Siam Society in Bangkok.


A traditional Thai house in the Central Region

Typical Thai Houses in the Central Region Typical Thai houses, however, are the housing style of the Central Region, with a high and steeply pointed windbreak atop the gable. It is much acclaimed for its artistic beauty and its functional suitability to the Central Plains with frequent rain and flooding. This housing style is not only for commoners, but also for families of high social status. Thai royalty in the House of Chakri once lived in such a house. Rama V once had a house built in this traditional-style in a Bangkok palace to receive his visiting “friends” from the country. Rama VI built a typical Thai-style house in one of his favorite palaces in Nakhon Pathom called Thap Khwan, which is a beautiful traditional Thai-style house. A typical Thai house was normally a single structure. If the owner was wealthy, however, a few houses were built next to each other with a patio to connect them into one compound structure. The patio served as the activity space for the family. Constructors normally pre-constructed all part of the house, from the wall panels, to the windows, and roofing structures. House owners often consulted an astrologer for an auspicious time to begin the construction. The best time of the year for housing construction was the second month on

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the lunar calendar (January). When the time came, all the parts were put together to make a house, which usually took only a day or two. Such a rapid affair had puzzled foreign visitors such as M. de La Loube`re from the Court of Louis XIV during his 1687 visit to the capital city of Ayutthaya. A typical Thai house is usually built on high posts to avoid frequent flooding and poisonous animals. The space under the house is used to store farm tools, to keep animals, or even to laze around in the hot weather. The steep windbreak along the gable serves to drain the rainwater and to allow for ventilation on hot days. The main sleeping area is normally separated from the kitchen area. A big branching tree is often planted in the middle of the patio to provide shade. By the ladder is a big water jug to wash one’s feet before ascending the stairs. Kitchen herbs are normally planted around this area to drink up the wash water. In the old days, Thai people did not need many pieces of furniture. The house seemed comparatively bare, especially if compared to current houses with all modern appliances. In addition to houses built on land, many houses were built on rafts in water bodies when there were still many canals and rivers, for which Bangkok was labeled “Venice of the Orient.”


Typical northern-style houses

Typical Northern-Style Houses The signature house of the North is “ruean kalae.” It is usually two square houses built next to each other with a rainwater drainpipe running along the eaves between the houses. All composite parts of the house are well designed for the most utilization.

Northern-style houses usually have two pieces of intricately carved boards called kalae to top the windbreaks. By the staircase landing is also a patch of kitchen herbs planted to benefit from the wash water, like houses in the Central Plains.

The staircase of a northern-style house is usually roofed and located outside by the left corner of the house. A pole is usually planted to support the roof, often the place to tie the guard dog. Above the staircase is the balcony, which leads to the open hall where all activities take place. A water jar for drinking is often put there. After the hall is the sleeping chamber. In this room, people keep their ancestors’ relics on a high shelf on the north wall. They always inform the ancestors and present offerings to them on important occasions.

Presently, northern-style kalae houses are hard to find. It is a unique piece of our cultural heritage, which should be preserved for posterity.

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The Prototype of Thai Houses

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A commoner’s house in the Northeast.

Typical Northeastern-Style Houses Typical northeastern houses are made on high wooden posts like those in other regions. The balcony is roofed but often has no panel. The kitchen is a small house with well-ventilated walls. A water pot is normally placed at one end of the balcony, and roofed to prevent direct sun from heating the water. Houses are in three sizes: small, medium, and large. Most local people in the Northeast are farmers. So they often build a grain silo near the house. They are also as artistic as people in other regions. Normally, they spend their free time from the rice fields to make handicrafts such as hand-woven fabric, and handmade pottery. These are often done in the “basement,” the space under the house.

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A traditional southern-style house.

Typical Southern-Style Houses Southern-style houses can be categorized into two: those in the upper region (from Chumphon to Songkhla), and the Muslim houses in the lower part of the region. The upper-southern housing style is much similar to that in the Central Plains. The differences are in a few architectural features. The posts are usually not very high, to minimize the wind forces in the monsoon season. Relative humidity is higher in this region because it has eight months of rain and only four months of the sun. People do not plant the posts directly in the ground, but use a more solid material, such as coral or stone, to support them. Southerners like to sand off the house posts, and some even carve the top of the post with intricate designs. They often have a water jar by the ladder landing to wash one’s feet before taking the stairs as well. Though the upper-southern housing style with a high windbreaker roof is much similar to that of the Central Region, local architects have adapted it to meet regional preference and lifestyle. In certain areas, outside influences have impacted locals to build houses with hipped roofs much similar to those in Muslim communities. The lower-southern housing style is apparent in Muslim communities in the four provinces:

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Yala, Satun, Pattani, and Narathiwas. People in these cities are mostly Muslim. They keep fruit orchard, grow rice, run rubber plantation, keep fish farms, and trade. Their houses need to serve their occupational purposes. Most of them are rectangular with high windbreaker roofs or hipped roofs, built on posts. The heights of these posts, and thus the house, vary. The most important feature of a lowersouthern house is the roofing structure. It can signify the owner’s financial status. The gable of a Muslim house is often decorated with a wooden shining-sun design, a floral design on plain wooden background, or a woodcarving of Arabic inscription pasted to the gable. In the compound are usually a rice silo and a roofed water-well in the yard. A small bathing house is located further away from the well. A birdhouse or a tall bird post is common in a Muslim household. Houses with foreign influences also exist in certain areas, for example, the Sino-Portuguese row houses in Phuket. Housing styles in the four regions reflect local talents in architectural creation to serve each locality’s way of living, traditions, and environment, with distinctive uniqueness denoting regional folk wisdom.

The Prototype of Thai Houses

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