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·¡â§π‰∑¬∫√‘‚¿§ ç¢â“«é ‡ªìπÕ“À“√À≈—°¡“™â“π“π ·µà‡™◊ÕË «à“§π‰∑¬®”π«π‰¡àπÕâ ¬¡’§«“¡√Ÿâ ‡°’ˬ«°—∫¢â“«πâÕ¬¡“° ‰¡à√Ÿâ«à“¢â“«‡ªìπæ◊™™π‘¥„¥ ¡’°”‡π‘¥·≈–«‘«—≤π“°“√¡“Õ¬à“߉√ §π‰∑¬ ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«µ—Èß·µà‡¡◊ËÕ‰√ ª≈Ÿ°Õ¬à“߉√ ¡’°√–∫«π°“√¢—ÈπµÕπ°“√º≈‘µ ·≈–‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â Õ–‰√∫â“ß ®÷߉¥â¢â“«¡“∫√‘‚¿§°—π‡™àπ∑ÿ°«—ππ’È

π“¢â“« „π®—ßÀ«—¥·¡àŒàÕß Õπ Rice paddies in Mae Hong Son.

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ª∞¡∫∑ ¢Õß™’«‘µ‰∑¬ ¡πÿ…¬å√Ÿâ®—°ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«·≈–π”¢â“«¡“∫√‘ ‚¿§‡¡◊ËÕ„¥ ‰¡à¡’ À≈—°∞“π™—¥‡®π ‡©æ“–„π‡Õ‡™’¬æ∫À≈—°∞“π·≈–√àÕß√Õ¬ ¢Õߢ⠓ «∑“ßµÕπ„µâ ¢ Õߪ√–‡∑»®’ π ·≈–µÕπ‡Àπ◊ Õ ¢Õß ª√–‡∑»‡«’¬¥π“¡‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ Òı, ªï¡“·≈â« „π√–¬– ·√°¢â“«§ß‰¡à „™àÕ“À“√À≈—° À“°·µà‡°Á∫¡“‡ªìπÕ“À“√µ“¡ ƒ¥Ÿ°“≈  ≈—∫°—∫‡π◊ÈÕ —µ«å·≈–º≈‰¡â™π‘¥Õ◊Ëπ ‡¡◊ËÕ∂÷߃¥Ÿ¢â“«ªÉ“  ÿ°®÷߇°Á∫¡“∫√‘ ‚¿§ ‡æ√“–¢â“«ªÉ“‡¡≈Á¥√à«ßßà“¬ ·≈–‡¡◊ËÕ ‡¡≈Á¥√à«ß≈ßæ◊Èπ¥‘π°Á®–ßÕ°ß“¡„πƒ¥ŸΩπ„πªï∂—¥‰ª ∑”„Àâ ¡πÿ…¬å‡√’¬π√Ÿâ°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«Õ¬à“߇ªìπ√–∫∫µ“¡ƒ¥Ÿ°“≈·∑π∑’Ë ®–§Õ¬‡°Á∫¢â“«ªÉ“ ´÷ßË Õ“®‰¡àæÕ∫√‘‚¿§ ®÷߇°Á∫‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿ¢å “â « ¡“ª≈Ÿ°‡ªìπ ¢â“«‰√à ‚¥¬„™â ‰¡â·∑ߥ‘π„À⇪ìπÀ≈ÿ¡·≈â«À¬Õ¥ ‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿå¢â“«≈߉ª ‡¡◊Ëբ⓫‡®√‘≠‡µ‘∫‚µÕÕ°√«ß®π‡¡≈Á¥ ·°à®÷߇°Á∫¡“∫√‘ ‚¿§ °“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à·∫∫À—°√â“ß∂“ßæß„π ≈—°…≥–‰√à‡≈◊ËÕπ≈Õ¬∑”„Àâ¡πÿ…¬åµâÕ߬⓬∂‘Ëπ‰ª‡√◊ËÕ¬Ê ‡¡◊ËÕ ¥‘π®◊¥·≈–À¡¥§«“¡Õÿ¥¡ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å µàÕ¡“‡¡◊ÕË ¡πÿ…¬åÕ¬Ÿ√à «¡°—π‡ªìπ°≈ÿ¡à ¡’ª√–™“°√¡“°¢÷πÈ ®÷ߧ‘¥«‘∏’ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«·∫∫ π“À«à“π ∑’Ë „™âæ◊Èπ∑’Ë¡“° ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰¥â º≈º≈‘µ¡“°¢÷Èπ ·µà°“√∑”π“À«à“πÕ“®‰¥âº≈‰¡à¥’π—° ‡æ√“– °“√À«à“π‰¡à ¡Ë”‡ ¡Õ ·≈–µâÕßÕ“»—¬πÈ”ΩπÀ√◊ÕπÈ”∏√√¡™“µ‘ ®÷ß¡’°“√ª√–¥‘…∞凧√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ™π‘¥Àπ÷ßË §◊Õ ç‰∂é ‡æ◊ÕË ‰∂À√◊Õ·∑ß ¥‘π°àÕπ∑’®Ë –À«à“π‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿ¢å “â «≈߉ª ‰∂‡ªìπ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ∑”π“ ∑’‡Ë °‘¥¢÷πÈ „πÀ≈“¬«—≤π∏√√¡ ‡™àπ «—≤π∏√√¡≈ÿß™“π ¡—¬À‘π „À¡à·∂∫≈ÿ¡à ·¡àπÈ”‡À≈◊ÕߢÕß®’π «—≤π∏√√¡‡¡‚ ‚ª‡µ‡¡’¬·≈– Õ’¬ª‘ µå ‚∫√“≥  à«π°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«·∫∫π“À«à“π„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ 27

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Rice from the paddies in the central region.

°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à µâÕß„™â ‰¡âª≈“¬·À≈¡ À√◊Õ çÀ—« —°≈ÿàßé ∑’Ë∑”¥â«¬¥‘π‡º“√Ÿª°√«¬  ”À√—∫ «¡ª≈“¬‰¡â·∑ߥ‘π„À⇪ìπÀ≈ÿ¡ ∑’≈–À≈ÿ¡·≈â«À¬Õ¥‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿå¢â“« ¢â“«‰√à‡ªìπ¢â“«‡∫“ ¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡°Á∫‡°’ˬ« ‡æ’¬ß Û-Ù ‡¥◊Õπ ‰¡àµâÕß°“√πÈ”·™à¢—ß Õ“»—¬πÈ”Ωπ ·≈–§«“¡™ÿà¡™◊Èπ¢Õߥ‘π ‰¥â·°à ¢â“«‡À𒬫æ—π∏ÿå∫–µã“π¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ¢â“«‡À𒬫æ—π∏ÿ匓°‰ºà¢Õß¿“§Õ’ “π ·≈–¢â“«‡®â“æ—π∏ÿå°Õ·À≈–¢Õß¿“§„µâ Ò °“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«·∫∫π“À«à“𠇪ìπ«‘«—≤π“°“√¢Õß°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«∑’ˇª≈’Ë¬π®“° °“√¢ÿ¥À≈ÿ¡À¬Õ¥‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«·∫∫ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à ¡“‡ªìπ°“√À«à“π‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿå¢â“«≈߉ª„πæ◊Èπ¥‘π ∑’ˇµ√’¬¡‰«â Õ“®„™â‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õª√–‡¿∑®Õ∫  —∫¥‘π„Àâ∑«—Ë ∫√‘‡«≥∑’®Ë –À«à“π¢â“« À√◊Õ„™â ç‰∂é æ≈‘°¥‘π¢÷Èπ·≈â«À«à“π ‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿå¢â“«≈߉ª ‡¡◊ËÕΩπµ°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“« °Á®–ßÕ°ß“¡ ·≈–µ°√«ß ·¡â°“√∑”π“À«à“π®–‰¥âº≈‰¡à¥’π—° ·µà°Á· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“¡’°“√π” ç‰∂é ´÷Ë߇ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”π“∑’Ë ”§—≠¡“„™â


°“√∑”π“¥” «‘«—≤π“°“√¡“®“° °“√∑”π“À«à“π ‚¥¬ª√—∫√–¥—∫æ◊Èπ∑’Ëπ“ „Àâ√“∫‡ ¡Õ°—π ¬°§—ππ“‡æ◊ËÕ‡°Á∫°—°πÈ” ·≈–ª√—∫√–¥—∫πÈ”„Àâ‡À¡“– ¡ °—∫§«“¡µâÕß°“√¢Õߢ⓫·µà≈–æ—π∏ÿå ·≈–®—¥√–‡∫’¬∫¢Õß°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰¥â µ“¡µâÕß°“√ °“√∑”π“¥”·∫∫æ◊Èπ∫â“π‡√‘Ë¡¥â«¬°“√ ‰∂¥– À√◊Õ‰∂§√—Èß·√° ·≈â«¢—ßπÈ”‰«â„ÀâÀ≠â“ ·≈–«—™æ◊™µ“¬ µàÕ¡“®÷ß ‰∂·ª√ À√◊Õ §√“¥ °àÕπ ª≈àÕ¬πÈ”ÕÕ° ·≈⫉∂·ª√Õ’°§√—Èß ¢—ßπÈ”‰«â Ò ∂÷ß Ú «—π ®÷ߧ√“¥¥‘π„À⇪ìπ‡∑◊Õ° π”°≈â“¡“¥”≈ß„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑’ˇµ√’¬¡‰«â À“°‡ªìπ π“∑’Ë„™â√∂‰∂π“ ¡—°¢—ßπÈ”‰«â„ππ“°àÕπ ‡¡◊ËÕ‰∂ ·≈–§√“¥®πÀ≠⓵“¬ ·≈–¥‘π‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ°¥’·≈â« ®÷ßπ”°≈â“¡“ªí°¥”

π—Èπ —ππ‘…∞“π«à“¡’¡“µ—Èß·µà ¡—¬°àÕπª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√凡◊ËÕ ª√–¡“≥ Ù, ªï¡“·≈â« ‡æ√“–æ∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«∑’Ë∂Ÿ°‰ø‡º“ °≈“¬‡ªìπ∂à“π·≈–·°≈∫º ¡Õ¬Ÿà „π‡π◊ÈÕ¥‘π∑’Ë „™âªíôπ¿“™π– ¥‘π‡º“„π ·À≈àß‚∫√“≥§¥’ ¡—¬°àÕπª√–«—µ»‘ “ µ√å∫“â π‡™’¬ß Õ”‡¿ÕÀπÕßÀ“π ®—ßÀ«—¥Õÿ¥√∏“π’ ·≈– ·À≈àß‚∫√“≥§¥’ ‚πππ°∑“ Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ´÷ßË ·°≈∫∑’ªË πÕ¬Ÿà „π‡π◊È Õ ¥‘ π ∑’Ë ∑”‡§√◊Ë Õ ßªíô 𠥑 π ‡º“π—È π ¡’ ª √‘ ¡ “≥¡“°·≈–  ¡Ë”‡ ¡Õ · ¥ß«à“‰¥â®“°¢â“«∑’˧π‡æ“–ª≈Ÿ°¡“°°«à“¢â“«ªÉ“ ∑’¢Ë π÷È µ“¡∏√√¡™“µ‘ ·≈–πà“®–‡ªìπ¢â“«∑’ˉ¥â®“°°“√∑”π“À«à“π „πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë≈ÿà¡¡’πÈ”¢—ß µàÕ¡“‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ Ú,ı ∂÷ß Ú,˜

ªï¡“·≈â«®÷ß¡’ °“√∑”π“¥” ∑’ªË ≈Ÿ°¢â“«‚¥¬∑”§—ππ“¢—ßπÈ” ·≈– „™â·√ß —µ«å ‰∂π“Ú ´÷Ë߇ªìπ‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√∑”π“∑’Ë°â“«Àπâ“ Õ’°√–¥—∫Àπ÷Ëß °“√∑”π“¥”Õ“®µâÕß„™â ‰∂ ·≈– §√“¥ ™à«¬ „π°“√‡µ√’¬¡¥‘π°àÕπ∑’Ë®–π”µâπ°≈â“À√◊Õµâπ¢â“«∑’Ë™”‰«â¡“ ªí°¥”„ππ“∑’ˇµ√’¬¡‰«â °“√∑”π“∑—È ß  “¡«‘ ∏’ ¥— ß °≈à “ «‡ªì π °“√ª≈Ÿ ° ¢â “ «·∫∫ æ◊Èπ∫â“π∑’Ë „™â‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’·≈–‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â∑’˪√–¥‘…∞å¢÷Èπ ®“°¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“¢Õß¡πÿ…¬åÕ¬à“߇√’¬∫ßà“¬‰¡à´—∫´âÕπ ·µà¡’ ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ Ÿß ´÷Ë߬—ߧ߄™â ◊∫¡“®π∑ÿ°«—ππ’È

‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° Rice grains.

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‡¡≈Á¥¢â“« “√ Ready-to-cook rice.

°“√∑”π“„𠬓¡ª√–‡∑» ¢â“«‡ªìπÕ“À“√À≈—°À≈àÕ‡≈’Ȭߙ“«‚≈°¡“™â“π“π ¢â“«∑’Ë „™â∫√‘ ‚¿§°—π∑—Ë«‰ªÕ¬Ÿà „π«ß»å Oryza ·∫à߇ªìπ Ú °≈ÿࡧ◊Õ ¢â“«ª≈Ÿ° (Cultivated rice) ·≈– ¢â“«ªÉ“ (Wild rice) ‡©æ“– ¢â“«ª≈Ÿ°·∫à߇ªìπ°≈ÿ¡à „À≠àÊ ‰¥â¥ß— π’È ¢â“«∑’ªË ≈Ÿ°„π‡¢µÀπ“« (Japonica) ‰¥â·°à ®’π ≠’˪ÿÉπ ‡°“À≈’ ·≈–¿“§µ–«—πµ° ¢Õß À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“ ≈”µâπ‡µ’È¬ ‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡ ‡¡◊ËÕÀÿߵ⡇¡≈Á¥ ®–µ‘¥°—π ‡π◊ÈÕ‡À𒬫 ¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°„π‡¢µ√âÕπ (Indica) ‰¥â·°à ‰∑¬ ¡“‡≈‡´’¬ Õ‘ 𠇥’ ¬ µÕπ„µâ »√’ ≈— ß °“ ≈“« ‡«’¬¥π“¡ ≈”µâ π  Ÿ ß ø“ßÕà Õ π ‡¡≈Á ¥ ¬“« ¢â “ «∑’Ë ª ≈Ÿ ° „πª√–‡∑» Õ‘π‚¥π’‡´’¬ (Javadica) ·≈– ¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°„πÕ—ø√‘°“µ–«—πµ° (O.graberrima)  à«π¢â“«ªÉ“π—πÈ ‡¡≈Á¥‡≈Á°¬“« ¡’À“ß √ Ω“¥ „™â‡ªìπÕ“À“√ —µ«å ¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°„π¥‘π·¥π∑’ˇªìπª√–‡∑»‰∑¬„πªí®®ÿ∫—π π—∫ µ—Èß·µà ¡—¬°àÕπª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å®π∂÷ß ¡—¬ª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å¡’ Û ™π‘¥ §◊Õ ™π‘¥‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡ ‡¡≈Á¥„À≠à ·≈– ‡¡≈Á¥‡√’¬« ‡©æ“–  ¡—¬ª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å·µà≈– ¡—¬π—Èπª≈Ÿ°¢â“«™π‘¥µà“ßÊ ¥—ßπ’È  ¡—¬∑«“√“«¥’ √“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë ÒÚ ∂÷ß Òˆ ¡’»πŸ ¬å°≈“ß Õ“≥“®—°√Õ¬Ÿà∫√‘‡«≥®—ßÀ«—¥π§√ª∞¡  ÿæ√√≥∫ÿ√’ æ∫«à“¡’ °“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡·≈–‡¡≈Á¥„À≠à

 ¡—¬»√’«‘™—¬ √“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë ÒÛ ∂÷ß Ò¯ Õ“≥“®—°√ ¡’§«“¡‡®√‘≠√ÿà߇√◊ÕßÕ¬Ÿà „π¿“§„µâ π‘¬¡ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡À𒬫 ‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡·≈–¢â“«‡®â“  ¡—¬≈æ∫ÿ√’ √“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë ÒÚ ∂÷ß Ò¯ ¡’»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß §«“¡‡®√‘≠√ÿà߇√◊ÕßÕ¬Ÿà „π∫√‘‡«≥¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ ·≈–¿“§°≈“ß „π¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ¡’°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡®â“ ¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡·≈–‡¡≈Á¥„À≠à „π¿“§°≈“ßπ‘¬¡ª≈Ÿ° ¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡·≈–¢â“«‡®â“  ¡—¬‡™’¬ß· π·≈–≈â“ππ“ √“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë Òˆ ∂÷ß ÚÛ ¡’»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߧ«“¡‡®√‘≠„π¥‘π·¥π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ æ∫«à“ ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡·≈–‡¡≈Á¥¬“« ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡®â“πâÕ¬°«à“ ¢â“«‡À𒬫  ¡—¬ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ √“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë Ò˘ ∂÷ß Ú ¡’»πŸ ¬å°≈“ß Õ¬Ÿà∑’ˇ¡◊Õß ÿ‚¢∑—¬·≈–»√’ —™π“≈—¬„π®—ßÀ«—¥ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ªí®®ÿ∫—π ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡¡“° ¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥¬“«¡’∫â“ß ·≈–‡√‘Ë¡ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡®â“¡“°¢÷Èπ  ¡—¬Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ √–¬–·√°ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡¡“° ‡√‘¡Ë ª≈Ÿ ° ¢â “ «‡®â “ ¡“°¢÷È π ™à « ߪ≈“¬ ¡— ¬ Õ¬ÿ ∏ ¬“·≈–µâ π  ¡— ¬ √—µπ‚° ‘π∑√å ‡ªìπ¢â“«‡®â“‡¡≈Á¥‡√’¬«Õ¬à“ß∑’ªË ≈Ÿ°°—π„πªí®®ÿ∫π— 29

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à « π¢â “ «‡¡≈Á ¥ ªÑ Õ ¡°≈— ∫ æ∫«à “ ª≈Ÿ ° °— π ‡©æ“–¿“§‡Àπ◊ Õ ·≈–¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ ¢â“«‡À𒬫‡¡≈Á¥ªÑÕ¡ ∑’˪≈Ÿ° „π ¡—¬µâπÕ¬ÿ∏¬“π—Èππà“®–‡ªìπ¢â“«‡À𒬫∑’˪≈Ÿ°°—π ◊∫¡“ ®πªí®®ÿ∫π— Û ¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°„πª√–‡∑»‰���¬·∫àßµ“¡ ¿“«–¢Õß°“√‡®√‘≠ ‡µ‘∫‚µ‡ªìπ Û ª√–‡¿∑ §◊Õ ¢â“«‰√à ¢â“«π“ «π ·≈– ¢â“«π“ ‡¡◊Õß ¢â“«‰√à ¢â“«∑’Ë ‰¡àµÕâ ß°“√πÈ”À≈àÕ‡≈’¬È ß¡“° À“°¡’πÈ”¢—ßÕ¬Ÿà π“π®–µ“¬ ·µàÕ“»—¬§«“¡™ÿà¡™◊Èπ¢Õßæ◊Èπ¥‘π π‘¬¡ª≈Ÿ°°—𠵓¡‰À≈à‡¢“À√◊Õ∑’Ë√“∫ Ÿß„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ·≈–¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ° ‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ ¡—°ª≈Ÿ°‡ªìπ·ª≈߇≈Á°Ê æÕ°‘π„π§√—«‡√◊Õπ ¢â“«π“ «π ¢â“«∑’µË Õâ ß°“√πÈ”À≈àÕ‡≈’¬È ß„π√–À«à“߇®√‘≠ ‡µ‘∫‚µ ®÷ßµâÕߪ≈Ÿ°„π∑’Ë√“∫≈ÿà¡ πÈ”∑à«¡‰¡à‡°‘πÀπ÷Ë߇¡µ√ ª≈Ÿ°„ππ“¥”´÷Ë߇ªìπæ◊Èπ∑’Ë à«π„À≠à¢Õߪ√–‡∑» ¢â“«π“‡¡◊Õß ¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°„π·À≈àß∑’Ë¡’πÈ” Ÿß‡°‘π°«à“Àπ÷Ëß ‡¡µ√ ‡ªìπ¢â“«æ—π∏ÿæå ‡‘ »…∑’‡Ë √’¬°«à“ ¢â“«¢÷πÈ πÈ” À√◊Õ ¢â“«≈Õ¬ À√◊Õ ¢â“«ø“ß≈Õ¬ ‡æ√“–¡’≈”µâ𬓫∑Õ¥ÕÕ°‰ª ·µ°·¢πß ·≈–ÕÕ°√“°µ“¡¢âÕ ‡®√‘≠‡µ‘∫‚µ‰¥â√«¥‡√Á«‡¡◊ËÕ√–¥—∫πÈ” Ÿß ¢÷Èπ®π‚µÀπ’πÈ”‰¥â ®÷ßπ‘¬¡ª≈Ÿ°°—π¡“°„π∫√‘‡«≥¿“§°≈“ß ≈ÿà¡·¡àπÈ”‡®â“æ√–¬“·≈–·¡àπÈ”ªÉ“ —°„πÕ¥’µ °àÕπ∑’Ë®–¡’ √–∫∫™≈ª√–∑“π®”°—¥πÈ”∏√√¡™“µ‘µ“¡ƒ¥Ÿ°“≈„Àâ¡’ª√‘¡“≥ µ“¡∑’Ë°”Àπ¥ ∑”„Àâ¢â“«æ—π∏ÿåπ’ÈÕ“® Ÿ≠æ—π∏ÿå ‰ª·≈â« ¢â“«∑—Èß “¡ª√–‡¿∑¡’∑—Èߢ⓫‡®â“·≈–¢â“«‡À𒬫 ¢â“«‡®â“ ‡π◊ÈÕ‡¡≈Á¥„  ‡¡◊ËÕÀÿß·≈⫇¡≈Á¥®–√à«π·≈– «¬ ‰¡à „§√൑¥°—π π‘¬¡√—∫ª√–∑“π°—π„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë¿“§°≈“ß ¿“§ Õ’ “πµÕπ„µâ ·≈–¿“§„µâ ¢â“«‡À𒬫 ‡π◊ÕÈ ‡¡≈Á¥¢ÿπà °«à“¢â“«‡®â“ ‡¡◊ÕË ÀÿßÀ√◊Õπ÷ßË ·≈â« ‡¡≈Á¥®–‡À𒬫µ‘¥°—π ∫√‘‚¿§°—π¡“°„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ¿“§Õ’ “π µÕπ∫π ·≈–π‘¬¡π”¡“∑”¢π¡ª√–‡¿∑µà“ßÊ °“√‡µ‘∫‚µ¢Õߢ⓫·∫àßÕÕ°‡ªìπ√–¬–¥—ßπ’È Ò. √–¬–°≈â“ ª√–¡“≥ Û-Ûı «—π Ú. √–¬–·µ°°Õ ª√–¡“≥ Û «—π¢÷πÈ ‰ª ·≈â«·µàæπ— ∏ÿå Û. √–¬–µ—Èß∑âÕß ª√–¡“≥ Úı-Û «—π Ù. √–¬–ÕÕ°√«ß∂÷߇°Á∫‡°’ˬ« ª√–¡“≥ Û «—π ∑—ßÈ π’¢È π÷È Õ¬Ÿ°à ∫—  ¿“«–¢Õߥ‘π πÈ” ·≈–æ—π∏ÿ¢å “â « ∫“ßæ—π∏ÿå Õ“®„™â ‡ «≈“ª≈Ÿ ° ‡æ’ ¬ ß ¯ ∂÷ ß ˘ «— π °Á ‡ °Á ∫ ‡°’Ë ¬ «‰¥â ∫“ßæ—π∏ÿå „™â‡«≈“∂÷ß ˜ ‡¥◊Õπ ¢â“«∑’Ë „Àâº≈º≈‘µ‡√Á«‡√’¬° ¢â“«‡∫“ ¢â“«∑’Ë „Àâº≈º≈‘µ™â“‡√’¬° ¢â“«Àπ—° ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª¢â“« ∑’Ë¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡©≈’ˬ ˘ ∂÷ß ÒÚ «—π ∂◊Õ‡ªìπ¢â“«‡∫“ À“°¡’Õ“¬ÿ √–À«à“ß ÒÛ ∂÷ß Òˆ «—𠇪ìπ¢â“«°≈“ß À“°¡’Õ“¬ÿ Ò¯ ∂÷ß ÚÒ «—π ∂◊Õ‡ªìπ¢â“«Àπ—° √–¬–‡«≈“¢Õß°“√‡µ‘∫‚µ ·≈–°“√‡°Á ∫ ‡°’Ë ¬ «º≈º≈‘ µ ‡À≈à “ π’È ¢÷È π Õ¬Ÿà °— ∫ æ— π ∏ÿå ¢â “ «·≈–  ¿“æ¿Ÿ¡‘»“ µ√å¢Õß·µà≈–∂‘Ëπ

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‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”π“™‘Èπ·√° ‰¥â·°à ‰¡âª≈“¬·À≈¡∑’Ë „™â ·∑ߥ‘π„À⇪ìπ√Ÿ ”À√—∫ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à Õ“®‡ªìπ‰¡â ‰ ºà ª√–‡¿∑‰¡â√«° À√◊Õ‰¡â‡∫≠®æ√√≥∑’ËÀ“‰¥âßà“¬ ‡À≈“ ª≈“¬„Àâ·À≈¡ À√◊Õ„™â¥π‘ ‡º“√Ÿª°√«¬(‡√’¬°çÀ—« —°≈ÿßà é)  «¡ª≈“¬‰¡â¥“â π∑’Ë „™â·∑ߥ‘π ‡æ◊ÕË „Àâ¥π‘ ‡ªìπÀ≈ÿ¡ ¡Ë”‡ ¡Õ°—π ·≈–‰¡à≈÷°‡°‘π‰ª ‡¡◊ËÕ —°¥‘π·≈â«À¬Õ¥‡¡≈Á¥ æ—π∏ÿ¢å “â «≈߉ª ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‰¥âπÈ”Ωπ·≈–§«“¡™ÿ¡à ™◊πÈ ®“° πÈ”§â“ß°Á®–ßÕ°·≈–‡µ‘∫‚µÕÕ°√«ß„À⇡≈Á¥ °“√ª≈Ÿ° ¢â“«‰√à¡°— ª≈Ÿ°µ“¡‰À≈à‡¢“ ·≈–∑’√Ë “∫‡™‘߇¢“ ‚¥¬∂“ß ªÉ“ ·≈⫇º“«—™æ◊™ ∑”„Àâ¥‘π¡’ªÿܬÕÿ¥¡ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å ·µà „™â ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰¥â‡æ’¬ß‰¡à°’Ëªï¥‘π®–®◊¥µâÕß∑‘Èß√â“ß„À⇪ìπªÉ“ ®÷ß°≈—∫¡“ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√àÕ’°§√—Èß °“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à®÷߇ªìπ °“√∑”π“‡≈◊ËÕπ≈Õ¬‰¡à∂“«√·≈–‰¥âº≈º≈‘µ‰¡à·πàπÕπ ¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫¥‘πøÑ“Õ“°“» ·µà°Á‡ªìπ°“√∑”π“∑’Ëßà“¬∑’Ë ÿ¥ ‡æ√“–„™â‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Շ撬ߙ‘πÈ ‡¥’¬« ‰¡àµÕâ ß„™â·√ßß“π —µ«å ªí®®ÿ∫—π¬—ß¡’°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√àÕ¬Ÿà∫â“ßµ“¡‰À≈à‡¢“ ·≈– ∑’Ë√“∫‡™‘߇¢“∑“ß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ

À≈—°∞“π‡°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥∑’Ëæ∫«à“¡’°“√„™â ‰∂§◊Õ®“√÷°‡°’ˬ«°—∫ °“√‰∂π“¢Õß™“«‡¡‚ ‚ª‡µ‡¡’¬ ´÷ßË Õ“»—¬Õ¬Ÿà „π¥‘π·¥π∑’‡Ë ªìπ ª√–‡∑»Õ‘√—° ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ¢Õß´’‡√’¬ ¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß„µâ ¢Õßµÿ√°’ „πªí®®ÿ∫—π ‡¡‚ ‚ª‡µ‡¡’¬‡ªìπÕ“≥“®—°√∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ ‡®√‘≠√ÿà߇√◊Õß√–À«à“ß Ò, ªï∂÷ß ˆ, ªï°àÕπ§√‘ µ°“≈ ‡ªì 𠥑 π ·¥π∑’Ë Õÿ ¥ ¡ ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ª√–™“™πª√–°Õ∫Õ“™’ æ ª»ÿ —µ«å·≈–‡°…µ√°√√¡ ª≈Ÿ°¢â“« “≈’ ¢â“«∫“√å‡≈¬å‡ªìπÀ≈—° ®÷ß„™â ‰∂‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ ”§—≠ ‰∂∑’ˇ°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥§◊Õ ‰∂‰¡â æ∫∑’Ë Hvorslev „πª√–‡∑» ‡¥π¡“√å° ∑”®“°∑àÕπ‰¡â∑‡’Ë ªìπßà“¡§≈⓬欗≠™π–µ—« ß ª≈“¬ ¢â“ßÀπ÷Ë߇ ’Ȭ¡„Àâ·À≈¡‡ªìπ∑’Ë·∑ߥ‘π Õ’°ª≈“¬Àπ÷Ëß„™â ‰¡â ‡ ’¬∫¥â“πÀ≈—߇ªìπÀ“߬“¡ —ÈπÊ  —ππ‘…∞“π«à“‡ªìπ‰∂∑’Ë ‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬¡â“ ∑”¢÷Èπ‡¡◊ËÕ√“« Ù, ªï°àÕπ§√‘ µ°“≈ À√◊Õ ª√–¡“≥ ˆ, ªï¡“·≈â« ™“«Õ’¬ª‘ µå‚∫√“≥‡ªìπÕ’°™π™“µ‘Àπ÷ßË ∑’Ë „™â ‰∂„π°“√∑”π“ ¡“µ—Èß·µà‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ ˆ, ªï¡“·≈â« ¥—ߪ√“°Ø¿“æ «“¥√Ÿª§π‰∂π“ ·≈–§π‡°’ˬ«¢â“«¥â«¬‡§’¬«∫πºπ—ß ÿ “π ·ÀàßÀπ÷Ëß µàÕ¡“‰¥âæ∫‰∂‚∫√“≥„π∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë√“∫≈ÿà¡·¡àπÈ” ‰π≈å ∑”¥â«¬∑àÕπ‰¡â‡ªìπ§—π™—° ∑’Ë ‚§π¡’ ‰¡â‡ªìπ‡¥◊Õ¬ µ‘¥°—∫ §—π™—° ”À√—∫‰∂¥‘π  à«πÀ“߬“¡∑”¥â«¬∑àÕπ‰¡â Õß∑àÕπ¡’ ‰¡â ≈—°Õ¬Ÿà√–À«à“ß‚§π§—π™—° ¡’ ‰¡âæ“¥¢«“ß„ÀâÀ“߬“¡Õ¬Ÿà „π·π«‡¥’¬«°—π ‡æ◊ÕË „Àâ®∫— ‰¥â –¥«° ‰∂¢Õß™“«Õ’¬ª‘ µå‚∫√“≥ π’È ª √–¡“≥«à “ ¡’ Õ “¬ÿ √ “« Ò,ˆ ªï ∂÷ ß Ò,Ù ªï °à Õ π §√‘   µ°“≈À√◊ Õ ª√–¡“≥ Û,ˆ ªï ¡ “·≈â « ·≈–§ß„™â ª√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â¥’ ‡æ√“–™“«π“„π∫√‘‡«≥≈ÿà¡·¡àπÈ”‰π≈å¬—ß „™â°π— Õ¬Ÿ®à π∑ÿ°«—ππ’È

µàÕ¡“¡πÿ…¬å ‰¥âæ—≤π“°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«¢÷Èπ¡“Õ’°¢—ÈπÀπ÷Ëߧ◊Õ °“√∑”π“À«à“π ´÷ßË µâÕß„™â‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ∑’‡Ë √’¬°«à“ ‰∂ ‡æ◊ÕË ·∑ߥ‘π ¢÷Èπ¡“°≈∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«∑’ËÀ«à“π‰«â ·≈⫉∂°≈∫Õ’°§√—ÈßÀπ÷Ëß ·∑π°“√„™â ‰¡â°√–∑ÿßâ ¥‘π„À⇪ìπ√ŸÕ¬à“ß°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à ™à«¬„Àâ ¡πÿ…¬åª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰¥â√«¥‡√Á«„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë°«â“ß ·≈–‰¥âº≈º≈‘µ¡“° °«à“°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«‰√à °“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«∑’ Ë ”§—≠Õ’°«‘∏À’ π÷ßË §◊Õ °“√∑”π“¥” ´÷ßË æ—≤π“ ¡“®“°°“√∑”π“À«à“π ¡’«‘∏’°“√´—∫´âÕπ¡“°¢÷È𠇙àπ µâÕß ª√—∫æ◊Èπ¥‘π„Àâ‡√’¬∫ ·∫àß·ª≈ßπ“„Àâ‡≈Á°≈ß ¬°§—ππ“„Àâ Ÿß ‡æ◊ËÕ¢—ßπÈ”  “¡“√∂‰¢πÈ”‡¢â“·≈–ÕÕ°®“°π“‰¥âµ“¡µâÕß°“√ ∑”„Àâ°“√∑”𓇪≈’Ë¬π®“°°“√∑”µ“¡ƒ¥Ÿ°“≈‡æ’¬ßªï≈–§√—Èß ¡“‡ªìπ°“√∑”𓉥âÀ≈“¬§√—ßÈ „πÀπ÷ßË ªï 𔉪 Ÿ°à “√„™â‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ ∑’Ë¡’‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’ Ÿß „™âªÿܬ·≈–„™â “√‡§¡’ ‡√’¬°°√–∫«π°“√ ∑”𓇙àππ’È«à“ °“√ªØ‘«—µ‘‡¢’¬« ‰∂ ‡ªìππ«—µ°√√¡„π°“√∑”π“¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ  ”§—≠ ”À√—∫∑”π“À«à“π·≈–π“¥” ®“°À≈—°∞“π∑’ªË √“°Ø„π ¿“æ‡¢’¬π¢Õß™“«Õ’¬ª‘ µå‚∫√“≥‡ªìπ‰∂‰¡â∑∑’Ë ”¢÷πÈ Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« Õßµ—«  à«πª√–°Õ∫ ”§—≠¢Õ߉∂°Á‰¡àµà“ß®“° ‰∂∑’Ë „™âÕ¬Ÿà „πªí®®ÿ∫—ππ—° ‰¥â·°à À“߬“¡ À√◊ÕÀ“߉∂ ”À√—∫ „Àâ§π®—∫·≈–∫—ߧ—∫‰∂ §—π™—° ‰¡â∑’ˬ◊ËπÕÕ°‰ª¢â“ßÀπⓇæ◊ËÕ ‡∑’¬¡«—« À√◊Õ„Àâ«—«≈“° ∑”¥â«¬∑àÕπ‰¡â∑’ˬ—߉¡à ‰¥âµ°·µàß ¥—¥·ª≈ß„Àâ «¬ß“¡‡À¡◊Õπ‰∂¢Õ߉∑¬„πªí®®ÿ∫—π ¬—ß§ß‡ªìπ ‰∂∑’˪√–¥‘…∞å¢÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ„™â Õ¬¡“°°«à“§«“¡ «¬ß“¡ À—«À¡Ÿ §◊Õ à«π∑’Ë·∑ߥ‘π„À⇪ìπ√àÕßæ≈‘°¥‘π¢÷Èπ¡“‡ªìπ¢’È ‰∂ ¬—ß„™â ‰¡â ‡ ’Ȭ¡„Àâ·À≈¡ ‰¡à ¡’ º“≈ À√◊Õ·ºàπ‡À≈Á°‡ √‘¡„À⧡·≈– ·¢Áß·√ß·µàÕ¬à“ß„¥ 33

‡µ√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√∑”π“

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°“√‰∂π“ ∫√‘‡«≥¿“§°≈“ß „π®—ßÀ«—¥ ÿæ√√≥∫ÿ√’ Plowing the rice paddies in Suphan Buri.

‰∂¬ÿ § ·√°∑’Ë ¡ πÿ … ¬å   √â “ ߢ÷È π π—È π §ßµâ Õ ß°“√„Àâ „ ™â ª√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â¥’∑’Ë ÿ¥‡∑à“π—Èπ ¡‘‰¥â§”π÷ß∂÷ߧ«“¡ «¬ß“¡πà“„™â ·µàÕ¬à“ß„¥ µàÕ¡“‡¡◊ËÕ„™âª√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â¥’·≈â« ®÷ßæ—≤π“„Àâ¡’ √Ÿª√à“ßπà“„™â·≈–‡À¡“– ¡°—∫°“√„™âß“π °√–π—Èπ°Áµ“¡ °“√„™â Õ¬‡ªìπµ—«°”Àπ¥√Ÿª√à“ß·≈– à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õ߉∂ ®÷ß∑”„Àâ ‰∂·∑∫∑ÿ°¿Ÿ¡‘¿“§„π‚≈°§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π §◊Õ ª√–°Õ∫ ¥â«¬ À“߬“¡ §—π¬“¡ À√◊Õ §—π™—° ·≈– À—«À¡Ÿ √Ÿª√à“ߢÕß  à«πª√–°Õ∫‡À≈à“π’È Õ“®·µ°µà“ß°—π‰ª∫â“ßµ“¡ ¿“æ ¿Ÿ¡‘ª√–‡∑»·≈–§«“¡π‘¬¡¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ë𠇙àπ ‰∂¢Õß ™“«¬ÿ‚√ª‚∫√“≥¡’≈âÕ‡æ◊Ëՙ૬∑ÿàπ·√ß —µ«å ª√–¥‘…∞å¢÷Èπ‡¡◊ËÕ °«à“ Õßæ—πªï¡“·≈â« ¡’≈Õâ ‡¥’¬«Õ¬ŸÀà π⓺“≈À√◊ÕÀ—«À¡Ÿ ·µà „π §√‘ µå»µ«√√…∑’Ë Òˆ ™“«¬ÿ‚√ª‰¥âª√–¥‘…∞å ‰∂∑’Ë¡’ Õß≈âÕ

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‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬¡â“µ—«‡¥’¬«À√◊ÕÀ≈“¬µ—«°Á‰¥â ·µà ‰∂™π‘¥π’ȧ߄™â ‰¡à  –¥«°®÷߇≈‘°„™â ‰ª„π∑’Ë ÿ¥ °“√∑”π“À«à“π·≈–π“¥”„π‡Õ‡™’¬‚¥¬„™â‰∂‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« À√◊Õ§«“¬π—Èπ —ππ‘…∞“π«à“‡√‘Ë¡‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ Ú,˜ ªï∂÷ß Ú,ı ªï¡“·≈â«  à«π‰∂∑’§Ë π‰∑¬∑”¢÷πÈ „™â „π ¡—¬‚∫√“≥‡ªìπ ‰∂‰¡â‡∑’¬¡«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ ¥—ß∑’Ë ´’¡Õß ‡¥Õ ≈“ ≈Ÿ·∫√å ™“« Ω√—Ë߇» ∑’ˇ¢â“¡“¬—ß°√ÿß»√’Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ¡—¬ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–π“√“¬≥å ¡À“√“™ ‰¥â∫—π∑÷°‡√◊ËÕß°“√∑”π“¢Õß™“« ¬“¡‰«â«à“ 癓«  ¬“¡„™â‚§·≈–°√–∫◊Õ‰∂π“‡À¡◊Õπ°—π ���¢“®Ÿß¡—π‰ª¥â«¬‡™◊Õ° ‡ âπÀπ÷ßË ´÷ßË √âÕ¬ πµ–擬‡¢â“„π°√–¥Ÿ°ÕàÕπ∑’·Ë ¬°™àÕß®¡Ÿ° ‡æ◊ÕË ¡‘„À⇙◊Õ°π—πÈ ‡≈◊ÕË π‰À≈„π¢≥–∑’¥Ë ß÷ ‡¢“®÷ß Õ¥ª≈“¬‡™◊Õ° „À⇪ìπª¡‡ ’¬∑—ßÈ  Õߢâ“ß ‡™◊Õ°‡ âπ‡¥’¬«°—ππ’¬È ß— ≈à“¡‡¢â“‰ª„π


Àπ⓵‘¥µàÕ°—∫·Õ°πâÕ¬ ´÷Ëß¡’‡™◊Õ°ºŸ°≈à“¡‰«â Õ߇ âπ ∂—¥ ÕÕ°‰ª°Á∂÷ß«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬´÷Ëß≈“°‰∂‰¡â‚§âßÕ—ππ’ȧ◊Õ§—π‰∂ ·≈– ‡™◊Õ°∑’Ë≈à“¡µ‘¥°—∫·Õ°πâÕ¬ ‡√’¬°«à“‡™◊Õ°‡§≈à“  à«π≈à“ß ¢Õ߉∂‡ÀÁπº≈ÿ∫‚º≈àÕ¬Ÿà„ππÈ”·≈–„π¥‘𠇫≈“‰∂¡’¥‘π¥—π¢÷Èπ ¡“‡ªì π °â Õ πÊ „πµÕπÀπâ “ ‡ªì π ‰¡â π Õπ∑à Õ πÀ𓬓« ª√–¡“≥»Õ°Àπ÷ßË µÕπÀπ⓪“°‡æ≈à¬π◊Ë ≈“¥ Ÿß¢÷πÈ Õ¬à“߇°◊Õ° ‡√’¬°«à“ À—«À¡Ÿ µÕπ∫π‡ªìπ·ºàπ‡æ≈à¬◊Ëπ Ÿß¢÷Èπ‰ª ”À√—∫ ‡∫‘°æ≈‘°¥‘π‡√’¬°«à“ „∫À—«À¡Ÿ ª≈“¬À—«À¡Ÿ¡’‡À≈Á°√Ÿª  “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡‚µ°«à“ΩÉ“¡◊Õ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬  «¡„Àâ‡æ≈à‰ª¢â“ßÀπâ“  ”À√—∫·∑ß¡ÿ¥¥‘π„Àâ·µ°·¬° ·≈–∑–≈—°¢÷Èπ¡“‰¥â –¥«° ‡À≈Á°π’ȇ√’¬°«à“ º“≈‰∂π“ À√◊Õ„π∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° ª–¢“ß ‡§√◊ËÕ߉∂√«¡∑—È߇§√◊ËÕߧ√“¥¥â«¬ ‡ªìπ¢Õß∑’Ë™“«π“∑”„™â ‡Õß∑—Èß ‘Èπ ¬°‡«âπ‡À≈Á°º“≈´÷ËßµâÕß´◊ÈÕ‡¢“ ´◊ÈÕ®“°æ«°æàէⓠ‡°«’¬π...é ı ‰∂æ◊πÈ ∫â“π¢Õ߉∑¬„πÕ¥’µπ—πÈ ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â·∑∫∑—ßÈ  ‘πÈ ·≈– ™“«π“ à«π„À≠à “¡“√∂∑”„™â‡Õß À√◊Õ∂Ⓣ¡à∑”‡Õß°Á®–π” º≈º≈‘µ‡™àπ¢â“«‰ª·≈°°—∫‰∂®“°ºŸâ∑’Ë∑”‰∂ ´÷Ëß¡—°‡ªìπ™à“ß∑’Ë ∑”‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â·≈°°—∫ªí®®—¬Õ◊Ëπ„π°“√¥”√ß™’«‘µ·∑π °“√∑”π“´÷Ëß¡’Õ¬Ÿà·∑∫∑ÿ°À¡Ÿà∫â“π ·µà ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª·≈⫺Ÿâ™“¬„π §√Õ∫§√—«™“«π“®–‡ªìπ™à“ß∑’Ë “¡“√∂∑”‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â ∑’Ë „™â „π™’«‘µª√–®”«—π‰¥â‡Õß ‰∂æ◊Èπ∫â“π¡’ Ú ª√–‡¿∑§◊Õ ‰∂‡¥’ˬ« ·≈– ‰∂§Ÿà ‰∂‡¥’ˬ« À√◊Õ ‰∂¢“‡¥’¬« À√◊Õ∫“ß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° ‰∂°√–∑Ÿâ À“߬“¡Õ—π‡¥’¬« ‰∂™π‘¥π’ȇ∑’¬¡«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ ∂Ⓡªìπ‰∂«—« ‡∑’¬¡«—« Õßµ—« ·µà∂“â ‡ªìπ‰∂§«“¬‡∑’¬¡§«“¬µ—«‡¥’¬« √Ÿª√à“ß ·≈–¢π“¥¢Õ߉∂«—«·≈–‰∂§«“¬·µ°µà“ß°—πµ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡ ¢Õß·µà≈–∂‘Ë𠇙àπ ‰∂‡¥’ˬ«„π¿“§‡Àπ◊ÕÀ√◊Õ≈â“ππ“®–¡’ ¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“‰∂‡¥’ˬ«¿“§°≈“ß À“߬“¡ —Èπ ·≈–ßÕ‰ª¢â“ß ÀπⓇ≈Á°πâÕ¬ §—π¬“¡ —Èπ µà“ß°—∫‰∂‡¥’ˬ«∑’ˇ∑’¬¡§«“¬„π ¿“§°≈“ß´÷Ëß¡’¢π“¥„À≠à°«à“ ·≈–∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Á߇æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ¡’ πÈ” Àπ— ° °¥‰∂≈ߥ‘ π ‰¥â ‚ ¥¬ºŸâ ‰∂‰¡àµâÕßÕÕ°·√ß°√–¥° À“߬“¡¡“°π—° ª≈“¬À“߬“¡‚§â߇¢â“À“§π‰∂ ·≈–§àÕπ ¢â“߬“«ßÕπ√—∫°—∫§—π¬“¡∑’ˬ◊Ëπ‰ª¢â“ßÀπâ“ ‰∂≈—°…≥–π’È „™â °—π¡“°„π®—ßÀ«—¥æ√–π§√»√’Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ Õà“ß∑Õß  ÿæ√√≥∫ÿ√’ ·≈– ‘ßÀå∫ÿ√’  ”À√—∫‰∂§Ÿà∑’ˇ∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« Õßµ—«„π¿“§°≈“ß¡’ √Ÿª√à“ßµà“߉ª®“°¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ‡™àπ ‰∂«—«∑’Ë®—ßÀ«—¥√“™∫ÿ√’ ´÷Ëß ·¡â®–¡’√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬°—∫‰∂§«“¬¢Õß¿“§°≈“ß ·µà¡—°∑”„Àâ ‡æ√’¬«°«à“·≈–§—π¬“¡¬“«°«à“‰∂§«“¬®πæ“¥°—∫·Õ°‰¥â æÕ¥’ πÕ°®“°π’È ∫ “ß∑â Õ ß∂‘Ë π ¬— ß  ≈— ° ‡ ≈“„Àâ ß Õπ‚§â ß Õ¬à“ß «¬ß“¡Õ’°¥â«¬ ‰∂§Ÿà À√◊Õ ‰∂ Õߢ“ µà“ß®“°‰∂‡¥’ˬ«§◊Õ °√–∑ŸâÀ“߬“¡ À√◊Õ à«π∑’ˬ÷¥À—«À¡Ÿ°—∫§—π‰∂¡’ ÕßÕ—π‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰∂·¢Áß·√ß ‡æ√“–„™â ‰∂π“∑’¡Ë ¥’ π‘ ‡À𒬫 À“߬“¡‚§âßßÕÕÕ°®“°µ—«§—π‰∂

√Ÿæ—ßß“Õ—π‡®“–‰«â∑’˧“π¢Õߧ—π‰∂Õ’°¥â«¬....§—π‰∂¢Õß™“«  ¬“¡π—Èπ∑”Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ·≈–‰¡à¡’≈âÕ‡≈◊ËÕπ ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ §“π‰¡â¬“«∑àÕπÀπ÷ËßÕ—π‡ªìπ¥Ÿ° Õ’°∑àÕπÀπ÷Ëߪ≈“¬ßÕπÕ—π ‡ªìπ§—π∂◊Õ Õ’°∑àÕπÀπ÷Ëß —Èπ°«à“·≈–„™â‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Áß°«à“ ºŸ°¢«“߉«â‡°◊Õ∫®–∑·¬ß°—πµ√ß„µâ§—π¥Ÿ° ·≈–‰¡â ∑à Õ π∑’Ë  “¡π’ȇÕß∑’˵‘¥À—«º“≈ ‡¢“¡‘‰¥â„™âµ“ªŸµ√÷߉¡â∑—Èß ’Ë∑àÕπ„Àâ µ‘¥°—π À“°„™â‡™◊Õ°Àπ—ß¡—¥„Àⵑ¥°—π‡¢â“‰«â..é ≈—°…≥–¢Õ߉∂ ∑’Ë≈“ ≈Ÿ·∫√å∫—π∑÷°‰«â ‰¡àµà“ß®“°‰∂∑’Ë „™âÕ¬Ÿà∑—Ë«‰ª„πªí®®ÿ∫—πÙ ‡ ∞’¬√‚°‡»» ‰¥âÕ∏‘∫“¬≈—°…≥–‰∂‰«â „πÀπ—ß ◊Õ‡√◊ÕË ß™’«µ‘ ¢Õß™“«π“«à“ ç...‡ªìπ‰¡â‚§âßÊ  Ÿß‡ ¡Õ‡Õ« ∑àÕπÀπ÷Ë߇√’¬° «à“ §—π¬“¡ µÕπª≈“¬∑’˧π‰∂®—∫∂◊ÕÕ¬Ÿà‡√’¬°«à“ À“߬“¡ °—∫¡’‰¡âÕ’°∑àÕπÀπ÷Ë߇®“–µ‘¥°—∫§—π¬“¡µÕπ≈à“ß ‚§â߉ª¢â“ß 35

‡µ√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√∑”π“

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≈“≈Ÿ·∫√å ‡¢â“¡“æ”π—°Õ¬Ÿà„π°√ÿß»√’Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ √–À«à“ß«—π∑’Ë Ú˜ °—𬓬π æ.». ÚÚÛ ∂÷ß«—π∑’Ë Û ¡°√“§¡ æ.».ÚÚÛÒ „π·ºàπ¥‘π ¡‡¥Á®æ√–π“√“¬≥å¡À“√“™ (æ.». ÚÒ˘˘ ∂÷ß ÚÚÛÒ) ‰¥â∫—π∑÷°‡°’ˬ«°—∫ °“√∑”π“·≈–≈—°…≥–‰∂¢Õß™“« ¬“¡ æ√âÕ¡¿“æª√–°Õ∫∑’Ë· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ ‰∂¢Õß™“« ¬“¡‡ªìπ‰∂‰¡â‡∑’¬¡«—« Õßµ—« ‡æ√“–¡’ ≈—°·Õ°∑’˪≈“¬·Õ°∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß √Ÿª√à“ߢÕߧ—π‰∂ À“߬“¡ °Á ‰¡àµà“ß®“° ‰∂‰¡â„πªí®®ÿ∫—π


§Õ¡ ‰¡â ‰ºà¥—¥„Àâµ√ß°≈“ß‚§âß ª≈“¬ßÕπ¢÷Èπ∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ¡—°∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà ’ ÿ° ™à“ß®–µâÕߥ—¥µ—Èß·µà ‰¡â¬—߇ªìπÀπàÕ„Àâ ‰¥â√Ÿªµ“¡µâÕß°“√ ·≈⫧լ„Àâ ‰¡â·°à®÷ßµ—¥¡“¢—¥‡°≈“„Àâ ‰¥â√Ÿª §Õ¡µâÕß¡’ “¬∑“¡ À√◊Õ “¬°√–∑“¡ √—¥„ÀâÕ¬Ÿà∫π§Õ«—«À√◊Õ§Õ§«“¬ ‡æ◊ËÕ§≈âÕ߇™◊Õ°‡∑’¬¡‡°«’¬π À√◊Õ‡™◊Õ°∑’Ë≈à“¡‰ª¬—ß·Õ°πâÕ¬ ”À√—∫‰∂π“ §Õ¡ ∫“ß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° ‚°° À√◊Õ µ–‚°° This tool called “khom” is made from a piece of bamboo bended to fit the buffalo’s neck. The bending process starts when it is still young, and then left to grow to maturity. The upturned ends are for the rope attached to the cart, or the pulling robe attached to the plow.

·Õ°πâÕ¬ ‰¡â°≈¡Ê ¢π“¥‡∑à“¢âÕ¡◊Õ ¬“«»Õ°‡»… ª≈“¬∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ∑”‡ªìπµÿࡉ«âºŸ°‡™◊Õ°∑’Ë≈à“¡‰ª¬—ߧա µ√ß°≈“ß„™âÀπ—ß·Õ°πâÕ¬ ´÷Ëß∑”¥â«¬Àπ—ß µ—¥‡ªìπ√‘È«√—¥µ‘¥°—∫§—π™—°¢Õ߉∂ ∑’ˇ√’¬°·Õ°πâÕ¬ §ß‡æ√“–¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“ ·Õ°∑’Ë∑”¥â«¬‰¡â¢π“¥‡∑à“∑àÕπ·¢π ¬“«ª√–¡“≥«“‡»… ¡’ ≈—°·Õ° Õߢâ“ß „™âæ“¥§Õ«—«‡æ◊ËÕ‡∑’¬¡‡°«’¬π À√◊Õ‡∑’¬¡‰∂

Ûˆ

36

A small yoke. This yoke is made from a piece of rod about a foot long and as thick as a wrist. At each end is a stopper. It is attached to the short wooden whippletree with a piece of rope. A piece of leather trace ties its middle part with the plow handle. It is called “small yoke” after this size, which is smaller than a normal yoke made from an arm-size wooden piece of more two meters long. It is also used to control the cattle pulling a cart or a plow.


‰∂«—«¿“§°≈“ß ‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« Ú µ—« A two-oxen plow from the central region.

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´÷Ë߇ªìπ∑àÕπ‰¡â¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ° æ“¥¢«“ß°—∫ª≈“¬ §—π™—°√—¥¥â«¬Àπ—ß·Õ°πâÕ¬ ∂Ⓡªìπ‰∂«—«°Á®–µâÕß¡’·Õ° ·≈– ≈—°·Õ° ”À√—∫æ“¥°—∫§Õ«—« ‰¡àµâÕß„™â§Õ¡ °“√∫—ߧ—∫ «—«À√◊Õ§«“¬µâÕß„™â‡™◊Õ°ºŸ°  “¬µ–擬 ≈à“¡‰ª„À⺟⠉∂°√–µÿ° À√◊Õ¥÷ß„Àâ«—«§«“¬‡¥‘π‰ª„π∑‘»∑“ß∑’˵âÕß°“√ ‰∂‡ªìπ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ∑’ Ë ”§—≠¬‘ßË „π°“√∑”π“∑”‰√à¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ „πÕ¥’µ °“√ª√–¥‘…∞姑¥ √â“ß√Ÿª∑√ß„Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫°“√ „™â Õ¬π—ÈπµâÕß„™â‡«≈“„π°“√æ—≤π“¢—¥‡°≈“‡ªìπ‡«≈“π“π ·¡â „πªï æ.».ÚÙıÚ ª≈“¬ ¡—¬√—™°“≈∑’Ë ı ¡’ºŸâ𔇧√◊ËÕß ¡◊Õ∑”π“„À¡àÊ ¡“„™â ‡™àπ ∫√‘…—∑¢ÿ¥§≈Õß·≈§Ÿπ“ ¬“¡  —ßË ‰∂‡À≈Á°®“°ª√–‡∑» À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“¡“∑¥≈Õß„™â ‡æ√“–‡ÀÁπ «à“·¢Áß·√ß·≈–‰∂¥‘π·Àâ߉¥â¥’ ∑—Èß√“§“‰¡à·æß ·µà‰¡à‡ªìπ∑’Ë π‘¬¡ ‡æ√“–¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¡“° «—«§«“¬≈“°‰¡à‰À«·≈–‡¡◊ÕË Ωπµ° ¥‘πÕàÕπ ‰∂‡À≈Á°®–®¡¥‘π ‰∂‰¡à ‰¥â ™“«π“®÷ß°≈—∫¡“„™â ‰∂ æ◊Èπ∫â“π·∫∫¥—È߇¥‘¡¥—ß·µà°àÕπ ·µàπà“‡ ’¬¥“¬«à“ªí®®ÿ∫—π‰∂ ·∫∫¥—È߇¥‘¡ Ÿ≠‰ª¡“°‡¡◊ËÕ¡’°“√π”√∂‰∂¡“„™â „πÕ𓧵‰∂ æ◊Èπ∫â“πÕ“®‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ß¡√¥°∑“ß¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“‰∑¬∑’ˇÀ≈◊Õ‰«â ‡æ◊ËÕ°“√»÷°…“‡∑à“π—Èπ 37

‡µ√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√∑”π“

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 “¬ –擬 À√◊Õ µ–擬 ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà∑®’Ë °— ‡ªìπ‡ âπ∫“ß øíòπ‡ªìπ‡ âπ‡™◊Õ° ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ°‡»… „™â√âÕ¬°√–¥Ÿ°ÕàÕπ√–À«à“ß™àÕß√Ÿ ¢Õß®¡Ÿ°«—« ·≈–§«“¬ √âÕ¬ÕâÕ¡„µâ®¡Ÿ° „Àâª≈“¬ “¬ –擬∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ºŸ°∑∫°—π∫πµâπ§Õ ‡¡◊ËÕµâÕß°“√®Ÿß À√◊Õ∫—ߧ—∫«—«§«“¬µâÕß„™â‡™◊Õ° ≈à“¡ “¬ –擬Ւ°∑’Àπ÷Ëß «—«·≈–§«“¬ ¬Õ¡∑”µ“¡§” —Ë߇æ√“–‡®Á∫‡π◊ÈÕÕàÕπ „π√Ÿ®¡Ÿ°∑’Ë√âÕ¬¥â«¬ “¬ –擬


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¢ÿ∫∑Õ¬ ∑’˵—«¢ÿ∫∫“ß∑’∑”‡ªìπ∑Õ¬ ‚¥¬„™â ‰¡â·ºàπ·∫πÊ Ωí߇¢â“‰ª °—∫·°π¢ÿ∫‡À¡◊Õπ„∫æ—¥ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâæÿ⬇§≈◊ËÕπ‰ª∫π ¢’È ‰∂ À√◊Õ‡∑◊Õ°‰¥â¥’ “Khup toi” is a tool for field grading. The khup can be made with pointed pieces of wood sticking into the main grinder to help with movement on the rough surface of the plowed fields or mud.

‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”π“æ◊Èπ∫â“π∑’Ë ”§—≠√Õß®“°‰∂ §◊Õ §√“¥ ´÷Ëß„™âª√—∫¥‘π·≈–§√Ÿ¥‡Õ“À≠â“·≈–«—™æ◊™ÕÕ°®“°π“°àÕπ À«à“π¢â“« À√◊Õªí°¥”°≈â“ æ®π“πÿ°√¡©∫—∫√“™∫—≥±‘µ¬ ∂“π æ.».ÚıÙÚ Õ∏‘∫“¬ §«“¡À¡“¬¢Õߧ”«à“ §√���¥ ‰«â«à“ §√“¥ π.‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”‰√à ∑”π“ „™â«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬≈“° ≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ§“π¡’´’ËÀà“ßÊ °—π ¡’§—π™—° ”À√—∫≈“°¢’ÈÀ≠â“ ·≈–∑”„À⥑π∑’ˉ∂·≈â«´ÿ¬, ‡§√◊ËÕß ¡◊Õ ”À√—∫™—°À√◊Õ≈“°¢’ÀÈ ≠â“ À√◊ÕÀ¬“°‡¬◊ÕË ‡ªìπµâπ ∑”‡ªìπ´’ÊË ¡’¥â“¡ ”À√—∫®—∫™—°À√◊Õ≈“°‰ª °.™—°À√◊Õ≈“°¢’ÈÀ≠Ⓡªìπµâπ ¥â«¬§√“¥π—Èπ ™“«π“„πÕ¥’µ¡—°∑”§√“¥„™â‡Õ߇™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‰∂  à«π ª√–°Õ∫µà“ßÊ ¢Õߧ√“¥≈â«π∑”¥â«¬‰¡â∑ß—È  ‘πÈ µ—ßÈ ·µà µ—«§√“¥ À√◊Õ ·¡à§√“¥ ´÷ßË ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡π◊ÕÈ ·¢Áߪ√–‡¿∑‰¡â·¥ß ‰¡âª√–¥Ÿà ‰¡â¡–§à“ ‰¡â‡µÁß ‡ªìπµâπ ‚¥¬„™â∑àÕπ‰¡â ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡Àπâ“°«â“ß ª√–¡“≥ Ù x Ù π‘È« ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ù ∂÷ß ˆ »Õ° À√◊Õ ‡≈Á°„À≠à°«à“π’È ¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫°“√„™â Õ¬«à“®–„™â«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬≈“° ∂Ⓡªìπ§√“¥«—«®–¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°À√◊Õ —Èπ°«à“§√“¥§«“¬ ∫πµ—« ·¡à§√“¥®–µâÕ߇®“–√Ÿ ”À√—∫„ à ≈Ÿ°§√“¥ §◊Õ‰¡â∑’Ë∑”‡ªìπ´’ËÊ Õ¬à“ßøíπÀ«’ √Ÿ ”À√—∫„ à≈Ÿ°§√“¥Õ“®‡®“–‡ªìπ√Ÿ°≈¡ À√◊Õ„™â  ‘Ë«‡®“–‡ªìπ√Ÿ ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡¢π“¥æÕ∑’Ë®– Õ¥≈Ÿ°§√“¥‰¥âæÕ¥’ ‡®“–Àà“ß°—πæÕª√–¡“≥ ·¡à§√“¥Õ—πÀπ÷Ëß„ à≈Ÿ°§√“¥‰¥â ª√–¡“≥ Ò ∂÷ß Òı ≈Ÿ° ≈Ÿ°§√“¥∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Á߇ªìπ ·∑àß ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡‡À≈“ª≈“¬„Àâ°≈¡·≈–·À≈¡ °“√„ à≈Ÿ°§√“¥ ≈߉ª„π√Ÿ∫π·¡à§√“¥ Õ“®µÕ°„Àâª≈“¬≈Ÿ°§√“¥∑–≈ÿ≈߉ª ®π ÿ¥ À“°≈Ÿ°§√“¥‰¡à·πàπ ®–µâÕßµÕ°≈‘Ë¡·´¡„Àâ·πàπ ∫πµ—«·¡à§√“¥µâÕ߇®“–√Ÿ ”À√—∫„ à ¡◊Õ§√“¥ À√◊Õ∑’Ë®—∫ §√“¥ ·≈– §—π§√“¥ À√◊Õ §—π™—° √Ÿ  ”À√—∫„ à¡◊Õ§√“¥‡®“–‡ªìπ√Ÿ‡™à𠇥’¬«°—∫√Ÿ≈Ÿ°§√“¥ ‚¥¬‡®“–„Àâ Àà“ß°—πª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ° Õ¬Ÿà √–À«à“ß°÷ßË °≈“ߢÕßµ—«§√“¥ ‡¡◊Ë Õ Ωí ß ¡◊ Õ §√“¥≈ß„π√Ÿ ∫πµ— « §√“¥·≈â « ®– Ÿ ß ª√–¡“≥»Õ°‡»…

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¡’ ‰¡â ‰ºàÀ√◊Õ‰¡â®√‘ßæ“¥¢«“ß ”À√—∫‡ªìπ∑’Ë®—∫§√“¥ ¡◊Õ§√“¥ À√◊Õ∑’Ë®—∫π’È®–µâÕß∑”„Àâ·¢Áß·√ß ¡—Ëπ§ß ‡æ√“–„™â‡ªìπ∑’Ë ∫—ߧ—∫·≈–°¥„Àâµ—«§√“¥®¡≈߉ª„π¢’È ‰∂  à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õߧ√“¥∑’ Ë ”§—≠Õ’°Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷ßË §◊Õ §—π§√“¥ À√◊Õ §—π™—° ´÷Ëß∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà ‡™àπ ‰¡â√«°À√◊Õ‰¡â ’ ÿ°¢π“¥ ª√–¡“≥‡∑à“¢âÕ¡◊Õ Ú ≈” ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ ˆ ∂÷ß ˜ »Õ° ¡—¥ ª≈“¬¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëßµ‘¥°—π Õ’°¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëß∂à“ßÕÕ°·≈â« Õ¥‡¢â“‰ª„π √Ÿ∑’ˇ®“–‰«â∫πµ—«§√“¥ ´÷Ë߇®“–§π≈–¥â“π°—∫√Ÿ≈Ÿ°§√“¥ §—π §√“¥®–µ—Èß©“°°—∫µ—«§√“¥ ·≈–Õ¬Ÿà√–À«à“ßµ—«§√“¥°—∫«—« À√◊Õ§«“¬ ‚¥¬„™âÀπ—ß«—«Àπ—ߧ«“¬∑”‡ªìπ‡ âπ À√◊Õøíòπ‡ªìπ ‡°≈’¬« ºŸ°ª≈“¬µ‘¥°—∫°÷Ëß°≈“ß·Õ°∑’Ë¡’‡™◊Õ°‡§≈à“‚¬ß‰ª¬—ß §Õ¡∑’˧ի—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ §—π§√“¥ À√◊Õ §—π™—° ¢Õߧ√“¥„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ·≈–¿“§ Õ’ “π∑’ˇ∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â —ÈπÊ  ÕßÕ—π  Õ¥¢—¥°—∫ ·¡à§√“¥‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫§—π™—°‰¡â ‰ºà ª≈“¬§—π™—°∑—Èß ÕßÕ—π∑” ‡ªìπªÿÉ¡ ”À√—∫ºŸ°‡™◊Õ°∑’Ë≈à“¡‰ª§≈âÕߧի—« Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ √Ÿª√à“ß ¢π“¥ ·≈–‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ√“¥ Õ“®·µ°µà“ß°—π∫â“ßµ“¡ ¿“æ°“√„™â Õ¬¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ™“«π“®–„™â§√“¥À≈—ß®“° ‰∂¥– À√◊Õ°“√‰∂§√—ßÈ ·√°∑’Ë ‰∂ ß—¥¥‘π¢÷Èπ¡“‡ªìπ°√–∫‘Ê ·≈⫪≈àÕ¬∑‘È߉«â „ÀâÀ≠â“·Àâßµ“¬ À≈—ß®“°π—Èπ®÷߉∂´È”Õ’°§√—ÈßÀπ÷Ëß ‡√’¬°«à“ ‰∂·ª√ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ¢’È ‰∂ ∑’Ë ‰∂‰«â§√—Èß·√°°≈—∫¢÷Èπ¡“ ‡∑à“°—∫‡ªìπ°“√æ√«π¥‘π °“√‰∂ ∑—Èß Õߧ√—Èßπ’È®–µâÕ߉∂À≈—ßΩπµ° ¥‘π√à«πæÕ∑’Ë®–‰∂‰¥â À√◊Õ ‰∂„π·ª≈ßπ“∑’Ë¡’πÈ”¢—ßÕ¬Ÿà ‰¡à¡“°π—° ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰∂‰¥â –¥«°‰¡à ´È”√Õ¬‡¥‘¡ ·¡â°“√‰∂∑—Èß Õߧ√—Èß®–‡ªìπ°“√æ√«π¥‘π ·≈– ∑”≈“¬À≠â“·≈–«—™æ◊™∑’Ë ‰¡àµÕâ ß°“√°Áµ“¡ ·µà°¬Á ß— ‰¡à∑”„ÀâÀ≠â“ ·≈–«—™æ◊™À¡¥‰ª ™“«π“®÷ßµâÕß„™â§√“¥‡æ◊ËÕ§√“¥‡Õ“À≠â“ ÕÕ° ·≈–ª√—∫¥‘π„Àâ‡√’¬∫‡ ¡Õ°—πÕ’°§√—ÈßÀπ÷Ëß ‡ ∞’¬√‚°‡»» Õ∏‘∫“¬‡√◊ÕË ß§√“¥‰«â „πÀπ—ß ◊Õ™’«µ‘ ™“«π“ «à“ ç§√“¥ §◊Õ‡§√◊ÕË ß “߇ՓµâπÀ≠â“„ÀâÀ≈ÿ¥ÕÕ°®“°¥‘𠇪ìπ ‰¡â¡’´’ˇªìπ·∂« ‡√’¬°«à“≈Ÿ°§√“¥ ·≈–„™â§«“¬‡∑’¬¡≈“°‰ª „πÕ—ππ“ °“√§√“¥∑’Ë·√°µâÕߧ√“¥„π·ª≈ß∑’Ë·√°π“‡ªìπ ª∞¡ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‡¡◊ÕË ‰∂ µÕπ§√“¥π’µÈ Õâ ߉¢πÈ”‡¢â“À√◊ÕπÈ”ÕÕ° ¥ŸæÕ„Àâ‡À¡“–°—π §◊Õª√–¡“≥æÕ∑à«¡¢’ȉ∂‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ §√“¥ ®–°≈—∫‰ª°≈—∫¡“ ®π¥‘π¢’‰È ∂ªÉπ‡ªìπ‚§≈π‡≈π°≈“¬‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ° µ√߉Àπ¡’À—«À≠â“À—«∫Õπ°Á∂Õπ∑‘Èß ®–‰¥âªí°¥”¢â“« –Õ“¥ §√“¥·≈â«∑‘È߉«â§◊πÀπ÷ËßÀ√◊Õ Õߧ◊π ®π¥‘π‡≈ππÕππÈ”·≈â« ®÷ßπ”æ—π∏ÿå¢â“«‰ªÀ«à“πÀ√◊Õπ”¢â“«°≈Ⓣªªí°¥”..é ˆ °“√„™â§√“¥π—πÈ ™“«π“®–µâÕß®—∫¡◊Õ§√“¥∫—ߧ—∫ „Àâ§√“¥§√Ÿ¥¥‘π‡√’¬∫‡ ¡Õ°—π ∫“ߧ√—Èß


§√“¥ ¡’≈Ÿ°§√“¥‡√’¬ß°—π‡ªìπ·∂« §≈⓬øíπÀ«’ “Krad” - a tool consisting of a row of teeth set in a headpiece attached to a long shaft, an implement used to break up clods of soil.

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‡µ√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√∑”π“

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‚√߇√◊Õπ™—«Ë §√“«  ”À√—∫æ—°Õ“»—¬„πƒ¥Ÿ∑”π“ ¿“§°≈“߇√’¬° °√–∑àÕ¡ À√◊Õ ‚√ßπ“ ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬° Àâ“ß À√◊Õ Àâ“ßπ“ ¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬° ‡∂’¬ßπ“ ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬° ¢π” “Khanam” a temporary shelter in the paddy

æ‘∏’·√°π“ °“√‡´àπ‰À«â ‘Ëß»—°¥‘Ï ‘∑∏‘Ï °àÕπ≈ß¡◊Õ∑”π“ ™“«π“®–µâÕß √â“ß »“≈‡æ’¬ßµ“µ√ß∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë°”À𥉫â„πÕ—ππ“ ¡’‡ “‰¡â ‰ºà ˆ ‡ “  Ÿß‡ ¡Õ√–¥—∫µ“ æÕ„À⫓߇§√◊ËÕ߇´àπ‰À«â ´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ ¢Õß°‘π‡∑à“∑’ËÀ“‰¥â Õ¬à“ß°ÿâßæ≈à“ª≈“¬” ·≈–¢â“«ª“°À¡âÕ ‚¥¬„ à°√–∑ß À√◊Õ«“ß∫π„∫µÕß ‡§√◊ËÕß∫Ÿ™“¡’∏Ÿª‡∑’¬π «“ß°âÕπ¥‘π‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬¢Õßæ√–¿Ÿ¡‘ ¢≥– —߇«¬µâÕß°≈à“«ÕâÕπ«Õπ¢Õ„Àâ∑”π“‰¥â º≈¥’ ‰¡à¡’¿—¬æ‘∫—µ‘ ‡ √Á®®“°‡´àπ‰À«â·≈â« ≈ß¡◊Õ‰∂·√°π“æÕ‡ªìπæ‘∏’ »“≈‡æ’¬ßµ“ ‰¡àµâÕß√◊ÈÕ ‡æ√“–µâÕß∑”æ‘∏’‡´àπ‰À«âÕ’°§√—Èß ‡¡◊ËÕ≈ß¡◊Õªí°¥” °“√∑”æ‘∏’·√°π“Õ“®µà“ß°—𠉪µ“¡§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ¢Õß·µà≈–∂‘Ëπ ·µà‡ªìπ°“√ ∫Ÿ™“‡´àπ‰À«âæ√–¿Ÿ¡‘ ·¡à∏√≥’ ·≈–·¡à‚æ æ ¢ÕÕ¬à“„Àâ —µ«å ‡™àπ ‡æ≈’Ȭ ªŸ ÀπŸπ“ ‡µà“ ¡“ ∑”≈“¬¢â“«∑’˪≈Ÿ°‰«â ˜

µâÕß„™â·√ß°¥¡◊Õ§√“¥ À√◊ÕÕ“®„™â‡∑ⓇÀ¬’¬∫·¡à§√“¥„Àâ≈Ÿ° §√“¥®¡¥‘π À√◊Õ§√Ÿ¥¥‘π„Àâ≈÷°µ“¡µâÕß°“√ ‡æ◊ËÕ§√Ÿ¥¥‘π ª√—∫¢’È ‰∂„Àâ‡√’¬∫‡ ¡Õ°—π  à«π∑’‡Ë ªìπÀ≈ÿ¡À√◊Õ‡ªìπ·Õàß ™“«π“ µâÕߧ√“¥¥‘π≈߉ª„À⇠¡Õ°—∫Àπâ“¥‘π à«πÕ◊ËπÊ πÕ°®“° §√“¥®–™à«¬ª√—∫Àπâ“¥‘π„Àâ‡√’¬∫·≈⫬—ߙ૬„Àâ¥π‘ ¢’ȉ∂·µ°‡ªìπ °âÕπ‡≈Á°Ê ‡ ¡Õ°—π¥â«¬ §√“¥‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ ”§—≠„π°“√‡µ√’¬¡¥‘πÀ≈—ß°“√‰∂ °àÕπÀ«à“π¢â“« À√◊Õªí°¥”°≈â“ ™“«π“™“«‰√à®÷ßµâÕß¡’§√“¥ ‰«âª√–®”∫â“π Õ“®∑”¢÷Èπ„™â‡ÕßÀ√◊Õ´◊ÈÕÀ“·≈°‡ª≈’Ë¬π¡“®“° À¡Ÿà∫â“πÕ◊Ëπ §√“¥‡ªì 𠇧√◊Ë Õ ß¡◊ Õ ∑”π“æ◊È π ∫â “ π„πÕ¥’ µ ∑’Ë ∑”¢÷È π Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ·µà „™âª√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â¥’ · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“„π °“√ª√–¥‘ … ∞å ‡ §√◊Ë Õ ß¡◊ Õ ‡§√◊Ë Õ ß„™â ¢ Õß™“«π“‰∑¬„πÕ¥’ µ ªí®®ÿ∫π— ·¡â™“«π“¬—ß„™â§√“¥À≈—ß°“√‰∂π“Õ¬Ÿ°à µÁ “¡·µà¡°— ‡ªìπ §√“¥‡À≈Á°∑’Ë „™â°—∫√∂‰∂π“¡“°°«à“§√“¥æ◊Èπ∫â“π¥—ß·µà°àÕ𠇧√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ∑”π“∑’¡Ë °— „™â§°Ÿà ∫— §√“¥Õ’°Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷ßË §◊Õ ¢ÿ∫ À√◊Õ ¢≈ÿ∫ ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ ”À√—∫¬àÕ¬¥‘π ∫¥∑—∫À≠â“·≈–«—™æ◊™„À⮡¥‘π À√◊Õ‡√’¬°«à“ µ’‡∑◊Õ°πÈ” ¢ÿ∫∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫§√“¥ ¡’≈°— …≥–§≈⓬√∂∫¥¥‘π ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ µ—«¢ÿ∫ ∑”¥â«¬∑àÕπ‰¡â‡π◊ÕÈ ·¢Áß ¢π“¥‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å °≈“ß Ò ∂÷ß Ú §◊∫ ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ò ∂÷ß Ú »Õ° ∂“°„À⇪ìπ

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ˆ ∂÷ß ¯ ‡À≈’ˬ¡ ∑’˵—«¢ÿ∫∫“ß∑’∑”‡ªìπ∑Õ¬ ‚¥¬„™â·ºàπ‰¡â ·∫πÊ Ωí߇¢â“‰ª°—∫·°π¢ÿ∫‡À¡◊Õπ„∫æ—¥ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâæÿ⬇§≈◊ËÕ𠉪∫π¢’È ‰∂À√◊Õ‡∑◊Õ°‰¥â¥’ ¢ÿ∫™π‘¥π’ȇ√’¬° ¢ÿ∫∑Õ¬ ª≈“¬µ—«¢ÿ∫∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß∑”‡ªìπ‡¥◊Õ¬ ”À√—∫„ à°—∫√Ÿ∫π ·ºàπ‰¡â∑’ˇ®“–‰«â µ’·ºàπ‰¡â∑—Èß ÕßÕ—πµ‘¥°—∫‰¡â≈Ÿ°µ—Èß´÷Ë߇ªìπ ‡ “∑àÕπ —ÈπÊ ª√–¡“≥»Õ°‡»…Ê ∫π‰¡â≈Ÿ°µ—Èß¡’‡ “‰¡âÕ’° ∑àÕπÀπ÷Ëß«“ߢ«“߬÷¥≈Ÿ°µ—Èß∑—Èß Õ߉«â µ√ß°≈“߇®“–√Ÿ  Õ¥‰¡â§—π™—°·≈–µÕ° ≈—°„Àâ·πàπ ºŸ°ª≈“¬‡¢â“°—∫·Õ° ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫§—π™—°¢Õߧ√“¥ ‡«≈“„™â‡∑’¬¡¥â«¬«—« Ú µ—« À√◊Õ§«“¬µ—«‡¥’¬«°Á ‰¥â ¢÷Èπ°—∫«à“¢ÿ∫¡’¢π“¥·≈–πÈ”Àπ—° ‡À¡“–°—∫«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ °“√„™â¢ÿ∫°Á‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫°“√„™â§√“¥ §◊Õ„™âµ’¢’È ‰∂„Àâ·µ° ‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ° ∫¥∑—∫À≠â“·≈–«—™æ◊™„À⮡¥‘π ·µà¢ÿ∫‡À¡“–  ”À√—∫æ◊Èπ∑’Ë´÷ËßÀ—°√â“ß∂“ßæß„À¡àÊ Õ“®®–¬—ß¡’µÕ À√◊Õ √“°‰¡âÕ¬Ÿà „π¥‘π À“°„™â§√“¥®–∑”„Àâ≈Ÿ°§√“¥ –¥ÿ¥À—°‰¥â ™“«π“®÷ߪ√–¥‘…∞å¢ÿ∫¢÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ„™â§Ÿà°—∫§√“¥™à«¬∫¥∑—∫À≠â“ °àÕπ≈ß¡◊Õªí°¥” ªí®®ÿ∫—π‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”𓉥âæ—≤𓉪‡ªìπ¬ÿ§¢Õ߇§√◊ËÕß ®—°√°≈ ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑”π“æ◊Èπ∫â“πÕ¬à“ߧ√“¥·≈–¢ÿ∫®÷ß Ÿ≠‰ª ‰¡à „§√à¡’ „™â·≈â« πÕ°®“°∑âÕß∑’ËÀà“߉°≈∑’ˬ—ß„™â«—«·≈–§«“¬ „π°“√∑”π“Õ¬Ÿà‡∑à“π—Èπ


»“≈‡æ’¬ßµ“ A spirit house in the field, usually built as a shelter for the field spirits.

«‘∏’°“√ ·≈–¢—ÈπµÕπ °“√∑”π“ ‡¡◊ÕË √Ÿ®â °— ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õæ◊πÈ ∞“π¢Õß°“√∑”π“·≈⫧«√√Ÿ«â ∏‘ °’ “√ „™â‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ¥—ß°≈à“« ·≈–¢—ÈπµÕπ¢Õß°“√ª≈Ÿ°¢â“«´÷Ë߇ªìπ ª∞¡∫∑¢Õß°“√∑”π“∑’Ë ”§—≠¬‘Ë߇æ√“–®–‡°Á∫‡°’ˬ«º≈º≈‘µ ‰¥â¡“°πâÕ¬‡æ’¬ß„¥°Á¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫°“√À«à“π¥”¥â«¬ à«πÀπ÷Ëß ™’«‘µ™“«π“‰∑¬‡√‘Ë¡µâπµ—Èß·µà¢÷Èπ Ò §Ë”‡¥◊Õπ ˆ (√“«µâ𠇥◊Õπ情¿“§¡) ·µà™“«π“®–µâÕ߇µ√’¬¡‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ÕË ß„™â  ”À√—∫‰∂π“‰«â „Àâæ√âÕ¡°àÕπ·≈â« ∫“ß∑’µÕâ ߉ª √â“ß°√–∑àÕ¡ À√◊Õ ‚√ßπ“ Àâ“ß ‡∂’¬ßπ“ À√◊Õ ¢π” ‰«â‡ªìπ∑’Ëæ—°°≈“ß«—π À√◊ÕÕ¬ŸàÕ“»—¬µ≈Õ¥ƒ¥Ÿ∑”π“ À“°∑’Ëπ“Õ¬Ÿà ‰°≈®“°∫â“π µâÕß ‡ ’¬‡«≈“‡¥‘π∑“ß „π√–À«à“ßπ—ÈπµâÕß√Õƒ°…åß“¡¬“¡¥’ ‡æ◊ËÕ ∑” æ‘ ∏’ · √°π“ ¥â « ¬°“√‡´à π ‰À«â ‡∑«¥“ ”§— ≠ Û Õß§å §◊Õ æ√–¿Ÿ¡‘ ·¡à∏√≥’ ·≈– ·¡à ‚æ æ ·≈⫇√‘¡Ë ‰∂π“·√°‡ªìπ °“√‡Õ“ƒ°…å∑”π“°àÕπ∑’Ë®–‰∂Õ¬à“ß®√‘ß®—ß„π«—πµàÕ‰ª „π  ¡—¬‚∫√“≥æ‘∏’·√°π“ À√◊Õ æ‘∏’·√°π“¢«—≠ ‡ªìπæ‘∏’ ”§—≠ ∑’Ë æ√–¡À“°…—µ√‘¬åµâÕß∑√ß·√°π“¢«—≠¥â«¬æ√–Õߧå‡Õß °“√‰∂π“¡—°‡ªìπÀπâ“∑’¢Ë ÕߺŸ™â “¬´÷ßË µâÕ߇µ√’¬¡µ—«·∫°‰∂ ¡’¥ ®Õ∫ ‡ ’¬¡ ‰ª¥â«¬ À√◊Õ„ à‡≈◊ËÕπ„À⧫“¬≈“°‰ª¬—ß∑’Ëπ“

µ—Èß·µàµ’ ’ËÀ√◊Õµ’Àâ“°àÕπøÑ“ “ß ¢≥–∑’˺ŸâÀ≠‘ßµ◊Ëπ¢÷Èπ¡“ ‡µ√’¬¡ÀÿßÀ“Õ“À“√ °“√‰∂π“®–µâÕß°–·∫àß Õ—ππ“ ‡ªìπß“πÊ §◊Õ·∫àßæ◊πÈ ∑’ Ë ‡’Ë À≈’¬Ë ¡º◊πºâ“∑’ÕË ¬Ÿà „π°√Õ∫¢Õߧ—ππ“Õ’°™—πÈ Àπ÷ßË ‡æ◊ÕË „Àâ ‰∂‡ √Á®µÕπ‡æ≈À√◊Õ‡∑’¬Ë ߇æ◊ÕË À¬ÿ¥°‘π¢â“«·≈–„À⧫“¬ æ—°°‘πÀ≠â“ Õ—ππ“À√◊Õπ“·ª≈ßÀπ÷ËßÕ“®·∫à߇ªìπ Ù ß“π °“√‰∂µâÕ߇√‘Ë¡®“°À—«§—ππ“¥â“π¢«“¡◊Õ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ¢’È ‰∂µ°‰ª ∑“ߴ⓬µ≈Õ¥·π« ‡¡◊ËÕ‰∂®π®«π ÿ¥¡ÿ¡µâÕ߬°‰∂À—°‰ª∑“ß ´â“¬µ“¡¥â“π °—¥ ‡√’¬°«à“ ‡∫’¬Ë ßÀ“߉∂ ‡æ◊ÕË ‰¡à „Àâ·π«‰∂‚§âß ‡ªìπ∑’Ë«à“ßµ“¡¡ÿ¡ ºŸâ ‰∂®÷ßµâÕ߇∫’ˬßÀ“߉∂∑ÿ°§√—Èß∑’Ë∂÷ß¡ÿ¡ ‡¡◊ËÕ‰∂‰ª∫√√®∫°—π·≈⫵âÕߢ÷Èπ·π«„À¡à §àÕ¬µ–≈àÕ¡·§∫ ‡¢â“‰ª∑ÿ°∑’Ê ®π∑—Ë«∑—ÈßÕ—ππ“®÷߇√‘Ë¡ß“π„À¡à Õ“®‰∂‡æ’¬ß  Õßß“π·≈â«æ—°°‘π¢â“« ª≈¥·Õ°«—«§«“¬ª≈àÕ¬„Àâ ‰ª°‘π À≠â“°‘πø“ß Õ“®‰∂‡æ’¬ß™à«ß‡™â“∂÷߇æ≈À√◊Õ‰∂∑—È߇™â“ ·≈–∫à“¬§◊Õ√“« Ù ‚¡ß‡¬Áπ°Á‡≈‘° ‡æ◊ËÕ„À⧫“¬‰¥â·™àª≈—° ·≈–°‘πÀ≠â“°àÕπ∑’Ë®–°≈—∫‡¢â“∫â“πµÕπ‡¬ÁπÀ√◊Õ‡¢â“§Õ°∑’Ë ∑”‰«â „°≈â ‚√ßπ“ °“√‰∂π“ ∂Ⓡªìππ“À«à“πÕ“®‰∂‡æ’¬ß§√—ßÈ ‡¥’¬« §◊Õ À«à“π ‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿ¢å “â «°àÕπ·≈⫉∂¥–À√◊Õ‰∂°≈∫‡æ’¬ß§√—ßÈ ‡¥’¬« ·µà∂“â „ππ“¡’À≠â“¡“°µâÕ߉∂¥–‡æ◊ËÕ∂ÕπÀ≠â“ÕÕ° À√◊Õª≈àÕ¬„Àâ À≠⓵“¬°àÕπ·≈â«®÷ßÀ«à“π¢â“«·≈⫉∂°≈∫Õ’°§√—ßÈ ∂Ⓡªìππ“¥” ¡—°‰∂¥–‡æ◊ÕË ß—¥¥‘π¢÷πÈ ∑‘ßÈ ‰«â „ÀâÀ≠Ⓡπà“ ·≈⫉∂À√◊Õ‰∂·ª√´È” ‡æ◊ËÕæ≈‘°¢’È ‰∂„Àâ°≈—∫¢÷Èπ¢â“ß∫π‡À¡◊Õπæ√«π¥‘π ®“°π—Èπ®÷ß §√“¥‡Õ“À≠â“ÕÕ° ¢≥–§√“¥µâÕ߉¢πÈ”‡¢â“À√◊Õ‰¢πÈ”ÕÕ° °“√‡Õ“πÈ”‡¢â“π“Õ“®‡®“–§—π𓇪ìπ™àÕß„ÀâπÈ”‰À≈‡¢â“À√◊Õ ÕÕ° À√◊Õ„™â √–À—¥ «‘¥πÈ”‡¢â“ À“°π“·ª≈߇≈Á°Õ“®„™â ™ß‚≈ß ‚æßπÈ”‡¢â“ ‡¡◊ËÕπÈ”‡¢â“π“æÕ∑à«¡¢’È ‰∂‡≈Á°πâÕ¬·≈â«„™â§√“¥ §√“¥°≈—∫‰ª°≈—∫¡“ ®π¢’È ‰∂ªÉπ‡ªìπ‚§≈π‡≈π°≈“¬‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ° 41

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‡∑«¥“ ∑’Ë™“«π“‡´àπ‰À«â∫Ÿ™“ √–À«à“ß∑”π“ Û Õß§å ‰¥â·°à æ√–¿Ÿ¡‘ ‡∑æ“√—°…åÀ√◊Õ‡∑«¥“ª√–®”æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ®÷ßµâÕߢՄ™âæ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑”π“ ·¡à∏√≥’ ‡∑æ∏‘¥“ À√◊Õ ‡∑«¥“ºŸâÀ≠‘ߺŸâ√—°…“æ◊Èπ¥‘π ¢Õ„À⥟·≈√—°…“∑’Ë¥‘π∑’Ë„™â∑”π“ ·¡à‚æ æ ‡∑æ∏‘¥“ª√–®”¢â“« À√◊Õ ‡®â“·¡à·Ààߢ⓫ ‚∫√“≥‡™◊ËÕ«à“·¡à‚æ æ‡ªìπ‡∑æ∏‘¥“¢Õߢ⓫ µâÕ߇´àπ‰À«â∫™Ÿ “„Àâ·¡à‚æ ææÕ„® ®÷ß®–∑”𓉥âº≈¥’ À“°·¡à‚æ æ‰¡àæÕ„® ®–‰¥âº≈µ√ß°—π¢â“¡ ¥—ßπ—Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ°“√∑”π“ ‰¥âº≈¥’ ™“«π“®÷ßµâÕ߇´àπ‰À«â∫Ÿ™“‡∑æ ∑—Èß “¡Õߧåµ≈Õ¥ƒ¥Ÿ°“√∑”π“ µ—Èß·µà°àÕπ‰∂π“ √–À«à“ߢ⓫ÕÕ°√«ß ®π∂÷ß°“√π«¥¢â“« ¢π¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâß ≈“≈Ÿ·∫√å ∫—π∑÷°‡°’ˬ«°—∫ æ‘∏’·√°π“À√◊Õ®√¥æ√–π—ߧ—≈·√°π“¢«—≠ ‰«â«à“ çæ√–‡®â“°√ÿß ¬“¡‡ ¥Á®æ√–√“™¥”‡π‘π ∑√ß·√°π“¢«—≠®√¥æ√–π—ߧ—≈ ¥â«¬Ωïæ√–À—µ∂å¢Õßæ√–Õߧå‡Õß „π«—πƒ°…å¥«’ π— Àπ÷ßË „π√Õ∫ªï ‡ªìπ‡«≈“µ‘¥µàÕ°—π¡“‡°◊Õ∫»µ«√√…·≈â«...é µàÕ¡“∑√ß¡Õ∫À¡“¬„À⺟â·∑πæ√–Õߧå ∑’ˇ√’¬° ÕÕ°≠“¢â“« À√◊Õ ÕÕ°≠“·Ààߢ⓫ ‡ªìπºŸâª√–°Õ∫æ‘∏’ æ√–√“™æ‘∏’·√°π“¢«—≠ ‡ªìπ°“√®Ÿß„®„Àâ ª√–™“™π¡’§«“¡»√—∑∏“„π°“√∑”‰√à ‰∂π“ ·≈–‡ªìπ°“√‡´àπ‰À«â ‘Ëß»—°¥‘Ï ‘∑∏‘ϥ⫬ ¯


™ß‚≈ß ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ/Õÿª°√≥å«‘¥πÈ”  “π¥â«¬µÕ°‰¡â ‰ºà √Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬ º≈øí°ºà“´’° ¡’À≈“¬™π‘¥ ‡™àπ ™π‘¥¥â“¡ —Èπ„™â«‘¥πÈ”‡¢â“ À√◊ÕÕÕ°®“°·À≈àßπÈ” ™π‘¥¥â“¡¬“«·≈–§àÕπ¢â“ß„À≠à „™â‡™◊Õ°ºŸ°·¢«π‡¢â“°—∫¢“À¬—Ëß „Àâµ—«™ß‚≈ß·¢«π≈Õ¬ Õ¬Ÿà‡Àπ◊ÕπÈ”„π√–¥—∫ Ÿß æÕ∑’Ë®–‚æßπÈ”‰¥â –¥«° „™â«‘¥πÈ”‚¥¬®—∫¥â“¡™ß‚≈ß ·≈â«ß—¥„Àâµ—«™ß‚≈ß‚æßπÈ” ÕÕ°®“°·À≈àßπÈ” ¡—°„™â°—∫·À≈àßπÈ”µ◊ÈπÊ ‡™àπ ‚æßπÈ”ÕÕ°®“°π“ ¢â“¡À—«§—π𓇵’È¬Ê ™ß‚≈ß ∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° ‚™ß‚≈ß ‚æß À√◊Õ §—π‚æß ¿“§Õ’ “π‡√’¬° °√–‚´â ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬° ‚æß A woven bamboo basket called “chonglong” to remove water from a shallow water well. It is fastened to a bamboo tripod so that it stays clear above the water at a convenient height. To operate it, the farmer lifts the long handle allowing the basket to dip into the water and removing the water when it is lifted.

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‡©≈«  ‘Ëß∑’Ë “π¥â«¬µÕ°¢—¥°—𠇪ìπ·©°Ê Õ“®¡’Àâ“·©° À°·©° À√◊Õ¡“°°«à“π—Èπ ¡—°∑”¢÷Èπµ“¡ §«“¡‡™◊ËÕ∑’Ë¡’¡“·µà‚∫√“≥ À—°µÕ°§√—Èß·√° 查«à“ π– §√—Èß∑’Ë Õß ‚¡ §√—Èß∑’Ë “¡ æÿ∑ §√—Èß∑’Ë ’Ë ∏“ §√—Èß∑’ËÀâ“ ¬– √«¡‡ªìπ π–‚¡æÿ∑∏“¬– À¡“¬∂÷ß æ√–‡®â“Àâ“æ√–Õß§å ¡—°ªí°∫πÀ¡âÕ¬“ ‡æ√“–‡™◊ËÕ«à“‡©≈« ®–ªÑÕß°—π ‘Ëß™—Ë«√⓬∑’Ë®–∑”„À⬓‡ ◊ËÕ¡ À√◊ÕÕ’°π—¬Àπ÷Ëß ‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π¡‘„Àâ§π‡ªî¥ À¡âÕ¬“ À√◊Õ„™â‡©≈«‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬¥â«¬ ‡™àπ ∂⓵âÕß°“√¢“¬¢Õß ‘Ëß„¥ °Á®–ªí°‡©≈«‰«â‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬„Àâ§π√Ÿâ ®÷ß¡—°æ∫«à“¡’°“√ªí°‡©≈«‰«â∫π‡§√◊ËÕ߇´àπæ≈’ µ“¡√‘¡∑“ßÀ√◊Õ∑“ß·¬° ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬ ∫Õ°„Àâ¿Ÿµº’·≈–«‘≠≠“≥¡“√—∫‡§√◊ËÕ߇´àπæ≈’π—Èπ À√◊Õªí°‡©≈«¢π“¥„À≠à ‰«â„ππ“¢â“« ¢≥–¢â“«µ—Èß∑âÕß ‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π ‘Ëß™—Ë«√⓬ ‰¡à„Àâ∑”≈“¬¢â“« À√◊Õªí°‡©≈«‰«â∫π≈“π °àÕπ∑”∫ÿ≠≈“ππ«¥¢â“« ‚¥¬ªí°‰«â Ù ¡ÿ¡ ·≈â«¢÷ß “¬ ‘≠®πå≈âÕ¡√Õ∫ ‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π  ‘ËßÕ—ª¡ß§≈‰¡à„À⇢Ⓣª„π≈“ππ«¥¢â“« ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ¿“§Õ’ “π ‡√’¬° µ“·À≈«

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“Rahad” a traditional wooden water mill comes in different sizes. In the rail are a furrow and wooden cogs serving as wheels to drive water along the furrow. This tool is normally used where the water level of the two areas is not too different. The end of the mill will be placed into the high water area, whereas the upper end will be toward the dryer area where we want water to go to. When the water is pulled along the furrow, it goes along a discharge flume into the field. In the old days, the mill was powered by people or a windmill. Now it is motorized.

A traditional charm called “chalew” usually made from woven bamboo strips in the pattern of a five-or six-point star. In the old days, it was often placed on a medicine pot, in order to ward off evil spirits, which might come to discredit the medicinal power. It is sometimes placed on an offering for wandering spirits by the road junction. In the rice paddies when the rice is “pregnant,” or during the ritual before rice beating on the rice lawn, it is placed at the four corners to curb evil spirits from damaging the rice.


°“√≈ß·¢°¥”π“ «—≤π∏√√¡°“√∑”π“ Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷ËߢÕß™“«π“‰∑¬ Offering voluntary hands for rice planting is a tradition in Thai society.

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«‘∏’°“√·≈–¢—ÈπµÕπ°“√∑”π“

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Ò. µ“·°√– À√◊Õ §¡·°√– ∑”¥â«¬‡À≈Á° ¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ „∫¡’¥¬“«ª√–¡“≥ ı ∂÷ß ˆ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ΩíßÕ¬Ÿ∫à π°√–¥“π·°√– À√◊Õµ—«·°√– Ú. °√–¥“π·°√– À√◊Õ µ—«·°√– ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â∫“ßÊ √Ÿª  ’‡Ë À≈’¬Ë ¡§“ßÀ¡Ÿ ¥â“π¢π“π¥â“πÀπ÷ßË ¬“« ı ∂÷ß ˆ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ Õ’°¥â“𬓫√“« ¯ ∂÷ß ˘ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ °«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ù ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ¥â“π·§∫Ωíß·ºàπ‡À≈Á°¡’§¡‡À¡◊Õπ„∫¡’¥‡æ◊ËÕ„™â µ—¥√«ß¢â“« Û. ¥â“¡·°√– ∑”¥â«¬ª≈âÕ߉¡â ‰ºà¢π“¥‡∑à“π‘È«¡◊Õ ¬“« ˘ ∂÷ß Ò ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ‡ ’¬∫¢«“ß°—∫·ºàπ‰¡âµ—«·°√–µ“¡ √Õ¬∑’Ë∫“°À√◊Õ‡®“–‰«â °“√‡°’ˬ«¢â“«¥â«¬·°√–µâÕß®—∫·°√–‰«â „πÕÿâß¡◊Õ „™âπ‘È« °≈“ß·≈–π‘È«π“ߧ’∫µ—«·°√–‰«â „Àâ¥â“π∑’Ë¡’§¡Õ¬Ÿà „πÕÿâß¡◊Õ ®“°π—πÈ „™âπ«‘È ™’·È ≈–π‘«È À—«·¡à¡Õ◊ ¥÷ß√«ß¢â“«„Àâ∑“∫°—∫§¡·°√– °√–µÿ°„À⧡·°√–∫“¥√«ß¢â“«®π¢“¥ „™â¡◊ÕÕ’°¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëß°” √«ß¢â“«∑’µË ¥— ·≈â«√«¡‡¢â“‡ªìπ°”Ê ·≈⫇√’¬ß√«¡°—π‡ªìπ°Õß ‡æ◊ÕË ¡—¥‡ªìπøÉÕπ𔉪𫥠°“√‡°’¬Ë «¢â“«¥â«¬·°√– ·¡â®–‡°’¬Ë « ‰¥â™â“ ‡æ√“–µâÕ߇°’ˬ«∑’≈–√«ßÊ °Áµ“¡ ·µà®–‡°’ˬ«√«ß¢â“« ‰¥âÀ¡¥®¥ ‰¡à „§√à¡’√«ß¢â“«À≈߇À≈◊ÕÕ¬Ÿà ·°√–‡ªìπ‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ‡°’¬Ë «¢â“«æ◊πÈ ∫â“π∑’∑Ë ”¢÷πÈ Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ·≈–¡’√“§“∂Ÿ° ·µà „™âª√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â¥’ ™“«∫â“π∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ„π ¿“§„µâ®÷߬—ß„™â°—πÕ¬Ÿà ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ°Á¬—ß„™â·°√– „π∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘πË ·µà‡√’¬°«à“ À«Ÿ °“√‡°’¬Ë «¢â“«¥â«¬·°√–„π¿“§ „µâ‡ªìπ°“√‡°Á∫¢â“«∑’≈–√«ßÊ ·≈â«π”‰ª√«¡‰«â „π‡√◊Õπ¢â“« À√◊Õ¬ÿâß ‡¡◊ËÕµâÕß°“√∫√‘ ‚¿§®÷ßπ«¥‡Õ“‡¡≈Á¥ÕÕ° ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡°’ˬ«¢â“«Õ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷Ë߇√’¬° ‡§’¬« ´÷Ëßæ—≤π“ ¡“®“°·°√–∑’‡Ë °’¬Ë «∑’≈–√«ß ¡“‡ªìπ‡°’¬Ë «∑’≈–À≈“¬Ê √«ß À√◊Õ ‡°’ˬ«‰¥â§√“«≈–°”

·°√– ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡°’ˬ«¢â“«¬ÿ§·√°Ê ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑’Ë„™âµ—¥√«ß¢â“«∑’≈–√«ßÊ A southern harvest tool called “krae” which used to cut rice stalks individually.

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‡§’¬«¢Õ √Ÿª√à“ßµà“ß®“°‡§’¬«∑—Ë«‰ª ¡’¥â“¡‰¡â‚§âß°≈—∫°—π §≈⓬欗≠™π–µ—« ç√é ¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß„À≠à ·≈–‚§âß¡“°°«à“ Õ’°¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß´÷Ë߇√’¬«·≈–‡≈Á° An unusual harvest knife called “khiao kho” with a two-sided wooden handle, one side of which is more rounded and bigger than the other.

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‡¢πÁ¥ ´—ߢ⓫À√◊Õ°â“π°≈⫬  ”À√—∫¡—¥øÉÕπ¢â“« ‚¥¬π”ø“ߢ⓫ À√◊Õ°â“π°≈⫬·ÀâßÊ ¡“√«¡°—π ·≈â«øíòπ‡ªìπ‡°≈’¬«„Àâ¡’¢π“¥ª√–¡“≥ À—«·¡à¡◊Õ ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ°‡»… «‘∏’∑”‡¢πÁ¥ ™“«π“®–‡°’ˬ«´—ߢ⓫ ∑’ˇ°Á∫‡°’ˬ«√«ß¢â“«ÕÕ°·≈â« ‡≈◊Õ°∑’Ë≈”µâ𬓫 À√◊Õ°â“π°≈⫬·ÀâßÊ ¡“«“ß·ºà∑‘Èßµ“°πÈ”§â“ß À√◊Õæ√¡πÈ” „Àⴗߢ⓫À√◊Õ°â“π°≈⫬π‘Ë¡ ·≈â«π”¡“√«¡°—πøíòπ‡ªìπ‡°≈’¬« „Àâ¡’¢π“¥æÕ∑’Ë®–¡—¥øÉÕπ¢â“«‰¥â ™“«π“¡—°™à«¬°—π∑”‡¢πÁ¥µÕπ°≈“ߧ◊π „πƒ¥Ÿ‡°Á∫‡°’ˬ« ‡¡◊ËÕøíòπ‡ √Á®·≈â« ®–∑”‡ªìπÀà«ß ‚¥¬∫‘¥ª≈“¬‡¢â“¥â«¬°—π µ√ß°≈“ß ‡ªìπ«ß‚§âß¢π“¥‡∑à“Ê °—π ·≈â«¡—¥√«¡°—π‡ªìπ¡—¥Ê ·≈â«„™â§“π Õ¥§Õπ‰ª∑’Ëπ“ ‡¢πÁ¥™π‘¥π’‡È √’¬°«à“ ‡¢πÁ¥À—«™â“ß ™“«∫â“π∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° §—π‡πÁ¥ À√◊Õ §–‡πÁ¥

µ√Ÿ¥ À√◊Õ °√Ÿ¥ ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡°’ˬ«¢â“«Õ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß ¢Õß¿“§„µâ§≈⓬°—∫‡§’¬« ¥â“¡∑”¥â«¬‰¡âÀ√◊Õ√“°‰¡â À—«®–„À≠à·≈–·∫π ∑’Ë®—∫°≈¡ ·≈⫇√’¬«‚§â߇ªìπ√Ÿª √–Õ“ §¡‡§’¬«√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬„∫¡’¥ ΩíßÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ë à«πÀ—« Õ¬Ÿà¥â“π‡¥’¬«°—∫  à«π∑’Ë‚§â߇¢â“ A harvest tool from the South called “krud” with a wooden handle and a flat and big upper piece where the slight crescent blade is embedded.

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A cart from Suphan Buri.

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“Khanlao”-a two-pointed pole to transport rice bunches, is normally made from a piece of bamboo about two meters long with a node about a foot from each pointed end. The farmer sticks either end into a rice bunch and lifts it. The node serves as a stopper to secure the bunches to the pole.

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°“√‡µ√’¬¡∑’Ëπ«¥¢â“«À√◊Õ ≈“ππ«¥¢â“« ®–µâÕ߇µ√’¬¡ ∑”≈“π‚¥¬ª√—∫¥‘π„Àâ‡√’¬∫µ—Èß·µàÀ≈—ßπÈ”≈¥¢≥–∑’Ëæ◊Èπ¥‘π ¬—ß‰¡à·¢Áß ·≈â« ¬Ë”≈“π ‚¥¬„™â«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬‡¥‘π‡ªìπ«ß°≈¡ ¬Ë”„ÀâÀπâ“¥‘π‡√’¬∫ ‡¡◊ÕË Àπâ“¥‘π‡√’¬∫¥’·≈â« „™â¢«’È «— À√◊Õ¢’§È «“¬ º ¡πÈ”„Àâ‡À≈«‡∑√“¥≈߉ª∫πÀπâ“¥‘π „™â ‰¡â°«“¥·¢ÁßÊ ‡°≈’ˬ„Àâ∑—Ë«≈“π ∑”À≈“¬Ê §√—Èß®πÀπ“ ‡¡◊ËÕ¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ ·Àâß®–·¢Á߇ªìπ·ºàπ©“∫Àπâ“¥‘π‰«â ∑”„À⇻…¥‘π∑√“¬‰¡à ª–ªπ°—∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“« °“√„™â¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬¬“≈“π‡ªì𧫓¡ ©≈“¥¢Õß™“«π“∑’Ë —߇°µ§ÿ≥ ¡∫—µ‘¢Õß ‘Ëß„°≈âµ—«·≈â«π”¡“ „™â „À⇰‘¥ª√–‚¬™πå °“√π«¥¢â“«„π¿“§°≈“ßµà“߉ª®“°¿“§Õ◊Ëπ§◊Õ ®–π«¥ ∫π≈“ππ«¥¢â“«∑’ˇµ√’¬¡‰«â °àÕπ¢π ¢â“«øÉÕπ À√◊Õ øÉÕπ¢â“« ÕÕ°®“°π“µâÕß∑” æ‘∏’‡™‘≠·¡à ‚æ æ ®“°π“‡¢â“≈“π À√◊Õ ®“°≈“π‡¢â“¬ÿßâ ´÷ßË ¡’æ∏‘ µ’ “à ßÊ °—π ¢â“«øÉÕπ∑’¢Ë π¡“®“°π“¡—° ‡√’¬ß‰«âµ“¡¢Õ∫≈“π√Õ‡«≈“π«¥ À“°π”¡“‡√’¬ß´âÕπ°—𠇪ìπ™—ÈπÊ §≈⓬À¡Õπ¢«“π‡√’¬° ≈Õ¡¢â“« Õ“®‡√’¬ß‡ªìπ ≈Õ¡‡≈Á°Ê ‡æ’¬ß Ú ∂÷ß Û øÉÕπ À√◊Õ≈Õ¡¢π“¥„À≠àÀ≈“¬ √âÕ¬øÉÕπ °“√‡√’¬ß¢â“«‡™àππ’ș૬°—πΩπ‰¥â ‡æ√“–πÈ”Ωπ®– ‰À≈≈߉ªµ“¡§«“¡≈“¥™— π ¢Õß≈Õ¡¢â “ «∑”„À⠢⠓ «‡ªï ¬ ° ‡©æ“–¥â“ππÕ° ‰¡à‡ªï¬°¢â“«∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¢â“ß„π °àÕπ≈ß¡◊Õπ«¥¢â“«µâÕßµ—ßÈ ‡ “‡°’¬¥ À√◊Õ ‡ “‡®’¬¥ ‡ “ ‰¡â Ÿß‡ ¡Õ»’√…–‰«â°≈“ß≈“π ∫“ß∑’Ë „™â°‘Ëßæÿ∑√“∑’Ë¡’Àπ“¡¡“ ºŸ°‰«â°π— π°°“´÷ßË ∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπÕ—ª¡ß§≈¡“‡°“– À√◊Õ‡Õ“æ«ß¡“≈—¬ §≈âÕ߇ªìπ¡ß§≈ ®“°π—Èπ‡Õ“øÉÕπ¢â“«‡√’¬ß√Õ∫‡ “‡°’¬¥ ·∂«·√°‡Õ“À—«øÉÕπ≈ß„ÀâÀ“ßøÉÕπÀ√◊Õ¥â“π∑’Ë¡’√«ßµ—Èߢ÷Èπ ·∂«∂—¥¡“‡Õ“À“ßøÉÕπ≈ß ≈—∫°—π‰ª®π‡ªìπ«ß°≈¡¢π“¥„À≠à ·≈⫇Փ«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ºŸ°°—∫‡ “‡°’¬¥‡√’¬ßÀπâ“°√–¥“π®π  ÿ¥√—»¡’¢Õß°Õߢ⓫∑’ˇ√’¬ß‰«â «—«À√◊Õ§«“¬·°à „ Àâ Õ ¬Ÿà „°≈â ‡ “‡°’¬¥‡æ√“–¡’·√ßπâÕ¬ ‡¥‘π™â“ «—«§«“¬Àπÿ¡à Õ¬Ÿ¥à “â ππÕ° ¡—°∑” µ–°√âÕ  “π¥â«¬À«“¬ «¡ª“°‡æ◊ËÕ°—π‰¡à „Àâ°‘π¢â“« ‡¡◊ËÕ«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬‡¥‘π«π√Õ∫‡ “‡°’¬¥¬Ë”‰ª∫πøÉÕπ¢â“« À≈“¬Ê √Õ∫ øÉÕπ¢â“«®–∑≈“¬≈ß ‡¡≈Á¥À≈ÿ¥®“°√«ß≈߉ª Õ¬Ÿà¢â“ß„µâø“ߢ⓫ ∫“ßøÉÕπÕ“®‰¡àÀ≈ÿ¥®“°‡¢πÁ¥µâÕ߇Փ ‡§’¬«‡°’¬Ë «„À⇢πÁ¥¢“¥ ‡√’¬° ©’°Õ° ¢≥–𫥄™â ¢Õ©“¬ À√◊Õ ‰¡â¥ÕßÀ“¬ ‡¢’¬Ë ·≈– ßø“ß„À⇡≈Á¥¢â“«√à«ß≈ß„µâø“ß ·≈–§Õ¬  ßø“ß∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¢à “â ß≈à“ß°≈—∫¢÷πÈ ¢â“ß∫π ‡√’¬° √ÿ Õ“®À¬ÿ¥„Àâ««— À√◊Õ §«“¬‰¥âæ°— °‘ππÈ”°‘πÀ≠â“∫â“ß ‡¡◊ÕË √ÿ‡ √Á®·≈â«®÷߬˔„Àâ∑«—Ë ®π °«à“√«ß¢â“«∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¢à “â ß∫π‡¡≈Á¥√à«ßÀ¡¥·≈â« ®÷ß„™â¢Õ©“¬æ“π ‡Õ“ø“ßÕÕ°‰ª ∑”‡™àππ’‡È √◊ÕË ¬‰ª®π‡À≈◊Õ·µà‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ∫π≈“π ®÷ߪ≈¥«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬ÕÕ°®“°≈“π ®“°π—πÈ ™“«π“®–„™â ¢Õ©“¬ ß‡»…ø“ß∑’ËÀ—°√«¡Õ¬Ÿà „π°Õ߇¡≈Á¥¢â“«„Àâ≈Õ¬¢÷Èπ ·≈⫇°Á∫ÕÕ° À√◊Õ„™â·¢π߉¡â ‰ºà∑’Ë¡—¥√«¡°—π‡À¡◊Õπ‰¡â°«“¥ °«“¥æ“π‡Õ“‡»…ø“߇»…À≠â“∑’˪πÕ¬ŸàÕÕ° ø“ß∑’Ëæ“πÕÕ° 55

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æ‘∏’‡™‘≠·¡à ‚æ æ‡¢â“≈“π ·≈– ‡¢â“¬ÿâß ¡’æ‘∏’µà“ßÊ °—𠇙àπ ‡°Á∫√«ß¢â“«∑’˵°À≈àπÕ¬Ÿà„ππ“ ´÷Ëß∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ¢â“«·¡à‚æ æ ‡ªìπ™’«‘µÀ√◊Õ¢«—≠¢â“« ®÷ßµâÕß°≈à“«‡™‘≠ ‡¢â“≈“π‡¢â“∫â“π‚¥¬‡°Á∫„ à°√–∫ÿß À√◊ÕÀàպⓉ«â„π∑’ËÕ—π§«√„π≈“ππ«¥¢â“« ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ √Á®æ‘∏’∑”∫ÿ≠≈“π·≈⫇Փø“ß ¡“ªπ°—∫√«ß¢â“«∑’ˇ°Á∫¡“ºŸ° ‡ªìπÀÿàπ·¡à‚æ æ·≈â«π”‰ª‡°Á∫‰«â„π¬ÿâß æ√âÕ¡°—∫¢â“«ª≈Ÿ° À√◊Õ∑”æ‘∏’‡™‘≠¢«—≠¢â“« Ÿà≈“π µâÕß®—¥‡§√◊ËÕ߇´àπ‰À«â ‡™àπ ¢π¡µâ¡·¥ß ¢π¡µâ¡¢“« ¢π¡ÀŸ™â“ß (∑”¥â«¬·ªÑߢ⓫‡À𒬫 ªíôπ‡ªìπ√Ÿª “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡‡Õ“‰ªµâ¡„Àâ ÿ° ·≈⫧≈ÿ°‡°≈◊Õ·≈–¡–æ√â“«) °≈⫬πÈ”«â“À«’Àπ÷Ëß ‰¢àµâ¡øÕßÀπ÷Ëß (ºà“´’°) ¢â“«ª“°À¡âÕªíôπÀπ÷Ëß ‡§√◊ËÕßπÿàßÀà¡ ”√—∫Àπ÷Ëß π”‰ª∑’Ëπ“ ·≈⫪Ÿºâ“πÿàß∑’Ëæ◊Èπ ®—¥«“߇§√◊ËÕ߇´àπ‰À«â ‡Õ“´—ßµâπ¢â“«¡“ºŸ° ‡ªìπÀÿàπ√Ÿª§π‡≈Á°Ê ∂◊Õ‰«â ·≈â«°≈à“«§”‡™‘≠·¡à‚æ æ ∑’Ë°√”·¥¥°√”ΩπÕ¬Ÿà°≈“ßπ“ „À⇢Ⓣª∑’Ë√ࡇ¬Áπ„π≈“π„π∫â“π π”Àÿπà ‡¢â“ Ÿ≈à “ππ«¥¢â“« ∑‘È߇§√◊ËÕ߇´àπ‰À«â ‰«â∑’Ëπ“ ∑‘Èߢ⓫ ∑’ˇ°’ˬ«·≈â«„À⇪ìπ∑“π·°àπ°∫â“ß ‡¡◊ËÕ∂÷ß≈“π §≈’˺ⓠ”√—∫π—Èπ§≈ÿ¡ °ÕßøÉÕπ¢â“« ‡Õ“Àÿàπªí°≈ß∑’˺ⓠ ¡¡µ‘«à“·µàßµ—«πÿàßÀà¡„Àâ·°à·¡à‚æ æ ‡Õ“‡§√◊ËÕ߇´àπ‰À«âÕ’°™ÿ¥Àπ÷Ëß ÕÕ°‰ª‡´àπ‰À«â∑’Ëπ“ ‡´àπ∫Õ°‡≈à“ „π ‘Ëß∑’ˇªìπ¡ß§≈·°à°“√∑”¡“À“°‘𠇪ìπ‡ √Á®æ‘∏’ æ‘∏’∑”¢«—≠¢â“« ∑”¢«—≠≈“π ¡—°∑”ª≈“¬‡¥◊Õπ Û À√◊Õµâπ‡¥◊Õπ Ù  ”À√—∫π“À«à“π ∂Ⓡªìππ“¥”®–Õ¬Ÿ√à “«ª≈“¬ ‡¥◊Õπ ÒÚ À√◊Õµâπ‡¥◊ÕπÕ⓬ÒÙ


¢Õ©“¬ ‰¡â ”À√—∫ ßø“ß ‡«≈“π«¥¢â“« ¡’¥â“¡¬“«ßÕπ ª≈“¬¡’‰¡âÀ√◊Õ‡À≈Á°ßÕµ—Èß©“° °—∫¥â“¡ ”À√—∫‡°’ˬ«ø“ß ¡—°∑”¥â«¬≈”‰¡â ‰ºà¢π“¥‡∑à“¢âÕ¡◊Õ ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Û »Õ° ¥—¥„Àâ°≈“ß·Õàπ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ ª≈“¬‡À≈◊Õ·¢πß¢π“¥‡∑à“À—«·¡à¡◊Õ ¬“«ª√–¡“≥Àπ÷Ëߧ◊∫¥—¥„À⇰◊Õ∫ µ—Èß©“°°—∫¥â“¡ ∂ⓥⓡ‡ªìπ‰¡â®√‘ß ¡—°„™â‡À≈Á°‡ âπ¥—¥‡ªìπ¢Õ ”À√—∫‡°’ˬ« ·≈– ßø“ß ¢Õ©“¬„™â°—π∑—Ë«‰ª „π∫√‘‡«≥¿“§°≈“ß ∫“ß∂‘Ëπ‡√’¬° ‰¡â°√–¥ÕßÀ“¬ ‰¡â¥ÕßÀ“¬ §—𩓬 ¥Õß “Khochai”a long-handled hook to pull the rice stalks during the kneading session. It is made from a bamboo rod almost two meters long, slightly bended in the middle, and fitted with a small crescent hook at one end.

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°√–¥“π™—° ‰¡â ”À√—∫ ™—°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«∑’Ëπ«¥·≈â«∫π≈“π „Àâ√«¡°—π‡ªìπ°Õß ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ ·ºàπ°√–¥“π°«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ò ∂÷ß ÒÚ π‘È« Àπ“ª√–¡“≥ Ò π‘È« ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ù ∂÷ß ı π‘È« ¥â“π∑’Ë„™âª“¥‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‰ „Àâ‡Õ’¬ß ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ °÷Ëß°≈“ß —π¡’¥â“¡®—∫ ‡ªìπ§—π∫—ߧ—∫„ÀâÀπâ“°√–¥“π‡Õ’¬ß Õ¬Ÿà„π√–¥—∫∑’˪“¥‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‰¥â¥’ ª≈“¬·ºàπ°√–¥“π∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ¡’√√Ÿ Õâ ¬‡™◊Õ° ”À√—∫™—° °“√™—°°√–¥“πµâÕß„™â§π Û §π §πÀπ÷Ëß∂◊Õ§—π∫—ߧ—∫ Õ’° Õß§π ™—°°√–¥“π„À⪓¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‰ª°Õß√«¡°—π ‡æ◊ËÕ𔉪Ωí¥·¬°¢’È≈’∫ ·≈– ‘Ë߇®◊ÕªπÕÕ° À“°‡ªìπ‰¡â™—° ¢π“¥‡≈Á°√Ÿª√à“߇À¡◊Õπ®Õ∫ ‡√’¬° ∑—¥±“ À√◊Õ °√–∑“ “Kradan Chak”- a sweeping board to pull rice grains into a pile before being fed into the mill is made from a piece of board about 10-12 by 40-50 inches long and an inch thick. The inner side is slightly thinned and sloped for a better sweep. A long handle is fitted at the middle of the board. A piece of cord it fastened to either end of the board for pulling. It needs three people to operate: one to pull the handle, the other two pull the board by the end cord.

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’Ωí¥ ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ·¬°¢’È≈’∫ ÕÕ°®“°¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‚¥¬À¡ÿπ„∫æ—¥ „Àâ≈¡‡ªÉ“‰≈࢒È≈’∫ ‡»…ø“ß ¥Õ°À≠â“ „Àâª≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª  à«π‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—° ®–‰À≈≈ߥâ“πÀπâ“ ·≈⫇°Á∫‡¢â“¬ÿâß©“ßµàÕ‰ª “Sifad”a traditional rice mill separates the grains from the chaff. It blows away the dirt, straw pieces, and grass. The weighty rice grains will fall to the front of the mill, ready to be sacked or stored.

‰ª ¡—°°Õß√«¡‡ªìπ ≈Õ¡ø“ß ‰«â∑’Ë¢Õ∫≈“π ‚¥¬„™â≈”‰¡â ‰ºà Ωíߥ‘π‡ªìπ·°π·≈⫇Փø“ß°Õß ÿ¡¢÷Èπ‰ª§≈⓬‡®¥’¬å ≈Õ¡ ¢π“¥„À≠àÕ“® Ÿß∂÷ß Ú ∂÷ß Û «“ À“°‡ªìπæ◊πÈ ∑’≈Ë ¡ÿà πÈ”∑à«¡ Ÿß ™“«π“®–∑”‡ªìπ√â“π¬°æ◊πÈ  Ÿß„Àâæπâ πÈ” ø“ß∑’°Ë Õ߉«âπ‡’È °Á∫‰«â „Àâ«—«À√◊Õ§«“¬°‘π‡¡◊ËÕÕ—µ§—¥À≠â“ ·≈–„™âª√–‚¬™πåÕ¬à“ßÕ◊Ë𠇙àπ „™âª¥î ª“°æâÕ¡¢â“« „™â∑”‡ «’¬π ·≈–„™â°√ÿ√ß— ‰°à ‡ªìπµâπ ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà∫π≈“ππ—Èπ µâÕß„™â °√–¥“π™—° À√◊Õ °√–¥“π‚°¬¢â“« ´÷ßË ‡ªìπ‰¡â°√–¥“𬓫ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ° °«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ò §◊∫ ª≈“¬∑—Èß Õß¡’√Ÿ ”À√—∫√âÕ¬‡™◊Õ° ¡’ ¥â“¡ ™“«π“µâÕß™—° À√◊Õ§√Ÿ¥‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’√Ë «à ßÕ¬Ÿ∫à π≈“π „Àâ√«¡°—π‡ªìπ°Õß ·≈â«Ωí¥·¬°¢’≈È ∫’ ·≈– ‘ßË ∑’Ë ‰¡àµÕâ ß°“√ÕÕ° Õ“®¢Õ·√ß°—π¡“™à«¬ “¥¢â“« ‚¥¬¬◊π‡√’¬ßÀπâ“°√–¥“π „™â ‰¡âæ≈—Ë«µ—°¢â“« “¥„À⢫“ß∑“ß≈¡ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ≈–ÕÕߢ⓫À√◊Õ ≈”æ«πÀ√◊Õ¢’È≈”æ«π ·≈–¢’È≈’∫À√◊բ⓫≈’∫ª≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª À“° ≈¡‰¡à·√ßæÕ°Á „™â æ—¥ À√◊Õ ≈”·æπ ‚∫°™à«¬ «‘∏·’ ¬°¢’≈È ∫’ ·≈– ‘ßË ‡®◊Õªπ∑’Ë ‰¡àµÕâ ß°“√ÕÕ°®“°¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ∑’Ë „™â°—π¡“°„π¿“§°≈“ß ‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ Ù ∂÷ß Û ªï∑’Ë ºà“π¡“§◊Õ„™â  ’Ωí¥ À√◊Õ ‡§√◊ËÕßΩí¥¢â“« ´÷Ë߇ªìπ‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’ æ◊Èπ∫â“π∑’˙૬∑ÿàπ·√߉¥â√–¥—∫Àπ÷Ëß  ’Ωí¥ ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß·¬°¢’È≈’∫ ‡¡≈Á¥«—™æ◊™·≈– ‘Ë߇®◊Õªπ„π ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°æ—≤π“®“°°“√„™â楗 ‚∫°„À⇰‘¥≈¡¡“‡ªìπ°“√À¡ÿπ

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„∫æ—¥ºà“π‡øóÕß„À⇰‘¥≈¡‚¥¬„™â·√ߧπÀ¡ÿπ„∫æ—¥ ∑”„À⇰‘¥ ≈¡æ—¥ÕÕ°‰ª¥â“πÀ≈—ß æ—¥‡Õ“¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ëß∑’ˇ®◊ÕªπÕ¬Ÿà „π ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‡™à𠇻…ø“ß ‡»…À≠â“·≈–‡¡≈Á¥«—™æ◊™ „Àâª≈‘« ÕÕ°‰ª¥â“πÀ≈—ߢÕß ’Ωí¥ ¢≥–‡¥’¬«°—π‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ë¥’ ·≈–¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¡“°°Á®–‰À≈≈߉ª°Õß√«¡°—πÕ¬Ÿ¥à “â πÀπâ“ ∑”„Àâ ™“«π“·¬°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°·≈–¢’È≈’∫ÕÕ°®“°°—π‰¥â√«¥‡√Á« ∂â“¡’¢â“«∑’˵âÕßΩí¥‡ªìπ®”π«π¡“° °“√À¡ÿπ ’Ωí¥¡—°®–µâÕß  —∫‡ª≈’ˬπ°—πÀ≈“¬Ê §π µàÕ¡“®÷ß¡’ºŸâ§‘¥‡Õ“‡§√◊ËÕ߬πµå¡“ À¡ÿπ„∫æ—¥·∑π§π À≈—ß®“°π—πÈ °√√¡«‘∏’ „π°“√π«¥·≈– ’¢“â « ®÷ßæ—≤π“‡√◊ËÕ¬¡“®π‡ªìπ°“√„™â‡§√◊ËÕ߬πµå∑’Ë “¡“√∂π«¥ ·≈–Ωí¥¢â“«‰ªæ√âÕ¡Ê °—πÕ¬à“ß∑’Ë „™â°—πÕ¬Ÿà „πªí®®ÿ∫—π  ’Ωí¥∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‡À≈Á° ·≈– —ß°– ’ ¡’‡ “‰¡â ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡∑” ‡ªìπ¢“ ’Ë¢“ Ÿßª√–¡“≥ Òı ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ¡’ ‚§√߉¡â·≈– ·ºàπ‰¡âª√–°Õ∫°—π§≈⓬°≈àÕß ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡ °«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ ¯ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ò¯ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ¥â“πÀπâ“∫ÿ¥â«¬  —ß°– ’ ‚§â߇ªìπ√Ÿª§√÷ßË «ß°≈¡ ¥â“π≈à“ß„™â ß— °– ’∫∫ÿ π·ºàπ‰¡â «“߇Ւ¬ß≈“¥ ¥â“πÀ≈—ß Ÿß¥â“πÀπ⓵˔ ·ºàπ —ß°– ’π’È®–‡ªìπ √“ß„À⇡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ë¥’¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¡“°‰À≈≈ßæ◊Èπ ™“«∫â“π ®–‚°¬ÕÕ°‰ª‡°Á∫‰«â „π¬ÿâß©“ßÀ√◊Õ¢“¬„ÀâæàÕ§â“∑’Ë¡“√—∫´◊ÈÕ ¥â “ π∫π¢Õß ’ Ωí ¥ ∑”‡ªì π °√–∫–‰¡â  ’Ë ‡ À≈’Ë ¬ ¡°â π  Õ∫ ¥â“πÀ≈—ß∑”‡ªìπ™àÕ߇≈Á°Ê ªî¥·≈–‡ªî¥‰¥â ¢≥–∑’ËΩí¥¢â“«®–


µâÕß¡’ºŸâ‡≈◊ËÕπ·ºàπ‰¡â¢÷Èπ ‡ªî¥™àÕß„Àâ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰À≈≈ß µ–·°√ß„π®”π«π∑’ËæÕ‡À¡“–∑’Ë≈¡®–æ—¥¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ëß∑’Ë ‰¡à µâÕß°“√„Àâª≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª‰¥â¥’ ∂â“À“°ª≈àÕ¬„Àâ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’ˬ—ß¡’  ‘Ë߇®◊ÕªπÕ¬Ÿà ‰À≈≈ß¡“°‡°‘π‰ª·≈–≈¡‰¡à·√ßæÕ ¢’È≈’∫·≈–  ‘Ë߇®◊Õªπ°Á®–‰À≈√«¡≈ß¡“°—∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ¥â“πÀ≈—ßµ–·°√ß∑”¥â«¬‡À≈Á°‡ âπ¢π“¥ª√–¡“≥‡∑à“ ª≈“¬π‘È«°âÕ¬ Ù ∂÷ß ı ‡ âπ¬÷¥µ‘¥°—∫‰¡â „Àâ¡™’ Õà ß«à“ß√–À«à“ß ‡À≈Á°·µà≈–‡ âπª√–¡“≥ Ù ∂÷ß ı ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ µ–·°√ßπ’È ®–™à«¬„À⇻…ø“ß „∫À≠â“∑’ªË πÕ¬Ÿ°à ∫— ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°ÕÕ°¡“°√–∑∫ °—∫µ–·°√ß ·≈â«∂Ÿ°·√ß≈¡æ—¥„Àâ≈Õ¬ÕÕ°‰ª‰¡àµ°≈ߪπ°—∫ ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° µàÕ¡“¡’ºŸâ§‘¥ª√–¥‘…∞åµ–·°√ß„Àâ à“¬‰¥â‡À¡◊Õπ µ–·°√ß “π∑’Ë√àÕπ¥â«¬¡◊Õ ‚¥¬∑”‡ªìπ¢âÕ‡À«’ˬ߉ª‡™◊ËÕ¡°—∫ ·°π°ßæ—¥ ‡¡◊ÕË À¡ÿπ„∫æ—¥ µ–·°√ß°Á®– à“¬‰ª¡“∑”„ÀâΩ¥í ¢â“« ‰¥â¥’¢÷Èπ °“√Ωí¥¢â“« ®–µâÕßπ”¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ëπ«¥·≈â«„ à≈ß„π °√–∫– ‡¡◊ËÕµâÕß°“√®–Ωí¥À√◊Õ ’°ÁÀ¡ÿπ°ßæ—¥„Àâ „∫æ—¥À¡ÿπ æ√âÕ¡°—∫‡ªî¥™àÕߥâ“πÀ≈—ß°√–∫–„Àâ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰À≈ÕÕ°‰ª Õ¬à“ßµàÕ‡π◊ÕË ß ¢’≈È ∫’ ·≈– ‘ßË ‡®◊Õªπ∑’Ë ‰¡àµÕâ ß°“√®–ª≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’¥Ë ·’ ≈–¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¡“°®–µ°≈ß∫π√“ß ·≈–‰À≈ ≈ß¡“¬—ߥâ“πÀπâ“ °“√Ωí¥¢â“«®–µâÕß¡’ºŸâÀ¡ÿπ ’Ωí¥§πÀπ÷Ëß ·≈–¡’º¢Ÿâ π¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’¬Ë ß— ‰¡à ‰¥âΩ¥í ¡“‡µ‘¡„À⇵Á¡°√–∫–µ≈Õ¥ ‡«≈“ „Àâ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰À≈ÕÕ°‰ª —¡æ—π∏å°—∫°“√À¡ÿπ„∫æ—¥

¥â“πÀ≈—ߢÕß ’Ωí¥¡’°≈àÕß·∫πÊ ∑”¥â«¬·ºàπ‰¡â ·¢«π ‰«â°—∫¢“ ’Ωí¥ ‡æ◊ËÕ√—∫¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ëß∑’Ë ‰¡àµâÕß°“√∑’ËÕÕ°¡“µ“¡ ·√ß≈¡„Àâ ‰À≈≈߉ª°Õß√«¡°—π ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’˺à“π ’Ωí¥·≈â« ®–¡’ ‘Ë߇®◊ÕªπÕ¬ŸàπâÕ¬ ®÷ß¢π ‰ª‡°Á∫‰«â „π¬ÿâß©“ßÀ√◊Õ¢“¬„ÀâæàէⓉ¥â‡≈¬  ’ Ωí ¥ ‡ªì 𠇧√◊Ë Õ ß∑ÿà π ·√ß∑’Ë ™à « ¬„Àâ ™ “«π“Ωí ¥ ¢â “ «‰¥â  –¥«°·≈–√«¥‡√Á«°«à“°“√ “¥¢â“«·≈â«„™âæ—¥‚∫°À√◊Õ„™â °√–¥âßΩí¥·∫∫‚∫√“≥  ’Ωí¥‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß°≈ßà“¬Ê ∑’˧π‰∑¬  √â “ ߢ÷È π „™â °à Õ π∑’Ë ‡ §√◊Ë Õ ß®— ° √·≈–‡§√◊Ë Õ ß¬πµå ® –‡¢â “ ¡“ Ÿà ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ „π¿“§‡Àπ◊ÕÀ√◊Õ∫√‘‡«≥∑’¡Ë æ’ π◊È ∑’∑Ë ”π“πâÕ¬ °“√π«¥¢â“« ∫π≈“πÕ¬à“ß¿“§°≈“ßπ—Èπ‰¡à –¥«° ®÷ß¡—°π«¥¢â“«„ππ“ ‚¥¬¢π‡§√◊Ë Õ ß¡◊ Õ  ”À√— ∫ π«¥¢â “ «ÕÕ°‰ª∑’Ë π “·∑π°“√ ¢π¢â“«¡“𫥄π≈“π∑’Ë „°≈â¬ÿâß©“ß °“√π«¥¢â“«¢Õß™“«π“ „π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ¡’ Û «‘∏’§◊Õ Ò. µ’µ–√“ß (µã“√“ß) À√◊Õ µ’∫πæ◊πÈ ¥‘π ‡À¡“– ”À√—∫µ’¢“â « ®”π«π¡“° „™â§π¡“° °“√µ’µ–√“ß®–µâÕß∑”≈“πÕ¬à“ß ¿“§°≈“ß §◊Õª√—∫æ◊πÈ ¥‘π∫π∑’πË “„Àâ‡√’¬∫·≈⫬“‰≈⥫⠬‚§≈π º ¡¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ °“√µ’¢â“««‘∏’π’È™“«π“®–µâÕßµ’ À√◊Õ ø“¥¢â“«≈ß∫π ‰¡â√Õßµ’¢â“« (√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬‚µä–) ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«®– À≈ÿ¥®“°√«ß√à«ß≈ß∫πæ◊Èπ≈“π  à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õß ’Ωí¥ Parts of traditional rice mill.

°√–∫– ”À√—∫„ à¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° tray for rice grains

¡◊ÕÀ¡ÿπ hand lever

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æ—¥ À√◊Õ ≈”·æπ æ—¥¢π“¥„À≠à “π¥â«¬µÕ°‰¡â ‰ºà „™â‚∫°„Àâ≈–ÕÕߢ⓫ À√◊Õ≈”æ«π ¢’È≈’∫ À√◊բ⓫≈’∫ ∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—°‡∫“ ª≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª®“°¢â“«¥’ ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬° «’ À√◊Õ °ã“«’ A fan made from woven bamboo strips is used to blow away dirt or unwanted pieces from the rice grains.

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„Àâ¢Õ∫·πàπ·≈–§ß∑π ®“°π—πÈ ®÷ßπ”§√ÿ‰ª√¡§«—π‰ø°—π¡Õ¥ °àÕπ𔉪„™â °“√ “π·Õà«®–µà“ß®“°°“√ “π§√ÿ °“√ “π·Õૉ¡àµÕâ ß „™âÀ≈ÿ¡¥‘π ·µà®–µ—È߇ “ ’Ë¡ÿ¡·≈â«„™â ‰¡âæ“¥‡æ◊ËÕ¬°ª≈“¬ µÕ°∑—Èß ’Ë¥â“π¢÷Èπ„À⇪ìπ√Ÿª·Õà« ®“°π—Èπ®÷ß “π«π¢÷Èπ‰ª®π ‰¥â√Ÿª·≈â«®÷߇¢â“¢Õ∫ ·Õà«®–„™â°—π¡“°„π®—ßÀ«—¥≈”ª“ß  à«π§√ÿ„™â°—π¡“°∑’Ë®—ßÀ«—¥≈”æŸπ·≈–‡™’¬ß„À¡à °“√ø“¥¢â“«≈ß∫π§√ÿµ¢’ “â « ™“«π“®–„™â ‰¡âÀπ’∫¢â“« ´÷ßË ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà≈”‡≈Á°Ê  Õß∑àÕ𠬓«ª√–¡“≥ Ò »Õ°‡»… Àπ’∫√«ß¢â“«∑’¡Ë ¥— ‰«â‡ªì𰔇≈Á°Ê ·≈â«ø“¥≈߉ª∑’ÀË ¡ß°âπ§√ÿ „À⇡≈Á¥¢â“«√à«ß���ß„π§√ÿ ®“°π—Èπ®÷ßπ”¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰ª “¥ ‡æ◊ËÕ·¬°¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ë߇®◊ÕªπÕÕ° °“√µ’§√ÿ‡À¡“– ”À√—∫π“∑’Ë¡’‡π◊ÈÕ∑’Ë·§∫ À√◊Õ≈“¥‡Õ’¬ß °“√„™â§√ÿ®– –¥«°°«à“«‘∏Õ’ π◊Ë ‡æ√“–„™âæπ◊È ∑’πË Õâ ¬·≈– “¡“√∂ ‡§≈◊ËÕπ¬â“¬§√ÿ‰ªÀ“¢â“« ‰¡àµâÕßÀ“∫¢â“«À√◊Õ¢π¢â“«‰ª¬—ß ≈“π ´÷ËßÕ“®µâÕ߇ ’¬§à“À“∫¡“°°«à“°“√π”§√ÿ‰ªπ«¥„ππ“ πÕ°®“°π’È °“√µ’§√ÿ„™â§ππâÕ¬ ‡æ’¬ß Ú ∂÷ß Û §π‡∑à“π—Èπ ·≈–°“√µ’§√ÿ®–‰¥â¢â“«‡µÁ¡‡¡Á¥‡µÁ¡Àπ૬‰¡àµ°À≈àπ‡ ’¬À“¬ ‡À¡◊Õπ°“√π«¥¥â«¬«‘∏’Õ◊Ëπ À≈—ß®“°π«¥¢â“«À√◊Õ·¬°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°ÕÕ°®“° √«ß·≈â« ™“«π“®–µâÕß·¬°¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ëß∑’Ë ‰¡àµâÕß°“√ÕÕ° ®“°¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° «‘∏·’ ¬°¢’≈È ∫’ ·≈– ‘ßË ‡®◊ÕªπÕÕ°®“°¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ∑”‰¥âµ—Èß·µà°“√„™â µ–·°√ß√àÕπ, °√–¥âßΩí¥ À√◊Õ  ’Ωí¥ ·µà

Ú. µ’·§√à ‡ªìπ°“√π«¥¢â“«‚¥¬ø“¥√«ß¢â“«≈ß∫π·§√à ´÷Ëß∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°®–√à«ß≈ß∫π‡ ◊ËÕ´÷Ë߇√’¬°«à“  “¥°–≈“ ªí®®ÿ∫—π„™âæ≈“ µ‘°º◊π„À≠àÊ √Õß ®“°π—Èπ®÷ß√«¡ ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ªìπ°ÕßÊ ·≈â«®÷ß “¥¢â“«‡æ◊ËÕ·¬°¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ëß ‡®◊ÕªπÕÕ°®“°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° Û. µ’§√ÿ „™â ”À√—∫π«¥¢â“«®”π«π‰¡à¡“°π—° °“√π«¥ ®–µâÕßø“¥√«ß¢â“«≈ß„π¿“™π–®—° “π¢π“¥„À≠à∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ §√ÿµ¢’ “â « À√◊Õ §ÿµ‡’ ¢â“ ´÷ßË  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà √Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬Õà“ß¢π“¥ „À≠à ‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߪ“°ª√–¡“≥ Û ∂÷ß Ù »Õ°  Ÿß ª√–¡“≥ Ò »Õ°‡»… ª“°°≈¡ °âπ Õ∫ §√ÿµ’¢â“«π’È·∂∫ ®—ßÀ«—¥≈”ª“ß®– “π°âπ Õ∫‡ªìπ ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡‡√’¬° ·Õà« §√ÿµ¢’ “â « ·≈– ·Õà« ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ÕË ß®—° “π∑’¡Ë ¢’ 𓥄À≠à ®÷ß¡’ ¢—È π µÕπ·≈–°√√¡«‘ ∏’ „ π°“√ “π·µ°µà “ ߉ª®“°‡§√◊Ë Õ ß ®—° “π™π‘¥Õ◊πË ™à“ß®—° “π®–µâÕß¡’§«“¡™”π“≠ ·≈–‡¢â“„® ‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ√ÿ ‡√‘Ë¡®“°°“√®—°µÕ°∑’˵âÕ߇À≈“„ÀâÀ—«∑⓬ ‡√’¬« ‡æ◊ÕË „Àâ “π‡¢â“√Ÿª‰¥âµ“¡µâÕß°“√ ®“°π—πÈ µâÕߢÿ¥¥‘π‡ªìπ À≈ÿ¡‡æ◊ÕË „™â‡ªìπ·¡àæ¡‘ æå°“√ “π®–µâÕ߇√‘¡Ë  “πµ√ß°≈“ß°àÕπ „À⺑«¢ÕßµÕ°Õ¬Ÿà¥â“π„π ‡¡◊ËÕ “π‡ªìπº◊π·≈â«√¡§«—π‰ø„Àâ µÕ°ÕàÕπ „ à≈߉ª„πÀ≈ÿ¡ „™â§πª√–¡“≥ Ù ∂÷ß ı §π °√–∑ÿß⠥⫬ “°À√◊Õ∑àÕπ‰¡âæ√âÕ¡Ê °—π‰ª√Õ∫Ê „À≥â√ªŸ µ“¡ ·¡àæ‘¡æå „Àâ°âππŸπ¢÷Èπ¡“‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ ”À√—∫ø“¥¢â“«∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ À¡ß ®“°π—Èπ„™â≈‘Ë¡µÕ°„ÀâµÕ°™‘¥°—π∑’≈–‡ âπ ®“°°âπÀ≈ÿ¡ ¢÷Èπ¡“ª“°À≈ÿ¡ ‡¡◊ËÕ “π‡ √Á®·≈â«®–µâÕ߇¢â“¢Õ∫ºŸ°À«“¬ 61

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§√ÿµ’¢â“« ‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß®—° “π∑’Ë¡’¢π“¥„À≠à ®÷ß¡’¢π—È µÕπ·≈–°√√¡«‘∏’ „π°“√ “π·µ°µà“߉ª®“° ‡§√◊ËÕß®—° “π™π‘¥Õ◊Ëπ ™à“ß∑”§√ÿµÕâ ß¡’§«“¡™”π“≠ ·≈–‡¢â“„®‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ√ÿ ‡ªìπÕ¬à“ߥ’ A huge woven circular basket called “khru” used for rice stalks beating.


„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ®–„™â æ≈—Ë« “¥¢â“« ∑’Ë∑”¥â«¬‰¡â§≈⓬æ≈—Ë«  “¥ ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°„Àâ≈Õ¬¢÷Èπ‰ª„πÕ“°“»·≈â«„™â «’ À√◊Õ °ã“«’ ´÷Ëß “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà‡ªìπ·ºàπ°≈¡Ê §≈⓬日¢π“¥„À≠à ‚∫° ∑”„Àâ ¢’È ≈’ ∫ ·≈– ‘Ë ß ∑’Ë ‡ ®◊ Õ ªπÕ¬Ÿà °— ∫ ¢â “ «‡ª≈◊ Õ ° ‡™à π „∫‰¡â ¥Õ°À≠â“ «—™æ◊™ ·≈– ‘ËßÕ◊ËπÊ ∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—°‡∫“ª≈‘«µ°≈ß∫π æ◊ÈπÀà“ßÕÕ°‰ª  à«π‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¡“°°«à“ ®–µ°≈ß„°≈âµ—«ºŸâ “¥ °“√·¬°‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«π’È∫“ß∑’ „™â≈¡∑’Ëæ—¥ µ“¡∏√√¡™“µ‘™à«¬¥â«¬ °“√π«¥¢â“«·≈–‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑’Ë „™âπ«¥¢â“«„π¿“§Õ’ “π À√◊Õ¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ §≈⓬°—∫°“√π«¥¢â“«„π ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ™“«π“¡—°∑”≈“ππ«¥¢â“«„π·ª≈ßπ“∑’‡Ë À¡“– ¡ §◊Õ‡ªìπæ◊Èπ∑’ˇ√’¬∫‡ ¡Õ°—π ‰¡à≈“¥À√◊Õ‡Õ’¬ß Õ¬Ÿà „°≈âµâπ‰¡â À√◊Õ„°≈â°—∫‡∂’¬ßπ“ „™â§«“¬¬Ë”„ÀâÀπâ“¥‘π‡√’¬∫·≈â«√“¥¥â«¬ ¢’§È «“¬ ‡¡◊ÕË ‡µ√’¬¡≈“π·≈â« ®÷ߢπ¢â“«∑’¡Ë ¥— √«¡°—π‡ªìπøÉÕπ (øÉÕπ≈–ª√–¡“≥ ı °”) ¡“°Õß√«¡°—π‰«â °“√π«¥®–„™â §âÕπµ’¢“â « ´÷ßË ∑”¥â«¬≈”‰¡â ‰ºà¢π“¥‡∑à“¢âÕ¡◊Õ ÕßÕ—π Õ—πÀπ÷ßË ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ° Õ’°Õ—πÀπ÷Ëß —Èπ°«à“‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ ¡’‡™◊Õ° ‚¬ß∑’˪≈“¬∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ”À√—∫√—¥øÉÕπ¢â“« °“√π«¥®–µâÕß „™â§âÕπµ’¢â“«√—¥øÉÕπ¢â“«„ÀâÕ¬Ÿà√–À«à“߇™◊Õ° „Àâª≈“¬‰¡â¢—¥ °—π®π‡™◊Õ°√—¥øÉÕπ¢â“«·πàπ ·≈â«®—∫ª≈“¬‰¡âÕ’°¥â“π¬° øÉÕπ¢â“«µ’≈ß∫π·ºàπ ‰¡â√Õßµ’¢“â « ·ºàπ°√–¥“𬓫ª√–¡“≥ Ú »Õ° ¡’¢“ Õߢ“µ—È߇Ւ¬ß‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ ‡æ◊ËÕ√—∫√«ß¢â“«¢≥–∑’Ë µ’À√◊Õø“¥¢â“« ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«®–À≈ÿ¥ÕÕ°®“°√«ß√à«ß≈ß∫πæ◊πÈ ≈“π ‡¡◊ËÕ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«√à«ß≈ß®π‡ªìπ°Õß Ÿß ™“«π“®–ø“¥¢â“«À√◊Õ µ’¢â“«≈ß∫π°Õߢ⓫‚¥¬µ√ß‚¥¬‰¡àµâÕß„™â ‰¡â√Õßµ’¢â“« °“√ ø“¥À√◊Õ°“√µ’¢â“«¡—°®–∑”µÕπ°≈“ߧ◊π¢≥–∑’ËÕ“°“»‰¡à √âÕπ¡“°‡À¡◊Õπ°≈“ß«—π ‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°æÕ ¡§«√·≈â« ®–µâÕß “߇Փ ‡»…ø“ß∑’ˇ®◊ÕªπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«ÕÕ° ‚¥¬‰¡â°«“¥∑’Ë∑”®“° ·¢π߉¡â ‰ºà¡—¥√«¡°—π§√Ÿ¥‡∫“Ê ≈ß∫π°Õߢ⓫ ·¢π߉¡â ‰ºà ®–°«“¥¢’È≈’∫·≈–‡»…ø“ßÕÕ°®“°°Õߢ⓫ À√◊ÕÕ“®®– “¥ ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°¢÷Èπ‰ª„πÕ“°“» ·≈â«„™â „∫µ“≈À√◊Õ°√–¥âß‚∫°„Àâ ¢’È≈’∫·≈–‡»…ø“ߪ≈‘«ÕÕ°‰ª∫â“ß ∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ„™â«‘∏’ “¥¢â“« §≈⓬°—∫°“√ “¥¢â“«„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ«‘∏’·¬° ‘Ëß∑’Ë ‰¡à µâÕß°“√ÕÕ°®“°¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ë ‰¡à¡’¢’È≈’∫À√◊Õ ‘Ë߇®◊Õªπ·≈â« ®÷ß„™â‡°«’¬πÀ√◊Õ‡°’¬π¢π‡¢â“‰ª ‡°Á∫„π¬ÿß⠢⓫À√◊Õ‡≈ⓢ⓫‡æ◊ÕË ‡°Á∫‰«â∫√‘‚¿§À√◊Õ‡°Á∫‰«â∑”æ—π∏ÿå °“√‡°Á∫¢â“«·≈–°“√π«¥¢â“«¢Õß™“«π“„π¿“§„µâµà“ß ®“°¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ §◊Õ¡—°®–‡°’ˬ«¢â“«¥â«¬·°√–À√◊Õ‡§’¬«√«¡ ‡ªìπ°”Ê À√◊Õ‡ªìπ ‡≈’¬ß ·≈â«À“∫‰ª‡°Á∫‰«â∑’Ë ¢π” À√◊Õ ‚√ßπ“ ´÷Ëߪ≈Ÿ°‰«â „π∑’Ëπ“¢Õßµπ À√◊ÕÀ“∫‡¢â“‰ª‡°Á∫‰«â „π ‡√‘π¢â“« À√◊Õ ‡√◊Õπ¢â“« „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π ‚¥¬«“߇√’¬ß°—π‡ªìπ√Ÿª

æ≈—Ë« “¥¢â“« ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â§≈⓬æ≈—«Ë  “¥‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° „Àâ≈Õ¬¢÷Èπ‰ª„πÕ“°“» A wooden rice hoe is for throwing the rice grains into the air so that the wind blows away the unwanted pieces.

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’‡Ë À≈’¬Ë ¡º◊πºâ“µ“¡æ◊πÈ ÀâÕßÀ√◊Õ«“߇ªìπ√Ÿª«ß°≈¡‡√’¬° ≈Õ¡ ¢â“« Õ“®®–·¬°≈Õ¡¢â“«‡ªìπ Õß≈Õ¡§◊Õ ≈Õ¡¢â“«‡®â“ ·≈– ≈Õ¡¢â“«‡À𒬫 ™“«π“¿“§„µâ ‰¡àπ«¥¢â“«À≈—ß®“°‡°’ˬ«¢â“« ·≈â« À“°·µà®–‡°Á∫‰«â∑—Èß√«ß ‡¡◊ËÕµâÕß°“√∫√‘ ‚¿§À√◊Õ µâÕß°“√¢“¬®÷ß®–π”ÕÕ°¡“π«¥ °“√π«¥®–‡√’¬ß¢â“«≈ß∫π ‡ ◊ËÕÀ√◊ÕÀπ—ß —µ«å „™â‡∑⓬˔„À⇡≈Á¥¢â“«À≈ÿ¥ÕÕ°®“°√«ß ·≈â«π”‰ªΩí¥¥â«¬°√–¥âß·¬°¢’È≈’∫·≈– ‘Ë߇®◊ÕªπÕÕ° ¢—ÈπµÕπ°“√π«¥¢â“« ·≈–‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√ π«¥¢â“«¥—ß°≈à“« ‡ªìπ¢—ÈπµÕπÀπ÷ËߢÕß°“√∑”π“¢Õß ™“«π“‰∑¬∑’Ë∑” ◊∫µàÕ°—π¡“·µà ‚∫√“≥ ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ‡§√◊ËÕß„™â „π°“√∑”π“≈â«π∑”¢÷Èπ„™â‡Õß·∑∫∑—Èß ‘Èπ · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ∂÷ß °“√‡≈◊Õ°„™â«— ¥ÿ·≈–°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫∑’Ë·¬∫¬≈ πÕߪ√–‚¬™πå ‰¥â‡ªìπÕ¬à“ߥ’ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“‰∑¬∑’Ë ◊∫∑Õ¥°—π‡√◊ËÕ¬¡“ ™â“π“π °àÕπ∑’ˇ§√◊ËÕß®—°√°≈®–‡¢â“¡“¡’Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈µàÕ«‘∂’™’«‘µ ·≈–°“√∑”π“¢Õß™“«π“‰∑¬‡™àπ∑ÿ°«—ππ’È

‰¡âÀπ’∫¢â“« ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Ò »Õ°‡»…  Õß∑àÕπ Àπ’∫√«ß¢â“«∑’Ë¡—¥‰«â‡ªì𰔇≈Á°Ê ·≈â«ø“¥≈߉ª∑’ÀË ¡ß°âπ§√ÿ A pair of thrasher. This tool is made from a pair of wooden rods of more than one foot long. It is used to catch a batch of rice stalks, to be thrashed into grain container.

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‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õπ«¥¢â“«·≈–°“√π«¥¢â“«

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‚√߇√◊Õπ ·≈–¿“™π– ‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°

‡≈ⓢ⓫ À√◊Õ ‡≈Ⓡ¢â“ A traditional rice silo in the northeast.

‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«∑’Ëπ«¥®“°√«ß·≈–Ωí¥‡√’¬∫√âÕ¬·≈â« ™“«π“®– ¢π‡¢â“¡“‡°Á∫‰«â „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π Õ“®®– “πæâÕ¡ À√◊Õ∑” µ–≈àÕ¡¢â“« À√◊Õ √â“߇ªìπ‚√߇√◊Õπ‡©æ“– ‡√’¬° ¬ÿâß À√◊Õ ¬ÿß⠢⓫ ‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰«â∫√‘‚¿§·≈–‡°Á∫‰«â∑”æ—π∏ÿå„πªïµÕà ‰ª °“√¢π¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâ߇ªìπ‡√◊ËÕß ”§—≠ ”À√—∫™“«π“®÷ßµâÕß ∑”∫ÿ≠≈“π ‡´àπ‰À«â·¡à ‚æ æ‡ ’¬°àÕπ

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¬ÿßâ ‡ªìπ‚√߇√◊Õπ ”À√—∫‡°Á∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°„π¿“§°≈“ß À“°¡’¢π“¥„À≠à‡√’¬° ©“ß À√◊Õ ©“ߢ⓫ ∫“ß∑’‡√’¬°√«¡°—π «à“ ¬ÿâß©“ß ·µà „π¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ ‡√’¬°‚√߇√◊Õπª√–‡¿∑π’ȵà“ß°—𠉪 ‡™àπ ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬°«à“ À≈Õ߇¢â“ À√◊Õ À≈Õߢ⓫ À√◊Õ ∑ÿ‡¢â“ ¿“§µ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊ÕÀ√◊Õ¿“§Õ’ “π‡√’¬° ‡≈Ⓡ¢â“ À√◊Õ ‡≈ⓢ⓫ ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬° ‡√◊Õπ¢â“« ¿“…“¬“«’‡√’¬° ∫“°Ÿâ ·¡â®–‡√’¬°µà“ß°—π ·µà≈â«π √â“߉«â‡°Á∫‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° „Àâæâπ®“°πÈ” ·¥¥ Ωπ ·¡≈ß ·≈– —µ«å ∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘ËπÕ“®®– „™â‡ªìπ∑’‡Ë °Á∫‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿæå ™◊ Õ◊πË Ê ·≈–‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ°“√‡°…µ√¥â«¬ ®“°ª√–‚¬™πå „™â Õ¬∑’ˇÀ¡◊Õπ°—π ®÷ß∑”„Àâ¬ÿâß¡’ ‚§√ß √â“ß  ”§—≠§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π§◊Õ¡—Ëπ§ß·¢Áß·√ß √—∫πÈ”Àπ—°¢Õ߇¡≈Á¥ ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°®”π«π¡“°‰¥â ¬°æ◊Èπ Ÿß‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—ππÈ”∑à«¡·≈– §«“¡™◊πÈ ®“°¥‘π æ◊πÈ ‡√’¬∫ π‘∑‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰À≈ÕÕ°‰¡à ‰¥â Ω“ªî¥∑÷∫∑—Èß ’Ë¥â“π ¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß∑”‡ªìπª√–µŸ¢π¢â“«‡¢â“·≈– ÕÕ°‚¥¬„™â·ºàπ°√–¥“π‡√’¬ß´âÕπ°—π‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâªî¥·≈–‡ªî¥‰¥â µ“¡ª√‘¡“≥¢Õߢ⓫‡ª≈◊Õ° ¡’À≈—ߧ“§≈ÿ¡°—π·¥¥·≈–Ωπ ·¡â ‚§√ß √â“ß®–§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π ·µà√Ÿª∑√ß·≈–«— ¥ÿ∑’Ë „™â®– ·µ°µà“߉ªµ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ¬ÿâß·µà≈–¿“§ ®÷ß¡’‡Õ°≈—°…≥åµà“ß°—π ¬ÿß⠢⓫¿“§°≈“ß¡—°¬°æ◊πÈ §àÕπ¢â“ß Ÿß‡æ◊ÕË ªÑÕß°—ππÈ”∑à«¡ ¢π“¥¢Õ߬ÿßâ ¢÷πÈ Õ¬Ÿ°à ∫— ∞“π–¢Õ߇®â“¢Õß À“°‡ªìπ¬ÿß⠢⓫¢Õß

™“«π“∑’¡Ë π’ “‰¡à¡“°π—° ∞“𖬓°®π ¡—° √â“ßÕ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ¥â«¬ ‰¡â ‰ºà‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ß‚√߇√◊Õπ‡≈Á°Ê ¬°æ◊πÈ æÕæâππÈ” À≈—ߧ“¡ÿß·Ω° À√◊Õ¡ÿß®“° æ◊Èπ‡ªìπø“° Ω“¢—¥·µ–¬“¥â«¬¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ ∫“ߧ√Õ∫§√—«‰¡à √â“߬ÿâß ·µà∑”擉≈µàÕÕÕ°¡“®“°™“¬§“ ‡√◊Õπ‡æ◊ÕË ªÑÕß°—π·¥¥·≈–Ωπ·≈â«∑”‡ªìπ√â“π¬°æ◊πÈ  ”À√—∫µ—ßÈ æâÕ¡ À√◊Õ °√���æâÕ¡ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¿“™π– “π¢π“¥„À≠à ¬“¥â«¬ ¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ „™â‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°ªî¥¥â«¬°√–¥âß ¬“¥â«¬¢’È«—« À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ ∫“ß∑’∑” µ–≈àÕ¡¢â“« µ—Èß∫πæ◊Èπ¥‘π∑’ˬ“¥â«¬¢’È«—« ¢’ȧ«“¬ À√◊Õ√Õߥ⫬ ‡ ◊ËÕ≈”·æπ À√◊Õ„™âø“ߪŸ°—ππÈ” Õ“®  √â “ ߇ªì π √â “ π¬°æ◊È π ¡’ À ≈— ß §“§≈ÿ ¡ æÕ°— π Ωπ‰¥â  à « π §√Õ∫§√—«∑’Ë¡’∞“π–¥’¡’π“¡“° ·µà≈–ªï ‰¥â¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°π—∫ ‘∫Ê ‡°«’¬π ®–µâÕß √â“߬ÿâß„Àâ¡’¢π“¥„À≠à¥â«¬‰¡â®√‘ß„Àâ¡—Ëπ§ß ·¢Áß·√ß ¬°æ◊πÈ  Ÿß À≈—ߧ“®—«Ë Õ“®¡ÿߥ⫬°√–‡∫◊ÕÈ ßÀ√◊Õ  —ß°– ’ Ω“∑÷∫∑—Èß ’Ë¥â“π ¡—°µ’¥â«¬·ºàπ‰¡â „π·π«µ—Èß √Õ¬µàÕ√–À«à“ß ·ºàπ‰¡â¡’ ‰¡â‡≈Á°Ê µ’ªî¥Õ’°§√—ÈßÀπ÷Ëß ¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß∑”‡ªìπ™àÕß „™â·ºàπ‰¡â‡√’¬ß´âÕπ°—π ªî¥‡ªî¥‰¥â  ”À√—∫¢π¢â“«‡¢â“ÕÕ°‰¥â  –¥«° ¡’∫—π‰¥¢÷Èπ≈ß∑’ˇ§≈◊ËÕπ¬â“¬ÕÕ°‰¥â §√à“«·≈–‡ “¡—° Õ¬Ÿπà Õ°Ω“‡æ◊ÕË §«“¡·¢Áß·√ß æ◊πÈ ªŸ¥«â ¬‰¡â°√–¥“π√–À«à“ßæ◊πÈ °—∫Ω“¡—°„™â ‡ «’¬π «“ß°—π¢â“«‰À≈ÕÕ°‰ªµ“¡√Õ¬µàÕÀ√◊Õµ“ ‰¡â∑’ˇªìπ√Ÿ ¬ÿâß®–¡’¢π“¥„À≠àÀ√◊Õ‡≈Á°°’Ë™à«ß‡ “¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫ ª√‘¡“≥¢Õߢ⓫‡ª≈◊Õ°∑’Ë®–‡°Á∫ πÕ°®“°„™â‡°Á∫¢â“«·≈⫬ÿâß 65

‚√߇√◊Õπ·≈–¿“™π–‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°

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À≈Õߢ⓫ À√◊Õ À≈Õ߇¢â“ A traditional rice silo in the north.

°“√∑”∫ÿ≠≈“π µâÕß∑”°àÕπ ¢π¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâß  √â“ߪ–√” µ°·µàߥ⫬√«ß¢â“«‡ªìπæŸà‡ªìπ√–¬â“ µ—Èß∑’Ëæ√–æÿ∑∏·≈–Õ“ π ß¶å ªí°©—µ√∑”¥â«¬√«ß¢â“«µ“¡°Õߢ⓫ ∑’Ëπ«¥·≈â« «ß¥â“¬ “¬ ‘≠®πå ®“°æ√–æÿ∑∏√Ÿª¡“¬—ß∫“µ√ ‚¬ßÕÕ°‰ªºŸ°°—∫‡ “‡°’¬¥ ·≈â««ß√Õ∫≈“π °≈—∫¡“∫√√®∫°—π π”¢â“«·¡à‚æ æ‰ª«“߇¢â“æ‘∏’ „πµÕπ‡¬Áππ‘¡πµåæ√– ß¶å¡“  «¥¡πµå‡¬Áπ °≈“ߧ◊πÕ“®¡’°“√ ‡≈àπ πÿ° √◊Ëπ‡√‘ß°—πµ“¡ª√– “™“«∫â“π «—π√ÿàߢ÷Èπµ—°∫“µ√‡≈’Ȭßæ√–∑’Ë≈“π ¡’‡æ◊ËÕπ∫â“π¡“∑”∫ÿ≠√à«¡°—π æ√– ¡¿“√‡®â“«—¥¡—°‡ªìπª√–∏“π „πæ‘∏’∑”πÈ”¡πµå ·≈â«π”‰ªæ√¡ ¢â“«·¡à‚æ æ·≈–¢â“«∑’ˇ°Á∫‰«â ‡ªìπ¢â“«æ—π∏ÿå æ√¡‡ “‡°’¬¥ ·≈–°Õߢ⓫Õ◊ËπÊ ‡ √Á®æ‘∏·’ ≈â«À“∫¢â“«¢÷πÈ ¬ÿßâ Òı


¬ÿâߢ⓫ A traditional rice silo in the central.

‡√◊Õπ¢â“« À√◊Õ ‡√‘π‡¢â“ A traditional rice silo in the south.

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«—π»ÿ°√å §ß‡°√ß«à“®–¢“¬§«“¡ ÿ¢‰ª¥â«¬ §«“¡‡™◊ËÕ‡™àππ’È¡’ ∑ÿ°¿“§ ‡™àπ ¿“§„µâ ‰¡à‡Õ“¢â“«ÕÕ°®“°¬ÿßâ „π«—πæ√– «—π “√∑ «—π‡¢â“æ√√…“ «—π ß°√“πµå «—π®∫ªï ®∫‡¥◊Õ𠇪ìπµâπ ·¡â ¬ÿâß®–‡ªìπ∑’ˇ°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°·µà°Á‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫§µ‘§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ ·≈–æ‘∏’°√√¡ ´÷Ëߙ૬„À♓«π“¥”‡π‘π™’«‘µ‰ªÕ¬à“ß ÿ¢ÿ¡ √Õ∫§Õ∫ ¡’§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ§Õ¬‡µ◊Õ𠵑 „ Àâ µ—È ß Õ¬Ÿà ∫ 𧫓¡‰¡à ª√–¡“∑ À≈Õߢ⓫ À√◊Õ À≈Õ߇¢â“ ¢Õß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡ªìπ¬ÿâß∑’Ë¡’√Ÿª ∑√ß «¬ß“¡  √â“ߥ⫬‰¡â ¡—°¬°æ◊Èπ Ÿß°«à“æ◊Èπ∫â“π ‡æ√“– ∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¢à Õß·¡à‚æ æ ‡ “À≈Õߢ⓫¡—°„™â ‰¡â¢π“¥„À≠à ∫“ß·Ààß¡’‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß Ù ∂÷ß ı ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ °“√„™â ‡ “¢π“¥„À≠à∑”„ÀâÀ≈Õߢ⓫¡—Ëπ§ß‡ªìπ摇»… ®πªÑÕß°—π ‰¡à „Àâ™â“ß¡“æ—߇æ◊ËÕ°‘π¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° °“√∑’ˇ “¡’¢π“¥„À≠à®÷ß ¡—°ºà“ à«π∑’ˇÀπ◊Õ√Õ¥¢÷Èπ‰ªÕÕ°§√÷ËßÀπ÷Ëß ·≈⫵’§√à“«·≈– °√ÿΩ“Õ¬à“ß·¢Áß·√ß ª≈“¬‡ “À≈Õߢ⓫®– Õ∫‡¢â“‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ §≈⓬‡ “‡√◊Õπ‡§√◊ËÕß —∫¢Õß¿“§°≈“ß ™à«¬„ÀâÀ≈Õߢ⓫ ¡—Ëπ§ß·≈–√—∫πÈ”Àπ—°‰¥â¥’ ¡—° √â“ß„Àâ «¬ß“¡¥â«¬ ‡™àπ

¬—߇ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß· ¥ß∞“π–¢Õ߇®â“¢Õߥ⫬ ™“«π“¿“§ °≈“ß¡—° √â“߬ÿâ߉«â „π∫√‘‡«≥∫â“π·µà®–µâÕßÕ¬Ÿà „π∑’Ë∑’Ë¢π ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‡¢â“ÕÕ°‰¥â –¥«° ¬ÿâߢ⓫¿“§°≈“߉¡à¡’√Ÿª√à“ß  «¬ß“¡‡ªìπ摇»…·µàÕ¬à“ß„¥ ¡—°„À⧫“¡ ”§—≠°—∫°“√„™â ª√–‚¬™πå¡“°°«à“ °“√¢π¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâ߇ªìπß“πÀπ—°‰¡àπâÕ¬ ‡©æ“–™“«π“∑’Ë ¡’ ∞ “π–¥’ ‰ ¥â ¢â “ «¡“° µâ Õ ß‡°≥±å § π¡“™à « ¬À“∫¢÷È π ¬ÿâ ß ™“«π“¡—°‰¡à¢“¬¢â“«À≈—ß®“°π«¥‡ √Á®∑—π∑’ ·µà®–‡°Á∫‰«â ®π‰¥â√“§“¥’®÷ߢ“¬ ¥—ßπ—Èπ¬ÿâß®÷ßµâÕß¡—Ëπ§ß·¢Áß·√ß ·≈– ª≈Õ¥¿—¬®“°·¡≈ß  —µ«å ·≈–§π ·µà‡¥‘¡π—Èπ‡¡◊ËÕ¢π¢â“«‡¢â“ ¬ÿâß·≈â«®–‰¡à‡ªî¥¬ÿâß∫àÕ¬ ‡æ√“–‡™◊ËÕ«à“®–√∫°«π·¡à ‚æ æ ¥—ßπ—Èπ °àÕπ‡Õ“¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâß®÷ß¡—°·∫àߢ⓫‰«â°‘π à«πÀπ÷Ëß Õ’°  à«πÀπ÷ßË °—π‰«â·≈°‡ª≈’¬Ë πªí®®—¬¥”√ß™’æ∑’ºË ≈‘µ‡Õ߉¡à ‰¥â ‡™àπ πÈ”µ“≈‚µπ¥ °–ªî πÈ”ª≈“ ·≈–‡§√◊ËÕß„™â∫“ß™π‘¥ °“√·∫àß ¢â“«‰«â‡ªìπ à«πÊ ®÷߉¡àµÕâ ߇ªî¥¬ÿßâ ∫àÕ¬Ê ∫“ß∑âÕß∂‘πË ‡¡◊ÕË ¢π ¢â“«¢÷Èπ¬ÿâ߇ √Á®·≈â« ∑” æ‘∏’ªî¥¬ÿâß ‡¡◊ËÕµâÕß°“√¢“¬¢â“«°Á∑” æ‘∏’‡ªî¥¬ÿâß ™“«π“¡—°∂◊Õ‡§≈Á¥‰¡à¬Õ¡µ«ß¢â“«À√◊Õ¢“¬¢â“« 67

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æâÕ¡ À√◊Õ °√–æâÕ¡ ¿“™π–‡°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà ª“°°≈¡ °≈“ߪÉÕß °âπ Õ∫‡ªìπ ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡ ¡—°¬“¥â«¬¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬‡æ◊ËÕ°—𧫓¡™◊Èπ ·≈–°—π‰¡à„Àâ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°‰À≈ÕÕ° µ“¡™àÕß√–À«à“ß≈“¬ “π ¡’À≈“¬¢π“¥ ¢π“¥„À≠ઓ°°«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ú ∂÷ß Û »Õ°  Ÿß Û ∂÷ß Ù »Õ°  ”À√—∫„ à¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‚¥¬‡©æ“–¢â“« ∑’ˇ°Á∫‰«â∑”æ—π∏ÿå „™â°√–¥âߪ“° À√◊Õ„™âø“ߧ≈ÿ¡ ·≈⫬“¥â«¬¢’È«—« ¢’ȧ«“¬ ªÑÕß°—π·¡≈ß·≈– —µ«å ¡—°µ—È߉«â∫π·§√à„µâ擉≈‡√◊Õπ À√◊Õµ—È߉«â„µâ擉≈¬ÿâß A woven bamboo basket with a wide opening called “pom” to store rice grains. A big one measures about one or one and a half meters at the opening, and almost two meters tall. It is slightly rounded in the middle and tapers to the square bottom. It is normally smeared with animal dung to curb moisture and to stop grains from dropping through the holes. It is usually placed on a bamboo bench or shelf under the house, covered with a flat circular basket.


∫ÿߢ⓫‡®◊ÈÕ ¿“™π– “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà π‘¬¡„™â∑“ß¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ∑√ß°√–∫Õ° ª“°§ÿà¡  “π¥â«¬µÕ°ªóôπ„À≠àÊ  Ÿßª√–¡“≥ Õ߻հ‡»… ¥â“ππÕ°¬“¥â«¬¢’È«—« ‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π ¡Õ¥·≈–·¡≈ß „™â„ à‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‰«â∑”æ—π∏ÿ凙àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫æâÕ¡ ¢Õß¿“§°≈“ß ·µà¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“ ‡À¡“– ”À√—∫‡°Á∫‡¡≈Á¥æ—π∏ÿå ¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ°®”π«π‰¡à¡“° “Bung khao chuea”an ordinary basket made from woven bamboo strips used for transporting or storing grains and seeds. The outer side is often smeared with animal dung.

µ–≈àÕ¡¢â“« ∑’ˇ°Á∫¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ·≈–‡¡≈Á¥æ◊™  “π¥â«¬µÕ°‰¡â ‰ºà¢π“¥„À≠à √Ÿª∑√ß°√–∫Õ° µÕ°¬◊π ¡—°ª≈àÕ¬„Àâ¬◊ËπÕÕ°¡“ª√–¡“≥ §◊∫Àπ÷Ëß ‡ ’Ȭ¡ª≈“¬„Àâ·À≈¡ ‡æ◊ËÕªí°¬÷¥¥‘𠬓¥â«¬¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ µ–≈àÕ¡¢â“«„™â«“ß∫πæ◊Èπ¥‘π ∑’ˬ“¥â«¬¢’È«—«À√◊Õ¢’ȧ«“¬ À√◊Õ«“ß∫πæ◊Èπ¬ÿâß A cylindrical vessel with open ends called “talom khao” is normally made from bamboo strips to store rice grains and seeds. The strip on one end is kept protruding for about six inches in order that the basket can be stuck to the ground.

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§√° ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ ”À√—∫µ” À√◊Õ‚¢≈° ¢Õß„Àâ≈–‡Õ’¬¥ µ—«§√°∑”¥â«¬‰¡â À‘π ¥‘π‡º“ À√◊Õ‚≈À– ¡’√Ÿª√à“ßµà“ß°—π‰ª µ“¡°“√„™â Õ¬ ·≈–«— ¥ÿ ·µà®–µâÕß¡’ À≈ÿ¡µ√ß°≈“ß ”À√—∫„ à ‘Ëß∑’˵âÕß°“√µ” ‚¥¬„™â “°‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕßµ”À√◊Õ‚¢≈° §√°¡’À≈“¬¢π“¥µ—Èß·µà¢π“¥‡≈Á°  Ÿß‡æ’¬ß Òı ∂÷ß Û ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ‡™àπ §√°°–‡∫◊Õ  ”À√—∫µ”πÈ”æ√‘°À√◊Õ  ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ ¥â«¬  “°°–‡∫◊Õ ´÷Ëß∑”¥â«¬‰¡âµ“≈ À√◊Õ‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Áß §√°°–‡∫◊Õ∑”¥â«¬¥‘π‡º“ À√◊ÕÀ‘π π‘¬¡„™â‡ªìπ§√°ª√–®”§√—« §√°´âÕ¡¡◊Õ ∑”¥â«¬∑àÕπ‰¡â¢π“¥„À≠à ‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß ı ∂÷ß ˆ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√  Ÿßª√–¡“≥ ı ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ „™â´âÕ¡¢â“«À√◊Õ ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ¥â«¬ “° ´÷Ëß∑”®“° ‰¡â‡π◊ÈÕ·¢Áß∑àÕπ¢π“¥‡∑à“·¢π ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ Òı ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ À—«∑⓬¡π °≈“ߧե‡≈Á°πâÕ¬‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ®—∫‰¥â –¥«° ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬° §√°¡◊Õ ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬° §√°∑‘Ë¡¢â“«

°“√·ª√√Ÿª¢â“«‡ª≈◊Õ° ‡ªìπ¢â“« “√ Õ“®ª√–¥‘…∞姑¥∑”¢÷Èπ„™â¡“π“πÀ≈“¬√âÕ¬ªï¡“·≈â« Àπ—ß ◊Õ Õ—°¢√“¿‘∏“π»√—æ∑å ¢Õß À¡Õª≈—¥‡≈ À√◊Õ ¥√. ·¥π ∫’™ ·∫√¥‡≈¬å ∑’Ë æ‘ ¡ æå ‡ ¡◊Ë Õ æ.».ÚÙÒˆ √â Õ ¬ªï ‡ »…¡“·≈â « Õ∏‘∫“¬≈—°…≥–¢Õß°√–‡¥◊ËÕ߉«â«à“ ç°–‡¥◊ËÕß,∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‡ªπ §—𬓫 ¢â“ߪ≈“¬¡’ “° ‡À¡◊Õπ “°µ”¢â“«, ‡¡◊ËÕ‡À¬’¬∫ ¢â“ßÀ“ß≈ß À—«¡—π°–¥°¢÷Èπ.é æ®π“πÿ°√¡©∫—∫√“™∫—≥±‘µ¬ ∂“π æ.».ÚıÚı „À⧫“¡ À¡“¬¢Õß°√–‡¥◊ÕË ß«à“ ç‡§√◊ÕË ßµ”¢â“«™π‘¥Àπ÷ßË „™â‡∑ⓇÀ¬’¬∫ ª≈“¬°√–‡¥◊ËÕß·≈â«∂’∫„Àâ°√–¥°é ®“°§”Õ∏‘∫“¬¥—ß°≈à“« ®– ‡ÀÁπ«à“ °√–‡¥◊ËÕß §◊Õ à«π∑’ˇªìπ∑àÕπ‰¡â ª≈“¬¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëß¡’  “°µ”¢â“« ≈—°µ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà ¡’·°π∑”‡ªìπ®ÿ¥À¡ÿπ§àÕπ‰ª∑“ߪ≈“¬ Õ’°¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëß (À√◊ÕÀ“ß°√–‡¥◊ËÕß) ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∑àÕπ‰¡âπ’È°√–¥°¢÷Èπ ≈߉¥â ‡¡◊ËÕ®–µ”¢â“«µâÕß„™â‡∑â“∂’∫ª≈“¬°√–‡¥◊ËÕߢâ“ßÀπ÷Ëß≈ß  “°∑’˪≈“¬°√–‡¥◊ËÕßÕ’°¢â“ßÀπ÷Ëß®–°√–¥°¢÷Èπ ·≈⫵”≈߉ª „π§√°µ“¡®—ßÀ«–∑’ˇ∑⓬°¢÷Èπ ∑”‡™àππ’ȵàÕ‡π◊ËÕ߇√◊ËÕ¬‰ª‡ªìπ

A mortar for crushing or grinding can be made of wood, stone, terra cotta, or metal. The size and shape vary. The smallest for making a chili dip, about 15-30 cm in diameter, is called “khrok kabuea” The big mortar, called “khrok som mue” is usually made of wood, measuring about 50-60 cm in diameter. It has a hole in the middle for rice grinding with a 150-cm-long hardwood pestle, which is often slightly tapered in the middle for a better grip.

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°√–¥âßΩí¥ ¿“™π– “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà √Ÿª√à“ß·∫π°≈¡ ‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß ª√–¡“≥ ¯ ‡´πµ‘‡¡µ√ ¡’¢Õ∫ Ÿß¢÷Èπ¡“‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ „™â ”À√—∫Ωí¥¢â“« À√◊Õ‡¡≈Á¥æ◊™ ‡æ◊ËÕ·¬° ‘Ëß °ª√° ∑’˪–ªπÕ¬ŸàÕÕ° °√–¥âßΩí¥Õ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß√Ÿª√à“ß°≈¡√’ §≈â“¬Ê „∫‚æ∏‘Ï µ√ß°≈“ß “π¥â«¬ µÕ°æ‘‡»… ´÷Ë߉¡à‡°≈“‡Õ“¢âÕ‰¡â ‰ºàÕÕ° ª≈àÕ¬„À⇪ìπªÿÉ¡πŸπµ‘¥∫πº‘«µÕ° µÕ°‡ âπÀπ÷Ëß®–‡«âπ‰«â‡æ’¬ß¢âÕ‡¥’¬« µâÕß “π„Àâ¢âÕÕ¬Ÿà°÷Ëß°≈“ß°√–¥âß ·≈– ≈—∫øíπª≈“Õ¬à“߇ªìπ√–‡∫’¬∫ ‡√’¬° ¥’ ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬°°√–¥âß™π‘¥π’È«à“ ç°√–¥âß≈“¬¢Õé A flat basket for rice blowing, called “kradong” is made of woven bamboo strips, measuring about 80 cm in diameter. In the picture is a special kind of this type of basket called “kradong lai kho.” Its shape, circular with a pointed side, resembles a pipal leaf and it is woven with a special fishbone design.


§√°°√–‡¥◊ÕË ß ‡§√◊ËÕßµ”¢â“«‡°à“·°à™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß §π‰∑¬Õ“®ª√–¥‘…∞姑¥∑”¢÷Èπ„™â¡“π“π À≈“¬√âÕ¬ªï·≈â« “Khrok kradueang” is an ancient folk tool to crush rice grains which the Thai people might have invented hundreds of years ago.

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 ’¢â“« ‡§√◊ËÕß ’¢â“« ‡æ◊ËÕ ’‡Õ“‡ª≈◊Õ°ÕÕ°®“° ‡¡≈Á¥¢â“«·∑π°“√´âÕ¡¥â«¬¡◊Õ À√◊Õµ”¥â«¬°√–‡¥◊ËÕß A rice mill is a machine to separate rice grains from the chaff, instead of crushing it in a rice mortar.

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¢â“«ª≈“Õ“À“√ ¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ ¢â“«‡ªìπÕ“À“√À≈—°¢Õߧπ‰∑¬¡“·µà ‚∫√“≥ ¥—ߧ”∑’˪√“°Ø „π®“√÷° ÿ‚¢∑—¬À≈—°∑’Ë Ò «à“ 燡◊ËÕ ™—Ë«æàÕ¢ÿπ√���¡§”·Àß ‡¡◊Õß ÿ‚¢∑—¬π’È¥’ „ππÈ”¡’ª≈“ „ππ“¡’¢â“«...é ¢âÕ§«“¡¥—ß°≈à“«· ¥ß∂÷ߧ«“¡ Õÿ¥¡ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å¢ÕßÕ“≥“®—°√ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ ·¡â ¡—¬µàÕÊ ¡“§”«à“ ç„ππÈ”¡’ª≈“ „ππ“¡’¢â“«é °Á¬—ß¡’ºŸâ查լŸà ‡ ¡Õ · ¥ß«à“ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬‡ªìπÕŸà¢â“«ÕŸàπÈ” æ◊™æ—π∏ÿå∏—≠≠“À“√Õÿ¥¡ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å¡“·µà ‚∫√“≥ ‡©æ“– ¢â“«·≈–ª≈“‡ªìπÕ“À“√À≈—°∑’˧π‰∑¬∫√‘‚¿§§Ÿà°—π¡“™â“π“π ®π¡—°æŸ¥°—π‡ ¡Õ«à“ ¢â“«ª≈“Õ“À“√ ´÷Ë߇ªìππ—¬«à“ ¢â“«π—Èπ°‘π°—∫ª≈“ Õ“®®–π”¡“µâ¡ ·°ß ªîôß ¬à“ß ®π∂÷ßµ“°·Àâ߇ªìπª≈“‡§Á¡À√◊Õ∑” ‡ªìπª≈“√Ⓣ«â°‘ππ“πÊ §π‰∑¬ ¡—¬‚∫√“≥‰¡à𬑠¡°‘π —µ«å„À≠à ‡™àπ «—« §«“¬ ‡æ√“–∂◊Õ‡ªìπ —µ«å¡’ §ÿ≥∑’˙૬∑”‰√à ‰∂π“ ®÷߉¡à¶à“¡“‡ªìπÕ“À“√ À“°«—«§«“¬µ“¬°Á¡—°ΩíßÀ√◊Õ™”·À≈–·∫àߪíπ°—π‰ª ∑”Õ“À“√∂«“¬æ√–  à«πÀ¡Ÿππ—È ∂◊Õ‡ªìπÕ“À“√‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫‰°à·≈–‡ªì¥ ¥—ߧ”∑’«Ë “à À¡Ÿ‡ÀÁ¥‡ªì¥‰°à ‡ªìπ Õ“À“√∑—Ë«Ê ‰ª¢Õߧπ‰∑¬

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°√–™—ß Õÿª°√≥å ”À√—∫¢—ß —µ«åπÈ” ‡™àπ °ÿâß ª≈“ “Krachang”- a bamboo basket for keeping shrimp and fish.

‰´¥—°°ÿßâ Õÿª°√≥å ”À√—∫®—∫°ÿßâ  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà ‡À≈“‡ªìπ´’ˇ≈Á°Ê ∂—°µ‘¥°—∫‚§√ß ‡ªìπ√Ÿª∑√ß°√–∫Õ° ª“°¡’ß“ Õß™—Èπ „Àâ°ÿâ߇¢â“‰ª “Sai dak kung”- a small bamboo basket woven shrimp trap in cylindrical shape with narrow neck.

‡§√◊ÕË ß¡◊Õ®—∫ —µ«åπÈ” ∑’Ë™“«∫â“π„™â°—π∑—Ë«‰ª ”À√—∫®—∫°ÿâßÀÕ¬ªŸª≈“ ¡’À≈“¬™π‘¥ ‡™àπ ≈Õ∫ ¡’ Ú ™π‘¥ §◊Õ ≈Õ∫πÕπ ·≈– ≈Õ∫¬◊π ≈Õ∫πÕπ  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà‡À≈“‡ªìπ´’ˇ≈Á°Ê ∂—°µ‘¥°—∫‚§√߇ªìπ√Ÿª∑√ß°√–∫Õ° ª“°¡’ß“ Õß™—Èπ „Àâª≈“‡¢â“ °âπ¡’∑’˪ªî¥ °“√¥—°≈Õ∫µâÕß«“ß≈Õ∫‰«â„µâπÈ” „À⪓°≈Õ∫™π°—∫‡ΩóÕ°∑’ˇ®“–‡ªìπ™àÕ߉«â „Àâª≈“∑’Ë«à“¬∑«ππÈ”‡≈“–º‘«¥‘π‡¢â“‰ª„π≈Õ∫ √Ÿª∑√ß≈Õ∫ ·≈–§«“¡∂’ËÀà“ߢÕß´’Ë≈Õ∫ ®–µà“ß°—π‰ªµ“¡ª√–‡¿∑¢Õߪ≈“ ≈Õ∫¬◊π ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‰ºà‡À≈“‡ªìπ´’ËÊ ∂—°µ‘¥°—∫‚§√߉¡â ‰ºà √Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬¢«¥ ¡’¢π“¥„À≠à ¥â“πÀπâ“¡’ß“‡ªìπ™àÕß „Àâª≈“‡¢â“ °“√¥—°≈Õ∫™π‘¥π’È®–µâÕßÀ—πÀπâ“ ≈Õ∫µ“¡πÈ” ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâª≈“∑’Ë«à“¬∑«ππÈ”µ‘¥≈Õ∫ Õ“®¥—°‚¥¬«“ߢ«“ß∑“ßπÈ”‰À≈µ“¡√‘¡·¡àπÈ” ≈”§≈Õß À√◊Õ¥—°ª√–°Õ∫°—∫ ‡ΩóÕ° ‚¥¬µ—Èß≈Õ∫‰«â∫πæ◊Èπ¥‘π„Àâµ—«≈Õ∫ à«πÀπ÷Ëß Õ¬Ÿà‡Àπ◊ÕπÈ” ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâª≈“∑’ˇ¢â“‰ªµ‘¥≈Õ∫ À“¬„®∫πº‘«πÈ”‰¥â ‰¡àµ“¬Õ¬Ÿà„π≈Õ∫  ÿà¡ ‡§√◊ËÕß®—° “π√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬Ω“™’ À—« ÿà¡¡’™àÕß°≈¡Ê „Àâ¡◊Õ≈â«ß≈ß®—∫ª≈“‰¥â  ÿà¡¡’À≈“¬·∫∫ ·≈–¡’°√√¡«‘∏’„π°“√ “πµà“ß °—π‰ª ‡™àπ  ÿà¡°≈Õß  ÿà¡´’Ë  ÿࡵ–‡§’¬« ¢âÕß ‡§√◊ËÕß®—° “π‰¡â ‰ºà„™â„ àª≈“ À√◊Õ —µ«åπÈ”√Ÿª√à“ßµà“ß°—π‰ªµ“¡°“√„™â Õ¬ ‡™àπ ¢âÕß ”À√—∫ –擬À√◊ÕÀ‘È« ¡—°¡’√Ÿª°≈¡ §Õ§Õ¥ ª“°°≈¡ ¡’ß“‡ªìπΩ“ªî¥ ‡√’¬° ¢âÕßµ—Èß À√◊Õ ¢âÕ߬◊π ¢âÕß ”À√—∫≈Õ¬πÈ” §Õ°≈¡ µ—«¢âÕߪÉÕß ¡’∑ÿàπ¢π“∫‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ≈Õ¬πÈ”‰¥â ‡√’¬° ¢âÕß≈Õ¬ À√◊Õ ¢âÕ߇ªì¥ ¢âÕß ∫“ß∑’‡√’¬° µ–¢âÕß °√–™—ß ‡§√◊ËÕߢ—ߪ≈“ ¡—°∑”¥â«¬‰¡â‰ºà  “π‚ª√àßÊ ‡ªìπ√Ÿª∑√ßµà“ßÊ ‡™àπ ∑√ß≈Ÿ°®—π∑πå ∑√ß·µß°«“ ∑√ßµ–‚æπ °√–™—ß∫“ß™π‘¥ ¡’∑ÿàπ‰¡â‰ºà¢π“∫ Õߢâ“ß „Àâ°√–™—ß≈Õ¬Õ¬Ÿà„ππÈ” À√◊Õ„™â‡™◊Õ° ‡ªìπÀŸ·¢«π°√–™—߉«â°—∫ –æ“π∑à“πÈ” °√–™—ß¡’À≈“¬√Ÿª·∫∫ ·≈â«·µà§«“¡π‘¬¡ ·≈–«— ¥ÿ∑’ËÀ“‰¥â ∫“ß·Ààßæ—≤π“¡“‡ªìπ °“√„™â≈«¥µ“¢à“¬ À√◊Õ ¡ÿâß≈«¥°√–™—ß ¿“§„µâ‡√’¬° ‰´ ‡™àπ ‰´‰¢à‡¢â ‰´πÕπ ‰´∑π ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ‡√’¬° ∫«°¬° ¢âÕß À√◊Õ µ–¢âÕß ‡§√◊ËÕß®—° “π‰¡â ‰ºà „™â„ àª≈“À√◊Õ —µ«åπÈ” “Khong”- a fish basket for keeping fish.

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Õ¬ÿ∏¬“°‘πÕ¬ŸàÕ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ‰¡àÀ√ŸÀ√“øÿÉ¡‡øóÕ¬‡À¡◊Õπªí®®ÿ∫—π °“√ª√ÿßÕ“À“√¢Õߧπ‰∑¬¡—°∑”„π§√—« ‡√◊Õπ§√—«‡ªìπ  à«πÀπ÷ßË ¢Õ߇√◊Õπ √â“ß·¬°®“°‡√◊ÕππÕπ ¿“¬„π‡√◊Õπ§√—« ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ ·¡à‡µ“‰ø ´÷ßË ‡ªìπ∑’«Ë “߇µ“‰ø ”À√—∫ª√ÿßÕ“À“√ ·≈–¿“™π–‡§√◊ÕË ß„™â „π°“√ª√ÿßÕ“À“√À√◊Õ‡§√◊ÕË ß§√—«ª√–‡¿∑ µà“ßÊ ‡™àπ À¡âÕ ∂⫬ ‚∂ ‚Õ ™“¡ °√–µà“¬¢Ÿ¥¡–æ√â“« À«¥ °√–™Õπ ‡¢’¬ß ·≈– ¡’¥  ‘ËߢÕ߇§√◊ËÕß„™â‡À≈à“π’ȧπ‰∑¬„π Õ¥’µ∑”„™â‡Õß·∑∫∑—Èß ‘Èπ ‡©æ“–¿“™π– ”À√—∫„ àÕ“À“√ ª√–‡¿∑ ∂⫬ ‚∂ ‚Õ ™“¡ π—Èπ ™“«∫â“π∑—Ë«‰ª§ß„™â¿“™π– ¥‘π‡º“∑’∑Ë ”¢÷πÈ „π∑âÕß∂‘πË À√◊Õ∑âÕß∂‘πË „°≈⇧’¬ß ∂â“¢—¥ π®√‘ßÊ °Á „™â°–≈“À√◊Õ„™â „∫µÕ߇¬Á∫‡ªìπ°√–∑ß °“√°‘πÕ“À“√¢Õß §π‰∑¬„π™π∫∑¡—°π—ßË ≈âÕ¡«ß∫πæ◊πÈ ∂Ⓡªìπ¢â“«‡À𒬫¡—°„ à °àÕߢ⓫ À√◊Õ °√–µ‘∫ «“߉«â¢â“ßÊ ™“¡µâ¡·°ß ∂⫬πÈ”æ√‘° ‰«â∫π ”√—∫Õ“À“√ „π¿“§°≈“ß¡—°„™â∂“¥ °√–∫– ‡ªìπ∑’Ë«“ß °—∫¢â“« ¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ„™â ‚µ° ¿“§Õ’ “π„™â 擢⓫ ‡ªìπ∑’Ë«“ß ∂⫬®“π°—∫¢â“«„Àâ Ÿß®“°æ◊Èπ À¬‘∫À√◊Õ‡ªî∫‡¢â“ª“°‰¥â –¥«° ¿“™π–ª√–‡¿∑ ®“π ™“¡ ·≈–∂⫬ π—Èπ ºŸâ¡’∞“π–¥’Õ“®®– 79

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´â“¬ ‡√◊Õπ§√—« ‚√ßÀ√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ ”À√—∫ ∑”Õ“À“√ ¿“§°≈“ßπ‘¬¡·¬°§√—« ÕÕ°®“°‡√◊ÕππÕπ ¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“‡√◊Õπ πÕπ æ◊Èπ„™â ‰¡â·ºàπ‡≈Á°Ê À√◊Õ‰¡â ‰ºà ªŸ‡ªìπ√àÕß„ÀâπÈ”‰À≈ ·≈–™à«¬„Àâ√–∫“¬ Õ“°“»‰¥â¥’ Ω“¡—°‡ªìπΩ“ ”À√«¥ À√◊ÕΩ“¢—¥·µ–∑’ËÕ“°“»ºà“π‰¥â ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫®—Ë« ¡—°‡ªìπ®—Ë«‚ª√àß ‡√’¬° ®—Ë«æ√–Õ“∑‘µ¬å ∑’˧«—π‰ø≈Õ¬ÕÕ°‰ª‰¥â ‰¡àÕ∫Õ¬Ÿà„π‡√◊Õπ Left A kitchen is normally separated from the sleeping quarters. It is often a smaller space floored with narrow pieces of timber or bamboo rods allowing the floor to have holes or slits for water drainage and ventilation. The wall is made from roughly woven bamboo rods for ventilation. The gable is also open to allow cooking smoke to easily emit from the kitchen.


°àÕߢ⓫ ¿“™π– ”À√—∫„ à¢â“«‡À𒬫π÷Ëß „™â∑—Ë«‰ª„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ·≈–¿“§Õ’ “π A rice container called “kong khao” is widely used in the north and the northeast. It is made of double-layers of woven bamboo strips in different shapes and sizes according to local preference. Its lid helps keep the rice warm for a long time. A rope attached around it is for carrying or hanging.

°àÕߢ⓫ ¿“™π–  ”À√—∫„ à¢â“«‡À𒬫π÷Ëß „™â∑—Ë«‰ª„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ ·≈–¿“§Õ’ “π  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà√Ÿª∑√ß·µ°µà“ß°—π‰ª µ“¡§«“¡π‘¬¡¢Õß·µà≈–∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ¡’ à«πª√–°Õ∫ ”§—≠ Û  à«π §◊Õ ∞“π À√◊Õ ‡™‘ß ∑”¥â«¬·ºàπ‰¡â ‡∫≠®æ√√≥‰¢«â°—π‡ªìπ√Ÿª°“°∫“∑ ºŸ°µ‘¥°—∫°âπ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ∞“π„Àâ°àÕߢ⓫µ—È߉¥â µ—«°àÕß  “π´âÕπ°—π Õß™—Èπ ‡æ◊ËÕ°√Õ߉ծ“°¢â“«π÷Ëß „Àâ√–‡À¬ÕÕ° Õ¬à“ß™â“Ê ∑”„Àâ¢â“«√âÕπ ·≈–π‘Ë¡Õ¬Ÿà‡ªìπ‡«≈“π“π Ω“§√Õ∫ ªî¥‡ªî¥‰¥â ¥â“π¢â“ߢÕßµ—«°àÕß ·≈–Ω“°àÕß ¡—°¡’ÀŸ ”À√—∫√âÕ¬‡™◊Õ° ´÷Ëß√âÕ¬ ¢÷Èπ¡“®“°°âπ ”À√—∫·¢«π À‘È« À√◊Õ –擬∫à“µ‘¥µ—«‡«≈“‡¥‘π∑“ß ‰ª∑”ß“ππÕ°∫â“π °àÕß¢â“«π‘¬¡„™â„π°≈ÿà¡™π∑’Ë¡’ «—≤π∏√√¡°“√∫√‘‚¿§¢â“«‡À𒬫 ‡™àπ„π¿“§‡Àπ◊Õ·≈–¿“§Õ’ “𠇙àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫ °√–µ‘∫ À√◊Õ °√–µ‘Í∫ ¿“™π–∑√ß°√–∫Õ° “π¥â«¬‰¡â‰ºà  ”À√—∫„ à¢â“«‡À𒬫π÷ËߢÕß™“«Õ’ “π ¡’Ω“ ¡’ÀŸÀ‘È«  «¡§√Õ∫µ—«°√–µ‘∫ ´÷Ëß “π´âÕπ°—π Õß™—Èπ °âπ∑”¥â«¬°â“πµ“≈ À√◊Õ‰¡â ‰ºà ‡ªìπ∞“π‚§âß°≈¡√Õ∫µ—«°√–µ‘∫ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰¥â°√–µ‘∫µ—È߉¥â¡—Ëπ§ß·≈–∑π °√–µ‘∫¢â“«¡—°¡’‡™◊Õ°√âÕ¬‡ªìπÀŸ  ”À√—∫À‘È«À√◊Õ –擬 À√◊Õ·¢«π ∫“ß∂‘πË ∑”Ω“°√–µ‘∫§≈⓬Ω“™’ „ à¢â“«‡À𒬫π÷Ëß∂«“¬æ√– ß¶å ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâµà“ß®“°°√–µ‘∫¢Õß™“«∫â“π ‡√’¬° °√–µ‘∫¢â“«®Õ¡ À√◊Õ °√–µ‘∫¢â“«®—ßÀ—π

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°√–‚∫¡ À√◊Õ °—Í« ∂“¥º÷Ëߢ⓫‡À𒬫∑’Ëπ÷Ëß ÿ°·≈â« ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰Õ√âÕπ√–‡À¬ÕÕ°∫â“ß °àÕππ”„ à°Õà ߢ⓫À√◊Õ°√–µ‘∫ “Kraboam”- a tray used in the northeast for kneading the cooked sticky rice before keeping it in the rice container.

°√–∫– ∑’Ë«“ß·≈–‡°Á∫Õ“À“√ ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â ‡ªìπ°≈àÕß ’ˇÀ≈’ˬ¡‡µ’È¬Ê ·∫à߇ªìπ Ú  à«π§◊Õ µ—«°√–∫–  ”À√—∫«“ß∂⫬™“¡Õ“À“√ ·≈– Ω“°√–∫– ´÷Ëߧ√Õ∫µ—«°√–∫–‰¥âæÕ¥’ °√–∫–°—∫¢â“« ™à«¬ªÑÕß°—πΩÿÉπ≈–ÕÕß ·≈–·¡≈߉¡à„ÀâµÕ¡Õ“À“√ ·≈–„™â‡ªìπ ”√—∫Õ“À“√‰ª¥â«¬ ™“«∫â“π®÷ß¡—°«“ß°√–∫–°—∫¢â“«‰«â„π§√—« ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫ ”√—∫°—∫¢â“«∑’Ë¡’Ω“™’§√Õ∫ °√–∫–¡’„™â°—π∑—Ë«‰ª„π∫√‘‡«≥¿“§°≈“ß ‡¡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ “¡ ‘∫ ’Ë ‘∫ªï¡“·≈â« ‚¥¬Õ“®‰¥â·∫∫Õ¬à“ß¡“®“°™“«®’π “Kraba” is a kind of covered tray for keeping rice and other dishes. It prevents dirt, flies, or animals from getting to the food. It is sometimes used to serve the meal in.

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‚µ° ∑’Ë«“ßÕ“À“√√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬∂“¥ ·µà¡’¢“ Ÿß‚¥¬√Õ∫ ∑”¥â«¬‰¡â°≈÷ß π‘¬¡∑“√—° À√◊Õ∑“™“¥ ®÷ß¡’∑—Èß™π‘¥ ∑“√—° ’¥” ·≈–∑“™“¥ ’·¥ß ‡√’¬°µà“ß°—𠉪∫â“ß ‡™àπ ¢—π‚µ° ‚µ°  –‚µ° ·µà‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª¡’√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π ¡’¢π“¥·µ°µà“ß°—π Û ¢π“¥ ‰¥â·°à ‚µ°À≈«ß À√◊Õ  –‚µ°À≈«ß ‚µ°¢π“¥„À≠à‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߪ√–¡“≥ Úı ∂÷ß ıı π‘È« „™â„π√“™ ”π—° À√◊Õ§ÿâ¡¢Õ߇®â“π“¬ΩÉ“¬‡Àπ◊Õ À√◊Õ„™âµ“¡«—¥ ‚µ°Œ“¡ À√◊Õ ‚µ°À–√“¡ ‚µ°¢π“¥°≈“ß ‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ò˜ ∂÷ß ÚÙ π‘È« Œ“¡ À√◊Õ À–√“¡ ‡ªì𧔂∫√“≥∑’Ë„™â‡√’¬° ¢—π‚µ° ”À√—∫„ àÕ“À“√∂«“¬æ√–√–¥—∫ √Õ߇®â“Õ“«“  À√◊Õ„™â ”À√—∫∫â“π§À∫¥’ À√◊Õ§√Õ∫§√—«„À≠à ‚µ°πâÕ¬ À√◊Õ  –‚µ°ÀπàÕ¬ ‚µ°¢π“¥ ‡≈Á°‡ âπºà“»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߪ√–¡“≥ Ò ∂÷ß Òı π‘È« „™â ”À√—∫§√Õ∫§√—«‡≈Á° À√◊Õæ√–¿‘°…ÿ∑’Ë©—π·¬°Õߧ凥’¬« A pedestal tray for serving food called “tok,” widely used in the north, is normally made of polished wood. It often comes in three sizes. The biggest, about 25-55 inches in diameter, is used in the court or in the northern royal household. The mid-size, about 17-24 inches in diameter, is usually used for serving food to high-ranking monks, in wealthy households, or in big family. The small size used in a small family is about 10-15 inches in diameter.

„™â‡§√◊ËÕ߇§≈◊Õ∫Õ¬à“ß∑’ˇ√’¬° ‡§√◊ËÕß —ߧ‚≈° „π ¡—¬ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ µàÕ¡“„π ¡—¬Õ¬ÿ∏¬“π‘¬¡ —Ëß¿“™π–‡§√◊ËÕß∂⫬¡“®“°®’π ·≈–¿“™π–∑’Ë™“«µ–«—πµ°π”‡¢â“¡“ à«π¡“°‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß °√–‡∫◊ÕÈ ß∑’¡Ë ≈’ «¥≈“¬ «¬ß“¡ ®π™à“߉∑¬π”‰ªª√–¥—∫Àπâ“∫—π ·≈–´ÿ⡪√–µŸ‚∫ ∂å«‘À“√À≈“¬·Ààß ¿“™π–∑’Ë —Ëß´◊ÈÕ·≈– —Ëß∑” ®“°‡¡◊Õß®’π ¡—¬Õ¬ÿ∏¬“∑’æË ∫¡“°‰¥â·°à ™“¡ ®“π‡™‘ß ‚∂ ∂⫬ ·≈– °√–‚∂π ™“¡∑’Ë —Ë߇¢â“¡“ à«π¡“°‡ªìπ ∑√ß∫—« ª“°º“¬ ·≈– ∑√ß¡–π“«µ—¥ ™“¡‡À≈à“π’ȇ¢’¬π¥â«¬≈“¬‰∑¬·≈–¡’Ω“ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ™“¡∑’Ë ‰∑¬ —Ëß∑”‚¥¬‡©æ“– ‡æ√“–™“¡®’π‰¡à¡’Ω“ ≈«¥≈“¬∑’ˇ¢’¬π¡’ Û ™π‘¥ §◊Õ ≈“¬§√“¡∑’ˇ¢’¬π ’øÑ“≈ß∫π æ◊Èπ¢“« ‡¢’¬π ’ Õ¥≈“¬∑Õß ·≈– ∂⫬™“¡‡∫≠®√ß§å ´÷Ëß —Ëß ‡¢â“¡“¡“°„π ¡—¬√—™°“≈∑’Ë Ú (æ.». ÚÛıÚ ∂÷ß ÚÛˆ˜) ®“π‡™‘ß ¡’√Ÿª∑√߇ªìπ¢Õ߉∑¬‚¥¬·∑â ¡’À≈“¬¢π“¥ ¢π“¥

‡∫≠®√ß§å ‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ‡√’¬° ‡§√◊ËÕß∂⫬™“¡∑’Ë¡’ ı  ’ §◊Õ ¥” ·¥ß ¢“« ‡¢’¬« (§√“¡) ‡À≈◊Õß ´÷Ëß√“™ ”π—°‰∑¬ àß·∫∫‰ª„Àâ™à“ß®’π ∑”µ—Èß·µà ¡—¬Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ®π∂÷ßµâπ √—µπ‚° ‘π∑√å ∂⫬™“¡‡À≈à“π’È¡—°‡¢’¬π≈“¬ °â“π¢¥ ‡∑æπ¡ §√ÿ± √“™ ’Àå ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¢Õß„™â„π√“™ ”π—° Bencharong (five-colored) pottery of the Ayutthaya and Rattanakosin Period.

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„À≠à ”À√—∫„ à¬” º—° ª≈“ ·≈–¢â“« ÿ°∑’Ë·∫àß¡“®“°™“¡„À≠à ‡«≈“®–°‘π ®“π‡™‘ß¢π“¥‡≈Á°„ à°∫— ¢â“«·≈–¢ÕßÀ«“π ®—¥«“ß ‰«â∫π‚µä–‡µ’¬È Ê À√◊Õ«“ß∫π‚µ°Õ¬à“ßÕ“À“√∂«“¬æ√– µàÕ¡“ „π ¡— ¬ √— ™ °“≈∑’Ë Ù ·≈–√— ™ °“≈∑’Ë ı ‰∑¬√— ∫ «— ≤ π∏√√¡ µ–«—πµ°‡¢â“¡“¡“° ®÷ßÀ—π¡“„™â∂⫬‚∂‚Õ™“¡µ–«—πµ° µ≈Õ¥®π·µàß°“¬·∫∫µ–«—πµ°‡√◊ËÕ¬¡“®π∑ÿ°«—ππ’È Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ ¢â“«ª≈“Õ“À“√·≈–°“√°‘πÕ¬ŸàÕ¬à“߉∑¬ „πÕ¥’µπ—Èπ µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà∫πæ◊Èπ∞“π¢Õß«‘∂’™’«‘µ∑’ËæÕ‡æ’¬ß À√◊Õ´◊ÈÕ ¢“¬·≈°‡ª≈’ˬπ°—π„π∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ¢Õßµπ °“√¥”√ß™’«‘µ®÷߇ªìπ ™’«‘µ∑’ËæÕ‡æ’¬ß æÕÕ¬ŸàæÕ°‘π ¥—ß°√–· æ√–√“™¥”√— ¢Õß æ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“Õ¬ŸàÀ—«√—™°“≈ªí®®ÿ∫—π ∑’Ë∑√ß·π–„Àâ §π‰∑¬¡’«‘∂’™’«‘µ∑’ËæÕ‡æ’¬ß ‡≈’Ȭߙ’æ¥â«¬ªí®®—¬ ’˵“¡°”≈—ß §«“¡ “¡“√∂¢Õßµπ °Á®–‰¡à‡¥◊Õ¥√âÕπ·≈–¡’§«“¡ ÿ¢


—ߧ‚≈° ‡§√◊ËÕߪíôπ¥‘π‡º“ º≈‘µ¢÷Èπ„πÕ“≥“®—°√ ÿ‚¢∑—¬ (√“«æÿ∑∏»µ«√√…∑’Ë Ò˘ ∂÷ß Ú) ‰¥â·°à ∂⫬™“¡  ‘ËߢÕ߇§√◊ËÕß„™âµà“ßÊ ‡§√◊ËÕßµ°·µàßÕ“§“√ µÿä°µ“ ·≈– ‘ËßÕ◊ËπÊ ∑”¥â«¬¥‘π·≈â«π”‰ª‡º“‰ø ®π¡’‡π◊ÈÕ·°√àßÀ√◊Õ‡π◊ÈÕÀ‘π (stoneware) ®–‡§≈◊Õ∫À√◊Õ‰¡à‡§≈◊Õ∫°Áµ“¡ ∑’Ëæ∫¡“°¡’ Ú ™π‘¥ §◊Õ ‡§√◊ËÕß —ߧ‚≈°‡π◊ÈÕ·°√à߉¡à‡§≈◊Õ∫ ¡—°‡ªìπº≈‘µ¿—≥±å¢π“¥„À≠à ‡™àπ ‚Õàß À√◊Õµÿà¡πÈ” À¡âÕ ‰À ‚§¡‰ø „∫√–°“ À“ßÀß å œ≈œ  à«π„À≠àº≈‘µ®“°‡µ“»√’ —™π“≈—¬  ÿ‚¢∑—¬ æ‘…≥ÿ‚≈° ‡§√◊ËÕß —ߧ‚≈°™π‘¥‡§≈◊Õ∫ ¡’ Ú ™π‘¥ ‰¥â·°à ‡§≈◊Õ∫·∫∫»‘≈“¥≈ À√◊Õ ‡™≈“¥Õπ (celadon)  ’‡¢’¬« ‡¢’¬«Õ¡‡À≈◊Õß ‡¢’¬«‰¢à°“ ‡¢’¬«Õ¡‡∑“ Õ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷Ë߇ªì𠇧√◊ËÕ߇§≈◊Õ∫ ’Õ◊ËπÊ ‡™àπ  ’¥”  ’πÈ”µ“≈  ’‡∑“ ·≈– ’¢“«µÿà𠇧√◊ËÕß —ߧ‚≈°  ¡‡¥Á®œ °√¡æ√–¬“ ¥”√ß√“™“πÿ¿“æ∑√߇√’¬°  —ß°‚≈°ÚÚ “Sangkhalok” or “Sangalok” is a kind of ceramics made in the Sukhothai Period. The clay was patterned into various household items then fired until it was as strong as stoneware. It could also be glazed. The unglazed stoneware techniques was usually used with big objects such as water jars, pots, lamps, or decorative roofing pieces. They were often in dark gray or dark brown colors. The glazed items were often in celadon green and other different shades of green, or in other colors such as black, brown, gray, and off-white.

擢⓫  ”√—∫«“ߢ⓫ Õ¬à“ß¿“§Õ’ “π  “π¥â«¬‰¡â ‰ºà·≈–À«“¬ ‡√’¬° 擇¢â“ À√◊Õ ¿“‡¢â“ À“°„™â«“ß ”√—∫ ¢â“«‡™â“ ‡√’¬° 擇¢â“ß“¬ À√◊Õ æ“¢â“«ß“¬  ”√—∫¢â“«°≈“ß«—π‡√’¬° 擇¢â“ «¬ À√◊Õ æ“¢â“« «¬  ”√—∫¢â“«‡¬Áπ‡√’¬° 擇¢â“·≈ß À√◊Õ æ“¢â“«·≈ß A northeastern woven container for a meal called “pha khao,” usually made from rattan or bamboo strips.

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Thai Wisdom: Thai Ways of Life

Chapter One

Rice: The Staple of Thai Society ¯Ù

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Rice (GRAMINEAE) has long been the staple diet of the Siamese. The long-grain rice grown in Thailand is a tropical plant with long stalks and soft hay. In the Chiang Saen and Lanna Empires, around the 10th-17th centuries CE, the Siamese grew both long and short grain glutinous rice more than the ordinary rice. During the Sukhothai Period (circa 1238-1438 CE), short-grain glutinous rice was more commonly grown than the long-grain and the ordinary rice. The trend continued in the Ayutthaya Period (1350-1767 CE). Cultivation of long-grain ordinary rice, however, increased during the late Ayutthaya Period, and the trend has continued until now. Long-grain ordinary rice (Oryza sativa L.,) is usually consumed in the Central Plains, the South, and the Lower Northeast. Glutinous rice is locally called sticky rice because, once cooked, it tends to stick together better. It is the staple diet of the northern and upper northeastern people. It is widely used in many kinds of traditional desserts as well.

Rice stalks from the paddy fields in Suphan Buri Province, in the Central Region.

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Rice: The Staple of Thai Society

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Rice planting in the North.

Rice Planting Tools The first tool for rice planting could be a pointed stick made from a bamboo rod, to poke holes in the ground for grains. Once it had rainwater or moisture from dews, the grains would grow into rice stalks. Humans later developed sowing as another planting method. A plow was invented to upturn the soil, the grains were sowed, and the soil was once again plowed to cover the grains. This method was more rapid than the primitive planting style and the yield was also better although it still depended on weather conditions. Lately, another rice planting method has been developed from the simple sowing method. Rice paddies are leveled, compacted, and partitioned into smaller plots with raised earth dunes around them, equipped with a simple mechanism to trap or release the water. Irrigation system, highly developed equipment, and chemical fertilizers have been introduced to allow for off-season planting.

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The most important tool for rice planting has always been the plow. Generally, there are two kinds: a single-shaft and a double-shaft plows. The double-shaft plows are stronger and generally used in hard clay fields where plowing is harder to do. Though a simple tool, a plow needs to be carefully designed and made for the most efficiency. While waiting for the rain to come before plowing began, farmers need to prepare rice saplings to be planted in the paddies. The sapling plots are usually nearer to the water. The basket of seed grains is soaked in water to get rid of the unhealthy seeds. Then the seed grains are put into another basket lined with dry hay or grass. They are regularly watered until they sprout into seedlings. The seedlings will be sowed in the pre-plowed sapling plots. Farmers have to wait until the saplings are more than a foot tall before they are ready to be re-planted. Harvesting the saplings has always been considered women’s task. The saplings will be


uprooted, and the earth by the root slightly shaken off in water. The saplings must be even out by the root ends, before being fastened into bunches. The leaves will be cut short to allow them to re-grow. The saplings are then carried to the paddies.

area. They often take turns to help each other in planting all the fields. This collaboration, locally called “long-khaek” in Thai, makes the planting fast and more efficient. This collaborative strategy of shared labor is often used in other activities as well.

Once the rain comes, the plowing process begins with the first plowing to upturn the earth, in order to allow dry grass to die out. Then the farmer needs to plow the field once again to prune it. Both plowings are done after the rain has softened the ground. After that, the farmer must use a harrow to rake off the weeds and to level the plowed field.

If the weather co-operates, the rice fields will be lushly green in no time. Around the tenth month on the lunar calendar (September), the rice stalks will be “pregnant.” The farmers need to tend to their usual enemies such as field mice, crabs, tortoises, and insects. Before the invention of chemical pesticides, some farmers resorted to supra-natural powers. They performed ceremonial rites, requesting assistance from the Rice Goddess (Mae Phosop) and other gods to ward off the pest.

Sapling planting begins at the first plot because the grains from this plot will be kept for the rice blessing ceremony and for reproduction in the next planting season. To plant the saplings in the paddy fields, the farmer holds 6-7 of them in one hand while the thumb of the other hand pokes into the muddy field to make holes for the saplings. Farmers usually plant in rows until they have covered the whole

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Rice: The Staple of Thai Society

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Plowing the paddy fields in the Central Region.


Rice Harvest Harvest seasons vary according to the kind of rice and planting technique used, approximately between the end of the twelfth month (November) and the beginning of the first month of the following year (December). Initially, farmers must have used a sharp cutting tool, called "krae" still in use in the southern region, made from a stone disc, a piece of bone, or a sharpened shell. They hold a rice stalk in one hand, the tool in the other, and cut it one by one. Though a slow process, the harvest is usually thorough, and nothing is wasted. No rice stalks will be left in the fields. The rice stalks will be bunched and brought to the kneading lawn. The single-stalk cutter was later developed into a longer crescent knife called "khiao." It can cut a bunch of stalks at a time, and thus makes rice harvest much faster.

A metal crescent blade with a wooden handle for rice harvest.

A southern harvest tool called “krae” which might be used to cut rice stalks individually.

The harvest normally begins early in the morning. When the sun gets stronger, the farmers stop for a rest and for breakfast. After the noon meal, they can continue until early evening. The host farmer usually sees to the meals for the guest helpers. Rice fields in the Central Plains are usually very large. Farmers, therefore, take turns to help each other at every step of the planting process to ensure that everything is done in time before the weather changes. After the harvest, the rice stalks are brought to the kneading lawn. In the northern and the northeastern regions, farmers with no space for a kneading lawn often knead the rice stalks in the field and transport only the grains to the storage.

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Rice Kneading To separate rice grains from the stalks, they will be kneaded on a kneading lawn. The lawn, either a communal lawn for the whole village or a private one, must be carefully prepared. Farmers usually start when the earth is still wet after the seasonal flooding. Cattle are driven to walk repeatedly in circle, in the designated area until the ground is evenly flat and leveled. After that, they repeatedly glaze the lawn surface with liquefied cattle manure. The dried manure will eventually pave the law surface, preventing rice grains to fall into the ground and curbing sand and soil from mixing with rice grains. Before taking the rice stalks to the lawn, farmers usually perform ceremonial rites to invite Mae Phosop, the Rice Goddess, to accompany the rice stalks to the lawn, and later from the lawn to the storage. Rice stalks will cleverly be stacked up in pyramid-like piles around the lawn. In case of rain, only those on the outside will get wet. Before kneading, a head-high pole will be planted in the middle of the lawn, topped with a thorny branch to ward off birds, or a flower garland for luck. Bunches of stalks will be alternately placed in the circular lawn. A line of cattle standing abreast as far as the outer rim of the lawn is fastened to the pole. The aged ones will be closer to the pole for their slow stride, while the younger and stronger ones will be placed on the outside. The cattle knead the stalks with their repeated stride. The upper layers of stalks with no grains left on them will be taken away little by little until only the grains are left on the lawn. The rice husks will be stacked up in pagoda-like piles around the lawn for later use. The grains will be sifted in order to get rid of the unwanted dirt.

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A haystack in the North.

In the northern and the northeastern regions where farmers knead the rice stalks in the paddy fields, the methods used may vary. In certain areas, farmers turn the paddy field into the kneading lawn with the same method as that of the Central Plains mentioned above. Then they beat the rice stalks on to a kneading table, allowing the grains to fall to the ground. Or, they can beat them on a bamboo bench with a mat or a plastic sheet underneath to receive the grains. With a small amount of rice stalks, farmers sometimes beat them in a bamboo bowl-like basket specially made for this function, which will store the grains before being sifted. Unlike their counterparts in the other regions, farmers in the South do not immediately knead the rice stalks after the harvest. They pile up all the stalks in the rice barn in their household. Once they need rice either for consumption or for sale, they will knead the required amount of rice stalks. They place the stalks on the mat or a piece of animal hide, and trudge on them to seperate the grains from the stalks. All the different kneading methods and tools locally used reflect ancestral wisdom in materials design and selection. They could effectively perform the tasks to serve the farmers’ purpose before the rude invasion of machinery to change the traditional way of rice farming and the farmers’ life.

Rice: The Staple of Thai Society

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From Grains into Rice Once farmers had acquired rice grains, they had to get rid of the hard husks before the rice was ready to be cooked. Normally, the grains were put in a huge mortar and crushed with a long and heavy wooden pestle. They would be crushed again in a smaller mortar. This task was also considered part of women’s daily duties. Villagers often prepared enough rice for only one cooking. Newly crushed rice, they believed, tasted and smelled better than pre-crushed rice. New equipment for rice milling was developed when demand for rice had increased. The most primitive rice mill functioned in the similar way as that of a grinding stone. Overtime, a rice mill powered by steam, and machines were invented and widely used in Bangkok and its vicinity, before spreading to further areas. Thai people no longer had to crush rice everyday for their daily cooking pot.

Above A traditional rice silo in the North called “Long Khao.” Right A central-style cart

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A Thai Meal Rice has long been the staple diet of the Thai people. Even in one of the Sukhothai inscriptions, it was recorded that “In the reign of Khun Ram Kamhaeng, fish were [abundant] in the water and rice in the fields.” This statement is a crucial piece of evidence to reflect the fertility of the land. Fish were easy to find in any water bodies. Moreover, it documented the combination of rice and fish as the Thais’ staple diet for both were normally consumed together. Fish, as well as some other aquatic animals such as crabs, shellfish, and shrimps, were usually prepared in many different ways to accompany rice. Vegetables could always be collected from the fields or the forest nearby. For cooking, Thai people initially used earthen pots. Later, bronze, copper, and aluminum pots were developed and widely used. A family usually had at least two pots, the rice pot for rice cooking, and the curry pot for anything soupy. Rice could be cooked in fresh water, or in coconut milk. For desserts, sticky rice was normally used in combination with coconut milk and sugar. Meal preparations took place in the kitchen, which was either connected to the main living area, or built separately. Basic kitchen utensils were pots, bowls, knives, coconut scrapers, a

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chopping block, and a sifter made from woven bamboo strips. When the cooking was done and the meal was ready, family members gathered in a circle around the meal. Different dishes prepared for that meal were placed in the middle. Containers used in a household were usually homemade, or locally produced from neighboring villages. In the North, to facilitate eating, dishes were sometimes placed on a circular wooden tray called “tok.” In the Northeast, similar objects used were called “pha khao.” While commoners often used simple terra cotta plates and bowls, nobility or the wealthy could use more elaborate crockery such as fine china domestically made called “Sangaloke.” In the Ayutthaya and Rattanakosin Periods, fine crockery made to order from certain European cities or from China was imported, such as the five-colored and gilt crockery called “Bencharong,” which was widely popular in the Second Reign (1809-1824). It should be noted that traditional Thai way of living was rather prudent, normally based on the notion of living in moderate sustenance with the four basic needs to maintain peace of mind and harmony in life. HM King Bhumibol has recently reiterated the idea with his recent doctrine of sustainable living.

Rice: The Staple of Thai Society

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Bencharong, five-colored pottery of the Rattanakosin Period.


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