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hill with a view towards the sea of Asia Minor. It was located close to the ancient city of Kos in an open area with running water, close to the springs of Bourinnas and Red Waters. It was surrounded by the well known woods of Pine trees. It had always been one of the most famous monuments in Kos, rich in offerings of great works of art by famous artists. The Asclipio of Kos is connected to the works of one of the most important representatives of medical science, Hippocrates (460-380 BC). Hippocrates established the Medical School of Kos as well as the other Asclipia. Initially he followed the traditional therapy of the times. A priest would come and examine the patient in detail and then they would cleanse the patient and then offer sacrifices. According to the traditional religious therapy, God would appear in the patients’ dreams and cure their worries and their illnesses. As compulsory payment the patient had to sacrifice a rooster. The practice was followed during the Greek period while later it seems there were more professional doctors, who cured the patients using more scientific methods. Research to find the Asclipio began at the end of the 19th century and was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century by the German archaeologist Rudolf Herzog aided by the Kos historian Jacob Zarrafti. Zarrafti noticed that one of the small Byzantine temples was dedicated to the Tarsou virgin Mary. He assumed that the name Tarsou was a word used for “woods” and was referring to the “woods of pine trees” which was adored by Kiparisios Apollon. In combination with the ancient springs it showed the position to Herzog and in 1901 excavations began, which then continued till 1905. The excavation continued in the 1930’s under the Italian Archaeological Mission which led to further reconstructions which still stand today. In the area which later became a sanctuary, there was initially an area of worship for the curing expert Peionas and Apollo, Asclipio’s father. In this area there was dense woods with pine trees – dedicated to the worship of Apollo Kiparission which was protected by holy law. Other gods were worshipped at the Asclipio like Zeus, Ikesios, Athena Fatria and Apollo Karnios, while in the 4ht century BC the worship of Asclipio was also included and an altar was constructed in his honour. The worship of Asclipios proved to be one of the most important public worships of Kos during the 3rd and 2nd century BC, especially after 242 BC the year when Kos ensured the acknowledgement of immunity, that is the protection of the sanctuary from attacks of any kind. They also established the Geat Asclipia, a celebration where musical and nudity competitions were held in which all Greek cities took place.

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Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project  
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