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(20.98 km) to the Roman building at Tall el-Hammam and 15.3 Rm (22.6 km) to Tall er-Ramah. Recognizing that the tall at Hammam is over a kilometer long and the Roman building is in the centre of the site, one could expect the gate to the city to be some distance from the Roman building and indicate that the Roman road would be even shorter than the 14.1 Roman miles. From the GPS of the Roman road, it is clear that the distance to Tall el-Hammam from Esbus is closer to the 12 Roman miles than Tall er-Rameh and indicates that the area around Tall elHammam is a better candidate for ancient Livias based on the Roman mile markers.. The road between Livias and Esbus (EssebĹ?n) was used by pilgrims traveling from Jerusalem via Jericho.

Site: Umm Qais (Gadara) Sub Site: Gadara- Cardo Location: North 25,09 East 35,13 Period: 63 BC

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Description: In ancient times, Gadara was strategically situated, laced by a number of key trading routes connecting Syria and Palestine. The cardo was a north-south oriented street in Roman cities, military camps, and coloniae. The cardo, an integral component of city planning, was lined with shops and vendors, and served as a hub of economic life. The main cardo was called cardo maximus. The cardo was the "hinge" or axis of the city, derived from the same root as cardinal.

Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project