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The spread of the cult of Isis as mistress of the sea such as Isis Pharia and Isis Pelagia in addition to the terracotta lamps representing the Pharos structure and figurines of Isis present also evidence of the processional object carried in her festival.105 According to Diodorus Siculus, in Isis festivals, wheat and barley grains were carried in procession to commemorate her blessing as goddess of fertility. The famous Vatican relief of the Hadrianic period depicts members of an Isis procession. The fresco of Herculaneum depicts cult officials carrying sacred objects in the beginning of a procession. On the frieze of the architrave of the temple of Isis on Pompeii, we recognize a painting of ten persons on a red background carrying several cultic objects. The common point of these artistic representations in the above examples and in Philae in Egypt was the cultic objects of Isis such as pitcher that was always carried in procession to contain the sacred water, the sistrum and the lamps. In the matter of the funerary tradition, funerary procession still keeping an important place in the tradition as witness the tombs decoration. Processions of relatives, mourners women, friends and slaves carry the deceased objects; the goddess Isis and Nephetys, the gods Anubis and Osiris are the common figures beside the Gods Hades, Persephone and other Greek gods. The role of the army in the procession was introduced by Alexander the Great, took its privilege place in the Ptolemia Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus and became normal tradition in the time of Cleopatra VII when Antonius entered Alexandria in a splendid procession, parading the captives of his Armenian campaign, including the Armenian king himself in the event known as the Donation of Alexandria 34 BC reported by Dio Cassius.106

COPTIC AND ISLAMIC PROCESSIONS IN EGYPT (Fig. 123-126) The procession as cultic activity survived in monotheistic religions in both the Coptic and Islamic religions of modern Egypt. In the new context, the procession is a way for the community to proclaim religious conviction, display its identity in public and mark social relationships in addition to evoke the sacred. In the first centuries of the Coptic church, the first duty of the successor to Saint Marc after his consecration, was to perform three liturgies in the Church of the Evangelists, in the Church of the Archangel Mikhail, and in the Church of St. Mark all in Alexandria and then he carried on his arms

105 106

Dunand, 1979, 100-102. 49. 40. 2-3.

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Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project  
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