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centuries BC).

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Although almost all of its precious data was lost its objectives and values survived,

and were carried and re-installed few centuries later in Europe. In addition all the major traditional universities of our times were founded in this period, including Oxford, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Leiden, Sorbonne and Leuven, and undoubtedly this proves that word’s culture would have been different without the Hellenistic Alexandrian institutions. A crucial point for this revival was the emergence of the Renaissance movement in the 14 th century, descended by the European Enlightenment of the 16th and 17th centuries67. Both stated in all possible ways that the roots of the western civilization are in the classical past. Thus there was a need to revive the ancient classical values, to recover the lost knowledge of the past and to incorporate both into the current life. Revivalistic movements were detectable in all aspects of life such as the arts, architecture68, literature, street and peoples’ names, while classical studies met 66

According to ancient sources it was damaged for a first timeduring the Alexandrian war (48 BC), when its Apothekai were set on fire by accident, while there is a debate on when the library finally demised, in the Byzantine or the early Arab period. For a long period, it was generally believed that the Library of Alexandria was finally destroyed by Arabs. The story was best known in Europe due to the translation of George Bar Hebraeus’s Professor of Arabic culture at Oxford University Chronology by Edward Pococke in mid 1700s . According to the legend, Omar was asked by his commander Amr Ibn al-As, who was inclined by John the Grammarian to spare the library, what to do about the books. The Caliph gave the reply: "If the books agree with the Koran, they are not necessary. If they disagree, they are not desired. Therefore, destroy them." According to this tradition, the scrolls were distributed in 4000 bathhouses and were used as fuel to provide hot water for the soldiers' baths for six months. One of the most famous myths related to the conquest of Alexandria by the Arabs is related to the Great Library, according to which it was burnt down on the instructions of the Caliph Omar. The story was best known in Europe due to the translation of George Bar Hebraeus’s Chronology by Edward Pococke, Professor of Arabic at Oxford University. According to the story, Omar was asked by his commander Amr Ibn al-As, who was inclined by John the Grammarian to spare the library, what to do about the books. The Caliph gave the reply: "If the books agree with the Koran, they are not necessary. If they disagree, they are not desired. Therefore, destroy them." According to this tradition, the scrolls were distributed in 4000 bathhouses and were used as fuel to provide hot water for the soldiers' baths for six months. However, as early as 17th century, scholars identified problems of credibility and authenticity in the story The French orientalist Eusebie Renaudot in Historia patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Iacobitarum a Marco usque ad finem; later by Gibbon: History of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, 1991, 5, 482, while today it is widely accepted that is just a legend, see Lewis, 2008; Qassem, 2008. 67

The period of the Renaissance was a period of valuing humanity. Literature and education, major building blocks of the Enlightenment, were considered food and energy for the human soul. During the Renaissance it was determined that knowledge of literature, science, math, art and philosophy are vital to better humanity. Manchester, 1992, 91–131. 68

The movement of Renaissance in arts was initiated in Italy in the 14th century and spread all over Europe. Some of the key figures of this movement were: Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337), Filippo Brunelleschi (1377– 1446), Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (circa 1386 – December 13, 1466), Leon Battista Alberti (1404– 1472),Sandro Botticelli(1445 – 1510),Donato Bramante (1444–1514), Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452 –

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Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project  
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