Fig. 57. Ammonius Hermiae
Fig. 58. Hypatia in Raphael’s “School of Athens.” 1509-1510
In addition to these major works, several complementary projects reflect a universal approach to known-world knowledge, a perspective that is well reflected in cases of geography and historiography, which compared to other disciplines have been underestimated. Those works clearly reflect the interest of the Greek word to meet and understand the “other”, as well as to adopt and adapt valuable elements to its culture. Timosthenes of Rhodes, a commander of the Ptolemaic army wrote On harbors, Ethiopia, Coast of Africa, The west end of the Mediterranean, Greece and the Carthagian region. His work is considered as base of scientific principles of geography. Philostephanus of Cyrene, friend of Callimachus wrote on Cities of Asia, Islands, Cyprus, Cities of Europe. Another major contribution of the chief librarian Callimachus was on Wonders of the world arranged geographically: On the Rivers of Europe; On the Wonders and Marvels of Peloponnese and Italy; On the Rivers of the Inhabited World51. Maybe the greatest achievement in geography was attained by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (245-204/1 BC) (Fig. 59), perhaps the most remarkable scholar of the Alexandrian school in the second half of the 3rd century BC. He occupied the eminent post of chief librarian and it was during his librarianship under King Ptolemy III that the original manuscripts of the three great tragedians of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were secured for the Alexandrian library. His immortal fame 51
Fraser, 1972, 521-525.