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for olive oil,27 wine,28 perfumes, glass, artifacts, carpets, textile, beside many agricultural products like grain. Those regional products developed the economy and gave wellness to the authority, which invested much later in cultural and religious projects. Economy was the tool of the Ptolemies to spread their culture and show their strength through Alexandria to all of the Mediterranean. The role of Alexandria as the capital of economy continued even after being part of the Roman Empire and later during its division. Alexandria lost its independence but remained one of the most important ports in the Mediterranean. Alexander founded the greatest Greek port city on the Mediterranean in the 4th century B.C. The island pharos was connected to Alexandria by a long causeway (Heptastadium) that created a dual harbor complex with two ports. The eastern port (Portus Magnus) and the western port (Eunostos). The structures of the port still mainly well preserved underwater. The recent fieldworks by Frank Goddio and Jean-Yves Empereur confirmed the reasons of the disappearance of the ports structures by various earthquakes and tusunami, floods and variations in sea level. The recent research showed the complexity of the eastern port after discovering built-up areas to the west of the Royal port. Greek literary sources provided much information about the quantity of products passing through the port for regional and interregional trade. The supply of Rome by the Egyptian grain was mainly through the port of Alexandria, the Egyptian famous wine was imported to many different Mediterranean towns through the port of Alexandria. The same port was very important for the arrival of books to the library of Alexandria. As mentioned by historians, every ship intended to sail into the port must present a copy of the books on board. Alexandria imported valuable goods from India, Arabia, and East Africa such as ivory, incense, shell, silk, and wood.29 Alexandria also imported different types of wine, olive oil, and salty fish from different Mediterranean major towns (Cilicia, Tripoli, Rhodes, Kindos).30 While the most important role of the Alexandria ports was the exportation of Egyptian products all over the Mediterranean. This operation did not only make Alexandria rich but also gave Egypt an important political influence role in the Mediterranean especially in the Middle and Late Roman period. Regional products from Egypt were mainly agricultural, grain was the most important product which put the country in high


Brun, 2004. Empereur and Picon, 1998, 75-88. 29 Young, 2001, 38-79. 30 Peacock and Williams, 1986, 1-40. 28


Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project  
Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project