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remains today. It was initially founded by Cleopatra VII in honour – most probably – of Caesar, but she never completed it due to the demise of the Ptolemaic state. Augustus completed the temple, rededicating it to himself as Augustos Epibaterios. The temple stood near the shore at the center of the Great Harbour, where the site of today's Ramleh Station (near Saad Zaghloul Square) is situated. It was a lavish temple with porticoes, parks and libraries.12 The most famous attributes of this temple were the so-called Cleopatra's Needles that once stood in front of it (Figs. 14 and 15). These two red granite obelisks bear the names of Tuthmosis III, Seti I and Ramesses II and were brought to Alexandria from Heliopolis by the Romans 20 years after Cleopatra's death. These giant obelisks stayed in situ, more or less, as one had fallen, until 1877 when the ruling family of Egypt gave them as gifts to the British and the Americans. One was placed on the Thames Embankment in London and the other was taken in 1878 to New York and stands in Central Park.13



Philo of Alexandria cited in Bagnall and Rathbone 2004, 54.


Neroutsos, 1886; For an update view, see McKenzie 2007, 176-178; 181-184.

Final study of CulMe-WeOnCT project