Fig. 3. Alexander laying out the city of Alexandria by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899)
While Alexander had an eye for a strategically and commercially beneficial site, a major concern of him seems to have been the construction of a monumental memorial of himself; a monumental manifestation of his Kleos (glory-virtue), as monumental as a city could be. Thus not only Alexandria of Egypt but also several others of his foundations bore his name, among others in Troas (A town near Troy), near Issus (Modern Iskenderun in Turkey) in Aria (Modern Herât in Afghanistan), in Arachosia (Kandahâr in Afghanistan), in Caucasus (Chârikâr in Afghanistan) Alexandria Eschatê (Modern Khodzent in Tajikistan),
on the Oxus,
in Margiana (in the oasis of Mary in modern
Turkmenistan), on the Hyphasis(at the eastern border of Alexander's empire), on Indus (Uch in Pakistan), in Carmania and in Susiana (in the neighbourhood of Al Qurnah in Iraq).
TOPOGRAPHY OF ALEXANDRIA (figs. 4 and 5) In shape, it (Alexandria) is similar to a chlamys (cloak) and it is approximately bisected byan avenue (Canopic Street) remarkable for its size and beauty […] The city in general has grown so much in later times that many reckon it to be the first city of the civilized world, and it is certainly far ahead of all the rest in elegance and extent and riches and luxury. Diodorus, XVII, 52. 1-7