HELLENISTIC LAW 323 BC. – 212 AD. INTRODUCTION
THE CHANGES The hellenistic years signal a line of changes in the ancient world. New regimes were established with the Macedonian kingdoms as model while the cities included in them or forced to be arranged to the indications of the monarch. The regime of hellenistic years is the absolute monarchy. The title of king is hereditary. The hellenistic monarchy recognizes the spouse of monarch as equivalent member in the governing of state. The state is identified with the person of king, which is considered gentleman of kingdom, gentleman of ground, which it was eligible to be expropriated as well as to be exploited according to the rules of private right. The public fund is named royal fund, the public ground royal ground, the government owned banks royal banks and the cultivators of government owned grounds are named royal farmers. The monarchic ideology. The ideological bases of the hellenistic monarchy, which will be invoked later by the Roman emperors were the following: the king is considered philanthropist, benefactor and savior of population. The virtue must be the main characteristic of the monarch from which arise moral, intellectual and natural talents that it should assembles him. The creation of a complicated administrative mechanism was rendered as necessary because of the extensive kingdoms’s sovereignties.
PRIVATE LAW DURING THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD The Hellenistic years did not only bequeath to us “hellenistic common” (“koine”), the language of Gospels but also a “legal common”. The catalysis of narrow geographic limits that had placed the classic cities, the demographic mobility, the coexistence of individuals of different origin, the utilisation of common notarial types without ignoring also the role of the judges’s touring from city to city, they contributed in the essential unification of various local legal traditions of the Hellenistic world. This unification however was limited and did not lead to the creation of a mixed law constituted from Greek elements and elements emanating from legal traditions of other populations.