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Design Management Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation

Kathryn Best

an AVA Academia advanced title


Design Management Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation

by Kathryn Best


An AVA Book Published by AVA Publishing SA Rue des Fontenailles 16 Case Postale 1000 Lausanne 6 Switzerland Tel: +41 786 005 109 Email: enquiries@avabooks.ch Distributed by Thames & Hudson (ex-North America) 181a High Holborn London WC1V 7QX United Kingdom Tel: +44 20 7845 5000 Fax: +44 20 7845 5055 Email: sales@thameshudson.co.uk www.thamesandhudson.com Distributed in the USA & Canada by: Ingram Publisher Services Inc. 1 Ingram Blvd. La Vergne, TN 37086 USA Tel: +1 866 400 5351 Fax: +1 800 838 1149 Email: customer.service@ingrampublisherservices.com English Language Support Office AVA Publishing (UK) Ltd. Tel: +44 1903 204 455 Email: enquiries@avabooks.ch Copyright Š AVA Publishing SA 2006 The author asserts her moral rights to the work. Email: Kathryn.Best@understandingdesign.com www.understandingdesign.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission of the copyright holder. ISBN 978-2-940373-12-3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Design by Karen Wilks Production by AVA Book Production Pte. Ltd., Singapore Tel: +65 6334 8173 Fax: +65 6259 9830 Email: production@avabooks.com.sg All reasonable attempts have been made to trace, clear and credit the copyright holders of the images reproduced in this book. However, if any credits have been inadvertently omitted, the publisher will endeavour to incorporate amendments in future editions.


Design Management Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation

by Kathryn Best

an AVA Academia advanced title


PART ONE

Prologue

06 Introduction 08 How to get the most out of this book

Context

10 CONTEXT 12 What is Design Management? 16 Why is Design Management Important? 20 The Design Management Timeline

Managing the Design Strategy 26 PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE 28 Identifying Opportunities for Design 34 Understanding the Audience and Market 40 Interpreting Client and Customer Needs 44 Auditing the Use of Design 48 Establishing the Design Strategy 54 Promoting and Selling the Design Strategy 58 Planning for Long-term Growth PRACTICE 62 Case Study: The Argus速3 Thermal-imaging Camera 66 Case Study: Camper 72 Interview: Dr. Chris H. Luebkeman, Arup Group 74 Interview: Darryl Feldman, Yahoo! KEY SKILLS 76 Managing Client Relations 80 Guiding Design Decisions 82 Developing Good Working Relationships 84 Verbal Communication


PART TWO

PART THREE

Managing the Design Process

Managing the Design Implementation

90 PART TWO Managing the Design Process

146 PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation

KNOWLEDGE 92 Giving Form to Business Strategy 96 Increasing Awareness with Design 100 Expressing the Brand Through Design 104 Initiating Design Projects 108 Design Methods 112 Design Processes 118 Competitive Advantage Through Design

KNOWLEDGE 148 The Project Management Process 154 Project Management in Practice 158 Social and Environmental Responsibilities 162 Design Policies, Procedures and Guidelines 166 Translating Global Design into Local Design 170 Measuring the Success of Design 174 Reviewing and Revising the Design Strategy

PRACTICE 122 Case Study: Kajima Design Europe for JVC 128 Case Study: The Honda Zoomer 130 Interview: Mat Hunter, IDEO Europe 132 Interview: Brian Smith, FeONIC Plc. KEY SKILLS 134 Managing Creative Teams 136 Facilitating the Design Process 140 Developing Collaborative Cultures 142 Visual Communication

PRACTICE 176 Case Study: FooGo/The Formation 178 Case Study: The Silken Group 182 Interview: Colum Lowe, NHS (UK) 184 Interview: Lynne Elvins, A420 KEY SKILLS 186 Management and Leadership 188 Leading and Advocating Design 192 Written Communication

Appendix

196 APPENDIX 198 204 208 210 214 215

18 Views on Design Management Further Resources Glossary Index Additional Credits Acknowledgements


06 | Prologue

PROLOGUE

Introduction Design management is about the management of design. In its most basic sense, design management is about managing design projects; projects paid for by a client, a business or an organisation, and carried out by a designer, a design team or a design consultancy. For some, this is where design management stops, but for others, it is more than just a form of project management. Design management as an approach has a myriad of other uses. Design describes both the process of making things (designing), and the product of this process (a design). Design plays a key role in shaping the world and generating new products, systems and services in response to numerous market conditions and opportunities. According to a recent Design Council report, around one million people are currently employed in design-related activities in the UK alone. Can design be used to add more value to business? What roles can design play in business? Designers are often labelled as ‘creatives’, but they are just as likely to employ analytical skills when faced with a problem. Similarly, managers are considered to be analytical individuals, but they are just as likely to adopt a creative approach when seeking a business solution. Designers and managers both exhibit the ability to be analytical and to be creative, but in different ways, using different tools, and with different outcomes. The stereotypes of designers and managers overly-simplifies the complexity of design management, and this book extends beyond these simple generalisations. Design is intrinsically linked to business, in a way that can both add and create value. Beyond the superficialities of the style and aesthetics debate, and beyond the simplistic view of designers and managers, there are opportunities for individuals at various stages of their career, working in a wide range of organisations, and at different project stages, to promote and utilise the value of design. Design management is not a clearly defined vocation, career path or academic subject area; no two ‘design managers’ will have the same background, training or experience in how they got to the position of

being the decision-maker about the management of design and design projects. Design management is a leadership role, one that requires explaining, inspiring, persuading and demonstrating how design can positively contribute to an organisation in many different ways. The aim of this book is to promote a clearer understanding of design’s role in business and the importance of design as a way of creating value in an organisation. The book is a guide for students of design, design management, marketing, media communications and business studies, and for anyone involved in the management of design and creativity. The book begins with a contextual overview of design management, which is followed by three ‘parts’, these fully explore the management of the design strategy, process and implementation respectively.


Introduction | 07

Part One: Managing the Design Strategy looks at the first stage of design management, where design projects and initiatives are conceived. The focus of this stage is on identifying and creating the conditions in which design projects can be proposed, commissioned and promoted. At this stage, design management engages design thinking in an organisation’s strategy, identifying the opportunities for design, interpreting the needs of its customers, and looking at how design contributes to the whole business. Once an organisation has made the decision to invoke a design strategy, design management deals with the establishment and promotion of it, securing the support and commitment of the stakeholders in the business, and planning for long-term growth – not just immediate and short-term gains. Part One investigates the skills required in managing client relations and guiding design decisions, building relationships, and developing the necessary verbal communications skills to achieve the effective exchange of ideas and information. This stage is about how those responsible for the management of design can inspire design thinking and projects. Part Two: Managing the Design Process looks at the second stage of design management, where design projects and agendas are developed. The focus of this stage is on demonstrating how strategy can be made visible and tangible through design. At this point, design management is about how design can be used to craft the presence and experience of an organisation, and in doing so influence how the organisation and its brand are expressed and perceived. To help identify the management challenges that will be faced when initiating design projects, models from a range of design-related processes and disciplines are provided. Theoretical models can never provide an instant solution, as they are abstract representations of real-life situations, and no single model will fit all solutions. These models are intended as starting points from which to develop project-specific approaches, ones which

enable an organisation to explore competitive advantage through design. Part Two investigates the skills that are required to effectively manage creative teams, facilitate the design process, lead designers, develop a culture of collaboration and develop solid visual communication skills in order to make thoughts and ideas presentable. This stage is about how those responsible for the management of design can lead design agendas, projects and possibilities. Part Three: Managing the Design Implementation looks at the stage of design management where design projects and outcomes are delivered. The focus of this stage is the process and practice of managing projects, including the decision-making involved in specifying design materials, working relationships and ethical responsibilities. Once a design project has been completed, the delivery of it can entail further stages of design management, such as developing design guidelines and manuals, the maintenance and evolution of the design, and translating design solutions for the global context. Evaluating the success of the design project allows positive feedback to inform and promote the effective use of design. Part Three investigates the skills required when managing creative projects, such as leading and advocating design-project successes, developing good written communication skills and understanding the differences between the management and the leadership of design agendas. This stage is about how those responsible for the management of design can manage design agendas, projects and possibilities.


08 | Prologue

Yellow panel The yellow vertical panel carries the part title and page number.

PROLOGUE

How to get the most out of this book Table of Contents Prologue

Context

06 Introduction 08 How to get the most out of this book

10 CONTEXT 12 What is Design Management? 16 Why is Design Management Important? 20 The Design Management Timeline

PART ONE

PART TWO

PART THREE

Managing the Design Strategy

Managing the Design Process

Managing the Design Implementation

26 PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

90 PART TWO Managing the Design Process

146 PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation

KNOWLEDGE 28 Identifying Opportunities for Design 34 Understanding the Audience and Market 40 Interpreting Client and Customer Needs 44 Auditing the Use of Design 48 Establishing the Design Strategy 54 Promoting and Selling the Design Strategy 58 Planning for Long-term Growth

KNOWLEDGE 92 Giving Form to Business Strategy 96 Increasing Awareness with Design 100 Expressing the Brand Through Design 104 Initiating Design Projects 108 Design Methods 112 Design Processes 118 Competitive Advantage Through Design

KNOWLEDGE 148 The Project-management Process 154 Project Management in Practice 158 Social and Environmental Responsibilities 162 Design Policies, Procedures and Guidelines 166 Translating Global Design into Local Design 170 Measuring the Success of Design 174 Reviewing and Revising the Design Strategy

PRACTICE 62 Case Study: The Argus®3 Thermal-imaging Camera 66 Case Study: Camper 72 Interview: Dr. Chris H. Luebkeman, Arup Group 74 Interview: Darryl Feldman, Yahoo!

Colour-coded sections to aid navigation

Provide an overview to the subject area.

34 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Context Pages

KEY SKILLS 76 Managing Client Relations 80 Guiding Design Decisions 82 Developing Good Working Relationships 84 Verbal Communication

Each section carries questions for further discussion and thought.

198 204 208 210 214 215

18 Views on Design Management Further Resources Glossary Index Additional Credits Acknowledgements

PRACTICE 176 Case Study: FooGo/RAP UK Ltd./The Formation 178 Case Study: The Silken Group 182 Interview: Colum Lowe, NHS (UK) 184 Interview: Lynne Elvins, A420 KEY SKILLS 186 Management and Leadership 188 Leading and Advocating Design 192 Written Communication

Understanding the Audience and Market | 35

Understanding the Audience and Market

The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as ‘the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably’. Marketing identifies opportunities, anticipates and satisfy needs, creates differentiation, gains competitive advantage, generates income and adds value. As such it undoubtedly plays a pivotal role within an organisation. Design, on the other hand, creates value through innovation, improved functionality, visual differentiation, brand reinforcement and a positive customer experience, and therefore also plays a key role in organisations. Design and marketing departments often work together to support the needs of a business, but how they work together will depend on both the nature of the organisation and the market opportunities available.

Traditionally, within client organisations, design exists as a resource in one of two places: marketing or product and service development. Within marketing departments, design can deliver services that support specific marketing objectives. For example, a designer can update the packaging design of an existing product so that it appeals to a younger audience, in response to a marketing requirement to increase the organisation’s youth-market share. Within product and service development (also referred to as engineering, manufacturing or research and development, depending on the nature of the organisation), design can drive innovation through the design process itself, for example, via the adoption of new technologies, materials or manufacturing methods.

Start Are the goals reasonable?

1 Consumer analysis

Revise

7

Consumers as individuals Identify customer segments within the market: People with similar needs and desires. Decide which segment to target: Geographic (country, state, region, city). Demographic (age, sex, income, occupation). Psychographic (lifestyle interests, motives for buying). Behavoural (usage level, reason for purchase, brand loyalty). Evaluate marketing segments: Measurability, accessibility, substantiality, profitability, viability, compatibility with competition, effectiveness, and dependability.

2 All marketing plans start with the customer and their needs

Determine Find a profitable solution the economics Costs, break even point, payback period of investment made, cashflow forcasts.

Marketing analysis

6 Action plan to target your market The four P's Product: How is my product/service similar or different to the competition? Place: Where to sell? How distribute? Promotion: How to promote? How raise awareness, remind and persuade? Advertising, direct selling, PR, publicity. Price: What should it be? Depends on costs, demand, competition, profit margin, perceived value to customer, materials, manufacturing and processes.

3 Plan the marketing mix

Competitive analysis

5 Distribution analysis

4

Potential market size of consumers Review competitive and regulatory environment. Establish relevance of market. Is it large and accessible enough to justify marketing effort? Establish product life cycle (PLC). How the product/service sales grow and new segment become aware and begin buying. Establish Competitive factors: Quality, price, advertising, R&D and service.

Positioning plan to beat the competition Establish core competencies. What do you do well? What makes you distinctive? Design creates competitive advantage by differentiation. Use SWOT, matrixes and perceptual mapping to establish position.

How to reach the customer How can my product/service reach the customer? Choice of distribution channel influences the price charged and profit margins made.

1. At almost any stage of the marketing-strategy process, design can add value and create competitive advantage, for example, by differentiating one product or service from another. Source: Silbiger, 1999.

100 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process

Each section is broken down by a relevant sub-heading that is accompanied by insightful text, diagrams and photographs.

196 APPENDIX

KNOWLEDGE

Many products and services are ‘makable’, they can be created, developed and made as part of a design process, but they are not necessarily ‘marketable’. Marketable products satisfy a customer need and make a profit. Understanding the audience and the market is key to knowing both how design can creatively produce a viable business solution, and how marketing can respond to a design innovation to produce a viable business proposition.

Diagrams Help to visually explain some of the principles discussed.

Illustration map helps identify image and caption numbering.

KEY SKILLS 134 Managing Creative Teams 136 Facilitating the Design Process 140 Developing Collaborative Cultures 142 Visual Communication

1

MARKETING AND DESIGN

Knowledge Pages

PRACTICE 122 Case Study: Kajima Design Europe for JVC 128 Case Study: The Honda Zoomer 130 Interview: Mat Hunter, IDEO Europe 132 Interview: Brian Smith, FeONIC Plc.

Appendix

1

2

Expressing the Brand Through Design | 101

3

KNOWLEDGE

Expressing the Brand Through Design A brand is a powerful corporate tool. It provides both clarity and vision, and the brand identifier (usually a logo) is a symbol of this clarity and vision. However, the meaning of a brand is not contained in an organisation’s logo, or even its products or services, but in the power of the brand image formed in the mind of the consumer. Consumers buy-in to the brands, brand values and brand beliefs that are most in tune with how they see their own self-image and that of the lifestyle and peer groups with whom they wish to be affiliated. Historically, brands were a mark of ownership, consistency and a benchmark of quality or service. Now, according to Olins (2004), brands operate in ‘the emotional territory of people’s hearts and minds’. Brands represent not only the identity of the organisation, but also that of its customers, and the language of design can bring this identity to life.

The brand promise is a guarantee of the values and beliefs, and the quality and level of trust that the customer places in the organisation. From an organisational point of view, the brand is the face of the company and represents its purpose, values and beliefs. Essentially, it tells people, internally and externally, what the organisation is about. In a brand-led organisation, the brand manager will frequently have design management responsibilities. They will be experienced at forming relationships with external design teams and ensuring that the design teams are translating the brand values into desirable and viable products, services and experiences. Brand managers too, are in a position to identify how design can support the strategic objectives and brand values of the organisation, and so ensure that the brand image reflects what the organisation is about. DESIGN-LED EXPERIENCES

Brands manifest themselves in the products, services, sites and experiences of an organisation. In a brandled organisation, design can add value from the topdown, through brand communication, identity management and making the brand both visible and tangible. Examples of brand-led organisations are Coca Cola, Virgin and EasyJet. Design can help build the reputation of a brand through customer touch points (places where the customer sees and experiences the brand). Examples of customer touch points include product designs, retail shops, offices, advertising material and websites. The act of translating a brand and its values into tangible and intangible products, services, spaces and experiences is called brand expression.

Some the organisations are design-led; design is central to all of their decision-making processes. Some examples of design-led companies include Apple, 3M, Philips, Dyson and Sony. Design-led organisations tend to put the user at the centre of their design processes and business offers. They identify a customer need from the bottom-up by observing user habits, and creating a product or service offer around any unmet customer needs that are identified. The unmet need acts as the starting point for innovation. The next step is to design a solution around needs and desires of the user. The result is then offered in the marketplace as a branded product or service. This is often referred to as brand extension; a new product or service trading on an organisation’s brand name to establish itself.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What is the role of branding in relation to today’s businesses and consumers? What effect does the role of branding have on how we think about managing brand identities? If design encapsulates a brand or marketing idea, how can design make things more culturally, emotionally and experientially rewarding?

1. The Benetton retail store in Barcelona has been specifically designed to express the look and feel of the Benetton brand. Image courtesy of Miguel Casanelles/The Benetton Group. 2.This image is taken from ‘James and Other Apes’, a Benetton Communication Campaign by James Mollison for Fabrica. Benetton frequently uses dramatic advertising and communication campaigns to express its brand. Here, Benetton chose to extend its reflection on our planet’s diversity, from the human race to our nearest cousins. The campaign shows pictures of orphaned apes that were confiscated from illegal traders. The apes now form the population of sanctuaries in Africa and Asia. Image courtesy of The Benetton Group. 3. Fabrica is Benetton’s Communication Research Centre, and was established to capitalise on thoughtprovoking communication that unites culture and industry and that takes risks by investing in ideas and creativity. Fabrica’s work is characterised by a celebration of the creative process itself and not of its results. Fabrica 10: From Chaos to Order and Back presents ten years of ideas, projects, personalities, events and experimentation, through a gallery of images, videos and music. Image courtesy of The Benetton Group.


How to get the most out of this book | 09

66 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Case-study Pages Case Study

Case Study

1

1. The Camaleon, one of Camper’s product families, was the first shoe to be commercialised in 1975. As a remarkably casual shoe for its time, it addressed the market desire for shoes that reflected a new lifestyle, and helped consolidate the Camper brand. The Camaleon is a close replica of the shoes used by peasants in Majorca since the beginning of the twentieth century.

PRACTICE

Camper ESTABLISHING THE DESIGN STRATEGY Camper embodies the spirit of a family business; in this case a family that have been working together for over a century in the footwear industry. Responsibility, commitment and quality were values treasured from the outset. Today, Camper take an imaginative approach to everything they do, especially with regard to their strong belief in social, environmental and corporate responsibility. They consider their ability to create products that improve the health and quality of life of their customers to be one of their most valuable assets. Camper’s approach to design is reflected in these values and in the structure of its business, which Camper considers to be driven by more than just the pursuit of profit. The company chooses to build working relationships and use production processes that are respectful of both individuals and the environment. IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DESIGN In 1887, Antoni Fluxá, a Mallorcan shoe craftsman, set sail for England intending to learn about the latest industrial manufacturing techniques of the time. Upon his return, he assembled a group of craftsmen and introduced them to shoemaking machinery – the foundation upon which the Camper empire was eventually built. In 1975, Lorenzo Fluxá, grandson of Antoni, created Camper, a business concept that reflected the new social, political and historical drivers of the time, and echoed a lifestyle based on freedom, comfort and creativity.

Camper means ‘peasant’ in Catalan, and the organisation manufactures its shoes in the countryside, using traditional craft knowledge to make footwear for urban-dwellers. Camper makes high-quality and functional shoes, which combine comfort and imagination with a sense of innovation, humour and irony. For example, ‘Twins’, one of their many product families, is based on the idea of having two single shoes, not a pair. Each shoe is asymmetric, different, surprising and even surreal. Camper shoes are built not only to please but to last; the company continually researches materials and manufacturing methods to ensure that a pair of Camper shoes are a good consumer investment.

74 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

How is design perceived in your organisation? Generally it is recognised as a key differentiator, as our products touch consumers directly on the Web, it is understood that design is a driver of user engagement and therefore audience growth. The perceptions around design depends on the type of product being developed, services that are complex, or products that are a radically new genre, receive more design attention. How is design used in your organisation? Design is used to interpret high-level business requirements into a tangible product that our users will find compelling. It is also used to promote and sell new products and services that we launch into the market. What is the relationship between the company and its design resources? Again this will vary across different business units and countries. At a general level, the design resources are hired to translate the company’s strategy into reality so the relationship is one of a critical dependency. Sometimes it seems similar to an

3. Camper’s Wabi shoe has become an icon in creative and alternative design, a functional object of desire, and a symbol of future design trends and simplicity. This Wabi is made from one piece of woven jute; it is biodegradable and the process of turning the material into a shoe does not cause pollution. Wabis come with insoles made from 100% natural materials and socks made from organically-grown cotton or wool.

agency/client relationship, although there are some key differences in the dynamic around prioritisation and resourcing; I am not able to hire according to the demand I see coming from the business, which would be the case if my team was an external agency. Ultimately, we all work for the same organisation so the relationship needs to work more intimately and without the friction you sometimes get between agency and client. Do you use in-house or external design teams? Both, we keep our internal teams focused on key strategic priorities and projects that are of a confidential nature. As a rule it tends to be the more marketing-based work that gets outsourced. From your perspective, what is design? Design is any activity that translates both human and commercial requirements into a tangible, material output that can be consumed or used in an effective way. From the humble paperclip to awardwinning advertising campaigns…it’s all design. Design is also a smart way of communicating ideas and processes, I have seen smart designers become catalysts within businesses, as they can often assimilate diverse inputs and synthesise these into simple and understandable artefacts that teams can rally around and use to articulate a vision. What value does design bring to the industry you work in? Well I work within the Internet industry, which, although obviously a technology-driven business, relies on design to simplify the complexities of code, to make tangible the intangible, and to differentiate the product within a crowded marketplace. Often design provides an emotional factor in a world of high functionality and hardware, and this is why high-tech companies such as Yahoo! and Apple invest in it. It’s about bringing the brand to life and ensuring all the cool technology we develop is focused on people’s needs – technology alone will not win the hearts and minds of our users. In what ways is design strategic in Yahoo!? Firstly, our design is our strategy, only in an articulated and fabricated format. It’s a translation

Darryl Feldman currently leads product development initiatives at Yahoo! across Europe. Darryl contributes regularly to academic institutions, industry events and magazines on topics including product development and strategy, online branding, design management, experience design and multi-platform design strategies.

of the business requirements with a human twist. Our user research enables us to connect with people within the design process to find out how they interact with online products, and this gives us a strategic view on where we need to go as a company to be successful. Secondly design enables us test new ideas and innovate in a quick and iterative way via prototyping so we can measure what is working and what isn’t. This gives us a reality check on the strategy and enables us to adjust and fine-tune our strategies to be more successful. What are the challenges you face in running design projects? Globally there are quite a few challenges facing our design teams, as one would expect in a fast moving Internet company that needs to innovate and respond to an ever-changing market with evolving delivery technologies. The key challenges within Europe are related to the task of launching multiple products in five countries whilst leveraging global technology platforms. The coordination involved is complex and involves managing multiple stakeholders in different time zones and multidisciplinary teams involving research, product management, engineering, and marketing. This makes it hard to keep the designers focused on a coherent vision and solution, the trick is to try and shield the team from unnecessary noise and communications. Design management is key here and provides an important role in keeping things on track. We hire strong design managers at Yahoo! for this reason, within a large global corporate entity this makes sense and is cost effective in the long run. What do you think design management is? Simply put, I believe effective design management changes style dependent on the context and business setting. Design management within a large global company is different from what it needs to be within a small boutique or agency. The basic ground rules involve balancing the need to give creative individuals freedom to explore and compound ideas within the reality of running a profitable business. Great design managers motivate through enabling, encouraging and protecting designers from the politics and diversions that can hinder the end

Practice pages are identified by their black border.

Interview Pages

Interview

INTERVIEW

Image captions are flagged by the chapter colour.

3

Imagination has become the company’s lifeblood, and its contributions to the world of design and creativity have been publicly recognised through numerous awards. Camper won Spain’s National Design Award in 1998, the country’s highest honour in the field of design, which was official recognition of a brand that has turned creativity into an viable and growing business, one that combines local values with global horizons.

Darryl Feldman, Director of Product Development, Yahoo!

In terms of the organisational structure where does design sit within Yahoo!? Design sits mainly at a central, pan-European level within the product-development unit that I currently manage. In addition, there are pockets of design activity that exist within business units and in countries where product localisation occurs. The marketing team also outsource design work, primarily online advertising and campaign-based projects.

2. Pelotas, another of Camper’s product families and one of Camper’s best sellers, is a design concept inspired by the passion and imagination of pioneering sportspeople. It is an ironic ‘revival’ shoe with a slightly retro look.

Camper prides itself on its craftsmanship and its vocation for manufacturing. People working for and with Camper like what they do, and know and love their trade. Camper considers each of these people to be a stakeholder in the business with whom to exchange ideas, suggestions and points of view. The business prides itself on building long-term relationships based on trust, a sharing of ideas and working together as a team to identify new opportunities. Ensuring proper working conditions is also part of the approach to make Camper partners unique and relevant members of the Camper ‘family’.

Interview

How long have you worked in the interactivemedia industry? I have worked in the industry for over 15 years, having trained in graphic design and multimedia. I held design leadership roles at a number of companies prior to Yahoo! (Sapient, Organic and Clarity) and worked with a range of clients including British Telecommunications, Lucent, Vodafone, The Carphone Warehouse, Opodo, DaimlerChrysler, Railtrack, Royal and Sunalliance, FT.com and eyestorm.com.

2

A VALUED TEAM OF STAKEHOLDERS

There are two case studies in the Practice section of each part. The case studies are from leading companies and are live examples on the importance of design in business.

solutions being all they could be. In addition design management is about articulate communication and the ability to talk the same language as the business. I think good designers don’t need management in the traditional sense of being ‘nannied’ though, that’s why the best design managers were practitioners at some point and understand the creative process and where to step back and let raw talent do its thing without interference from outside forces.

Within the practice section of each part there are two interviews with leading professionals responsible for the management of design.

What, to you, is the relationship between design and innovation? Design and innovation are inseparable; one leads to the other and vice versa. Designers are often in the best position to innovate through the catalyst role they occupy; blending business, technology and human factors into something that can be understood and iterated upon. By gaining deep insights into the triggers that motivate people to use and consume things, and knowing how to realise this, designers are innovators by default. Also, design is a rapid and fluid process that often reveals opportunities which business strategies or technological developments fail to deliver. It is important designers realise this and take advantage of the situation. Often they do not realise the power they have to innovate and fall back into an executioner role. Is it possible to innovate as part of normal dayto-day operations, and to embed innovation into a company’s culture? We do this at Yahoo! so yes I think it’s possible, and necessary to survive as a Internet entity. Allowing space for innovation within the development process is key, and giving people time to think, play and explore should be business as usual. If you attract the right talent into your organisation and reward innovation then it’s not hard to achieve. It is a cultural thing too though, and unless the leadership buy in, it will be hard to make happen. It’s bidirectional in that sense; management set the stage for grass roots innovation to happen.

194 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation

Written Communication | 195

Key-skills Pages This section discusses the practical skills involved in design management.

WRITING REPORTS

QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION

STYLE OF COMMUNICATION

The purpose of a report is usually to inform, provide answers to a question, or provide the evidence necessary to help sell an idea. Reports are a factual documentation of a business situation, and are based on thorough research and analysis that is assembled in a presentable, organised and useful way.

Poor grammar, spelling and punctuation is distracting and confusing, and can create mixed messages about what is actually meant. Always aim for clarity, succinctly getting to the point in a way that is most appropriate to the recipient of your correspondence. Keep your sentences short so as to allow the recipient to read, decode and assimilate the information more effectively. Read and proofread your correspondence before sending it, and if possible have someone else in your team proofread for clarity and legibility. Is your letter readable and understandable, or incomplete, overly complicated or unfocused? If you’re not proud of it, don’t send it.

Seeing the situation from the recipient’s point of view, not your own, is often the best way to achieve cooperation, buy in and agreement. A useful exercise is to imagine what it would be like to receive your letter. Does it present the message and attitude you want to convey? Is it direct, succinct and to the point, or direct, aggressive and rude? Words are powerful weapons that can help to build, or break, relationships.

The most common purposes of business reports are to monitor and control operations; to implement policies and procedures; to comply with regulatory agencies; to obtain funding; to document work for clients; and to guide decisions. Thinking about the intended audience for the report will guide what level of information to include about the wider business context, and what words and terminology may be unfamiliar and therefore need to be explained. Visuals and diagrams can be a very useful way to give an overview of a particular aspect, and frequently communicate a great amount of information to people from a range of different backgrounds. Reports should open by identifying who commissioned it, what its purpose is, and the questions the report is intending to answer. Use of heading and sub-headings will quickly allow the reader to obtain an overview of the report and focus on the main conclusions. Report formats will vary depending on their purpose, but typically will include a cover, title page, commissioning letter, foreword, synopsis or executive summary, table of contents and list of illustrations, introduction, report findings, conclusions, recommendations, appendices and a bibliography.

Any documents leaving your team will always present an image of how you operate. Maintaining a high standard of presentation in terms of paper quality, neatness and accuracy, helps convey a good impression of an individual, and team, which cares about attention to detail. The language and vocabulary used in written communication should be specifically chosen so that it is appropriate to the intended audience. For example, technical descriptions or foreign words may need to be translated to provide meaning in the context of the project. In general, always use a thesaurus or dictionary to find just the right word, and specifically, keep up to date on the vocabulary relevant to existing and new debates in design and business, to ensure you use the right word in the right context. The recipient of your correspondence may be from a different target audience to the one you personally represent. Being able to see and communicate things from an objective point of view, with empathy for a client, audience or end user, is a valuable skill to have when analysing entirely different market sectors.

Being empathetic means seeing the recipient as central to the message you are trying to convey, and identifying what may be of concern to them. Think about the appropriate form of address for the correspondence. Using ‘you’ makes your writing more immediate, and more interesting, to the reader. Saying ‘the design team will finish working on the problem by Monday’ has a different tone to ‘you will have a solution from the design team by Monday’.

There may be other times where written correspondence serves as a carrier of good or bad news. In daily business dealings, most correspondence contains a mix of positive and negative progress, and how this is communicated will affect the level of trust and confidence a client, for example, places in a design team. Positive phrasing focuses on what can be done, rather than draw attention to what cannot be done. The use of active voice (where the person performing the action is the focus of the sentence) and passive voice (where the person performing the action becomes the subject of the sentence) is a useful method of accentuating a positive message, or reducing blame in a negative message. As an example, ‘the CEO announced a profit’ is active voice, whereas ‘a loss in profits was reported’ is passive voice. Writing can leave an impression of who you are so remember to take a few moments to read through what you have said, and the way in which you have said it, as this is time well spent. It is not possible to ‘unsend’ a piece of written correspondence once it has been delivered.

‘The ability to express thoughts and communicate information in clear written English (or another language) is central to the work of a design consultancy. Clients often feel out of their depth or unqualified to make aesthetic judgements, but they will be influenced by the quality of written work and the quality of service coming from the consultancy.’ Liz Lydiate

Tinted pages align the section with the relevant part. The use of quotations provides additional insight.


10 | CONTEXT

Context


The role of design, and its management, in business, society, culture and the environment has a rich and active history. This section of the book provides an introduction to some of the key debates and definitions of design management, and reasons behind their importance today. It also provides an overview of the background and origins of design management in the form of a timeline.


12 | Context

CONTEXT

What is Design Management? There is no single, universally agreed definition of the term ‘design management’, just as there is no single agreed definition of ‘design’, or in fact of ‘business’. When looking at the nature of ‘design’, the word itself is both a noun (an outcome), and a verb (an activity). The outcome of a design project can be seen in the products, services, interiors, buildings and software processes that we come into contact with daily. The management of these design projects is only one aspect of design management. The activity of designing is a user-centred, problem-solving process, which also needs to be managed and therefore is another facet of design management. The term ‘business’, when used in the context of design and business, can become a container for all kinds of non-design activities such as marketing, finance, strategic planning and operational activities. In the area of design management a wide variety of perspectives exist that reflect the rich array of individuals, professions and contexts involved, such as academia, the public or private sectors, business and industry, the design profession, and public or governmental bodies. Indeed, the lack of consensus on both the scope and substance of the design management discipline has hampered the development of reference material to support it. There are however, some knowledgeable attempts to provide agreed definitions for specific aspects of design and design management. Topalian has stated that within an organisation, design management consists of managing all aspects of design at two different levels: the corporate level and the project level. Topalian also believes that ‘design management development needs to broaden the participants’ experience of design problems and the range of project and corporate circumstances within which they have to be solved’ (2003). Gorb has defined design management as ‘the effective deployment by line managers of the design resource available to the organisation in the pursuance of its corporate objectives’ (1990). This definition suggests that the subject is therefore directly concerned with the organisational place of

design, and with the identification of those design disciplines that are relevant to the resolution of key management issues, and what training managers need to use design effectively. Hollins describes design management as ‘the organisation of the processes for developing new products and services’ (2002), and for Cooper and Press, being a design manager is about ‘the response of individuals to the needs of their business and the contribution they can make to enable design to be used effectively’ (1995). As a job description, the design manager has the role of managing design. What exactly this entails will vary from organisation to organisation, and the person responsible for managing design might be called a ‘brand manager’, a ‘project manager’, a ‘client-account handler’, an ‘account director’, a ‘design consultant’ or an ‘advertising planner’. The important aspects of managing design, irrespective of the job title, are about understanding the strategic goals of an organisation and how design can play a part, and effectively putting in place the ways and means, the tools and methods, the teams and planning requirements and the passion and enthusiasm, to achieve these goals as successful outcomes. There is growing awareness within many organisations that design is a valuable means to achieve strategic goals and objectives. There is also an increasing desire to understand the design tools (the methods and ways of thinking that the design process brings), and the design planning and implementation, which effective project management of design brings. According to Ackoff, planning is ‘anticipatory decision-making’ (1981), and it is the design manager’s responsibility to anticipate where design can contribute value, and how this can be realised.


What is Design Management? | 13

1

2

3

1. Whirlpool is the world’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances. Whirlpool introduced their revolutionary new clothes revitaliser in response to five of the latest emerging trends identified by an expert panel of international style leaders from the world of fashion and interior design. Understanding the impact of these trends on consumer needs and Whirlpool’s own business objectives drove the design of ‘prêt-à-porter’, a fast, easy and practical way to keep clothes smelling fresh and looking great. Image courtesy of Whirlpool Corporation. 2. The W. W. Stool, designed in 1992 by Philippe Starck for a Wim Wenders film, is produced in a small series by Vitra. The stool ignores functional constraints, allowing Starck’s imagination to have full reign. It is more like a sculpture, that can be used as a stool or standing support, rather than an item of purely functional furniture. Image courtesy of Vitra, (photograph: Hans Hansen). 3. The Heart Cone Chair (1959), from the Verner Panton-designed collection at Vitra. For all its extravagance, it is a comfortable club chair for everyday use. Image courtesy of Vitra, (photograph: Marc Eggimann).


14 | Context Table 1: The Key Categories of Design Product Design can add value to a product beyond the manufacturing process, and so can affect gross margin, performance and profitability. Design-management issues to be considered here will depend on the nature of the industry and product in question, but might include, for example, product innovation, range, development and quality. Environmental In this category, design management is mainly concerned with how, and in what, the business invests in tangible or ‘fixed’ assets, and how it manages them thereafter. These ‘fixed assets’ might include factories, offices and retail shops, and the equipment and furnishings within. Information The design of information plays a valuable role in how a corporation conveys its purpose and intentions to its various target audiences. Information design is usually supplied through the marketing function of a business, and may include the design of advertising, sales promotion and public-relations materials (design for external audiences), and design for managers, employees and owners (design for internal audiences). Corporate Identity Corporate-identity design is closely linked to corporate strategy and shapes all aspects of the first three key categories of design. Its benefits are difficult to assess, but there are implied measures of success in the increase of share prices of those major corporations that have adopted strong identity programmes. Source: Adapted from Gorb, 1990.

‘Design management is rooted in the shift from a hierarchical model of management to a flat and flexible organisational model, which encourages individual initiative, independence and risk taking. Designers feel at ease with the new, more informal model of management. The new model is based on concepts like customer-driven management, project-based management, and total quality management, which all deal with design. Design management has a two-fold objective: To familiarise managers with design and designers with management. To develop methods of integrating design into the corporate environment.’ Brigitte Borja de Mozota

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: Is it possible, or desirable, to create a single, standard definition of design management that can be applied to all areas of design and business?


4

What is Design Management? | 15

5

Creative Creati Creat ive enterprise enterpriise inside enterpr ins nsiide the or org organisation ganisatio anisation n

Desi Design esign gn

Technolog Technology echnology y

Market Marketing arketiing

Managemen Management anagementt

Creative enterprise outside the organisation

4. Understanding the context in which design operates helps design managers to identify opportunities for new creative projects, processes and enterprises, and plan for the resources needed. It also helps other decision-makers understand what they need to contribute, and how these projects support their goals. Inside an organisation, design typically exists as an in-house team working alongside or embedded within other functional business units. Design can also exist outside the organisation as a consultancy or agency.

5. Moleskine produce the legendary notebooks popularised by many famous artists and writers including Henri Matisse and Ernest Hemingway. Planning a new generation of products for a new generation of consumers means that Moleskine can build on their successful traditions, and continue to develop and launch new ranges. Typically, when launching new product ranges, many companies, including Moleskine, involve a number of decision-making representatives from areas such as design, marketing, distribution and sales. Image courtesy of Moleskine.


16 | Context

CONTEXT

Why is Design Management Important? In the current climate, the economic importance of design, and its use as a communication and strategic business tool, has reinforced the status of design management and placed the true potential of design high up on organisational agendas. Equally, design is increasingly aiding the development of social, ecological, technological and cultural processes and enterprises. For students, the changing roles and challenges of design mean there are new demands made on those wanting to build careers in design and the creative industries. Design is inextricably linked to the way in which society, the environment and business interact, and as a result today’s organisation’s are approaching design in a more ‘managed’ way. In order to have a successful, long-term career in design, it is necessary to understand how and where design sits within a wider context, and how the true potential of design can be exploited, professionally managed and utilised as a tool for innovation and change. Within an organisation, design can affect management on many different levels and in many different ways. Design can be active on strategic, tactical or operational levels, in setting long-term goals and in day-to-day decision-making. Design is a function, a resource and a way of thinking within organisations and one that can be active in the strategic thinking, the development processes and, crucially, the implementation of projects, systems and services; the ways in which an organisation connects with its customers and stakeholders. By becoming more in tune with the commercial pressures of industry, and by understanding how to use design more effectively, students will be at a distinct advantage when entering the job market, whether a commercial business enterprise, the public sector, or non-profit organisations. In the wider context, there is an ongoing shift from industrial economies to knowledge economies, from manufacturing-based processes to informationbased processes, and from national and international trade agreements or restrictions to increasingly competitive market challenges from emerging and

expanding economies worldwide. In terms of design, this impact is apparent in the evolution of design from ‘style and aesthetics’ to a means of improving products, services, processes and operations. The focus of design is now on improving customer services and experiences, and creating better efficiencies and waste reduction strategies. It is inevitable that how design is managed in this shifting context will also change. The practice of design management is evident across a range of disciplines such as product design, fashion, architecture, media, entertainment, advertising and software and games design. In addition, how design is perceived and utilised in the realms of business, engineering, technology and the creative disciplines varies enormously, and so, different approaches to how design is managed are required in each context. Within an organisation, design management is present in the brand communications, the product and/or service design, the corporate buildings and retail environments and the websites and advertising campaigns of each enterprise. Externally, design management can respond to the growing pressure for organisations to address government legislation, regulations and policies, and changing attitudes around the world to the management of local and global resources. All of these internal and external demands, from organisational goals and customer requirements to social and environmental responsibilities, need to be taken into account in the management of design, and all of these aspects need to be managed in order to maximise the time, money and resources that an organisation invests in design in order to present itself favourably to current and potential consumer markets.


Why is Design Management Important? | 17

1

2

1. Design is active at three levels in any organisation: strategic, tactical and operational. At the strategic level, the overall policies, missions and agendas are defined – and it is to these agendas that design must connect. At the tactical level, the teams, processes and systems of specific business units or functions come into play. At the operational level, design manifests itself in the physical and tangible products, services and experiences – the implementation of projects and processes the customer can actually ‘touch’. Source: Adapted from Sean Blair, Spirit of Creation.

Design at the level of strategy, policy and mission

Design at the level of tactics, systems and processes

Design at the level of operations, tangibles and touch

Design leader

Vision

Design manager

Process

Designer

Content

2. Managers of design often have to transcend roles and adapt to different situations. The design leader sets the vision for how design could be used within an organisation, selling the vision to, and gaining buy-in from, key stakeholders and decision makers. The design manager ensures the design processes, procedures and internal functions are adding value to the organisation, through a defined design team or through the internal resourcing of design thinking into and across a range of business units and projects. The designer helps unlock the potential of a proposal, and crafts and delivers the solution, to brief, on time and within budget, to satisfy client and customer needs. Source: Mike Crump, Design Manager, British Airways.


18 | Context According to Powell (2004), the importance of design management is growing in four fundamental ways: 1. As businesses of all kinds deepen their understanding of the role of design in innovation, they will look to design management as a powerful resource for innovations that will effectively differentiate their business and build sustainable competitive advantages. 2. As people continue to find increasing choices in the marketplace, and become more determined to improve the quality of their lives, they will demand more of what only the effective management of design can provide in good design. 3. The shift in attitude from design management to managing for design will unleash the potential of design. 4. The increasingly important role design will play in building a bridge between the fundamental economic and cultural aspects of individual nations and the world will open doors for design to make an important contribution to healthy, balanced societies worldwide. Clearly, there is growing recognition of the potential benefits of design management. However, it is also emerging as a driving force in educational and government initiatives and in social policy and environmental regulations. The Saïd Business School at the University of Oxford has recently created a new Design Leadership fellowship, in recognition of design’s current reach beyond conventional concepts of product design to ‘embrace new understandings of organisational innovation, the design of organisational processes, the aesthetic dimensions of organisational life and the ways in which the shifting nature of design impacts on the strategic positioning and functioning of the modern organisation’.

The Cox Review of Creativity in Business, commissioned by the British Government in 2005 to investigate ways in which creative skills might be exploited more fully, raised some interesting definitions of the connections between creativity, innovation and design. Creativity: is the generation of new ideas. Either new ways of looking at existing problems, or the discovery of new opportunities. Innovation: is the exploitation of new ideas. It is the process that carries a concept through to new products, services, or ways of operating the business. Design: is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas so that they become practical and attractive propositions for users or customers. Design has become a critical and strategic function in today’s evolving organisations, and the need for the knowledge, the ability and the skills to think, plan and manage for design is becoming more important. Table 1: Design Statistics in the UK 185,500 people work in design 12,450 design consultancies employ 60,900 designers and 348,300 non-designers 47,400 self-employed, freelance and non-employed designers 77,100 in-house designers work in 5900 larger businesses of 100 people or more. Source: The Business of Design, Design Council Research 2005.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What other emerging trends can be identified in order to begin to think about the role of design in business in the future?


3

Why is Design Management Important? | 19

3. Design can help not only to achieve business objectives, but cultural and social agendas too, especially in the non-profit and public sectors. Recognising a need for alternative energy sources amongst the world’s poorest communities, the Freeplay Foundation is committed to providing innovative and practical energy solutions to ensure sustained access to information via the radio. The foundation continually searches for new applications for Freeplay’s patented wind-up and solar-powered technology. The key driver for their pioneering ‘Lifeline’ radio was the use of technology as a transformation tool, specifically for social causes and for humanitarian use. The radio is used both by adults and by children as an enabler of distance learning, as a means to promote peace and crosscultural understanding, and as a way to gain information about farming techniques, weather, health, humanitarian disasters and the reuniting of families. Image courtesy of the Freeplay Foundation.

‘Worldwide, many countries are beginning to address the challenge of a world that is becoming vastly more competitive’. Technology that is not carried through into improved systems or successful products is an opportunity wasted; enterprise that fails to be sufficiently creative is simply pouring more energy into prolonging yesterday’s ideas. Creativity, properly employed, carefully evaluated, skillfully managed and soundly implemented, is a key to future business success and national prosperity.’ Sir George Cox


Industrial Society 1830–1944

1830 Inventions such as the steam engine and the weaving machine necessitate the reorganisation of industry. Manufacturing, mass production, utility and efficiency begin to replace handcrafts.

1832 The National Gallery opens in London, exhibiting fine arts to educate manufacturers and encourage good taste in consumers. Conceived as an aid to the manufacturer in his struggle with foreign competitors, the gallery effectively promotes the idea of an ‘industrial’ design.

1877 Christopher Dresser appointed as art adviser to Huskin & Heath, a silver manufacturing and industrial production firm and supplier of novelties and luxury goods. Dresser’s role was to help provide a new creative direction for the firm. 1851 The Great Exhibition of the industries of all nations asserted Britain’s world leadership in manufacturing and the ‘useful’ arts, and celebrated the fusion of science, art and design.

1833 Isambard Kingdom Brunel appointed as chief engineer of the Great Western Railway, establishing him as one of the world’s leading engineers.

Timeline

1830

1840

1850

1860

1759 Josiah Wedgwood, a creative and business thinker, sets up his own pottery enterprise and produces new, inexpensive and beautiful tableware.

1880

1869 Charles Eastlake publishes Hints on Household Taste, which claimed to be the first publication on design written ‘in a manner sufficiently practical and familiar to ensure the attention of the general public’.

1861 William Morris, a British craftsman and designer, sought distinction between the work of the hand and the product of the machine, and in doing so took art out of the academies and into the design of everyday objects.

Colour Key Individual or corporate design leaders Key design issues or publications Societal, cultural or/technological influences on design Professional design bodies or their seminal activities

1870

1887 AEG (Allegmeine ElektrizitatsGesellschaft) established. AEG rapidly gains a reputation for advanced management and for design patronage.


The Design Management Timeline | 21 1934 The National Register of Industrial Designers established to maintain and improve the standard of design, to bring designers and manufacturers closer together, and to monitor the skills and qualifications of designers.

1915 Design and Industries Association founded to promote and encourage good design.

1939 Laszlo Moholy-Nagy founds the School of Design in Chicago, later renamed the Institute of Design.

1934 The Government Council for Art and Industry established to address questions on the relation between art and industry.

1944 The Council of Industrial Design (CID) set up to improve the product design of British Industry. The CID promotes the economy of design as well as of materials. The CID later become the UK’s Design Council.

1919 The Bauhaus is founded. Accepting the machine as a modern vehicle of form, they experimented with modular design, the elimination of decoration, and the prototyping of simple designs for mass-production. 1909 AEG’s turbine factory built. Designed by Peter Behrens, it was considered to be the most beautiful industrial building of its time.

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1930 The Society of Industrial Arts (SIA) is founded. It later becomes the Chartered Society for Designers (CSD), the world’s largest chartered body of professional designers.

1932 Art and Industry: the Principles of Industrial Design by Herbert Read is published. 1907 Peter Behrens, the first designer for industry, appointed as design adviser to AEG, consulting on buildings, products and graphics, and effectively creating the first corporate identity.

1940 Wells Coates appointed design consultant to British Overseas Air Company (BOAC), and EMI recording company. 1940–54 Raymond Loewy ‘styles’ the Greyhound buses in the USA. 1937 The BBC broadcasts a series of talks on design by Anthony Betram; Design in Everyday Things. 1937 Laszlo Moholy-Nagy is appointed Director of the New Bauhaus: the American School of Design in Chicago.

1938 Design by Anthony Betram published.


Post-War Society 1945–1957 1951 The first Aspen Design Conference, founded by Chicago industrialist Walter Paepcke, is held. It brings together business and design and introduces themes such as ‘Design as a Function of Management’. 1951 Charles Eames designs the influential Eames armchair.

1956 Eliot Noyes is made design director for International Business Machines (IBM), shaping their design policy through product design, architecture and graphics, creating IBM as a leader in design.

1956 The Festival of Britain celebrates the recovery of post-war Britain, and establishes the nation’s place in the world. The festival’s design team is led by Gerald Barry, Hugh Casson, Misha Black and James Gardner.

1950s–60s Japanese manufacturers tour US corporate design departments to learn more about design procedures.

1960 Erwin Braun initiates the Braun Prize, which reflects Braun’s core competence of design and benefits the field of industrial design on a broader basis. 1960 Henry Dreyfuss publishes the Measure of Man, which contains ergonomic data on human sizes and proportions. 1960s Victor Papanek becomes an international design expert for UNESCO and WHO. 1960 Verner Panton designs the influential stacking chair, which is manufactured by Herman Miller.

1950 Public project initiatives to rebuild bombed cities and towns.

1945 Design becomes a profession in its own right. 1945 Braun, producer of functional and stylistic classics, divide their product line into four categories, each headed by a senior designer: Dieter Rams, Reinhold Weiss, Richard Fischer and Robert Operheim.

1945

1948

1952 Olivetti hosts the seminal Design and Industries exhibition at MOMA in New York.

1951

1954

1956 Good design, a concept founded on Bauhaus principles, is promoted by the Council of Industrial Design.

1957

1960

1963

1949 Raymond Loewy makes the cover of Time magazine. 1955 Walter Teague, design consultant to Boeing, and Frank de Guidice build a full scale prototype of the interior of the 707.

1949–51 Royal College of Art reorganised as an independent foundation, ‘to provide advanced teaching, and to conduct research into the fine arts and in the principles of art and design in relation to industrial and commercial processes’.

1946 Sony founded by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita

1955 Henry Dreyfuss, design consultant to General Electric, AT&T and Polaroid, publishes Designing for People. This considers design as a form of problem solving, as well as addressing social, ethical, aesthetic, and practical requirements. 1955 Dieter Rams joins Braun, a company that used design to achieve superior market position, and created a corporate identity through their products.

1958 Ettore Sottsass becomes design consultant for Olivetti. He is employed on a retainer basis to encourage freedom of design thinking.

1963 The Design Research Unit is founded by Micha Black, Kenneth Bayes, J Beresford Evans, James Williams, and Milner Gray.

1957 The International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID), a network of design associations, is founded with Micha Black as a key figure. The ICSID promotes industrial design, and acts as a forum for professional design policy and guidelines.

1963 The International Federation of Interior Designers (IFID), a network representing 32 societies, is established. 1963 The International Council of Graphic Design Associations (ICOGRADA) begins in London. 1963 Mario Bellini becomes product design consultant for Olivetti and Cassina, leading innovations in ergonomics and design.


The Design Management Timeline | 23

Consumer Society 1958–1981 1972 The CID is renamed the Design Council. 1965 The Royal Society of Arts (RSA) introduces the term ‘design management’.

1977 Peter Lawrence takes over as director of the DMI.

1972 The RCA establishes a scientific design research department. 1972 Victor Papanek’s Design for the Real World charges the industrial design establishment with criminal negligence on a vast scale. ‘The designer’s responsibility is to society and the environment, rather than to the client’s bottom line’.

1966 The RSA holds its first Design Management Awards. 1966 Michael Farr publishes the first book on design management.

1978 The Sony Walkman is launched. It combines the miniaturisation of technology and the needs of consumers. Worldwide success due to quality of manufacture and style.

1966 Thomas Watson Jr’s seminal Tiffany Lecture at Wharton Business School asserts that ‘good design is good business’.

1979 Cellular phones tested in the USA and Japan.

1973 Knut Yran publishes Philip’s first House Style Manual to ensure consistency in the company’s presentation.

1966

1969

1972

1975

1970 The Managing Design Initiative is launched by Mark Oakley.

1979 Peter Gorb publishes Design and its Use by Managers.

1978

1981

1976 The first DMI Annual Design Conference. 1976 Peter Gorb teaches Design at the London Business School (LBS), and initiates his design reclassification.

1969 Danish company Bang and Olufsen establish their corporate identity through a range of ultra-slimline modern products.

1964–77 Eliot Noyes active as a design consultant for Mobil and advises on design policy for Pan American Airways. (PanAm).

1975 The Design Management Institute (DMI) is founded at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, by William J Hannon Jr. The DMI provides a forum for corporate design executives and heightens awareness of design as an essential part of business strategy.

1976 Alan Topalian initiates a formal programme of research into the management of design, promoting the common ground between business executives and designers. This research leads to an analysis of design leadership and board-level responsibility for design, and a description of what constitutes a corporate approach to managing design.

1981 Memphis Milan, a design studio focused on design innovation and mass culture is established. 1981 The Society of Industrial Artists and Designers (SIAD) sets up a design-management group.

1980–1991 Robert Blaich, senior managing director of design at Philips, introduces a design-management system that regards design, production and marketing as a single unit. His commitment to design as a core element of a business wins him rapid recognition.


Network Society 1982–1997 1990 Publication of Design Management: a Handbook of Issues and Methods, edited by Mark Oakley. 1984 CDRom introduced by Sony and Philips.

1990 Publication of Design Management: Papers from the London Business School, edited by Peter Gorb.

1984 The Uk’s Department for Trade and Industry and the Design Council jointly sponsor a report on managing design, with directives encouraging firms to use design for competitive advantage.

1995 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 10: Glossary of Terms Used in Design Management.

1993 Mosaic (later renamed Netscape), one of the first Internet browsers with a visually appealing interface, is released and proliferates the web with a 341,634% annual growth rate of service traffic.

1984 The Apple Mac personal computer is launched, which puts the user not the technology at the centre of the design. Adverts by Ridley Scott emphasise liberation, individuality and freedom.

1993 Single European market inaugurated and barriers to trade across borders subsequently disappear.

1986 The Design and Business Association (DBA) is founded.

1982

1984

1995 The Design Futures Council established. It is a global network of design community professionals aiming to reinvent the art and business of design.

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1985 The DMI becomes an independent non-profit entity and establishes a membership programme. Earl Powell takes over as director of the DMI. 1983 Research into Design and the Economy UK by Roy Rothwell and Paul Gardiner is published. 1983 Research into the Competitive Edge: The Role of Design in the American Corporation, by Clipson et al. is published.

1991 Stefano Marzano becomes CEO and CD of Phillips Design, and integrates design strategy into the business process.

1983 Italian product design company Alessi commissions architects such as Robert Venturi and Michael Graves to develop its product range.

1982 Time magazine names the computer as its Man of the Year. 1982 Commercial email services begin among 25 cities in the USA. 1982 The Design Management Unit at the London Business School is formalised.

1989 The DMI and Harvard Business School initiates the TRIAD Design Project. It is the first international research project on design management. 1989 DMI begins publishing the Design Management Review.

1994 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 3: Guide to Managing Service Design.


Design Society 1998–2006

The Design Management Timeline | 25

2005 Update of the British Standard BS7000 Part 3 Managing Design in the Service Sector. Led by Bill Hollins, this standard is the first to be written with Design Council approval. 1998 Design for the World network is established in Barcelona. It aims to reflect the concerns of international design organisations and to serve as a vehicle for various design professions to act in concert.

2005 John Tobin becomes Director of the DMI. 2005 University of Oxford Said Business School creates a Design Leadership Fellowship.

2006 The International Design Alliance (IDA) nominates the city of Turin as the first World Design Capital. 2006 The Brussels-based Designing Hub is set up to and to improve the business profile of the design industry and to increase the demand for design services. 2006 European Design Day created.

1999 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 1 Guide to Managing Innovation.

2002 The Design Leadership Forum is launched in the UK.

1996

1998

2000

2000 The first Designthinkers Conference is organised by the Association of Registered Graphic Designers of Ontario.

2002

2004

2006

2004 The Design Management Network is established in the UK It aims to bring together design management academics, researchers and practitioners.

1997 The DMI establishes a professional development programme for design management.

2005 Stanford University Institute of Design establishes d-school, which is intended to advance multidisciplinary innovation.

1997 DMI establishes the European International Conference on Design Management.

2005 RED Unit set up at the Design Council, its purpose is to challenge current thinking on social and economic problems by exploring new solutions through innovative design practice.

1997 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 2 Guide to Managing the Design of Manufactured Products.

2005 Sir George Cox, Chairman of the Design Council, carries out the Cox Review of Creativity in Business. 1996 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 4: Guide to Managing Design in Construction.

2001–2005 The Design for Business programme is developed and piloted by the Design Council.

2005 Publication of British Standard BS7000 Part 6: Managing Inclusive Design.


26 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Part One: Managing the Design Strateg


gy

This is the stage where design projects are conceived, and the focus placed on identifying and creating the conditions in which design projects can be proposed, commissioned and promoted. At this stage, design management engages design thinking in the organisational strategy, identifies opportunities for design, interprets the needs of the organisation and its customers, and looks at how design contributes to the business as a whole.


28 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

KNOWLEDGE

Identifying Opportunities for Design Opportunities for design projects, processes and thinking exist both inside client organisations and consultancies and outside in the wider social, cultural and economic context. There are no prescribed ways for identifying opportunities for design within any given organisation. Instead it is the goals and aspirations of the organisation, its ‘corporate purpose’ or ‘brand identity’, which will suggest what opportunities are right for each organisation, and how a design resource could best serve them. A corporate identity expresses the values and beliefs that an organisation stands for, and these values and beliefs will be outlined in the company’s brand and mission statement. The same values and beliefs will also be translated into various business objectives and strategic plans across a number of departments within the organisation and, finally, will also manifest themselves in the environments, communications, products and services of the organisation. The values and beliefs of the organisation will reflect those held by its customers; the people that use, buy or share in the brand experience. If the purpose of design management is to identify and communicate the ways in which design can contribute to a company’s strategic value, then identifying opportunities for design is first step towards this (Borja de Mozota, 2003).

Table 1: The Business Triggers of Design Business Objective To start a company To be a design leader To launch a new product or store To launch a brand To increase market share To regain market share To diversify into a new market To improve R&D policy Source: Borja de Mozota, 2003.

CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES Opportunities for design often stem from changes in circumstances: from new demands, either internal or external, made of an organisation. Within an organisation, design opportunities can be found in the company’s name or brand, its mission statement, its corporate strategy (the overall objectives of the company), its business strategy (the department-level objectives that support the corporate strategy), or its operational strategy (project-level objectives). Opportunities can also arise during mergers and acquisitions, organisational restructures and company diversification, or during formal meetings and informal conversations with other departments. Outside an organisation, opportunities can develop from changes in local, national or international politics, economics, culture, society, population trends, technology and legislation. Opportunities can also originate from humbler origins, such as a chance article in a newspaper or a casual conversation. Perhaps though, the most valuable and rich source of opportunities for design arises from the customers themselves, whether through observing the way they behave when using a product, or collecting customer feedback on how to improve a service.

Design Demand Logo Global design Concept development and new product development Name development and graphic design Web and packaging design Redesign Product design or brand extension Concept development


Identifying Opportunities for Design | 29

Table 2: The Experience Drivers for Design Experience driver Change Demographic change Social Family structures New consumer values Patterns of work

Political

Environment

Legislation to encourage more sustainable thinking.

Creative economy

Legislation to support business and education for the creative industries. Increase in participative and consultative processes and in local and regional government. Employing technology and design to protect against copyright infringement.

Democratic systems Crime and copyright

Market Forces

Product differentiation and innovation Usability

Customisation

Technological

New technologies and diversifying markets providing source of difference to satisfy consumer demands. The rise of more usable and inclusive designs for experienced consumers and increasingly ageing populations. Demand for individuality of products and services.

Eco-lifestyles

Move to sustainable lifestyles and waste-reducing practices.

Wearable technology

Growth of body-based electronics, fashion and jewellery. New living, working and education patterns driven by the Internet. Innovations in embedding intelligence into materials, products and systems. Virtual corporations and communities driving changes in organisational structures.

Communications systems Smart materials Smart organisations Source: Press and Cooper, 2004.

Effects Alternative lifestyles leading to demand for new products and services. Traditional family unit replaced by flexible modes of parenting. Growth of environmental values, rising level of cynicism about ‘branded’ goods. Flexible employment, portfolio lives, new relationships between education, work and leisure.


30 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy TOOLS AND METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES There are a range of tools and methods that can be used to proactively identify and flesh out opportunities for design. The following examples are good starting points for identifying where an organisation sits in relation to the outside world. It is this outside world – not the internal world of the organisation – that determines whether or not there is a market for its products or services. PEST Analysis A PEST analysis lists the Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors that can affect an organisation’s product or service. By identifying the emerging trends and influencing factors in each of the four areas, organisations can plan new business offers to address these potential growth markets and customer demands. A PEST analysis can also be used as a an early-warning system to help identify whether future trends will affect the need for an organisation’s current business offers, and, if so, what appropriate actions can be taken. SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is used to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a particular organisation or market opportunity. By identifying the factors that can, or do, have an impact on the organisation, whether from the inside or outside, an appropriate response can be developed.

Competitive Analysis Using matrices is a valuable way of fleshing out potential opportunities in the market because they provide a way to represent the relationships between an organisation’s proposed product or service, the competing products or services, and any ‘gaps’ in the market. In this form of analysis, products and services are plotted on a ‘positioning map’, which allows them to be compared and contrasted relative to each other. The position on the map forms the criteria for differentiating an organisation’s proposed business offer from the competition, and identifies the growth potential in launching a new product or service in an area not currently provided for. Paradigm of Change Drucker’s paradigm of change model suggests that any organisation exists contemporaneously in three interacting, but different, time zones: past, present and future. Flaherty (1999) further translated these zones into three business ‘dimensions’: traditional, transitional and transformational. These dimensions provide a rich starting point for identifying design opportunities and for exploring how design can respond to different operating aspects of an organisation.

‘Ideas are surprising combinations of previously unconnected things.’ John Grant


Identifying Opportunities for Design | 31

1

2

Caring Fairy Gentle Soft Up to date

Surf Wisk

Trusted Bold

Modern

Traditional

1. Conducting a competitive analysis is a valuable way of fleshing out potential opportunities in the market. This matrix for example, has been used to describe the brand position of washing powder detergents in relation to whether they are traditional or modern, and efficient or caring. Source: Millward Brown Tracking Study.

Advanced

Daz

Radion

Biological Ariel Persil

Removes stains Efficient

Environment

What is the business?

What will the business be?

Traditional

Transitional

What should the business be? Transformational

2. Drucker’s paradigm of change model, provides a way to think about the past, present and future states of an organisation. Exploring how design can respond to different dimensions of an organisation can be a rich starting point for identifying design opportunities. Source: Flaherty, 1999.


32 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

‘There is no way to market research a genuinely new product or service. To achieve purposefully planned change based on innovation, on an entirely novel and different product or service, the methodology required was…to devise some imaginable future and from that vision work backwards into the present.’ Peter Drucker

Flaherty identifies three management approaches for each of these business dimensions. In the context of design management, each one draws forth questions about the role of design: 1. Managing the traditional business (improving current operations), how can design contribute to improving the current operations of the organisation? Perhaps, for example, by concentrating on organisational strengths, or creating efficiencies in production processes. 2. Managing the transitional business (adapting to new opportunities), how can design help the organisation to address new opportunities? Perhaps, for example, by satisfying unmet customer needs or attracting new customers. 3. Managing the transformational business (focussing on innovation, or ‘purposeful’ planned change), how can design help the business move towards a new vision of itself? Perhaps, for example by successfully exploiting new product development ideas.

Scenario Planning One way to create an imaginable future in which to explore new design opportunities is to use scenarios. Scenarios create a context in which to imagine consumers using potential products and services. Thinking about the everyday experiences and behaviours of consumers in a scenario can provide the design team with a better understanding of their target audience as they highlight the relationships between the consumer’s behaviour, situation and the products and services. By brainstorming and experimenting with these scenarios – whether they are drawn, written or oral descriptions – new ideas for products and services can emerge. Rollestone (2003) points out another advantage of using scenarios; because they focus exclusively on the consumer and the consumer’s behaviour and experience, the design team is forced to look at things from the point of view of the customer, and put aside any of their own personal biases. Many creative ideas are developed in the course of business, but unless these ideas have a viable business case they are unlikely to succeed. Whether looking inside or outside the organisation, the goal of the design resource is to support the objectives and values of an organisation, meet the needs of its customers, and to identify, create and promote opportunities for design. Successfully sowing the seeds for design growth will rely on an ability to address a wide range of issues, balance various agendas and forge a way forward, often in partnership with other individuals, disciplines, departments and organisations.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What is not currently available to consumers that can be addressed as a market opportunity? Is there a need that is unfulfilled? How can design play a role?


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Identifying Opportunities for Design | 33

5

3 & 4. Technological innovation can lead to the creation of new products and services. Terfenol-D is a ‘smart’ audio-technology material that, when integrated into FeONIC audio devices, can be used to turn windows and tables into speakers. Realising the opportunity to design the audio devices as well as recognising the commercial opportunities for FeONIC audio-technology has provided both FeONIC and Terfenol-D with commercial success. FeONIC has been concentrating on providing new products for the global consumer market through partnerships, licenses and sales distribution channels around the world. The FeONIC trademark ensures a positive link between the company’s intellectual property (IP), and any products incorporating it that are brought to market through partnerships. Images courtesy of FeONIC Plc. and the Design Council. 5. Opportunities can also stem from creating strategic partnerships with other organisations. In order to produce a ‘lifestyle’ offer for their target markets, MINI and Mandarina Duck worked together to create this convertible luggage set, which was designed by Mandarina Duck for MINI. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.


34 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Understanding the Audience and Market Many products and services are ‘makable’, they can be created, developed and made as part of a design process, but they are not necessarily ‘marketable’. Marketable products satisfy a customer need and make a profit. Understanding the audience and the market is key to knowing both how design can creatively produce a viable business solution, and how marketing can respond to a design innovation to produce a viable business proposition. MARKETING AND DESIGN The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as ‘the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably’. Marketing identifies opportunities, anticipates and satisfy needs, creates differentiation, gains competitive advantage, generates income and adds value. As such it undoubtedly plays a pivotal role within an organisation. Design, on the other hand, creates value through innovation, improved functionality, visual differentiation, brand reinforcement and a positive customer experience, and therefore also plays a key role in organisations. Design and marketing departments often work together to support the needs of a business, but how they work together will depend on both the nature of the organisation and the market opportunities available.

Traditionally, within client organisations, design exists as a resource in one of two places: marketing or product and service development. Within marketing departments, design can deliver services that support specific marketing objectives. For example, a designer can update the packaging design of an existing product so that it appeals to a younger audience, in response to a marketing requirement to increase the organisation’s youth-market share. Within product and service development (also referred to as engineering, manufacturing or research and development, depending on the nature of the organisation), design can drive innovation through the design process itself, for example, via the adoption of new technologies, materials or manufacturing methods.


Understanding the Audience and Market | 35

1

Start Are the goals reasonable?

1 Consumer analysis

Revise

7

Consumers as individuals Identify customer segments within the market: People with similar needs and desires. Decide which segment to target: Geographic (country, state, region, city). Demographic (age, sex, income, occupation). Psychographic (lifestyle interests, motives for buying). Behavoural (usage level, reason for purchase, brand loyalty). Evaluate marketing segments: Measurability, accessibility, substantiality, profitability, viability, compatibility with competition, effectiveness, and dependability.

2 All marketing plans start with the customer and their needs

Determine Find a profitable solution the economics Costs, break even point, payback period of investment made, cashflow forcasts.

Marketing analysis

6 Action plan to target your market The four P's Product: How is my product/service similar or different to the competition? Place: Where to sell? How distribute? Promotion: How to promote? How raise awareness, remind and persuade? Advertising, direct selling, PR, publicity. Price: What should it be? Depends on costs, demand, competition, profit margin, perceived value to customer, materials, manufacturing and processes.

3 Plan the marketing mix

Competitive analysis

5 Distribution analysis

4

Potential market size of consumers Review competitive and regulatory environment. Establish relevance of market. Is it large and accessible enough to justify marketing effort? Establish product life cycle (PLC). How the product/service sales grow and new segment become aware and begin buying. Establish Competitive factors: Quality, price, advertising, R&D and service.

Positioning plan to beat the competition Establish core competencies. What do you do well? What makes you distinctive? Design creates competitive advantage by differentiation. Use SWOT, matrixes and perceptual mapping to establish position.

How to reach the customer How can my product/service reach the customer? Choice of distribution channel influences the price charged and profit margins made.

1. At almost any stage of the marketing-strategy process, design can add value and create competitive advantage, for example, by differentiating one product or service from another. Source: Adapted from Silbiger, 1999.


36 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy When ideas for new products and services originate within an organisation’s marketing department, it is because a consumer need has been identified, a value proposition created, and a supporting business case developed. Design then supports both the marketing and the market opportunity. When new ideas originate within product and service development, it is often due to an innovation or a breakthrough idea, for example, inventing a new or better way of making something using advances in technology. Marketing then supports design to develop a viable business case and promotional marketing plan. Traditional market research and market analysis can identify a need, but might inhibit the creation of innovative ideas. A design innovation can create a unique product or service but if it is not marketable, it is unlikely to be viable or profitable. The design process forges a strong link between marketing and product or service research and development (R&D) by supporting those opportunities identified by the marketing department, and driving the invention of entirely new products or services devised by the R&D department. There is a growing awareness amongst business leaders of the unique role design plays, as something that can both add and create value. Design adds value when used ‘top down’ by supporting marketing requirements and responding to market opportunities, and creates value when used from the ‘bottom up’, by generating innovative ideas that are then successfully taken to market.

MARKETING CONCEPTS AND TOOLS Most designers understand the nature of marketing, but are unfamiliar with the actual concepts and tools that it uses. Familiarity with these will provide a design team with a better understanding of what marketing people do and how marketing works in practice. Equally, design ideas that are ‘packaged’ in a way that connects to an organisation’s marketing strategy will stand a better chance of getting valuable stakeholder buy-in. The role of the marketing department is to uncover the consumer voice. It creates value propositions that are aligned with the organisation’s strategy, its consumer market, the environmental conditions and its competition. The marketing department will talk to potential and existing customers as well as market researchers to learn more about consumer preferences. There are a number of ways in which a marketing department can communicate directly with consumers and then develop a business strategy in accordance with the responses.


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Understanding the Audience and Market | 37

2. The redesign of the Mini Cooper was a strategic exercise to refresh the brand classic and improve a product’s market position. Design reflects our time and culture, and as customer needs change so too do design specifications. Each aspect of the Mini Cooper redesign reinforces the brand image; refreshingly different, extroverted and spontaneous. Original design details from the cult MINI Classic were been retained or else updated, making the redesigned MINI Cooper S instantly recognisable to consumers. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG. 3. Design plays a key part of the product or service development process. The Dyson Cyclone was an innovation pioneered by breakthrough thinking. Five years and 5127 prototypes later, the world’s first cyclonic bagless vacuum cleaner arrived. The Dyson ‘bagless’ vacuum cleaner was the first not to loose suction. The original team of three designers has since grown to 350 scientists, all housed in a new research centre. Image courtesy of Dyson.


38 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy Focus groups engage small, targeted groups of consumers in a discussion about a proposed product or service, advert or brand proposition, while marketers listen to the group and watch its behaviour and reactions. Field research is used to study the factors that affect a consumer’s choice of product or service, for example, the selection of a particular brand of washing detergent may depend on its position on a supermarket shelf. Customer-satisfaction surveys, questionnaires and complaints also provide a platform for the consumer’s voice, and supply vital information about how a product or service could be improved. The opportunities for design and design thinking will inevitably involve building closer links between business units in the organisation, sharing knowledge, and identifying new areas of connection. In this way integrated products and services can be developed that engage the knowledge, skills and expertise of business managers, specialists, and consumers. The following tools will help design teams understand the marketing considerations involved in launching new products and services.

The Product Life Cycle (PLC) A PLC diagram shows the stages in the life of a product or service. It demonstrates how sales will initially grow as new market segments become aware of, and begin buying it, then mature and eventually decline. This useful model allows designers to anticipate market reactions. For example, it could help to determine when to develop and launch a new product range that will succeed an existing one. The Ansoff Matrix The Ansoff matrix charts existing and new products against existing and new markets, and is used to plan ways in which to increase sales. Using this matrix, design teams can better understand how an organisation can increase its revenue through the creation of new markets, products and services. Boston Matrix This is used in product-portfolio planning to chart the relationship between market share (relative to the competition) and market growth. This matrix allows design teams to better understand the different products or services in the organisation’s portfolio, and the different roles that each perform.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What are the different thinking styles and approaches that exist between marketers and designers? How can a design manager enrich the conversation?


Understanding the Audience and Market | 39

5

4

6

Products

Maturity

Decline

New

Productivity penetration (Market share/growth)

New product development

Market extension

Diversification

New

Market sales

Markets

Growth

Existing

Existing

Introduction

Product life cycle

5. The Ansoff Matrix. Productivity penetration increases sales of an existing product or service through increased promotional efforts or reduced prices. New product development increases sales by replacing current products in the organisation’s existing market with newer ones. Market extension increases sales by selling existing products and services to new markets, and diversification increases sales by moving the organisation away from its core activities to providing something new.

Low

Relative market share

High

High

Stars Problem children

Market growth

6. The Boston Matrix is used to chart the relative relationship between market share and market growth. Dogs represent those products with a small share of a low-growth market; they tend to absorb, not generate, profit. Cash cows represent those products with a large share of a low-growth market. If they continue to generate profit, they should be kept in the product portfolio and reviewed regularly. Problem children are those products with a small share of a high-growth market. As the company attempts to increase its market share through investment, they will continue to absorb resources while generating little profit. Stars describes those products with a large share of a high-growth market, these generate healthy profits.

Dogs Cash cows

Low

4. The Product Life Cycle (PLC) model shows the stages in the life of a product. After introduction to the market, a product is likely to gain a growing number of consumers. Eventually the market will stabilise as the product reaches maturity and, as competing products are launched, will eventually see its sales decline.

4


40 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Interpreting Client and Customer Needs Design adds most value when it operates within the overlap between an organisation’s objectives and the desires of its customers. Understanding the interface between business and design relies on a clear understanding of the needs of the organisation and its customers. Whether the design resource is on the client-side (from within the organisation) or the consultancy-side (from within a design agency), successful design solutions are those that satisfy the client and the customer needs. UNDERSTANDING THE CLIENT Within any company the different business units all function to serve the values, beliefs, needs and ambitions of the whole organisation. Design consultancies may be engaged by these business units to provide specialist design input in support of the organisation’s goals. ln effect, the business unit becomes a client to the design consultancy. Equally, a design resource that exists inside an organisation can also be engaged to provide specialist input into a specific business unit or project, again in support of the overall business objectives. The role of design in business is to help create products and services that address the needs of consumers, and to visually express the values and beliefs of an organisation. Identifying how and where design can successfully contribute to different business units begins with a thorough understanding of the organisation, the business

it is in and the consumers it targets. This is not only part of the design problem, but is also key to the design solution. Business models and plans are structured around a number of internal components, such as mission statements and objectives, leadership hierarchies, financial structures, business units and lines of communication, and a number of external components, such as the competitive positioning, the cultural and geographic landscape, and corporate partnerships and alliances. Organisations use design to improve their market position, while operating within the context of their business models. Therefore understanding these internal and external components will help the design team determine how to add value and provide competitive advantage, whilst also supporting the viability of the business. The more a design team knows about the challenges faced by an organisation and its customers, the more in tune their design solutions are likely to be. For example, by better reflecting the organisation’s brand or business intentions, or by differentiating the business from that of the competition through new product development. Whether client-side or consultancy-side, if unmet wants and needs can be identified, then they can be interpreted into ways in which design can contribute to a viable business solution.

‘Understanding the consumer is important for designers, in order that they can develop a conscious and subconscious understanding of consumer needs, and translate that understanding into design features.’ Rachel Cooper and Mike Press.


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Interpreting Client and Customer Needs | 41

2

3

rsvp bkfa

www.beverleyknowles.com/rsvp 020 8969 0800

Come and experience our new gallery Drinks and canapés from 7pm 88 Bevington Road, w10 5tw Tube: Ladbroke Grove Beverley Knowles Fine Art is the only gallery in the country specialising in the work of modern and contemporary British female artists.

Competition

Environment

Technology

Customers

Market

Value

Business

Economy Global issues Social trends

Government regulations

1. Beverley Knowles Fine Art (BKFA), is the only gallery in the UK specialising in the work of contemporary, British female artists. Deciding where to locate the gallery – London’s Notting Hill – was key to accurately reflecting the BKFA brand. According to Beverley, Notting Hill is ‘the sort of area that a quirky bright pink gallery with a unique specialisation in female artists fits right in’. It is also an area likely to attract the kind of customers that would buy pieces from the gallery. Image courtesy of Beverley Knowles. 2. BKFA commissioned Banana Design to create an identity that would reflect its brand and business intentions, and visually express its values, beliefs, needs and goals. A strong use of colour underpins the brand identity; dark-olive green symbolises the sober business side of the art world and the soft pink references the female artists that the gallery represents. Image courtesy of Dave McCourt. 3. Companies use design to improve their market position. The overlap of customer needs and business needs is where design can add most value. Managing design in a way that takes into account the bigger picture can provide valuable competitive advantage to the client organisation.


42 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy UNDERSTANDING THE CUSTOMER All design communicates a visual message. lt is the combination of design elements, such as colour or shape, which make each message distinct and, ultimately, crystalises the brand. The message has to be ‘right’ for its target market, and successfully reaching that target market depends, in part, on how attuned the designer is with the audience (Swann, 1990). Feedback and statistical data from existing and potential customers and market researchers is most useful when it is ‘shareable’; communicated in a form that is understood by people from a variety of professional backgrounds. Focus groups and scenarios have already been mentioned, but other forms of market research can provide designers with a better understanding of the needs of consumers and stakeholders, as well as the opportunities available in the design project itself. Mood Boards Using a range of visuals, textures, colours and shapes, mood boards present images that represent the lifestyle of a specific consumer group. Mood boards can help to define a product or service brief. Metaphors and Analogies In this context, metaphors are used to capture the personality of a project. The metaphor is translated into key attributes that capture the ‘feeling’ of a product or service in a way that everyone can relate to, and which designers can translate into aesthetic and functional design forms. For example, Alloy’s design concept for the Argus®3 thermal-imaging camera concept was code-named ‘Baywatch’ to playfully guide the design team into thinking about lifesaving.

Analogies are used to describe by comparison the desired attributes of a product or service. For example, ‘if this product were a car would it be a Rolls Royce or a Mini?’ Analogies focus thoughts on the desirable product attributes, and give the designer a tangible form with which to relate to the target audience. Opinion Polls Opinion polls, such as MORI, are derived from conducting interviews with representative samples of people in order to gain a measure of the wider community’s or population’s views. The sample chosen is usually representative of a larger population of those individuals who are likely to form the target market for the project under consideration. Individual Interviews A one-to-one interview provides an in depth and subjective understanding of a consumer, and is often more revealing of true customer feelings towards a product or service than focus group conversations. The interviewees can be further challenged on particular aspects in order to gain more in-depth understanding of their consumer motivations. Demographics and Other Classification Tools Databases that classify people according to a particular set of criteria, for example, where they live, how much they earn, age group or purchasing patterns can often provide an insightful tool. The assumption behind such tools is that people who have similar lifestyles, behaviours and attitudes will also share similar purchasing habits.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What business is the client organisation in? What drives it? What are its key motivations, goals and aspirations? Who are its target audiences?


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Interpreting Client and Customer Needs | 43

5

4. An introduction to the ‘aspiring singles’ consumer type, taken from The CACI Acorn 2005 UK Demographics Profile and Users Guide. Image courtesy of, CACI Limited, 2005. All rights reserved. Source: Acorn User Guide, CACI Ltd.

5. The CACI Acorn 2005 UK Demographics Profile and Users Guide provided definitions of the types that are often used to describe a profile of consumers or target customers. This page is an introduction to the ‘comfortably-off’ type. Designers and marketers can use demographic classifiers to help them agree on the target market and their needs, wants and desires, lifestyle preferences and behaviours

of the individuals for whom they are designing a product or service. Image courtesy of, CACI Limited, 2005. All rights reserved. Source: Acorn User Guide, CACI Ltd.


44 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Auditing the Use of Design Auditing how design is used by an organisation and how effectively design communicates and supports its overall goals is an incredibly useful exercise. By investigating how an organisation presents itself, a design audit reveals whether or not there is design consistency between the ways in which the organisation communicates its beliefs and values. The design audit also compares how an organisation operates and behaves internally (for example in the design of its working environments), against its external perception and identity (for example, its corporate image and product offers). Inconsistencies in the actual design outputs, such as buildings and interiors, products and services, packaging, graphics, advertising and websites, can then be identified. THE DESIGN AUDIT A design audit honestly and objectively appraises the use of design within an organisation. It identifies what does and does not work and determines if a design budget is being used effectively. How design is used and managed can be very revealing of the organisation’s true attitude to design, and their awareness of how their customers perceive them. The design audit can uncover an organisation’s level of knowledge and understanding of design as a valuable asset: one that can be used to further strategic business objectives.

A design audit supplies a fresh, unbiased view of how design is used to promote the business of a particular organisation. It provides an analysis of the effectiveness of all the design elements, and determines whether they are communicating a unified message. The design audit can also offer suggestions for improvement, which are usually delivered in the form of recommendations. In effect, the design audit is a systematic analysis of the organisation’s present position and recommendations for its future, changed and improved, position. The content of a design audit will usually include a review of the organisation and the marketing environment in which it operates, the material collected in the audit, an analysis of the use of design, a conclusion and recommendations for improvements and actions. A team working either inside or outside the organisation can conduct a design audit, but there are several benefits in using an outside consultancy. A consultant is more likely to be objective and not be swayed by internal biases and organisational politics; they may have a level of design expertise that does not exist inside the organisation; and as a neutral party, employees and customers may be more open in their comments during interviews about how they feel about the organisation and its use of design.


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3

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Auditing the Use of Design | 45

1. Design audits provide a useful analysis to show how organisations are using design to help achieve their overall goals. Eden, in collaboration with design agency Thonik, addressed the city of Amsterdam’s desire to communicate its identity more clearly for the benefit of city residents. Eden’s solution was a city-wide style that unified almost 60 different organisations. 2. The workings of each part of Amsterdam influences how the city is viewed as a whole, and whether people understand the organisation of the city in a recognisable, accessible and transparent way. 3.The design audit recommended that almost 60 visual identities should be distilled into a single style. The solution was deceptively simple, employing three red Saint Andrew’s crosses from the city’s fourteenth-century coat of arms. The solution offers plenty of room to accommodate the different identifying characteristics of the city’s various quarters and services. 4. Letters, reports, signage, fleet marking, and other means of communication were standardised. This saved the city considerable sums on the cost of template development, maintenance, printing and management and provided Amsterdam with a clear image. All images courtesy of Eden Design & Communication and Thonik.


46 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy CONDUCTING A DESIGN AUDIT The first step in conducting a design audit is to build a picture of the size and scale of the organisation, and how it operates. A good starting point for this is to identify the nature, role and function of the organisation and review its mission statement or corporate philosophy. It is also beneficial to look at the company’s structure, and identify relevant stakeholders, all the current brand names in use and the organisation’s current design procedures, policies and guidelines. Finally, identifying the markets that are currently addressed (the market position) followed by an assessment of the markets available (through an analysis of market conditions or of the competition) will help to complete the picture. The next step is to develop an understanding of how the organisation is perceived, both internally and externally. Gaining an impression of this from within the company is usually achieved by conducting interviews with key stakeholders such as the CEO or company director, the head of design or the design manager, as well as a variety of employees. External interviews may include those conducted with current and potential customers.

The third step is to conduct a visual audit of those items that are relevant to assessing the use of design in the organisation. This might include the organisation’s visual identity; its name and style of logo, letterheads, printed material, packaging, advertising and websites; buildings and offices, retail showrooms, exhibitions and signage, the immediate locality of its premises; its vehicles or uniforms and its customer service and staff behaviour. A design audit will also include a review of an organisation’s internal communication activity (how design is perceived and used by staff within the organisation), and compare this with a review of how design is experienced externally (the likes and dislikes, and the concerns and experiences of its customers). In doing so, the audit will highlight both positive examples of the use of design as well as any inconsistencies, which may produce misconceptions about the organisation. Once the audit’s investigations are complete, the results should be compiled and evaluated. Any necessary action to be taken by the organisation can then be recommended. Design audit findings are typically delivered to the client as a presentation, and then distilled into a report covering the audit’s purpose, process, results and recommendations.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: Who is currently responsible for making design decisions? Do design guidelines exist for the use of design by the organisation?


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Auditing the Use of Design | 47

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HOW USEFUL IS A DESIGN AUDIT? Design audits are a very useful tool for a design manager operating within a large organisation. The design manager is responsible both for the coherence and consistency of the organisation’s design message, and ensuring that this is aligned to its business strategy. Any design inconsistencies within an organisation will be revealed in the design audit. Similarly, if there are missed opportunities, the audit can outline these and suggest ways in which design can play a more active role in supporting business objectives. Through its collation of visual evidence and recommendations for action, the design audit can form the basis for a larger audit that explores how design is managed, and how good design management can support the business strategy more actively. Recommendations are a powerful way to begin the process of updating the design-resource team and its skills efficiently and productively, so that it reflects the true design needs of the organisation. The audit can provide sufficient evidence to enforce change and update the way in which the organisation invests in design. In this way, the design manager can grow his or her internal design team, staffing and budget levels, and ultimately promote the value of design within the organisation.

5. The 100th anniversary of media and marketing group Wegener, and the receipt of a royal warrant, were two reasons to review the group’s corporate identity and brand policy. The Wegener brand was updated to become more visible and communicate more actively, especially towards advertisers and members of staff. Image courtesy of Eden Design & Communication and Wegener. 6. Eden Design & Communication helped first to determine the communication objectives and strategy of Wegener, and then in shifting the orientation of their communication from the shareholder to the stakeholder. Eden helped Wegener develop a brand promise for stakeholders, which was: ‘Achieve more. With Wegener’. Eden also designed a new brand identity for Wegener that introduced the royal warrant in visual form to accompany the word trademark, and redefined Wegener’s newspaper company’s brand structure. Image courtesy of Eden Design & Communication and Wegener.


48 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Establishing the Design Strategy In order for an organisation to establish its design strategy, a business case for its design needs to be formulated. Inside an organisation, this responsibility will usually fall to the design manager, who may choose to bring in an external design consultancy or agency to help. The purpose of the plan is to persuade the organisation’s senior management and stakeholders that there is a need to establish a design strategy, initiative or resource that extends beyond their current use of design. The design audit can help support this plan, but building a case for design will also involve demonstrating how design thinking can best serve the mission, aims and operational needs of the organisation. A solid case will ensure that everyone can see the potential tangible benefits from their own perspective. Ensuring that senior management can understand the value and impact of design, using the language of marketing or finance as appropriate, increases the likelihood of key stakeholder support. Defining the boundaries of the design initiative is also important in order to set everyone’s expectations at the right level.

SETTING UP A STRATEGY FOR DESIGN Borja de Mozota (2003) points out that once the design demand has been initiated, two decisions to be made. Firstly, who will be responsible for design in the company? And secondly, how will the project design-management tools be delegated within the company? In response to the first question, the decision will involve appointing a design sponsor or champion; someone who has representation at board level. In many cases this will be the design manager, but in some organisations it may be the head of marketing, or the head of research and development. This person’s role will be to promote the engagement of design at different levels of the organisation. In response to the second question, the design manager (or sponsor) will be the keeper, initiator and guardian of the project design-management tools that are used to disseminate design thinking throughout the organisation. These tools might include; design policies, strategies, agendas, and guidelines; design workshops, briefings, newsletters, books, trade magazines and websites.


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Establishing the Design Strategy | 49

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A useful way to establish the benefits that design can bring to an organisation is to consider design, design policies and design strategies in relation to three levels of the organisation: at board level, mid or business-unit level, and at design-activity level. At board level, the question posed is, how can design be used at a strategic level? It will often be in response to a situation where an organisation perceives a strategic need. At the middle level, the question posed is, how can design be used at a business level? Here, it will be used to translate the perceived need into a new product or service, process or concept. At the design-activity level, the question posed is, how can design contribute at a project level? At this level it will assist the product or service development to ensure that the response to the need is delivered.

1. Oyster, London’s travel smartcard, was introduced to support the mission, strategy and operational needs of Transport for London (TfL). It also supports the needs of TfL customers as the system is designed to make it quicker and simpler for passengers to get around the city, cut queuing times and keep cash off the buses. The Oyster card works by the user simply pressing it on a card reader at tube stations and on buses. Image courtesy and copyright of Transport for London 2005.

It is possible to differentiate between a design policy and a design ‘strategy’, although both inform each other. The design strategy establishes how an organisation intends to use design, and how design processes can best serve its operational needs. The design policy describes the legislation that will support the design process, and involves coordinating the planning and policy information to meet the needs of stakeholders (Cooper and Press, 1995). In many ways, the design strategy is the vision for design at all levels in the organisation, and the design policy is a series of decision-making milestones for making the vision possible.

2. The smartcard is designed to be reusable, thus eliminating the need for paper tickets for each and every journey. As such, Oyster is being hailed by TfL and Friends of the Earth as an environmental asset, as 100,000 fewer paper tickets are sold everyday – a saving of 32 million paper tickets a year since the smartcard was introduced in 2003. Image courtesy and copyright of Transport for London 2005


50 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy DEVELOPING PROPOSALS FOR THE DESIGN STRATEGY Once the need for a corporate design strategy is established, the design manager (or sponsor) is responsible for developing proposals for it. There are several ways to develop design proposals that will successfully meet the requirements identified by the organisation. The design manager can either work alone or in conjunction with a design team (in-house) or invite proposals from a consultancy (out of house). At this stage, design proposals do not deliver a full working solution; they merely provide an outline of how a design team or consultancy would address the needs of the organisation should they be successfully engaged to work on a project. The proposal will usually be a written document that sets out what the design services are and how much they will cost.

IN-HOUSE VERSUS OUT OF HOUSE It is not uncommon for an organisation to invite an external design consultancy to put together a proposal for a design strategy. Gaining valuable stakeholder buy-in from other business units within an organisation may well be crucial to the success of the design strategy, and an outside design consultancy can often provide proposals with a level of objectivity, as they will be free from the pressure of internal inter-department or political agendas. Outside design consultants can also supplement an in-house design group by providing a fresh perspective, by guiding or directing a specific project, or by supplying a specific set of skills or experience. Outside consultants can either operate on a short-term, single project basis with the aim of achieving the defined objective, or a longer-term, strategic, advisory or ‘retainer’ basis. There are many different types of consultancies and design teams offering a range of scale and services. There are benefits to appointing one lead consultancy as the overall ‘contractor’ under which smaller agencies can be appointed, although this can prove expensive. A less costly method is for an organisation to appoint smaller specialist agencies, and be prepared for the inevitable ‘jostling’ for prime position amongst the agency’s client base as part of the process.

‘Design strategy is the effective allocation and co-ordination of design resources and activities to accomplish a firm’s objectives of creating its appropriate public and internal identities, its products and service offerings, and its environments.’ Mark Olsen


Establishing the Design Strategy | 51

Table 1: The Pros and Cons of Using In-house and Out of House Design Teams Disadvantages Advantages At risk from insularity, complacency or Designers are active stakeholders in In-house Design Team becoming less objective. More likely to the organisation. say ‘yes’. Working with one ‘client’ produces a Having to juggle balancing the status focused experience. quo with pushing boundaries. Proximity to other business units May be competing for resources with can enable rich multidisciplinary other business units. team working and a shared sense of purpose. Can influence company’s design culture. Easier access to internal decision makers and power holders.

Out of house Design Team

Working with multiple clients produces a breadth of experience. Objective, non-political, and more likely to say ‘no’. Clients more likely to listen. Often bring a challenging perspective to problem-solving. Can concentrate solely and intently on the problem and thus produce tightly focused solutions.

Tends to be a more expensive option. Consultancies can come up with new ideas, but they may be ‘off brand’, unsupportable or unviable as a business offer.


52 PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy WORKING WITH DESIGN CONSULTANCIES

PRICING DESIGN PROFITABLY

So how does an organisation bring in a consultancy to help establish its design strategy? Firstly, the organisation’s design manager will define an initial client brief and draw up a shortlist of consultancies with relevant experience for the project in question. The consultancies on the shortlist are then invited to present or ‘pitch’ their proposals. A pitch will introduce each consultancy’s approach and working methods, and is a good means for the organisation to appoint the best consultancy for the job, and agree the scope of works, project budget and consultancy fees.

Whether in-house or out of house, design is a resource that has to be paid for by the client. Understanding client expectations when setting a price for the work to be done is never easy, and the hard evidence of financial benefits of the design project will not yet be there for evaluation. So how is a fair rate, one that is acceptable to both sides of the relationship, established?

From the consultancy’s perspective, a pitch is not a platform to dispense design services for free. Rather, it is an opportunity to demonstrate and educate the design ‘buyers’ about the value of their thinking in helping address the organisation’s challenges. A frequent consultancy mistake is to spend most of their pitch talking about their capabilities, rather than demonstrating an understanding of the client and the project. Although consultancy credentials should be included in the pitch, the client will be more interested in forming a working relationship with a design team that can address their needs and focus on providing a creative and viable design solution. The client will also be more interested in the consultancy that can demonstrate an understanding of the motivations and aspirations of both their business and their customers. For the design manager, it is important to be able to find the right design consultancy for a specific project. Examples of sources that can better inform this decision include design trade bodies and associations that run client referral services (and keep a list of design providers), trade journals and magazines, word of mouth, design-award winners and those consultancies that the client’s competitors are working with.

For the consultancy, pricing profitably means covering the costs, overheads, and expenses involved in running a design business, while also allowing for a portion of the profits to be invested back into the business. Staff salaries or sub-contracted consultancy fees are likely to be the largest part of the cost of design. Trade magazines usually publishing average hourly rates, salaries and market rates for particular design roles and tasks, and these can serve as a useful starting point for anticipating or managing client expectations for the human-resource costs of the job. Design consultancies’ charges, fees, or hourly rates will inevitably vary depending on experience and what the market is willing to support. A good rule of thumb that consultancies can adopt is to work out the annual overhead costs and divide this annual total by the approximate number of hours worked that are actually ‘billable’ to a client (usually 1000). Non-billable time includes activities such as administration, marketing, writing proposals, holding client presentations, and recruiting staff. The result is an hourly rate that will cover the cost of running the business and the actual design time. To calculate the hourly billable rate for a single design team member (assuming most of their time is spent working on client projects), divide their salary by 1500 hours. Consultant and consultancy rates rates can also be used to estimate whether a job can be completed profitably by establishing if the price for the job is sufficient to cover the design time and the overheads.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What are the benefits and drawbacks of working solely with an external design consultancy, or exclusively with an in house design team? And with a combination of both internal and external design specialists?


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3. Apple has a clear business strategy for using design to add value to everything the company does, and to consider how customers experience their products and services. Apple’s iPod, designed in-house under the leadership of Jonathan Ives, has quickly become a design icon of the digital music age. Along with iTunes software and iTunes music downloads, the design of the overall system demonstrates an integrated, seamless and fully-customisable approach. Image courtesy of Apple. 4. Apple’s design strategy is visible in the company’s products, services and stores. Apple has always recognised the importance of customer feedback and see it as an important part of the brand’s success. Apple’s ‘mini’ retail stores are designed to fit in a variety of locations, and are environments for both introducing innovative products and gathering valuable customer feedback. Image courtesy of Apple. 5. The Apple mini stores feature stainless-steel walls and seamless white floors and ceilings. They contain a range of portable computers, iPods and associated products and customer services such as The Genius Bar, where questions are answered by an Apple technical expert. There is also an onsite repair service. Image courtesy of Apple.


54 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Promoting and Selling the Design Strategy Whether the design strategy is established in-house or via a consultancy, the design manager will require a solid entrepreneurial mindset in order to successfully promote and sell the design strategy and thinking throughout the organisation. In order to do so, the design manager will need to raise awareness amongst the organisation’s key stakeholders, to ensure that the design strategy is understood correctly, and persuade those individuals whose contributions are vital to the success of the design strategy of its relevance to the viability of the overall business. A way of identifying the key stakeholders in any business is to look at its organisational chart, which maps the roles and functions of groups and individuals. Inevitably, the amount of promotion and buy-in required will depend on how design is perceived within the organisation, and how persuasive the design manager is. At this stage it is useful to consider the design strategy as a business plan. A design manager working within a client organisation, may aim to build and grow a design resource, whereas a project manager working within a design consultancy may be seeking client buy-in to a design concept. Whether in-house of out of house, the key questions to ask are, what is the business case for the idea? What are the benefits to the client organisation and its customers? How long will it take to realise it and how much will it cost? What resources are needed? What are the short-term and long-term benefits? Working out the answer to these questions will help create a financially viable solution.

GAINING STAKEHOLDER BUY-IN People are more likely to understand a design strategy if they are involved in the process of formulating it. Key stakeholders are found both within the organisation, for example, key heads of other business units, the company director or senior board level management, and external, for example. government policy creators, specialist consultants or experts. Design managers will involve key stakeholders with the aim of getting their support and buy-in. An effective way to do this is to describe the actual design strategy, but in terms that sell the benefits to each of the stakeholder’s business units. For example, if one of the key stakeholders is the human resources manager, describing the benefits of the design strategy to the organisation’s recruitment policies is more likely to build a persuasive case. If selling the strategy to many different types of stakeholders, the design manager should try to find some common ground, such as describing the benefits of the plan to the customer. Since no business organisation can exist without customers, finding ways to work together in improving the overall customer experience will be of mutual interest.

‘There should be at least one member of the board who takes a personal and qualified interest in design. Design should be on the agenda at board meetings and the plans of the company should include a policy for design. This will give the company design initiatives support from the top – crucial to the implementation of any design project.’ Jen Bernsen


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1. Understanding who the key stakeholders are can help establish which stakeholders to involve, and in what way, to help deliver a viable and achievable design strategy.

Product users (customers)

Employees & their families

Investors & shareholders

Public authorities

Stakeholders

Citizens

Suppliers

Sales partners

NEC Corporation is one of the world’s leading providers of Internet, broadband, network and enterprise solutions. This diagram shows the key stakeholders in NEC’s environmental activities, as published in their Annual Environmental Report. NEC promotes responsible environmental management and a vision of a sustainable society through their stakeholders. Source: NEC Corporation.


56 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy FORMING PARTNERSHIPS AND ALLIANCES Within an organisation, design rarely exists in isolation to other business units. For the design strategy to succeed, partnerships and alliances with individuals and groups, both inside and outside the organisation, need to be established. These partnerships and alliances need to be managed in a strategic and consistent way, so that, depending on the nature of the relationship, expectations amongst stakeholders are agreed, identity guidelines are managed, customers are not confused and assets are legally protected. Partnerships describe the relationship between two or more people, groups or organisations that are involved in or share the same activity; they work together in partnership with each other for a common purpose. The RED Unit at the UK’s Design Council for example, looks at social and economic challenges through the problem solving processes of design. Their approach is based on forming interdisciplinary partnerships: small design teams that work with a range of experts such as economists, scientists and anthropologists, and in partnership with organisations and individuals from the public and private sector. Through specific projects, publications and seminars, their aim is to collaborate with other partners in order to provide ahead-of-the-curve insights in the context of government policy in order to make change happen.

An alliance is an association of two or more groups, individuals or organisations who agree to cooperate with one another to achieve a common goal. Organisations that form strategic alliances often possess similar aims or characteristics. Motives for two companies forming an alliance can include: licensed merchandise, sponsorship and co-branding (where two or more brands are used together to market specific products, services or events). Good relationships are central to sustained high quality performance of many leading organisations. In the words of Chris Thompson, CEO of Viadynamics, a specialist consultancy that uses innovation to deliver growth, ‘innovation is the output of a network of companies. Treating key suppliers as adversaries rather than complementors just gets in the way’. Whether working with customers, suppliers, partners, alliances or employees, successful long-term relationships are based on trust and the sharing of mutual benefits.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What key stakeholders need to be involved? What are the objectives of the alliance? Who is providing what resources and expertise? What form of agreement is in place?


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Promoting and Selling the Design Strategy | 57

2. GP designpartners, a multidisciplinary industrial design consultancy based in Austria, and Conlastic, developers, manufacturers and distributors of playground toys, established a working partnership. GP designpartners created the concept for the Nest, a distinctive, attractive and added-value design that redefined quality benchmarks for playing criteria. Conlastic developed the design for manufacture and distribution to clients such as landscape architects and urban planners. Image courtesy of GP designpartners.

3. IBM technologist Jennifer Chu holds an IBM POWER microprocessor, the chip at the core of a wide range of products, from game consoles to powerful supercomputers. In China, an alliance of 15 companies, including Sony and IBM, announced the formation of Power.org; an open-standards community that aims to accelerate collaboration on the IBM POWER chip by companies around the world. Image courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation. Unauthorised use not permitted.


58 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KNOWLEDGE

Planning for Long-term Growth Design does not exist in isolation. Different organisations have different stages of development in their use of design. Consequently, how design is managed will depend of the nature of the organisation and their existing, and potential, aspirations for design and for the organisation. Planning for the long-term growth of design within an organisation will involve a number of key actions. In the first instance, it will require the organisation to be open to opportunities, and flexible enough to respond to changing circumstances. Secondly, it requires the establishment and growth of a trusted and reliable design team, one that can actively advocate the use of design both inside and outside the organisation. Thirdly, it requires that the value and merits of design be made explicit. Building on project successes is essential for providing legitimacy and authority to the design strategy.

BUILDING DESIGN INTO THE ORGANISATION Introducing a design strategy within an organisation can have an impact on how individual business units operate. If a design team was previously embedded within another business unit, becoming its own department will alter responsibilities, accountability and existing lines of communication. Functional areas may need to change and new organisational structures and business models may need to be established. Design managers need to plan ahead in order to consider the most viable position for the growing design team. An organisation may need to reorganise itself in order that its design strategy can best support its needs. Creating new business units is common practice when the need for one becomes important enough to the organisation’s success. For example, because dissemination of corporate knowledge and the internal flow of information grew to become such an important consideration, many organisations established an entirely new business unit to manage corporate intranets. Building design into the organisation may also originate from thinking about how to best benefit the customers. How can the process for creating products and services be reconfigured around the user, rather than the internal structure of the organisation? Looking at a situation from the viewpoint of a customer enables a better understanding of how to improve processes, and what opportunities there are for developing new products or services.

‘Start with a single project on a modest scale. Start with a project that can produce visible and useful results within a limited time and at a modest investment. Then, even if it’s on a small scale, it will contribute to ‘selling’ the idea of working with design in-house and thus pave the way for larger projects in the future.’ Jen Bernsen


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1. Electrical goods manufacturer ED&S wanted growth, but new ideas had stalled and marketing was in a rut. As part of a Design Council scheme to introduce design to manufacturing businesses at boardroom level, a design team was put together to address ED&S’s strategy. What this established was that the company needed design to help it stand out from its commodity-based rivals and to help it overcome barriers to growth, such as counterfeiting and uninspired marketing. The company’s previous emphasis on engineering and production benefited from a fresh input of creativity and marketing awareness, which in turn acted as a catalyst for the growth ED&S sought. Image courtesy of ED&S and the Design Council.


60 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy BUILDING A FLEXIBLE AND ADAPTABLE DESIGN RESOURCE The ability to adapt to changing circumstances necessitates a mindset of flexibility. For design managers, managing the long-term growth of a design strategy means ensuring that it is expandable, so that as the reputation and use of design within the organisation grows. As project successes become known, the way design is managed can also evolve. Effectively, this will mean that the organisation has systems in place that allow easy access to design teams and resources as and when is necessary. Such systems might include the creation and maintenance of an in-house design team, purchasing design expertise or entering into a partnership with a design consultancy, creating a design roster or combining a variety of approaches for different types and stages of a project.

BUILDING ON DESIGN SUCCESSES Building a series of successful design outcomes, whether managing a single project or establishing a long-term relationship with a board level design champion, is the most fruitful way to increase stakeholder buy-in and recognition of the value and merits of design. Making design successes explicit by measuring the value of design, though important, may not always be possible, in which case other forms of promoting design successes should be sought out. For example, the National Patient Safety Agency, part of the UK’s at the National Health Service, measures the success of its Design for Patient Safety Initiative by the number of lives saved.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: In what other ways can design support the objectives of the organisation, and of specific business units? Should design thinking be present in some form within every business unit, and on every project?


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2. Herman Miller is a recognised innovator in contemporary home, healthcare and office furniture design. A long-term commitment to integrity in product quality and business relationships has developed through partnerships with some of the century’s most outstanding designers. One such example is the productive working relationship between the company and the legendary Charles Eames. Shown here is the Eames Moulded Plastic Side Chairs, designed by Eames and manufactured by Herman Miller. Engaging talented external designers led to the company gaining a reputation for leadership and innovation in design. Image courtesy of Herman Miller. 3. As an outstanding example of building on design success, Japanese lifestyle company MUJI celebrated the achievement of nine iF product design awards in 2005. The awards were bestowed in recognition of the enduring excellence of MUJI product design in the company’s 25th anniversary year. The iF design awards are a mark of design excellence, and MUJI’s White Porcelain series, shown here, was the winner of a Gold Award. Image courtesy of Muji


62 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Case Study

PRACTICE

The Argus Argus® ®3 Thermal-imaging Camera

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1. The Argus®3 Thermalimaging Camera. Strong semantics echo the rugged strength of the product – it had to be tough and it had to look tough.

‘Reducing danger or saving just a few lives can generate an awful lot of goodwill. Think of the benefits Volvo has reaped by making its cars safer. Take the pain or struggle out of your products or services, and you’ll not only win over customers but likely beat out the competition.’ Tom Kelley


Case Study

UNDERSTANDING THE NEEDS OF USERS

THE MOMENT OF INNOVATION

A thermal imaging camera provides firefighters with good visibility in thick smoke or in complete darkness. Good visibility allows quicker scene assessment and, crucially, faster location of any casualties. The pioneering e2v technologies saw that military infrared sensors could be invaluable in helping fire services save lives. Their first thermalimaging camera, branded Argus®, was launched in 1995 and was an instant success thanks to its excellent technical and ergonomic performance. In the following years many competitors appeared, all wanting a piece of the market, and the underlying technology has become more sophisticated and the hardware more miniaturised. In 2001, e2v technologies approached Alloy Total Product Design to embarked on a collaboration that would produce a completely new thermal-imaging camera; the Argus®3.

The ‘eureka’ moment was surprisingly counterintuitive. James’s participation in firefighter training revealed that the camera was used in short, quick bursts for orientation and checking for casualties, and then lowered, while more traditional fail-safe techniques were observed for recovery. Therefore the new camera design needed to be less cumbersome when the product was not in use, particularly if the user was crawling or lying down. The camera had to be both more accessible and less cumbersome than previous cameras.

The principal challenges for Alloy were to improve the ergonomics and performance of the original product and integrate new and unique functionality. Technologically, the Argus®3 has to support three completely different core-sensor configurations, ensuring that there is a global market for the camera by adapting to the various standards required by different countries. Above all, the product has to be extremely robust, simple and intuitive to operate and it must not impede the firefighter while going about his or her duties. These design considerations were essential to the product’s success. The key to the design solution was an understanding of the end user and the exceptional demands of their duties. In order to gain this understanding, the director of Alloy’s design team, James Lamb, undertook comprehensive firefighter training to ascertain exactly how the camera would be used in real-life situations.

Alloy found that the camera had to have handles so it could be easily passed between colleagues in difficult conditions. Thermal imaging cameras are expensive, and in most cases there is only one camera for each firefighting team, so members of that team need to pass it to one another. This can be a very difficult task if firefighters are working in the dark, with thundering noise, and wearing thick gloves. As well as handles, the camera’s controls and features had to be simple to operate with bulky gloves on and easily viewed, as time is of paramount importance when working in life-threatening conditions.

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2. The director of the design team James Lamb undertook comprehensive firefighting training to understand exactly how the camera would be used in real-life situations.


64 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Case Study

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3. The ArgusÂŽ3 has proved to be exceptionally popular with firefighters. The improved design has also opened up new markets for e2v technologies in the marine and aviation sectors. 4. The key to the design solution was an understanding of the end user and the exceptional demands of their duties. 5. Integral handles allow the Argus ÂŽ 3 to be easily handed from one firefighter to another.

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Several options were explored, including a camcorder option with rotating screen, which was ultimately rejected because of a perceived lack of robustness. Managing both the actual and perceived toughness of a piece of industrial equipment such as a thermal-imaging camera is crucial to the success of the design. Simply developing a tough product was an insufficient design solution; the product also had to look indestructible, and stand alongside the other tools firefighters rely on. In a real life situation, if the firefighter can’t get through a window and has no hammer, but does have a thermal imaging camera to hand, this is what will be used to smash the window. The material specification needed for this application was decided upon at an early stage in the design process. Radel 5100 is a high-melt, supertough thermoplastic, and this was augmented with a U0-rated Santoprene for grip, impact and colour differentiation.

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Case Study

THE NEW DESIGN The Argus®3 industrial design incorporates a number of innovative features. The camera was reconfigured into a vertical format, ensuring a less cumbersome profile when the camera hangs close to the hip or chest. Firefighters often access their casualties by crawling or crouching, so it was important to ensure the camera was not too difficult to carry, would not bounce around and did not project too far out from their body. The Argus ®3 has two handle options, both of which ensure that accidental activation or deactivation is prevented, and also improve handle security. In addition, the vertical format reduced wrist strain by placing the camera’s centre of gravity as close as possible to the grip points. The Argus®3 features replaceable strengthening panels and several detachable elements, which allows the camera to be adapted by the user to any situation. The distinctive handles can be removed and replaced with lowprofile bumpers and straps, and can also serve as replaceable protectors to the expensive core camera. The camera’s organic shape fits easily into a gloved hand, with smooth flowing forms, ensuring there are no sharp edges to concentrate stresses and weaken the structure. There are two anchor points for mounting a neck strap, which are positioned so that the camera falls at a natural angle for rapid deployment without actually hindering movement and the controls are simple and easy to operate with gloved hands. The provision for multiple sensor configurations allows the camera to be sold to different countries around the world. New features include image zoom, eight colour settings, image capture and the ability to send live footage to the incident command outside

the fire zone. Although mainly used by civilians, some of the camera’s technology is derived from military applications, resulting in selective export restrictions on certain builds. The modular construction overcomes this, making this lifesaving technology universally available. The principle benefit of the Argus®3 is in the product's use. By speeding up the detection of the source of fires, they can be dealt with more quickly and this means less harmful emissions, less damage to property and the environment and fewer casualties. Used in preventative maintenance (for example, potential flame points) the Argus®3 can stop potentially environmentally-catastrophic events ever happening. The Argus®3’s final industrial design is based on radical ergonomic innovation, and has instant appeal to firefighters who can see the advantages of the streamlined format instinctively. The appearance emphasises the product’s leading edge technology with its paradigm busting form. Many of e2v technologies competitors’ cameras have a format copied from the original Argus®. This new design demonstrates that the best manufacturers learn from their customers and never stop innovating. For Alloy this was a dream job, balancing the needs of the world’s most demanding consumers with extreme physical and mechanical design constraints. This is a product that genuinely makes a difference and helps everyday heroes conduct their business more effectively.

Argus® is a trademark licensed from Argus Industries, Inc. All images courtesy and copyright of e2v technologies ltd 2004.


66 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Case Study

PRACTICE

Camper ESTABLISHING THE DESIGN STRATEGY Camper embodies the spirit of a family business; in this case a family that have been working together for over a century in the footwear industry. Responsibility, commitment and quality were values treasured from the outset. Today, Camper take an imaginative approach to everything they do, especially with regard to their strong belief in social, environmental and corporate responsibility. They consider their ability to create products that improve the health and quality of life of their customers to be one of their most valuable assets. Camper’s approach to design is reflected in these values and in the structure of its business, which Camper considers to be driven by more than just the pursuit of profit. The company chooses to build working relationships and use production processes that are respectful of both individuals and the environment. IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DESIGN In 1887, Antoni Fluxá, a Mallorcan shoe craftsman, set sail for England intending to learn about the latest industrial manufacturing techniques of the time. Upon his return, he assembled a group of craftsmen and introduced them to shoemaking machinery – the foundation upon which the Camper empire was eventually built. In 1975, Lorenzo Fluxá, grandson of Antoni, created Camper, a business concept that reflected the new social, political and historical drivers of the time, and echoed a lifestyle based on freedom, comfort and creativity.

Camper means ‘peasant’ in Catalan, and the organisation manufactures its shoes in the countryside, using traditional craft knowledge to make footwear for urban-dwellers. Camper makes high-quality and functional shoes, which combine comfort and imagination with a sense of innovation, humour and irony. For example, ‘Twins’, one of their many product families, is based on the idea of having two single shoes, not a pair. Each shoe is asymmetric, different, surprising and even surreal. Camper shoes are built not only to please but to last; the company continually researches materials and manufacturing methods to ensure that a pair of Camper shoes are a good consumer investment. A VALUED TEAM OF STAKEHOLDERS Camper prides itself on its craftsmanship and its vocation for manufacturing. People working for and with Camper like what they do, and know and love their trade. Camper considers each of these people to be a stakeholder in the business with whom to exchange ideas, suggestions and points of view. The business prides itself on building long-term relationships based on trust, a sharing of ideas and working together as a team to identify new opportunities. Ensuring proper working conditions is also part of the approach to make Camper partners unique and relevant members of the Camper ‘family’. Imagination has become the company’s lifeblood, and its contributions to the world of design and creativity have been publicly recognised through numerous awards. Camper won Spain’s National Design Award in 1998, the country’s highest honour in the field of design, which was official recognition of a brand that has turned creativity into an viable and growing business, one that combines local values with global horizons.


Case Study

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1. The Camaleon, one of Camper’s product families, was the first shoe to be commercialised in 1975. As a remarkably casual shoe for its time, it addressed the market desire for shoes that reflected a new lifestyle, and helped consolidate the Camper brand. The Camaleon is a close replica of the shoes used by peasants in Majorca since the beginning of the twentieth century.

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2. Pelotas, another of Camper’s product families and one of Camper’s best sellers, is a design concept inspired by the passion and imagination of pioneering sportspeople. It is an ironic ‘revival’ shoe with a slightly retro look.

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3. Camper’s Wabi shoe has become an icon in creative and alternative design, a functional object of desire, and a symbol of future design trends and simplicity. This Wabi is made from one piece of woven jute; it is biodegradable and the process of turning the material into a shoe does not cause pollution. Wabis come with insoles made from 100% natural materials and socks made from organically-grown cotton or wool.


68 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy 4

4. This is the interior of Camper’s London InfoShop. The temporary fit out of the shop is treated as a ‘publication’, with its contents and featured theme displayed on the wall, floors and other elements or the store.

Case Study


Case Study

CAMPER STORES: THE BRAND’S MOST IMPORTANT ASSET The first Camper shop opened in Barcelona in 1981, and was followed by many more branches throughout Spain. Camper initiated the concept of the self-service shoe store, displaying all the available stock in conceptual showcases, which arranged shoes functionally by style, size and gender and allowed customers to interact with the shoes and help themselves to those they wish to try on. International expansion began in 1990s and today Camper is the leading company in Spain’s footwear industry, and has a growing number of stores around the world. When Camper began its international expansion, a conscious effort was made to ensure that the global rollout of their stores reflected the Camper spirit, but also allowed local influences, and the character and culture of the store’s location, to add some variety to the interiors. Camper showed the world its shoes and its philosophy, but it also had the opportunity to observe what was happening on the other side of the glass. The Camper stores became a window through which Camper could ‘both look out and be looked at.’ Design is central to Camper, whether manifested in its branding and philosophy, in its employees, partners and collaborators, or in its stores, posters and other graphic elements. Within the stores graphic design such as posters, boxes and bags are decorated with ironic messages. In their series of collaborations with design consultants, Camper have introduced two new concepts, the ‘Walk in Progress’ and the ‘Info-Shop’.

WALK-IN-PROGRESS STORES The continued international expansion and opening of new stores created an interesting challenge for Camper: how could the organisation increase profits and create cost savings by reducing the time between acquiring a new site and opening a Camper store, while retaining the true spirit of Camper. The solution had to be simple, quick and cheap, and had to reflect the Camper brand and values. Working with Martí Guixé, a Catalan designer and regular Camper collaborator, the concept of the Walk in Progress was adopted as the design strategy to address the challenge. The remarkably simple idea was to make a temporary, provisional, interactive store design, incorporating shop fittings made of recycled materials, which allowed Camper stores to be opened before their definitive design and decoration were finished. The objective of getting each store opened as quickly as possible was achieved with a range of props: a central table made of shoe boxes displays the latest range of shoe styles. Text and graphics on the walls invites customers to ‘imagine a better world’, and marker pens are handed out to customers so they can add their own thoughts, ideas and messages. Each walk-in-progress store has a section of the wall painted red, and the text on it explains the interactive nature of the environment, and encourages Camper customers to leave their mark: ‘our architects and builders are now working on a unique project for reforming this space. We want to do the best job possible, which will take us at least nine to twelve months. Since we are a small company, we cannot afford to be closed to our colleagues. Meanwhile, we have opened this Walk in Progress Store. We hope you understand that, although the shoe boxes are not especially luxurious, the idea is simple, useful, and recyclable. The shoes are 100% Camper.’


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5. Camper’s Madrid flagship store is the brand’s third info-shop. Images, icons and objects are joined with Camper shoes to create an enormous visual Camper encyclopedia that contains many references.

Case Study


Case Study

INFO-SHOP 6 Camper collaborated with Martí Guixé for their second pioneering store concept, one that converted the shop into a publication: the Info-Shop. Using the analogy of the shop as a magazine, the contents and theme of the publication are present in the design elements of the store interiors: the walls, the floor, the furniture, and the graphics. The concept is that ‘the value of the content becomes the value of the design’, and ‘the decoration becomes the information and the information become the decoration’

6. Camper frequently collaborates with design consultants. Martí Guixé worked with Camper to develop a series of InfoShops, including this one in Tokyo.

The first Info-Shop was ‘published’ in London in 2005, with the featured theme of the Somera, a Mallorcan donkey that had been facing extinction, but had recently become a protected species. Camper used its Info-Shop to raise awareness of an issue close to their Mallorcan roots, and raise the profile of what was a rural and local issue in the heart of a major international city. The second Info-Shop, opened the same year in Tokyo, was a result of a collaboration between Martí Guixé and Tohoo. This CatalanJapanese ‘issue’ also reflected the local spirit of the area and took the form of a Camper catalogue that was unique to Tokyo. All images courtesy and copyright of Camper.

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7. Wabi is a new concept for ‘happy feet’ by Camper; an idea filled with health, ecology and design. The first experimental, standalone Wabi shop opened in Milan in 2005.


72 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Interview

INTERVIEW

Dr Chris H. Luebkeman, Director for Global Foresight and Innovation, Arup Group, London Can you tell me about your background? I was first trained as a geologist and a civil engineer, after which I studied structural engineering and architecture. I then taught structural and mechanical design in schools of architecture in different parts of the world. Each institution was fascinating because they had very different cultural contexts in which they taught and practiced design. When I joined Arup as Director of Research and Development, I went from managing a graduate student team of six to managing 50 professionals in a matter of months. I went on to learn more about things I never thought I would ever learn about in a corporate, global design practice. I was the head of R&D for three years, after which I created my own position within the company, which is now the foresight innovation and incubation unit at Arup’s.

Can you talk about your actual role and responsibilities? My role is fundamentally to help people, clients, business units to frame their thinking about the future. We do that through research projects, white papers, presentations, discussion and workshops that we run internally and externally. Our internal focus is primarily on raising our staff’s awareness of issues which are driving change globally. We do this through internal workshops and as presentations through our intranet. Externally, we work directly with clients, looking at things such as the store of the future, airport retailing of the future, the airport of the future, the hotel of the future, the resort of the future. We carry out these ‘futuring sessions’ in a very specific way which we designed and developed over the past four years.

I believe that design is fundamentally a synthetic and symbiotic profession. A designer must be open to synthesising varying aspects of their person, their projects, and issues and subjects – things ranging from highly technical, to highly opinionated, to highly personal. These synthetic and symbiotic relationships must be open to incorporating things that can be very clearly articulated in a numerical and representational way, and that can be justified very clearly and rationally. At the other end of the scale there’s the purely emotive reaction and understanding a client’s or a group’s emotive melange, as well as being able to control one’s own emotive response, both through suppressing it and encouraging it. I also believe that understanding context is probably the most important thing that a designer can ever do. Very often contexts are hidden and it takes quite a bit of work to delve into the real context of a project. There’s an obvious context a client might present. Then, there’s a political context, which are the rules of the game within which one can move. In the built environment, the rules are very clearly set out within local and national governing bodies, but the rules of the game are different for each village, city, and county of the world. Understanding the realm of context is key to design.

In addition, I run a series of external workshops entitled ‘Drivers of Change’ in which we have spoken over the past two and a half years to over 6000 individuals in almost 70 workshops, asking them what’s driving change where they are. The method of workshop has been the same everywhere. It’s based upon the belief in emergence, and what I call the wisdom of the crowd. I don’t tell people my opinions about anything until we’re done, and then I share with them the results from the other workshops. They can gauge where their views fit with the other world views. These workshops have been in Africa, Australia, Asia, North America and Europe. It has been really quite fascinating, looking at some of the constants and variables across the world. These workshops are fundamentally rooted in my design education, and without my design education both as an engineer and as an architect, these workshops would be nowhere near as successful. I use the analytic, synthetic, and listening skills that I learned as a designer, combined with the very clear analytical skills of an engineer – where you are given a problem and you search for the fundamentals of what you are really after.


Interview

Chris refuses to be categorised. His former experiences have enabled him to ‘specialise in being a generalist’ and occupy ‘the spaces between professions’. Prior to joining Arup in 2003, Chris taught at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, the University of Oregon, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With regard to design education, do you think it is important to teach business skills? Yes. I believe that business practices vary globally. Business principles do not. Profit and loss, building contracts, ethics – these sorts of basics are vital to understand because they’re part of a professional vocabulary. I believe strongly that there should be a course in which this vocabulary is introduced. I think it is folly to anticipate that a young person who has not worked in an office, who has never sat in a client meeting will be able to understand the context in a way that makes sense to the content of their educational experience. What can that young person absorb, what can they make sense of? I believe if one is in a work experience or apprenticeship programme during their education, in which they’re exposed to the business, then it will make sense to them. Otherwise, it’s simply fantasy. It’s playing monopoly and business is not a game. Typically designers have a passion for what they do, and very often they feel that business is a dirty word. But if you don’t make a profit, you can’t eat. I think it’s vital that, early in your career, you can identify your strengths and weaknesses, so that if you’re not good at business, you make darn sure that you work with somebody who is good. You find a partner who loves doing business; who understands it, or you make sure that you’re working in a team, or that you teach yourself more because somehow each person has to know their strengths and their weaknesses. Business is not rocket science, but you need the context to make sense of it, because design is always within a context. It’s never in a vacuum. What skills would you like designers and design managers to develop? Is there an ideal balance of generalised and specialised skills? We need both generalists and specialists. It’s vital that we have both. But we cannot have both in an over supply. I’m concerned about current trends in design education towards too many people becoming generalists. Imagine if you’re in an operating room and you wake up from your anaesthesia, and you ask those around you ‘what’s your speciality’, and all seven of those doctors answer you, ‘actually, I’m just a generalist’. Would you be happy? No. When you’re

in that operating room, you want six specialists and one generalist. When you listen to a symphony, you don’t want 27 conductors. We need to have specialists. We need to have people who are incredibly good in a very specific area, and we need them to appreciate their role in the whole, but also recognise that their specialism might not be the most important all the time. If we can get to the point that a specialist can say, ‘actually, you know what, my area here is not that important and therefore we don’t really have to optimise it. It’s okay just to be at 50% efficiency or to do a so-so job because it doesn’t matter here’. And then to know where another case it’s important for them to really fight for their corner because they see that it is truly vital to the success of the project. You do that through awareness and respect for the end game rather than the in between stops. There needs to be a certain maturity as an individual to be able to work with somebody from a different background with mutual respect that is engendered through the ‘aha’ moment, when you’re sitting there and you’re working with somebody else and you look over and go ‘wow’, that’s a great idea. This is how one develops respect for other professions, those ‘aha’ moments where you see that they’ve done something which has made the project better, or your idea even better. Then you go ‘aha’, you’ve got something that you can contribute and that should be great. You can then begin to sit down, let your hair down, relax and talk. It’s dialogue and respect we need to be encouraging.


74 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy

Interview

INTERVIEW

Darryl Feldman, Director of Product Development, Yahoo! How long have you worked in the interactivemedia industry? I have worked in the industry for over 15 years, having trained in graphic design and multimedia. I held design leadership roles at a number of companies prior to Yahoo! (Sapient, Organic and Clarity) and worked with a range of clients including British Telecommunications, Lucent, Vodafone, The Carphone Warehouse, Opodo, DaimlerChrysler, Railtrack, Royal and Sunalliance, FT.com and eyestorm.com. In terms of the organisational structure where does design sit within Yahoo!? Design sits mainly at a central, pan-European level within the product-development unit that I currently manage. In addition, there are pockets of design activity that exist within business units and in countries where product localisation occurs. The marketing team also outsource design work, primarily online advertising and campaign-based projects. How is design perceived in your organisation? Generally it is recognised as a key differentiator, as our products touch consumers directly on the Web, it is understood that design is a driver of user engagement and therefore audience growth. The perceptions around design depends on the type of product being developed, services that are complex, or products that are a radically new genre, receive more design attention. How is design used in your organisation? Design is used to interpret high-level business requirements into a tangible product that our users will find compelling. It is also used to promote and sell new products and services that we launch into the market. What is the relationship between the company and its design resources? Again this will vary across different business units and countries. At a general level, the design resources are hired to translate the company’s strategy into reality so the relationship is one of a critical dependency. Sometimes it seems similar to an

agency/client relationship, although there are some key differences in the dynamic around prioritisation and resourcing; I am not able to hire according to the demand I see coming from the business, which would be the case if my team was an external agency. Ultimately, we all work for the same organisation so the relationship needs to work more intimately and without the friction you sometimes get between agency and client. Do you use in-house or external design teams? Both, we keep our internal teams focused on key strategic priorities and projects that are of a confidential nature. As a rule it tends to be the more marketing-based work that gets outsourced. From your perspective, what is design? Design is any activity that translates both human and commercial requirements into a tangible, material output that can be consumed or used in an effective way. From the humble paperclip to awardwinning advertising campaigns…it’s all design. Design is also a smart way of communicating ideas and processes, I have seen smart designers become catalysts within businesses, as they can often assimilate diverse inputs and synthesise these into simple and understandable artefacts that teams can rally around and use to articulate a vision. What value does design bring to the industry you work in? Well I work within the Internet industry, which, although obviously a technology-driven business, relies on design to simplify the complexities of code, to make tangible the intangible, and to differentiate the product within a crowded marketplace. Often design provides an emotional factor in a world of high functionality and hardware, and this is why high-tech companies such as Yahoo! and Apple invest in it. It’s about bringing the brand to life and ensuring all the cool technology we develop is focused on people’s needs – technology alone will not win the hearts and minds of our users. In what ways is design strategic in Yahoo!? Firstly, our design is our strategy, only in an articulated and fabricated format. It’s a translation


Interview

Darryl Feldman currently leads product development initiatives at Yahoo! across Europe. Darryl contributes regularly to academic institutions, industry events and magazines on topics including product development and strategy, online branding, design management, experience design and multi-platform design strategies.

of the business requirements with a human twist. Our user research enables us to connect with people within the design process to find out how they interact with online products, and this gives us a strategic view on where we need to go as a company to be successful. Secondly design enables us test new ideas and innovate in a quick and iterative way via prototyping so we can measure what is working and what isn’t. This gives us a reality check on the strategy and enables us to adjust and fine-tune our strategies to be more successful. What are the challenges you face in running design projects? Globally there are quite a few challenges facing our design teams, as one would expect in a fast moving Internet company that needs to innovate and respond to an ever-changing market with evolving delivery technologies. The key challenges within Europe are related to the task of launching multiple products in five countries whilst leveraging global technology platforms. The coordination involved is complex and involves managing multiple stakeholders in different time zones and multidisciplinary teams involving research, product management, engineering, and marketing. This makes it hard to keep the designers focused on a coherent vision and solution, the trick is to try and shield the team from unnecessary noise and communications. Design management is key here and provides an important role in keeping things on track. We hire strong design managers at Yahoo! for this reason, within a large global corporate entity this makes sense and is cost effective in the long run. What do you think design management is? Simply put, I believe effective design management changes style dependent on the context and business setting. Design management within a large global company is different from what it needs to be within a small boutique or agency. The basic ground rules involve balancing the need to give creative individuals freedom to explore and compound ideas within the reality of running a profitable business. Great design managers motivate through enabling, encouraging and protecting designers from the politics and diversions that can hinder the end

solutions being all they could be. In addition design management is about articulate communication and the ability to talk the same language as the business. I think good designers don’t need management in the traditional sense of being ‘nannied’ though, that’s why the best design managers were practitioners at some point and understand the creative process and where to step back and let raw talent do its thing without interference from outside forces.

What, to you, is the relationship between design and innovation? Design and innovation are inseparable; one leads to the other and vice versa. Designers are often in the best position to innovate through the catalyst role they occupy; blending business, technology and human factors into something that can be understood and iterated upon. By gaining deep insights into the triggers that motivate people to use and consume things, and knowing how to realise this, designers are innovators by default. Also, design is a rapid and fluid process that often reveals opportunities which business strategies or technological developments fail to deliver. It is important designers realise this and take advantage of the situation. Often they do not realise the power they have to innovate and fall back into an executioner role. Is it possible to innovate as part of normal dayto-day operations, and to embed innovation into a company’s culture? We do this at Yahoo! so yes I think it’s possible, and necessary to survive as a Internet entity. Allowing space for innovation within the development process is key, and giving people time to think, play and explore should be business as usual. If you attract the right talent into your organisation and reward innovation then it’s not hard to achieve. It is a cultural thing too though, and unless the leadership buy in, it will be hard to make happen. It’s bidirectional in that sense; management set the stage for grass roots innovation to happen.


76 | PART ONRE Managing the Design Strategy KEY SKILLS

Managing Client Relations To the client, the design industry can appear to be a bewildering and fragmented place. To help clients understand the use of design in the context of their organisation, it is vital to first understand how the client’s business works. It is best not to have any assumptions or preconceptions, but to ask questions directly, and in so doing develop an insight into the client’s perspective and the workings of their organisation. Additional research via the organisation’s website, company report or other corporate documents will also suggest the ways in which design can support the company objectives. Being client-focused is an important part of managing design needs within an organisation. Clients may not know what to expect from a internal design team or external design consultancy, in which case, the design or project manager needs to keep the client informed and up to date on what is happening, when it is happening, and how it will happen, throughout the lifespan of the project. Equally important, the client needs to communicate any changes in strategy, priorities and personnel that may affect the project’s success to the design or project manager. Today’s clients not only expect design resources to deliver good quality and profitable processes and projects, but also reliable working relationships. There are a number of tools, techniques and skills available to help manage the client relationship and to facilitate relationship building with clients. Nominating a client point of contact is essential to the creation of clear channels of communication, and prevention of confusion and misunderstandings.

Holding regular status meetings between the design team contacts keeps everyone informed of progress, and provides the forum for problems to be solved and decisions to be made together. Clearly agreeing roles and responsibilities helps to identify all decision-makers and the areas for which they are responsible, and writing regular status reports enables the wider design team and client contacts to keep track of progress. Creating a project plan that charts the actual progress of the project against the proposal will enable key milestones and decisions to be evaluated on a regular basis. Defining the project scope at the outset of the working relationship will establish where the boundaries of the project lie, and will help keep everyone’s expectations realistic and achievable. Managing client relations well enables everyone involved to work more effectively. Thinking about how to best service the client means taking into account the bigger picture of their customers, stakeholders and shareholders. Building long-term sustainable relationships with clients, customers, colleagues or consultants, either inside or outside the organisation, and tapping into their motivations can help build allies and supporters to raise awareness of design, and potentially help realise design value in the process. Matching and managing expectations is key to client (and customer) satisfaction, and as such it is important to establish a balance between what the client expects from design, and what the design resource or team can actually deliver.


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‘If we want to know what a business is, we have to start with its purpose. And the purpose must lie outside the business itself. In fact, it must lie in society, since a business enterprise is an organ of society. There is only one valid definition of a business purpose: to create a customer. The customer is the foundation of a business and keeps its existence.’ Peter Drucker


78 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy Table 1: Motivating Factors within the Client-Consultancy Relationship Consultant Organisation Develop their reputation Profitable People

Challenge to do better work Emotionally rewarding

Client Develop their business Value for money Develop their career Emotionally rewarding

‘Clients want chemistry, understanding, loyalty, commitment, trust, respect, integrity, passion, collaboration and partnership. These are the qualities of great relationships, and they are increasingly becoming a client’s “hire or fire” issues.’ Ralph Ardill

Table 2: Designing the Meeting Before the Meeting 1. Prepare an agenda 2. Make sure everyone attending is aware of the meeting’s purpose 3. Only invite the people who need to be there 4. Distribute the agenda and any accompanying documents in advance 5. Anyone unable to attend should communicate their apologies During the Meeting

1. The meeting ‘chair’ works through each item on the agenda 2. Each item on the agenda is resolved through open discussion, reaching a conclusion and agreeing an action 3. The chairperson should manage interruptions or discussions that wander away from the agenda 4. The meeting should start with items that can be resolved fairly quickly, to establish a sense of pace and accomplishment 5. A person should be appointed to take minutes

After the Meeting

1. The minutes should be written up and circulated


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1 & 2. Managing client relations successfully increasingly relies on computer software for organising and maintaining accurate records, contact information, file sharing and project-tracking updates. Innovative software such as Basecamp offers a simple way to communicate, collaborate and project manage. Basecamp can be used to assess to-do lists and tasks, post messages, gather feedback, and track people’s time on a project. Images courtesy of Basecamp.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: Who is the client? Who is the project sponsor? Who are the stakeholders? Is there more than one client on the project?


80 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KEY SKILLS

Guiding Design Decisions Consider what best represents design value to a client. Is it cost, quality, customer satisfaction or perhaps a combination of all three? All clients will have expectations of the design function, some might regard it as a valuable strategic resource that supports company objectives, while others may consider it a commodity that is purchased. In between lie many other deep-rooted ideas and unproven prejudices about design. In order to guide design decisions, barriers in the client relationship and decision-making process need to be identified and removed, and expectations need to be managed in order to prevent misunderstandings about what design can (and cannot) do. A common client concern is a lack of understanding about how and where their budget is being spent. This concern can raise questions over the level of trust in the relationship or perceived value for money, and soon develop into fear of the unknown. Design or project managers always need to keep their client informed and be aware of the client’s own need to provide information and accountability. Although building trust is implicit in developing the client relationship, more formal arrangements can help manage confidence and confidentiality between a client and a design team. Drawing up a nondisclosure agreement (NDA), for example, means that the design team cannot disclose highly sensitive aspects of the project.

Taking the time to mentor clients about design and to explain the structure of a project or project team are useful ways to guide design decisions and facilitate discussions about the role of design within an organisation. Doing so builds an understanding of design, and recognition of how it may be able to help achieve company objectives. The ability to guide and communicate effectively with an organisation’s key decision-makers can also empower the client to promote design within their own organisation, so raising awareness of the value of design thinking. Good design or project managers educate clients in the ways that design can help business compete and add value to their products or services. Doing so helps more businesses to become efficient buyers of design services. It is also good practice for design managers to keep clients informed of current design thinking, relevant industry trends, and knowledge of the competition’s design activities. Translating unfamiliar terms or progressing conversations by, for example, explaining the economic benefits of good design (both perceived and real) puts design into the language spoken by the client and helps demonstrate the real commercial value in great design. Actively guiding decisions will, at times, include the need to be both assertive and empathetic, and to be able to say no if required. Design or project managers need to be able to tap into the motivations and aspirations of the client, encouraging the merits of effective and design-positive clients who are willing to innovate. Inspiring clients involved in the process of design to take pride in their role as potential design patrons and champions is one of the best ways to encourage them to take creative risks.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How can design thinking encourage better decision making at each level of an organisation – the corporate level, the business unit level, and the operational level?


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1. Freestanding displays like Herman Miller’s Intersect Portfolio encourages the exchange of ideas, information and note taking, whilst also serving as a flexible and expandable boundary and divider. As the number of ideas or people involved expands, so too can the area available. Image courtesy of Herman Miller.

2. Maintaining client confidentiality is crucial, especially in design companies where a number of client projects may be running simultaneously. Babble, by Sonare Technologies, is the first voice privacy device with a powerful application in open spaces. This breakthrough technology provides security of information in open-plan work environments. Credit: Courtesy of Herman Miller.

3. The intersect Portfolio from Herman Miller is a concise offering of freestanding products designed specifically to help people work together and exchange ideas and conversation more effectively, which will help guide the decision-making process and ease client communication Image courtesy of Herman Miller.


82 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KEY SKILLS

Developing Good Working Relationships People like working with people they like, so getting along with others, relating to them, initiating conversations, sharing interests and finding mutual benefits are crucial elements in building and developing good working relationships. Both the client and the design resource each need to ask themselves if they can work with one another. Can they relate to each other’s values and methods of operation? Can they build a successful working relationship together? On an informal level, developing good conversational, communication and interpersonal techniques, will provide more natural interactions, and allows individuals to profit from formal and informal opportunities. The elevator ‘pitch’ is so called because it encourages people to take advantage of opportunistic meetings, even if they are only for a brief amount of time. Networking is another key aspect of building successful professional relationships; accumulating contacts, gaining co-operation from others and learning things through the grapevine can be enormously valuable. Many professionals keep a database of associates and contacts, some of which might include those they have met only briefly, at industry events or trade fairs for example, but the challenge is to develop the relationship with these contacts to such a level that they can be counted upon when needed. The ability to build networks and accrue contacts is an important attribute that an individual can bring to an organisation, both personally and professionally. Having an entrepreneurial outlook is valuable not only to the employer, but also to the employee’s personal brand and future career aspirations.

On a more formal level, good working relationships stem from a sound understanding of the client’s working operations. Formal roles, such as the head of marketing, the head of procurement or the project manager will be noted in an organisational chart, but understanding the part that each role plays will foster sound and effective relationships. Power figures describes those individuals within an organisation that can say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to an allocation of resources necessary to continue or complete a project (for example, the CEO). Gatekeepers describes those who control access to the power figures (for example, a personal assistant). Problem owners defines those people in whose working area a design problem is located, and the actual ‘client’, in this context, is the person who commissions the design work, and pays the design fees. Design or project managers often have access to a range of contacts within a client organisation, and so can build a picture for other design team members of who is playing what role within a particular project. This can prove to be invaluable to the design team, in order to provide knowledge about the more unofficial aspects of the client organisation. The design manager will need to develop an ability to play different roles at different stages of the project, both externally (in relation to the client), and internally (in relation to the design team). This might include acting as a coach (encouraging clients and design teams about the business benefits of design), a mentor (educating and supporting the client and the design team) and frequently a peer (assisting and facilitating the client and the design team).

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: Who are the decision-makers within the client organisation? Whose knowledge, skill and cooperation do you need to successfully pitch or complete the design project?


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1. At Dyson, team working forms an important part of day-to-day working relationships and the process of innovation. Image courtesy of Dyson. 2. The belief that innovations come mainly from face-toface communication underlies the BMW Group’s Research and Innovation Centre (known as FIZ). BMW’s Product Creation Process underlies the creation of every BMW Group project from the initial concept through to the start of production. The Project Building has now become part of the operating process. It is a catalyst for creativity, offering a working environment ideally suited to encouraging dialogue amongst associates. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.


84 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy KEY SKILLS

Verbal Communication Verbal communication skills form an important part of how we conduct our relationships with others. Different people have different communication styles and our own background, experiences and training will influence how we view the world and communicate with those around us. These differences in viewpoints and communication styles however, can create barriers to communication. Communication is two-way process. Being a good communicator means being able to communicate effectively, in a way that promotes understanding and recognises the value of different styles of communication. In a highly competitive marketplace, misunderstandings and breakdowns in communication can be costly mistakes to make. Designers and managers can find it difficult to agree project objectives and outcomes, since each of their (valid) viewpoints considers the matter from a different angle. Failing to find common ground will often create arguments as each party attempts to justify their own position. Being receptive to another point of view, and willing to looking at situations in a different way, with new insights, is the first step towards effective communication.

The ability to communicate the merits of effective design to clients can make the difference between a design proposal being accepted or rejected. If presented and communicated in an irrelevant way, a brilliant creative idea or concept, is unlikely to succeed. Similarly, a highly articulate and polished verbal presentation will not compensate for a flawed design. The ability to present a design solution and communicate its merits on different levels (such as functional, economic or ecological), in a way that is understood by different audiences (such as clients, customers or managers) can be a differentiator in the fast-changing and highly-competitive industries in which design operates. Although communication skills can be learned, successful communication relies as much on our desire to communicate effectively: to understand others and be understood.


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‘Conversation is a meeting of minds with different memories and habits. When minds meet, they don’t just exchange facts: they transform them, reshape them, draw different implications from them and engage them in new trains of thought. Conversation doesn’t just reshuffle the cards: it creates new cards. Conversation can change the way we see the world, and even change the world.’ Theodore Zeldin


86 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy INTERPERSONAL SKILLS It makes good business sense to develop sound people skills, to learn how to listen instinctively and to speak to others with clarity, diplomacy and sensitivity. We are often not aware of the words we use, or the impact of those words on other people. Communication is about conversation, dialogue, speaking and listening. The meaning of what we say will be affected by the perception of the listener. How the listener responds to our words will tell us if they have understood us, and whether we need to find a different way to express what it is we want to say. When communicating, how we listen is just as important as how we speak. Conversation is a fluid and tentative process and involves giving and taking, trust and tact. Good listening involves paying attention, and being open and receptive to what the other person is saying. We are not listening if we are mentally rehearsing what we are going to say when it is our turn to talk, or if we have already made our minds up about what we think. Quite simply, if we are not listening, we will not understand; and understanding is essential, especially in design management where frequently neither designers nor managers fully know the answers to the questions that conversations between one another continually pose.

Empathy means being able to see things from someone else’s point of view. The ability to empathise with others – to think about the audience or recipient of our communication, and to prepare and act accordingly – is the key to the art of being a good communicator. Some designers use empathy to understand the needs and experiences of people who are dissimilar to them. Empathising with the end users often motivates designers to go beyond merely collecting information on design problems, and encourages them to develop user-centred design solutions. Body language is responsible for 90% of all emotional information, and 65% of all actual information, which we communicate. The meaning conveyed by our body language is often more powerful than that conveyed by our words. An awareness of body language, both our own and others, will tell us whether the verbal communication is being physically reinforced or contradicted. The voice is the most powerful communicator of body language, it communicates how we are feeling (unconsciously), as well as the image we want to project (consciously). It is worth paying attention to how our voice sounds in conversation; is it fast or slow, energetic or relaxed? When we are nervous, breathing slowly and steadily can help regulate the voice and relax a racing heartbeat, and using pauses when talking gives listeners much needed moments of silence to reflect on what is being said.

‘Never trust negotiations to luck. Enter every session armed with knowledge of the enemy’s strengths and weaknesses; knowing his secrets makes you strong.’ Attila the Hun


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NEGOTIATING SKILLS A negotiation is a meeting between two separate parties. The aim of a negotiation is to reach an agreement. Ideally this will be a ‘win-win’ situation, where both parties reach a mutually agreeable and beneficial end to the negotiation. Most business situations require, and even expect, some level of negotiation, and it is especially important when managing client or design-team relationships. Before entering into any negotiation, consider whether there is a neutral ground in which the conversation can take place. Ensure that the people doing the negotiating are empowered to make any necessary decisions, and allow plenty of time to conduct the negotiation so there is no pressure that might lead to settling for an unsuitable outcome. For most negotiations it is usually possible to plan in advance your three different positions: the ideal settlement, the realistic settlement and the fallback position. You may want to agree each of these with your team, and make a guess at the other party’s position, beforehand.

During the negotiation, list the issues that are to be agreed, and work through these one by one. Settling the important points first will allow you to keep minor issues up your sleeve for later bargaining power. Alternatively, settling minor points first will build a sense of progress and a spirit of accomplishment. Be relaxed, but in control, and be prepared to give and take. After the negotiation summarise the outcomes or agreements verbally, then put them in writing at a later stage. Remember, successful negotiators do more listening than talking. Power bargaining erodes trust and goodwill. You may gain in the short term, but it will prove to be costly in the long term.

‘Keep negotiations secret. They must be conducted in private. Only the policies should become public knowledge. How they were negotiated should remain confidential, saving loss of face.’ Attila the Hun


88 | PART ONE Managing the Design Strategy PRESENTATION SKILLS The basic requirement of any presentation, whether verbal, visual, written, or a combination of all three, is that it is actually presentable. The ability to present yourself and your ideas is essential to good communication, persuasion and the ability to influence key decision-makers. One-to-one briefings can be handled differently from larger audiences, so prepare your presentation, equipment needs, and the layout of the room accordingly. Before the presentation, organise and structure what you are going to say. Practice the presentation beforehand, and estimate how long the presentation will take, remembering to allow time for questions. Identify what you want to achieve from the presentation. What is the objective? Why is what I am presenting relevant to this audience? Who is the audience? Are they design-aware (familiar with design jargon), or do they have less knowledge of design (and therefore unfamiliar with design terminology)? The language you use to communicate should be tailored to suit both the audience and the subject matter.

At the beginning of the presentation, introduce yourself, other members of your team, and, if necessary, other people in the room. Explain the purpose of the presentation and what you want to achieve from the meeting. Tell people how long the presentation will take, how you’ve structured the presentation, and whether you want their comments during the presentation or at the end. During the presentation, take time to explain things properly, and give people the chance to absorb what you are saying. Explain your thinking in a logical sequence and include why your proposals are relevant or appropriate. Relate to people while you are talking, and make eye contact with your audience. After the presentation, always make notes of the discussion that follows. Record what was said, who said it and what was agreed. Assign responsibilities for specific actions, identify when the next meeting will take place and thank everyone for coming.

‘Difficulties mastered are opportunities won.’ Winston Churchill


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TELEPHONE SKILLS When making a phone call, the way you verbally communicate with others will reflect how you and your organisation are perceived. Body language communicates over the phone, so sit up straight and smile. Be aware of background noise and, if necessary, close the door, turn down the radio, or move to another room. Do not eat or chew while on the phone. As soon as the person receiving your call has picked up, introduce yourself and let them know with whom you would like to speak. Speak slowly and clearly. Have respect for the other person’s time; they may be busy or in the middle of something. Ask if this is a good time to speak, if they cannot handle your call at that moment ask when would be a good time to call back. If you are leaving a message, state briefly what the call is regarding. When answering a phone, do so promptly using your name, in a warm, confident voice. Be helpful, listen carefully and take notes if necessary. Give the person your undivided attention. Typing, eating or doing something else while on the phone is distracting and impolite. When returning a phone call, always try to do so within 24 hours of the message being left. If you are on holiday or out of the office, relay this information in your recorded answering message, and ensure that anyone answering your phone also relays this information. When leaving a message on an answering machine, speak slowly and clearly. State your name, organisation, time and date of call, phone number where you can be reached, and a brief overview of what your call is regarding.

‘Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.’ Winston Churchill


90 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process

Part Two: Managing the Design Process


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This is the stage where design projects and agendas are developed, and the focus placed on demonstrating how strategy can be made visible and tangible through design. At this stage, design management explores how design can be used to craft the presence and experience of an organisation, and, in doing so, influence how the organisation and its brand are expressed and perceived.


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KNOWLEDGE

Giving Form to Business Strategy Design can be active at three levels within an organisation. Firstly, at the level of corporate strategy, design expresses the vision, values and beliefs of the organisation, for example in its corporate identity. At the business-unit level, design is used tactically to help achieve businessunit goals, for example, the organisation might conduct a design audit when entering new markets to benchmark the competition. Thirdly, at an operational level, design is present in the day-to-day operations, and in the refining of the product or service development process.

THE CLIENT BRIEF

Design projects and processes that reinforce the brand, that add value and create competitive advantage will inevitably receive the greatest support within an organisation. The end of a design project may result in an outcome, something that gives a finished form to the business strategy, but design is also a problem-solving process that can help the organisation's give form to, and shape, the business strategy.

The client brief is given to the design representatives, typically the creative director and the design or project manager, for consideration, review and feedback. It is the basis for opening a dialogue about the client’s objectives and expectations, and establishing how design can help achieve these objectives.

The client representative is responsible for writing the client (or project) brief. It should describe what their organisation would like to achieve, the market opportunity identified, an estimate of the budget and time allocated and any key deadlines. Client briefs should clarify needs and set the project’s parameters. As it is written from the point of view of the organisation’s needs, client briefs inevitably tend to be quite analytical, and driven by targets that need to be achieved.

Whether design is engaged as a set of methods, a process or the implementation of a project, a statement of intent needs to be formalised and agreed between the client and the design consultancy, or the business unit and the design resource. This is known as a brief.

Table 1: The Client Brief Element Introduction: Company: Customers: Competition: Positioning: Design challenge: Metrics for success: Programme Plan: Costs:

Contains Information about the project background and opportunity identified Information about the organisation, its brand values, methods of operation and its existing customers Information about the organisation’s target customers A review of the organisation's competitors and their unique selling points Information about the proposed strategy and plan for action Information about project objectives, scope of work, expected outcomes and specifications An outline of how the project’s success will be measured An outline of the project’s stages, phases and milestones A list of fees, expenses and production costs


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1. Philips apply design in its broadest sense to express their mission and corporate visions. Philips design solutions are visible in their complete offer, from consumer electrical products like the Standard GS lamp shown here, to medical systems, domestic interiors and cars. Within the Philips organisation their business strategy is deployed through research projects, external clients and partnerships. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips.

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2. The Philips ‘Glowing Places’ research project was developed by Philips Design in collaboration with the Helen Hamlyn Research Centre at the Royal College of Art in London. The project uses interactive LED lighting that is embedded in public seating and reacts to people’s presence and behaviour. The project gives form to the Philips vision; the combination of technological sense and user-friendliness. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips.

3. Philips offer their design services to a wide range of clients. Orange Brand Futures group, a mobile telephone service provider, developed the computer game Relax to Win with Media Lab Europe. Designed to measure the player's state of relaxation, players slide the device between any two fingers and the device translates this data, via a wireless connection to a PC or mobilephone screen, where players can then see themselves on screen as a friendly dragon. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips.

4. Philips believe that sustainable meaningful solutions cannot be created by one industry in isolation, but only through sharing competence and creativity, and by involving others from the outset. The results of a Philips collaboration with Italian furniture designers Cappellini were presented in Milan in 2003. Paesaggi Fluidi (Fluid Landscapes) revisits the kinds of furniture within our homes and integrates Philips technologies seamlessly with the design. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips.


94 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process THE DESIGN BRIEF After consultation and review, a design (or creative) brief is composed. Typically, this is written by the design or project manager, in close consultation with both the nominated client contacts and other specialists depending on the nature of the project. The design brief takes into account both the ‘business’ and the ‘design’ point of view, and fleshes out in more detail how the client and the design consultancy will work together. The design brief is the creative response to the client brief, and reflects the knowledge, skills and experience of the design team as well as the strategic objectives and business viability of the project. The design brief needs to be written in a way that inspires and motivates the design team to create great work that satisfies the client’s requirements, and it needs to translate statistical charts and business jargon into information that the design team can put to effective use. Deciding what to include in the design brief (and what to leave out) will invariably be based on the specific project needs, but as an example the likely information it will include is: the business case; key findings; project goals, aims and objectives; background research and future aspirations; target audiences and end-users; functional requirements and specifications; key project and process stages; timescales and deadlines; milestones, performance measures and project deliverables.

Agreeing the design brief ensures the client is getting what they really want, although at this early stage they may not know exactly what that is, or what form it will take. The design team have a chance to assess the client’s needs, set out their objectives, define their approach and process, identify milestones, describe what is expected in response to the client brief and outline a proposed cost and timescale. The design brief forms part of the ‘contract’ between the client and the design resource. The design brief may well be revised or become more detailed as the design process evolves, so it is important that the client in involved and updated at all stages, and that the design team regularly revisit the agreement, and obtains client sign-off if any changes do occur. Good design managers have the project management expertise to assess the client needs against each of the project stages, and ensure the outcome is realistic and achievable within the costs and timescale allocated, and with the design resource provided. Consulting with the design team is one of the most important aspects of ensuring that the promises made to the client can actually be delivered, on time and within budget. Design managers must also take a view on the business objectives that their solution must address, how these relate to the decision-making processes within the client organisation, and the best way to evaluate the cost-benefits and business potential of the design solution. This is also the time for the design manager to identify the client contact, stakeholders, team members, lead design consultancy or creative agency, sub-agencies and specialist consultants that also need to be involved, and to agree their roles, responsibilities, and the channels of communication.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How best can designers work with the organisation's to create change? Can design connect the viewpoints of the boardroom and the customers in new ways? Or should designers be protected from ‘boardroom bureaucracy’?


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BUILDING THE DESIGN RESOURCE The design brief may also elucidate links to the design policy and strategy of the organisation, which can provide a useful building-block approach to increasing design presence and awareness in the organisation. Within a client organisation, even one with an inhouse design team, there may be many different design requirements. So, what systems can a client put in place to accommodate a widely varying need for design? The design resource will reflect the design needs of the organisation and support its overall strategic goals. External consultants or agencies may be required if the company changes direction, or decides to work on a new project for which the skills and experience do not exist in house. It is unlikely that any single design agency could address the requirements of every project within an organisation, nor is it desirable. In order to maintain loyalty, adaptability and flexibility, many organisation's create design rosters, which are lists of designservice providers who have been pre-approved for consultation and potential engagement on a project. The roster allows for long-term relationships and trust to develop. Design companies on a roster can be approved through an open call invitation, reputation and previous successes, and are usually reference checked by an internal procurement department. Different consultancies will specialise in different media and styles, and having a variety, from the specialist service provider to the large, broad, one-stop service, provides a flexible and adaptable way to build an easily available design resource, without the expense and overheads of a large in-house design team. If the needs of the client organisation change, or if the consultancy is not performing, they can be taken off the roster and a new consultancy found.

5. Yorkshire Water initiated a ‘Cool Schools’ campaign to encourage children to drink more water. The client brief was to create an exciting and reusable bottle that could be used alongside Yorkshire Water’s distinctive water coolers. Alloy Total Product Design consulted with the parents and pupils of a local school to expand this client brief into a design brief. Image courtesy of Alloy Total Product Design/Yorkshire Water. 6. The design brief combined both the needs of the client – that the Yorkshire Water brand should be strongly represented – and the needs of the end users: the school children themselves. The bottles needed be manufactured within budget and provide a product that was completely unique to Yorkshire Water. The user needs required that the bottle was easy and fun to use, easy to clean, and could hold enough water to satisfy young appetites whilst not being too big for small hands. Image courtesy of Alloy Total Product Design/Yorkshire Water.


96 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KNOWLEDGE

Increasing Awareness with Design There are many ways in which design can be used to increase awareness of a wide range of issues, both inside and outside a client organisation. Inside the organisation, there may be conflicting attitudes about design and what value it brings. Some the organisation's, for example Apple, Philips and Braun, have strong in-house design teams and individuals responsible for managing design. Others, such as British Airways and Orange, may rely heavily on external design resources, but may have internal design managers. Additionally, a number of the organisation's, for example Starbucks and Microsoft, rely on a combination of in-house and external design teams depending on the nature of the project. Within an organisation, the design manager may wish to increase awareness of design to build and grow an in-house design team, or to gain wider and deeper influence in strategic decision-making, especially with regard to marketing, new-product development and innovation. On the consultancy side, the account handler and creative director may want to increase awareness in order to build a more formal, long term relationship with the client, or be the preferred design supplier. Using design to increase awareness of broad, customer-focussed issues, and raising the level of design awareness within the organisation, means tapping into the motivations of all the stakeholders involved.

INSIDE THE ORGANISATION Definitions of design will vary depending on the background, training, experiences, and personal biases of the individual. Enforcing a single definition of the term is probably self-defeating, as the value of design lies in its multidisciplinary approach to problem solving, its ability to manifest the strategic goals of an organisation and its passion for taking a user-centred approach to addressing wider needs. Growing design awareness means embedding design into the mindset of the organisation so that it can be seen as a way of thinking, not just a business resource; an investment, not an expense; and a set of problem-solving tools, methods and processes, not just a means of implementation. Design can contribute to idea generation in partnership with business units, functional groups, suppliers, individuals and customers. For the design manager, this may mean hosting internal training workshops and presentations in design awareness and design thinking for senior, middle, line and project managers. Using brainstorming workshops is another way to get representatives together to creatively and conversationally open up a debate. These debates can draw on the viewpoints of internal and external stakeholders, suppliers and manufacturers, and customers and service-providers. People don’t always understand what design is, so demonstrating a range of design approaches can help explain the differences between design as a craft, an aesthetic quality or a thinking process.

‘Design Awareness has been cited quite often as an important attribute for managers. The problem is that there are two interpretations of the term. One form of awareness relates to the fact that managers should have the ability to judge aesthetic and other design related issues so they can evaluate the ‘goodness’ of a service for its intended market. The other form of awareness is that of realising the nature of innovation and design activity and its role in contributing to organisational effectiveness. Both forms of awareness are required if managers are to make effective use of innovation and design.’ John Heap


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1. As early as 1953, Braun was keen to distinguish itself from its competitors in terms of design. At that time, design was seen by many manufacturers as an ‘add-on’, but Braun saw market potential for products with design distinction. Design is now a core competence within the company. Braun Design product ranges, such as the Impressions Design Collection shown here,

combines exemplary clarity and functionality with innovative technology and quality without compromise. Image courtesy of Braun GmbH 2005. 2. The BraunCollection shows Braun’s development in design and engineering via public exhibitions, events, case studies, archives, educational initiatives and the media. Their permanent

collection contains over 300 exhibits of products, design models, sketches and documentary information, while special collections change every six months. The intent is to stimulate visitors with memories of the organisation’s past and provide new insights and perspectives on design in general and Braun design in particular. The Collection is designed and realised by a

team of Braun employees and external consultants, while the administration and organisation is handled by a dedicated non-profit foundation. Image courtesy of Braun GmbH 2005. 3. Braun’s headquarters in Germany, designed by Schneider + Schumacher, is an ‘architecture of transparency’, which is in

tune with the Braun brand. The building raises awareness of the company’s organisational policy on design in a very conscious way. The building expresses Braun’s principles of innovation, quality and design, which can be experienced by its employees and visitors alike. Image courtesy of Braun GmbH 2005.


98 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process With increasing pressure on organisations to go beyond incremental improvements and cost saving initiatives, the creation of added value is more likely to come from radical changes, and therefore, innovation. All companies are looking for ways to align design with innovation, and creativity provides a way for managers of design to position themselves and their team as both an alternative and a complementary means of thinking about a wide range of business objectives. A set of carefully considered design tools, methods and processes can help change mindsets and integrate innovative thinking into a whole organisation. As an example, Kotler (2005) suggests that companies establish an ‘ideas-management system’, headed by a senior manager who works with a multidisciplinary ‘idea-management committee’. The committee has small project start-up budgets to investigate promising ideas. This sort of multidisciplinary approach is something that most design managers are familiar with. Offering to host an ideasmanagement committee is a valuable way to share different points of view across business units, and raise awareness of design-related thinking.

OUTSIDE THE ORGANISATION For the design manager working with a design consultancy, it is worth investing time in improving the team’s understanding and awareness of the organisation’s objectives at strategic, businessunit and project levels. How decisions are made can appear confusing, so being clear about the wider context of motivations and drivers will help clarify matters. For the design consultancy working with a client organisation, conversations with the client are a way to understand more about the challenges they face, as an organisation and as individuals. Design may then help provide the tools and processes necessary to gain the support of other stakeholders inside and outside the organisation, perhaps, for example, by providing case studies that benchmark the client against their competitors.

Whether working separately or integrally with other business units, design thinking can be disseminated into the culture of the whole organisation.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What other ways can design raise awareness of broader issues, and then address those issues? Is the form of how design presents the strategy able to be understood across the organisation, across disciplines, and across functional units?


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4. A Fortune 500 energy and aluminium company, Hydro commissioned Karakter to develop unique communications to raise awareness of its centennial celebrations. Karakter created a suite of ‘centennial identifiers’, photographing a series of circular objects from both nature and Hydro’s business to make up the number 100, this was a powerful way to express the link between Hydro’s business, nature and society. 5. To maintain consistency in Hydro’s visual language, Karakter maintained the same grid and layout it had originally created for Hydro’s corporate design system, setting the identifiers against a white or black framework to ensure maximum visibility within the vast range of environments they appear in. The corporate brochure shows how these principles were applied before (left), and during (right), the centennial year. 6. Karakter designed a host of centennial communications material using the new identifiers, which included a printed launch piece, a calendar, packaging, event materials, posters, invitations and more. In merchandise, the bond with nature was expressed through the combination of items that relate to the 100 identifier used – such as the sunflower oil and aluminium-basting brush shown here. All images courtesy of Karakter/Hydro.


100 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KNOWLEDGE

Expressing the Brand Through Design A brand is a powerful corporate tool. It provides both clarity and vision, and the brand identifier (usually a logo) is a symbol of this clarity and vision. However, the meaning of a brand is not contained in an organisation’s logo, or even its products or services, but in the power of the brand image formed in the mind of the consumer. Consumers buy into the brands, brand values and brand beliefs that are most in tune with how they see their own self-image and that of the lifestyle and peer groups with whom they wish to be affiliated. Historically, brands were a mark of ownership, consistency and a benchmark of quality or service. Now, according to Olins (2004), brands operate in ‘the emotional territory of people’s hearts and minds’. Brands represent not only the identity of the organisation, but also that of its customers, and the language of design can bring this identity to life.

The brand promise is a guarantee of the values and beliefs, and the quality and level of trust that the customer places in the organisation. From an organisational point of view, the brand is the face of the company and represents its purpose, values and beliefs. Essentially, it tells people, internally and externally, what the organisation is about. In a brand-led organisation, the brand manager will frequently have design management responsibilities. They will be experienced at forming relationships with external design teams and ensuring that the design teams are translating the brand values into desirable and viable products, services and experiences. Brand managers too, are in a position to identify how design can support the strategic objectives and brand values of the organisation, and so ensure that the brand image reflects what the organisation is about. DESIGN-LED EXPERIENCES

Brands manifest themselves in the products, services, sites and experiences of an organisation. In a brandled organisation, design can add value from the topdown, through brand communication, identity management and making the brand both visible and tangible. Examples of brand-led organisations are Coca Cola, Virgin and EasyJet. Design can help build the reputation of a brand through customer touch points (places where the customer sees and experiences the brand). Examples of customer touch points include product designs, retail shops, offices, advertising material and websites. The act of translating a brand and its values into tangible and intangible products, services, spaces and experiences is called brand expression.

Some organisations are design-led; design is central to all of their decision-making processes. Some examples of design-led companies include Apple, 3M, Philips, Dyson and Sony. Design-led organisations tend to put the user at the centre of their design processes and business offers. They identify a customer need from the bottom-up by observing user habits, and creating a product or service offer around any unmet customer needs that are identified. The unmet need acts as the starting point for innovation. The next step is to design a solution around needs and desires of the user. The result is then offered in the marketplace as a branded product or service. Often this can turn out to be a brand extension: a new product or service leveraging the value of the organisation’s brand name to establish itself.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What is the role of branding in relation to today’s businesses and consumers? What effect does the role of branding have on how we think about managing brand identities? If design encapsulates a brand or marketing idea, how can design make things more culturally, emotionally and experientially rewarding?


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1. The Benetton retail store in Barcelona has been specifically designed to express the look and feel of the Benetton brand. Image courtesy of Miguel Casanelles/The Benetton Group. 2.This image is taken from ‘James and Other Apes’, a Benetton Communication Campaign by James Mollison for Fabrica. Benetton frequently uses dramatic advertising and communication campaigns to express its brand. Here, Benetton chose to extend its reflection on our planet’s diversity, from the human race to our nearest cousins. The campaign shows pictures of orphaned apes that were confiscated from illegal traders. The apes now form the population of sanctuaries in Africa and Asia. Image courtesy of The Benetton Group. 3. Fabrica is Benetton’s Communication Research Centre, and was established to capitalise on thoughtprovoking communication that unites culture and industry and that takes risks by investing in ideas and creativity. Fabrica’s work is characterised by a celebration of the creative process itself and not of its results. Fabrica 10: From Chaos to Order and Back presents ten years of ideas, projects, personalities, events and experimentation, through a gallery of images, videos and music. Image courtesy of The Benetton Group.


102 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process In a design-led organisation, the design manager will be responsible for design-related decisions and responsibilities, working closely with marketing communications, research and development and manufacturing. They will ensure that in-house design teams and external consultancies are using the brand values to build a design language that translates consistently across the products and services, advertising and media, and the shops and offices that represent the brand. DESIGN USED TO PROMOTE THE BRAND Integrating design into the organisational strategy is especially important when businesses attempt to sell to customers through different channels, for example, brand messaging across radio, television, customer services and retail spaces may require different design approaches, but all must express the same, consistent brand values. If a brand is ‘stretched’ into a new area, existing brand recognition can be leveraged and design elements of the brand, such as packaging, advertising or websites, can be used to make the customer ‘recognise’ the offer as belonging to the organisation. Every successful brand can become a platform for further extensions, for example Caterpillar, makers of construction equipment and machinery, now sell clothing and accessories to international urbanites.

EXPRESSING WIDER ISSUES As well as expressing the brand values of an organisation, design can be simultaneously used to cross cultural and societal barriers and raise awareness of wider issues. Many brands have successfully positioned themselves to be synonymous with particular themes or human needs, for example, safety, literacy, quality engineering, and innovation. The Volvo brand for example, is associated with a key theme (safety), which is a powerful way to build customer loyalty and make a brand memorable. Benetton, on the other hand, has the reputation for sparking controversy by using provocative imagery in their advertising to raise awareness of global concerns such as world hunger, health and endangered species. These profile-raising, issue-led campaigns find a cause that design and other business units can then support. Raising the profile of specific global issues also raises the profile of the brand.

‘The power of design and innovation can actually reshape an entire brand or the marketplace in which it exists. In the past, designers focused on making one new product. Today, they create a much broader story, an experience that consumers remember which has far greater impact on the bottom line.’ David Rockwell


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44. Innocent, the ‘little tasty drinks’ company, launched a range of smoothies for kids. These healthy drinks are packaged in a way that expresses the brand, appeals to children, and are spillproof. The brand, already hugely popular with adults, positions itself as being naughty but nice, and promotes the fact that their drinks contain no sugar, sweeteners, preservatives or concentrates. Image courtesy of Innocent Drinks. 5. Innocent approach everything they do in a way that makes it easy for people to do themselves some good. In this instance, customers were invited to knit a small winter hat to put on Innocent drinks, in order to raise money for a good cause; keeping the elderly warm in winter. Innocent donated money for every knitted hat they received, and included ‘get knitting’ information on their website. Image courtesy of Innocent Drinks.


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Initiating Design Projects A successful design (or project) manger will have the ability to raise awareness of design amongst key stakeholders, and further their knowledge of problem-seeking and solving methods and processes of design. By developing a better understanding and, ideally, first-hand experience of a range of design tools, stakeholder buy-in is more likely. Design is a creative and rigorous process that can provide a fresh perspective for viewing organisational challenges. Designers rarely take a problem as a given, and by asking questions they explore the range of contexts, issues and agendas at work in any given situation. Often, a more viable solution is achievable by questioning assumptions and taking into account the varying needs and desires of different stakeholders, business units and users. UNCOVERING THE PROBLEM Once the key stakeholders are identified, and as part of the research and fact-finding process, the design team will examine the client and design briefs, and attempt to uncover the inherent problems and unarticulated needs. There are an number of tools and methods at the team’s disposal that will facilitate this.

Brainstorming Brainstorming workshops usually involve the key stakeholders within the organisation and are used as a means to gain familiarity, gather initial material and collect a variety of viewpoints from within the client organisation. Brainstorming workshops tend to be hands-on, collaborative, internal-research processes, with many questions being asked, and a range of different needs (for example, organisational, customer or project stage) explored. Brainstorms help to define the crux of the problem or produce new ways to view it. Prototyping Prototyping describes the use of physical material to simulate or test a design. Prototypes can be built to represent a specific stage in the process, or a final outcome. Dummy spaces, products, objects and scale models are all forms of prototyping and are useful tools for generating feedback early on in the project, and also raise latent issues that are not explicitly stated in the design brief. Each stakeholder is likely to respond to a prototype differently, as they will each have different needs depending on, for example, the function of their business unit or the age range of the target users.

‘My method has been to immerse myself in the issues, to reflect on them, analyse them, and wrestle with them, viewing them from all sides, in an act of philosophical exploration. I have tried not to be content with taking the problem as given, but have always tried to question the question as it were, allowing my train of thought to take me in often unexpected directions.’ Stefano Marzano


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1. Live prototypes can be used to observe consumer behaviour in everyday situations. The Philips HomeLab observes human guinea pigs to determine ordinary people’s responses to its ambient intelligence, which is embedded into a living space. It is the vision of a world in which technology, in the form of small, but powerful silicon chips, is integrated into almost everything, creating an environment that is sensitive to the presence of people and responsive to their needs. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips. 2. A key advantage of the HomeLab is that it is a fully functional home environment as well as a laboratory. This means that participants can live in the HomeLab for several days, which gives them time to forget that they are being observed, not only by the sensors that are built into the ambient intelligence systems but also by the Philips researchers from behind one-way mirrors. The HomeLab allows participants to become familiar with the environment and to settle down into daily routines that closely resemble those that apply in their own homes. Image courtesy and copyright of Philips. 3. Understanding the needs of others by acting out how they would behave in a given situation, and what products and services would be desirable in those circumstances, is a useful tool. Here, people role play consumers using bunk beds in an airplane. Image courtesy of IDEO.


106 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process Role Playing When approaching, for example, the design of a new airline check-in system, the design team might act out or role play the process of a passenger checkingin. This is a way to understand what the experience is like for both the customer and the airline staff. A product concept for a new piece of checking-in software might be prototyped and physically built into a mock-up of a check-in desk. Acting out the roles can help the design team understand the design problem and so better inform their solution to it. Observation Using observation as a design method involves better understanding how people do things by watching their actions. When designing an improved trainticketing system for example, types of observation may involve watching how people use ticketing machines in a station over the course of the day, to learn about the frequency of use (rush hour versus lunchtime, for example), the types of users (different ages and level of mobility), and the different types of ticket demands. Architectural Programming An architectural programme is a method used at the beginning of a building project. It allows the design team and client to state the design parameters before the actual design process is begun. Using a systematic search to source the information needed to clarify, understand and state the design problem, the requirements that the building solution must meet can be outlined.

Table 1: The Five Step CRSS Architectural Programming Technique 1. Establish the Goals What does the client want to achieve and why? 2. Collect and Analyse the Facts What is it all about? 3. Uncover and Test the Concepts How does the client want to achieve the goals? 4. Determine Needs How much money, space and quality? 5. State the Problem What are the significant conditions and the general directions the design of the building should take? Source: William Pena and CRSS

Table 2: The Type of Information Required 1. Function What happens in the building (people, activities, relationships)? 2. Form What is now there, and what will be there (site, environment, quality)? 3. Economy What is the quality of construction (initial budget, operating and life cycle costs)? 4. Time What are the influences of history and change (past, present and future)? Source: William Pena and CRSS

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How do we discover more about the people we are designing for? In what ways can we find out what is meaningful and relevant to them? How can design teams find out what products and services people will actually welcome?


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4. As a means of gaining perspective into the wider context of a specific industry, Doblin Group, a Chicagobased design and innovation consultancy, uses Innovation Landscapes. These tools permit a view of the patterns of diversity, changes and challenges present in an industry over time, and show the overall terrain that leaders need to understand and manage. This helps an industry insider think differently and move in a direction that will provide stronger differentiation and greater return on an

innovation investment. Here trends in the airline industry are represented for reflection, analysis and debate. Image courtesy and copyright of Doblin Inc., 2006. 5. Electrolux’s Design Lab makes use of prototypes to test the functionality of its future products. Airwash is a waterless washing machine for the home of 2020. Eliminating the use of detergent and water, the Airwash cleans clothes with pressurised air and negative ions (nature’s cleansing

agent). Its form is inspired by the waterfall, nature’s negative ion generator. The Airwash’s touch-light interface marries function with emotion, humanising the often-mechanical experience of handling household appliances. Liberated from the laundry area, Airwash is a symbol of wellness and sophistication, designed for living spaces and focal points in the home. Image courtesy of Electrolux.


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Design Methods Design methods help build trust in the client-design team relationship, because they allow members of both parties to explore the challenges presented by a particular brief or project in a loosely structured, but engaging way. Design methods are also used to define what it is the design team needs to do, what processes they need to use and what the expected outcome(s) might be.

IDEO’s method cards can help a team to plan a project, or just serve as a reminder of the various project approaches. For example, they can suggest ways to apply human-centred methods throughout all project stages; or they can be used to prove a point, or to challenge colleagues to seek insights in new ways. Or they can be used to inspire creativity, to communicate with a team, or to turn a corner.

EXAMPLE ONE: IDEO METHOD CARDS

The method cards are divided into four categories, each group representing ways to empathise with people: learn, look, ask, and try.

IDEO are a design and innovation firm, and their method cards have been instrumental to the success of IDEO’s product, space, service and experience designs. IDEO’s 51 method cards are intended as inspiration for practising and aspiring designers, as well as those seeking a creative spark in their work. The cards show some of the methods that IDEO uses to keep people at the centre of their design processes. The techniques are not proprietary and have been adapted from a variety of established human and social research methods. The cards were initially compiled by IDEO to inspire their own design teams and demonstrate how IDEO have found them useful in real design projects. The cards are not a prescriptive nor exhaustive ‘how to’ for humancentred design, as new methods are being developed, adapted and applied all the time. However, the deck is meant to encourage users to try new approaches for making design useful, usable and delightful to people, and each card describes a method that can be used to inspire great design.

The Method Card Categories 1. Learn Analyse the information collected to identify patterns and insights. For example, by conducting activity analysis, character profiles, competitiveproduct surveys or secondary research. 2. Look Observe people to discover what they do rather than what they say they do. For example, compile a dayin-the-life scenario, or shadow a consumer or record extended periods of consumer behaviour using a time-lapse video. 3. Ask Enlist people’s help to elicit information that is relevant to your project. For example, ask a participant to create a camera journal, or draw their own user experience. 4. Try Create simulations to help emphathise with people and to evaluate proposed designs. For example, become your customer, perhaps by paper prototyping or role-playing.


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1. The IDEO Method Cards are divided into four categories representing ways to better understand user needs. The categories are: Look, Learn, Ask and Try. Image courtesy of IDEO. 2. Each method card describes a technique used to inspire great design. Here, an affinity map clusters elements that are related to transporting the family, which helped the IDEO team discover some significant opportunities for pushchair design. Image courtesy of IDEO. 3. Looking at what users do via a-day-in-the-life scenario can be invaluable. Here, IDEO asked potential wearers of a drug delivery patch to document their daily behaviours including those that might affect the function of the patch such as getting it wet, or snagging it on clothing. Image courtesy of IDEO.


110 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process EXAMPLE TWO: THE SUSTAINABILITY ISSUE MAP Lynne Elvins and Rupert Bassett founded A420 with the aim of changing the understanding of sustainability within design education and the commercial design community. The Sustainability Issue Map was produced to provide design teams with an introduction to the complex subject of sustainability. It was developed from the belief that the design industry is in a uniquely powerful position to create a more sustainable future for everyone, and that every design team has the potential to produce more sustainable designs with every project they undertake. The poster-format map visualises three sustainability dimensions that design teams must deal with: contexts, agendas and issues. The Sustainability Dimensions 1. Contexts Design does not operate in isolation. The map shows how a design team can contribute to the creation of more sustainable businesses, which will, in turn, create a more sustainable world. 2. Agendas Sustainability is all about conflict. The map shows that the key challenge for design teams is balancing the four competing agendas of sustainability: financial, social, environmental and personal. 3. Issues Design teams must negotiate complexity. The map shows that in order to balance the four agendas, a wider range of relevant issues must first be addressed. By dealing with these issues in relation to all four agendas, design teams will not only gain a better understanding of sustainability, but also of design.

A420’s sustainable issue mapping is realised in the form of a scatter graph, which can be used to clearly identify the issues of any design project. Each map has two essential features: the agenda axes and the distribution pattern. The four, fixed agenda axes provide a framework against which the design team can place the issues from the four competing agendas: financial, social, environmental and personal. The variable feature of the issue map is its distribution pattern. The distribution pattern is composed of a series of squares, and each one represents an issue to be addressed in relation to a particular design project. These issues might include disability, empowerment, pollution, waste, profit, feasibility, pleasure and wellbeing, and each issue has a corresponding question to prompt the user. These issue squares are placed between the agenda axes according to the design team’s understanding of the issue, with the most relevant nearest the centre. The function of sustainability issue mapping is to reveal imbalances across competing agendas. Where there is imbalance, the design is less sustainable, which means that the range of issues should be reconsidered by the design team. Where there is more balance, the design is more sustainable. The sustainability issue map is a powerful design method for highlighting the conflicting and complex issues and agendas associated with designing sustainable, viable and creative solutions. The approach that design teams often take when problem-seeking and -solving is one of raising questions, challenging assumptions and making trade-off decisions in the face of conflicting stakeholder agendas. The sustainability map provides a framework within which to explore the challenges, make the decisions and raise conversation and debate amongst stakeholders in an easily accessible and understandable format.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What other methods are there for finding out about the needs of users? How can design methods help an organisation re-evaluate whether its design resource and skills are in need of updating?


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1. The sustainability issue map is intended to help the design team understand what sustainability is, the context in which design has a vital role to play and what designers can actually contribute to the agenda. Image courtesy of A420. 2. Taking responsibility for balancing all four competing agendas could potentially become standard professional design practice. Image courtesy of A420.

3. The format of the sustainability issue map makes it an extremely useful design tool for multidisciplinary team workshops. It can help to initiate dialogue and establish the parameters of the design problem. Image courtesy of A420.


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Design Processes Design is a rigorous, cyclical process of enquiry and creativity. Design processes consist of a series of methods that are put together to suit the nature of each design project or question. Design processes have evolved from tried and tested ways of problem solving and are continually refined by the designer or design team applying them to ‘real’ client projects. Most design processes mirror each of the designer’s steps when he or she is working on a problem. They define the problem; develop a better understanding of the problem; conceptualise the problem; detail a design solution and, finally, test or implement the solution. Design processes are not linear as there are many feedback loops built in to allow for the iterative nature of design and to accommodate the insights gained at each stage of the process. These approaches to problem solving can then be further adapted, formalised and customised to suit the needs of a particular project or client. THE CREATIVE PROCESS Creativity, the act and art or creating, is an approach, skill, characteristic and talent that is increasingly demanded in how we address any situation, problem or opportunity, both in business and in life. The creative process itself is the series of events or actions we take in order to produce an imaginative, but relevant way of approaching a challenge.

The Five Step Creative Process 1. Preparation Immersion in a set of problematic issues that are interesting and arouse curiosity. 2. Incubation Ideas are churned around, below the level of consciousness, and unusual connections are made. 3. Insight Pieces of puzzle begin to fall into place. 4. Evaluation Deciding which insight is most valuable and worth pursuing. 5. Elaboration Turning the insight into something real. Embarking on a creative process is often likened to a journey of discovery, a goal might be fixed, but how it is reached may be unknown at the outset. The ability to adapt to changing conditions encountered along the way, and to make mistakes and backtrack if necessary, is all part of this creative process of discovery. According to Austin and Devlin, creative problem solving takes a non-sequential, non-linear approach, and does not readily follow clearly defined steps (2003). It is also frequently the source of new and innovative thinking.

Csikszentmilyi (1996) has described the creative process as comprising five steps: preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation and elaboration.

‘After you plant a seed in the ground, you don’t dig it up every week and see how it is doing.’ William Coyne


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1. China’s National Swimming Centre in Beijing, also known as the Water Cube, is the largest swimming centre ever built. Enclosed within its blue water-bubble style walls are pools for Olympic swimming and diving competitions and seating for 17,000 spectators. The Water Cube marks a new beginning in design thinking. It responds to the idea of what a structure should or could be. The thinking has been spurred on by one question; ‘how does structure fill space’? The answer in this case is based on a common

natural pattern of organiccell arrangement, replicated in the bubbled structure of the Water Cube’s walls. Image courtesy of Arup/CSCEC/PTW. 2. The 4000 bubbles measure as large as 7.5m wide and while seemingly fragile, the structure is actually very robust. The structure is clad with translucent ETFE, a tough recyclable material weighing just 1% of an equivalent glass panel. Image courtesy of Arup/CSCEC/PTW.

3. Arup developed and patented SPeAR‚ (Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine) for use as a management information tool or part of a design process. For the Water Cube, the principle objectives for Arup were to deliver a range of sustainable features into the design concept while focusing on the building’s whole lifecycle, and identifying the scope for continual improvement of sustainability. The SPeAR tool was used to assess the successful integration of four key concerns in the

Development Design Report, namely economic, social, environmental and material resources. Central to the design philosophy that underpins the Water Cube is the core objective of water conservation and the design of water efficient systems. Water in northern China is a valuable commodity and Beijing currently lacks a reliable water resource to meet existing and projected demand requirements. Image courtesy of Arup/CSCEC/PTW.


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Those who want to make artfully in business must constantly ask themselves whether impatience and yearning for certainty have curtailed important exploration and innovation – whether the impulse to compromise has undermined the fundamental coherence of the product.’ Rob Austin and Lee Devin

ITERATIVE PROCESSES The nature of design is that it is a complex interaction between the people and the decisionmaking processes involved in bringing a product or service to market. Design processes are difficult to standardise, in part because of their iterative, non-linear nature, and also because the needs of clients and users are so different. In addition, real life, with its changing market conditions and customer preferences, is much more dynamic, chaotic and fuzzy than any standard model can fully accommodate and often, stages of the design process overlap. Iterations are a natural part of the creative design process, but of course, a cut-off point must be reached eventually, when the design team commit to an agreed direction, and reduce the level of exploration and development of new ideas. When to set this deadline is a matter of experience and judgement. Today, the design process is less about a sole creator or visionary. Instead, the designer, the design manager and team are one of many translators or mediators, all looking at the client challenge from many different perspectives. The team works together to understand the context and constraints of the challenge, with the aim of eventually proposing a viable and desirable solution within an agreed deadline. STANDARDISED PROCESSES Processes that are standardised have a defined set of project steps, a timeframe and a known, or at least expected, outcome, one that complies with an agreed checklist of performance criteria. Standards raise levels of quality, safety and efficiency and certifying organisations and/or their products and processes provides quality assurance.

Standardised processes can help, for example, find ways to optimise production processes or in communicating performance results against time and cost issues. Standard definitions, measures and benchmarks all help the organisation quickly asses and improve their performance and efficiency. Adhering to standard processes too rigidly however, can result in an uninspiring ‘assembly-line’ solution, where tasks are passed linearly from one team to another with little dialogue or debate. Standardised processes can ensure a project is finished on time and within budget, but the result may be uninteresting if the process of design and the creativity of the design team has been stifled by standardisation. CUSTOMISED PROCESSES A generic, standardised process model is useful for understanding and improving working procedures, and for initiating a client conversation about a particular design process, but eventually the model will need to be customised and adapted to suit the specific project, client and user requirements. Customised processes are more detailed, and so are better suited to specific/individual needs. They usually combine standard aspects with customised ones, which together form an appropriate custombuilt model. DESIGN PROCESSES AS A SERVICE OFFER Design consultancies may sell their own design processes and expertise to business clients as a means to address an organisation’s objectives. Within an organisation, certain processes may be unique to it for strategic reasons, and therefore need to remain confidential. Others, however, can be sold. IBM Business Solutions, for example, sell a number of their processes as a consultancy offer.


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4. The iterative design process describes a methodology based on a cyclical process, where successive versions or iterations of a design are implemented. Source: Zimmerman, 2003.

Design

Analyse

Test

5. As part of their design process, Dyson build detailed prototypes of their innovative products before manufacture, to ascertain the best design solution, and to provide a platform for debate amongst fellow design team members, engineers, business and marketing specialists, and, of course, the customers themselves. Image courtesy of Dyson. 5. Dirk M端ller-Stolz, exterior designer of the MINI Concept Car, mocks-up a full-scale, two-dimensional prototype of the car. Taking the step of working at full-scale inevitably reveals new insights into the design process and therefore the eventual design solution. This is an invaluable way of soliciting feedback from other stakeholders. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.


116 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process A. Inception L. Feedback

K. Completion

B. Feasibility

Architects

Engineers

C. Outline proposals

Design Desi Design Team J. Operations on site

Project Manager or Client

Site Surveys

Acoustics

I. Project planning

H. Tender action

Cost consultants

Planning

G. Bills of quantities

F. Production information

D. Scheme design

E. Detail design

Brief should not be modified after this point.

Any further change in location, size, shape or cost after this time will result in abortive work.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How can design managers support the creative process of design? In what other ways can the process of design be used as a problem solving activity? How do you budget for a creative process, without compromising the results? What role can the design process play in creating the conditions for innovation?


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Understand problem

Problem definition

Finalize the brief Agree responsibilities

Deliverables

Activities

Review the brief Client familiarization Research

Concept development

Concept design

Concept design Concept review Agree concepts for development

Design development Prototypes

Detailed design and evaluation

Production and/or manufacture

Detailed design Prototype evaluation Production planning Design refinement Final presentation Design freeze Pre-production prototype

Tooling Manufacture Project review

Research & analysis

Site visioning

Brief development

Workshop & interface development

Prototype development

User testing

Site map, user interface schematics & content allocation

Visual design templates & content development

Development & quality assurance

Documentation creation

Insights & opportunities

Site capabilities prioritization

Brief

Interface model

Prototype

Recommended modifications

Site specifications

Beta & templates

Complete final version

Standards guide & specifications

Detailed design

Develop & test

Discover & understand

Define

Strategy

7. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work describes each of the key stages of the architecture design process. It is recognised throughout the construction industry as a model framework for project management. Source: Adapted from the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work.

8. Shown here are the key stages of a design process, as typically followed by a product design team. Providing an overview of the key stages in the form of a diagram helps the client to understand the whole design process. It also acts as a map for the design team and will remind them of the steps to be taken and at what stage, their contribution is needed.

High level design

Design

9. This diagram shows an overview of the design process for the creation of web-based services and applications. The diagram documents the design process itself as well as the key activities and deliverable results for each of the process’s stages. Source: Rollestone, 2003.

Deployment

Development & production


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Competitive Advantage Through Design In an increasingly competitive global marketplace, many organisations look for new ways to improve, add value and differentiate their products and services. Having competitive advantage is vital for organisations in over-saturated markets, and those trying to tap in to new ones. Design thinking, processes and methods are practical ways to enable organisations to compete. There are a number of classic theories devoted to competitive advantage. Business expert Michael Porter believes that organisations must make a choice about the type of competitive advantage they seek, and suggests three possible strategies to achieve it: low cost, differentiation and focus. Marketing expert Philip Kotler believes that most consumers are primarily concerned with quality, service and value, and these are becoming standard customer expectations, not distinctive, market-share winning attributes. Design is an obvious and practical way for organisations to make their products and services more distinctive. However, design and design management also has much to offer the product and service development process, from initial research ideas, to supply-chain management, to the point of sale. In these ways, design thinking can and does enable valuable competitive advantage for organisations.

CUSTOMISATION Customising products and services is an invaluable way to achieve competitive advantage through design because it creates ‘unique’ offers for consumers. Ours is now a world of mass production; vast quantities of the same products roll of factory production lines throughout the world. But, with the emergence of new technologies, it is becoming more and more common to see mass customisation; where the benefits of mass production (such as lower costs or increased distribution efficiency), are combined with the benefits of goods and services that are customised around individual consumer needs. Organisations such as Dell and Levi Strauss have been particularly successful at offering masscustomised products and services. Pine (1993) describes mass customisation as ‘a new means of viewing business competition, one that makes the identification and fulfilment of the wants and needs of individual customers paramount without sacrificing efficiency, effectiveness and low costs.’

‘No matter how good the product and service, and no matter how strong the brand, it must be supported by good operations systems. There is a desire for faster and reflective information that reflects the market, customers, designers, manufacturers, retailers to deliver better services to customers.’ Terence Conran


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1. Benetton focuses on meeting the needs of its customers as quickly as possible. Fast replenishment to better fulfill customers desires means retailers need to stock fewer items of each style, and can therefore stock more variety of goods on the same shelf space. Benetton have short-cycle, networked production techniques, and can dye products after their manufacture. Through information gathered from their retail shops and supplier networks, stock can be centrally replenished in any country from Italy. Image courtesy of The Benetton Group. 2. Through taking innovative approaches to their supply chain, Swatch is able to offer a broad product range, combining top quality with a highly affordable price. Image courtesy of Swatch. 3. Swatch exploits the idea of mass customisation in their product components and manufacturing processes. Reducing the number of parts in their watches, squeezes out costs from the production process. Instead of the usual 91 or more parts needed to create a watch, Swatch succeeded in reducing the number of components to 51. Image courtesy of Swatch.


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‘In today’s globalised business world, it is important that a company and its products and services are noticed and stand apart from those of the competition. This means that design decisions are becoming increasingly important for market acceptance. Decision-makers within companies must systematically come up with creative design solutions.’ Professor Ralph Bruder

SPEED TO MARKET

DESIGN AND WORK ENVIRONMENTS

Getting a product or service to market before the competition is a key form of competitive advantage, and one in which design plays a crucial role. Information flow, management and the actual logistics and operations of an organisation will all involve the design of efficient and effective processes, both internally with design teams, business units and global satellite offices, and externally with suppliers, partners and customers themselves.

Retaining highly-talented staff is an increasingly critical factor to the success of an organisation, and providing high-quality working environments is another way that design can add value to an organisation. Company buildings are assets that can reflect and reinforce the brand, and simultaneously strengthen the internal culture of the organisation. Achieving a work-life balance and quality working environments are now more important factors than high salaries in staff retention.

DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH DESIGN

INNOVATION OR IMPROVEMENT?

In a highly commoditised marketplace, differentiation – how one product or service stands out from similar products or services – allows customers to make a distinction between competing offers. Distinctive products and services make themselves unique, and can command premium prices if, in the mind of the customer, the difference is considered to be worth the extra cost. Different organisations will often choose to focus their offers on distinctive qualities or brand attributes. Design can communicate these attributes through the style and appearance of the brand’s products and services, and the very manner in which the organisation communicates its brand image.

Successful products and services are not always innovations. Frequently, increasing market share may rely on incremental and continuous evolutionary improvements, rather than revolutionary innovation or invention. This is often the case in service design, where feedback solicited from customers and users can form the basis for improving customer service, increasing satisfaction and potentially building customer loyalty by being responsive to customer needs.

If the brand attributes are important to the customer, the product or service will be perceived as something that meets their needs and desires. Design is a valuable means of differentiation, one in which product or service design details become very important. The aesthetics, function, shape, in fact each and every design detail, will help to communicate the value consumers will place on the brand. The brand sets the customer’s anticipation and expectation of quality and experience.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What systems can be put in place to ensure senior management and stakeholders are kept up to date of external developments and competing offers? How can design help to reduce costs within the supply chain?


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4. Camper’s Wabi shoe, downsizes the manufacturing processes normally used in shoemaking to just four stages. The Wabi is made up of three main components: the protector, the insole and a sock, which also makes it a sustainable design as it is easy to recycle. The three components can be worn in different combinations depending on the season and the temperature. Image courtesy of Camper.


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Case Study

PRACTICE

Kajima Design Europe for JVC

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1. The new JVC headquarters building, it is located on the outskirts of London.

Table 1: KDE’s Key Design Objectives 1. Respond to the existing site conditions and constraints 2. Respond to JVC’s operational and logistical requirements 3. Create an effective, efficient warehouse and distribution facility 4. Add value to the site, both as a location and as a financial investment 5. Embrace sustainable design thinking 6. Create an inspiring working environment and a sense of place 7. Address and satisfy all government and institutional regulations


Case Study

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THE DESIGN PROCESS IN ACTION Kajima Design Europe (KDE) is a creative team of architects, designers and engineers, which provide services for all stages of the building process. When asked to redesign the headquarters of the Japanese consumer electronics brand JVC, KDE’s project team creatively addressed a set of complex challenges associated with the existing site, which had been JVC’s London base for more than 30 years, and brought in external specialist skills to supplement the project team. The JVC site was a collection of contrasts that had to be brought into balance. To the north of the site was a reservoir and wildlife sanctuary, while to the south was a busy, noisy motorway. With longstanding emotional and logistic ties to their existing location, it came as a shock when JVC discovered, in the early stages of site investigations, that they had been sitting on a brownfield site, which contained substantial deep pits of carbide lime. The design

solution that allowed JVC to remain on the site would have to address its environmental responsibilities, the contrasting aspects of the site conditions, and contribute to the regeneration of the area.

2. The master plan reveals a structured layering of functions within the boundaries of the site, from warehouse to workshop and service distribution to the headquarter building, expanding into the landscape beyond.

KDE’s first task was to address the brownfield issues and to make safe the site. Working with a number of external design team partners and environmental and regulatory bodies, the lime containment was addressed and the site secured, so maintaining the investment value and planned usability of the site. The next task was to evaluate the way in which the buildings were used. JVC’s current and likely future operational requirements had outgrown its existing arrangement of offices and warehouses resulting in numerous inefficiencies. In addition, the company’s headquarters building no longer expressed the style and sophistication of the JVC brand, nor its future aspirations. KDE began the design work by viewing the project constraints and the site conditions as both an asset and a necessary part of finding a truly contextual design solution.

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3. The site plan demonstrates that the more a development fits into the existing context, infrastructure and natural conditions, the more flexible it can be to changes in the future. This affords the opportunity to maximise the potential of the investment.


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Case Study

THE DESIGN RESPONSE KDE proposed to demolish almost all of the existing JVC buildings and build a new administration centre to house various corporate departments, a new showroom and a staff restaurant. An additional large single warehouse and two smaller units would accommodate the vastly increased product storage, and allow for future flexibility.JVC were to stay on site throughout the two phases of construction. The first phase would temporarily relocate staff to one building, complete construction of the main administration building, and begin construction of the warehouse complex. The second phase would complete the warehouses and the landscaping.

Situated, as it was, in an area of outstanding natural beauty, afforded the project an environmental heart. KDE’s design of the new ‘face’ of JVC would be a window onto this natural asset. The new administration building would accommodate the offices over the four levels, on the building’s north side, a glazed façade would allow for excellent natural light and give staff and visitors unobstructed, open views of the reservoir. By locating the building closer to the reservoir, it would become a focal point for the design, and would create a working environment where the staff had a much more immediate relationship with the nature reserve. The administration building’s ground floor entrance and reception lobby were to expand into a dynamic double-height space and showroom, which would also serve to accommodate the differences in the site’s plane. The staff restaurant was to visually extend into the landscaped area to the north, and this would create a hub of activity on the ground floor. The new warehouses would provide an environmental buffer to the noise and air pollution from the motorway, and would shield the administration building, accessible landscaped areas, outdoor spaces and walkways, this would serve to improve both staff safety and vehicle manoeuvring. Rationalisation of JVC’s operations into fewer warehouse buildings also allowed for vast improvement in their logistics and storage capacity.


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4. The scale and orientation of the cladding profile provides a sense of proportion to the new administration building.

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5. The facade of the main administrative building, which faces a busy and noisy motorway, displays a jewel-like presence at night.


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Case Study

6 6. The neutral palette of the building materials and a soft, industrial aesthetic were carefully chosen to reflect the JVC brand, express the individual building functions within the architectural composition, and to complement the contrasting surroundings of the motorway and the nature reserve.

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7. The KDE design team was composed of a range of internal and external service partners such as architects and engineers. The team had to interact inwardly with the client (JVC) and outwardly with a range of government and environmental bodies.

Brent Council

Environmental and Regulatory Bodies

Bruro Happold Engineers

KDE Architects

Design Team

English Nature

R Aduitt Acoustics

TFL

G&T Cost Consultancy

Client JVC

Site Technics Site Surveys

DTZ Planning

GLA

Environmental Agency


Case Study

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Three key steps were taken in KDE’s design process, which resulted in a more sustainable design solution. The steps allowed JVC, a major organisation in the area, to remain in their existing location and continue to enhance the local economy. Firstly, the orientation of the buildings would not only maximise the site’s potential, but would also minimise the environmental affects of removing excavated material. Secondly, the existing change in level across the site, disguising a disused underground car park, was modified to reduce the importing and exporting of soil from the site. Through careful demolition and construction phasing, the disruption to JVC’s operation was minimal, allowing them to continue with business whilst construction took place and preventing any costly and time-consuming relocation. Finally, mechanical ventilation was controlled through the location of core elements and cellular rooms to the rear of the main administration building; this was effectively an environmental buffer to the sun, air pollution and traffic noise.

Engineering firm Buro Happold sought in situ treatment and containment alternatives to removing waste materials from the site, as part of an environmentally sound, sustainable and costeffective solution. Simultaneously, the new buildings were to be developed while the site itself was being physically stabilised. Further significant obstacles lay underground. Two large sewers and a number of electrical cables ran under the site. KDE wanted to build in this area, but if they diverted the pipes they would have to assume responsibility for the pipe’s contents. To mitigate risk the warehouse was positioned and built over the drains, which retained the status quo. The process was a constant challenge to understand, accept and manage the conditions of the site, to reassure the planning authority that their requirements would be met, and to balance the costs and viability of the project. John Chapman, Design Director of KDE, comments that ‘this really was a case of a project made possible by everyone coming together right from the start of the process allowing us to steer it forward, explain the difficulties, offer solutions and develop it in a way that was beneficial to everyone involved.’

WORKING WITH THE TEAM The project aroused public interest and had to be in keeping with regulations of a number of environmental bodies. These groups worked in partnership with KDE and the construction team to resolve all aspects in the most mutually beneficial manner, and ensure that the plans for the site fully accommodated the need to obtain planning permission and address sensitive environmental issues.

Through successful teamwork, the project result is a stylish business park that is in harmony with its surroundings, and a landmark building which provides an inspiring work environment for JVC’s employees. The project relied heavily on the success of the relationships formed between the client, the design team, the public and the environmental organisations involved, illustrating the complexities of managing creative projects with a large and diverse team of people.

All images courtesy and copyright of Kajima Design.


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Case Study

PRACTICE

The Honda Zoomer 1

1. The Honda Zoomer, scooters, ‘making city life easier.’

CUSTOMISING THE DESIGN AROUND CONSUMER NEEDS Honda’s Zoomer was born in Asaka, Japan. Created by N Projects, a group of forward-thinking designers, whose client brief was to create a bike that would adapt to the varied lifestyles of today’s youth. N Projects’ design response was to make the Zoomer as bare as possible so that owners could customise the bike according to their individual needs. According to Mr. Tateishi from N Projects, ‘it is possible to make a bike adapt to users, users shouldn’t have to adapt to the bike’.

The Zoomer is designed with extra-wide tyres and dual headlights, and is powered by a quiet, fuelefficient 50cc engine. Its plush seat, which is contoured for comfort, can be easily adjusted to seven different levels, while under the seat, a ‘barebones’ approach to chassis design has created a huge storage space to carry anything from skateboards to camera tripods. At the heart of the Zoomer is its liquid-cooled, four-valve, four-stroke single-cylinder motor, which benefits from the latest programmed fuel-injection system; the Zoomer was the first smallcapacity motor to be fitted with such an advanced fuelling system.


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Although the engineering and performance of the Zoomer are exceptional, it is the aesthetics and attitude of the bike that are winning over other brand-loyal customers. The Zoomer’s fat tyres, bugeye headlights, raw chassis and minimalist design signals something quite different and unique. Owners can customise their Zoomer, making the bike even more personalised, with a wide range of optional ‘hop-up’ parts and accessories, including radiator covers, a rear carrier and racing foot rest. A choice of different saddles, paint jobs, frame colours, racks and chrome parts, as well as a range of performance-enhancing engine parts, are all available and many of these parts are matched to the Zoomer’s colour options of red, black, yellow and green. Since its launch in 2001, the Zoomer has achieved a considerable following in Japan, the United States and Europe. The key to its success is the Zoomer’s ultra-cool, minimalist urban styling, which provides a base for a very individual machine that is fully customisable via a range of accessories specifically created around the needs of their target audience of young, urban consumers. For Honda’s UK launch, a limited edition of 100 Zoomers were released, and potential customers were informed that they would have to hurry as stocks of the ‘hip and zippy little 50cc scooter’ were in very short supply. Wanting to make their own mark in the local market, Honda (UK) bought into the Zoomer culture by modifying the Zoomers with chrome bodywork, nitrous oxide injection, extra lights and even a playable Sony PS2 with mini-screen under the seat. An online magazine for ‘the coolest scooter around’ was also created (www.zoomerzine.co.uk).

PROMOTING THE BRAND As part of their UK promotional campaign, Honda gave Zoomers to people they felt would represent their brand image and customise their bikes in a highly creative way. The key was to appeal, through peer group and brand association, to a target market of design-savvy young urbanites. Although giving away scooters is not profitable, the campaign proved to be a phenomenally successful marketing and brand-promotion exercise for Honda.

2. The Honda Chiswick retail environment is designed to raise brand awareness, both by day and by night. The shops are attracting a new type of consumer; designsavvy urbanites looking for ways to deal with traffic congestion in the city.

The scooter class is one of the fastest growing segments of Europe’s motorcycle market. To help further promote the Honda brand, four new scooter retail environments were launched in London. The design of the shops followed the ultra-cool, urban styling of the bikes, and carried the wide range of scooter accessories, with which owners could uniquely customise their newly-purchased Zoomer. All images courtesy and copyright of Jump/Honda UK.

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3. London interior designers Jump were responsible for the concept design and implementation of a series of small scooter shops. Jump’s design reflects the idea of urban transport with a backdrop of pointof-sale displays, graphic effects, mirrored fittings and light fixtures that are shaped like road signs.


130 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process

Interview

INTERVIEW

Mat Hunter, Director, IDEO Europe Can you briefly describe your current role and responsibilities? I lead one of IDEO’s seven ‘practices’, which are the business units that specialise in different types of design and innovation work. I’m responsible for setting the vision for the type of work that we should do (considering what the market wants), developing client relationships, realising projects that deliver value to our clients, and ensuring that every project meets its goals. How long have you worked in this industry? I’ve worked in the design industry for about 11 years, first in California and then, more recently, in London. Initially I specialised in design and strategy work for consumer electronics and the Internet, but more recently its anything from food to electronic product convergence. What does management mean to you? I find ‘management’ a fairly bland term. I prefer ‘leadership’. The question is what are you trying to achieve, or where are you trying to go? Of course it takes effective management to get there, but the vision of where to go seems more important to me – it certainly seems to be in short supply. That’s generally why IDEO gets hired, because an organisation cannot see its own way forward. From your perspective, what is design? Design is a creative process that generates value in a social context. It’s about generating products, services, environments and media that businesses and organisations can provide to consumers. The design process can define both what to make as well as how to make it. In what ways is design strategic in your organisation? There is no other type of design that we do, all design is strategic in that it is highly aligned with the business goals of the companies that we work for.

What are the challenges you have faced in terms of getting your clients to realise that design is strategic and not just implementation? Design needs to be both strategic and well implemented, failure can result through a lack of attention to either component. It is true that ineffective design is more likely to fail by not being strategic, but it’s important not to belittle implementation. Frequently clients come to us saying ‘please design me x’, and our hunch is that they really don’t want x, they want y. The good news is that it’s relatively straightforward to persuade clients of our view. The trick is not for us to tell them they are mis-guided, but for their consumers to tell them. We start every engagement with ethnographic research, spending a few hours each with perhaps 10–20 consumers. The insight we get from such work begins to express what the market might want; their unmet needs. After that we can map the opportunities on to the business goals of the organisation, to begin to define a strategy that will provide true value to their business. How do you measure the impact design thinking has with your clients? And for your clients how does design impact their bottom line? It’s notoriously hard to track the return on investment in the short term. That’s why innovation requires such conviction from the top of the company. There is no doubt that companies which possess an effective culture and process of innovation outperform those that do not. Boston Consulting and BusinessWeek’s BusinessWeek’s 2006 innovation review found [for those companies] that the profit margin was likely to be many times higher as well as revenue. It comes back to the idea that the purpose of design is to generate and encapsulate value; higher value means higher profit margins.


Interview

Mat Hunter leads IDEO’s Consumer Experience through Design Practice, a global team that specialises in design and innovation for consumer brands and products. Over the past ten years at IDEO he has developed products, services and strategies for Kodak, TiVO, Hewlett Packard, Procter & Gamble and many others.

Are there design tools or methods used within IDEO to raise awareness of design thinking externally? IDEO has developed several tools to help both our clients and IDEO staff demonstrate some of our methodologies. One is our method cards, a set of 52 cards that show different ways of observing humans, different ways of finding insights [see page 108]. What, to you, is the relationship between design and innovation? The design process, culture and perspective – what we call ‘design thinking’ – is very useful for driving innovation. User insight, collaborative, interdisciplinary teamwork, idea-generation processes, rapid prototyping and visualisation to express and make them tangible. It’s always important to clarify what we mean by innovation, after all there are many types and many reasons why innovation might be valuable to a company. Is it possible to innovate as part of normal dayto-day operations, and to embed innovation into an organisation’s culture? Yes, organisations like Google, 3M and Toyota have innovation at their core and it has made them the highly successful companies they are. The key is to understand that innovation is not just a process, it is also a culture. The company culture must be right for innovation to thrive. Collaboration and risktaking have to be seen as positive and challenging the status quo. The quickest way to get this to happen is for change to start at the top. The CEO and the rest of the board must believe in innovation and actively champion its growth.

According to British Design Council’s industry research, 93% of designers think that business skills are either essential or useful in the curriculum, whereas only 54% of design colleges think that business skills are either essential or useful in the curriculum. Do you think that business skills are important in design education? Yes, hugely. And I think that design colleges are quickly waking up to this shortfall in their curricula. One of the key questions, however, must be what we actually mean by business skills. Yes, understanding the financial underpinnings of product or service delivery is valuable, but I believe that a sound understanding of how industry works, who does what, what does the marketing department do, how do the advertisers work etc., will help the designer see how they might fit into the world of business, what their value is and what the value of other players is. What skills would you like designers and design managers to develop? A design is successful when it connects what consumers really want, with a sound business strategy, and the resulting product, service or whatever is expressed with a suitable brand voice. So the basic skills are an appreciation for ethnography, the process of gaining deep consumer insight, an appreciation of business strategy to gain some understanding of the viability of a product or service, and an understanding of technology. Only when a product, service or other design outcome is desirable to the user, viable for the business and functions appropriately, will it become a success.


132 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process

Interview

INTERVIEW

Brian Smith, Managing Director, FeONIC Plc. What does management mean to you? I believe that management involves a mixture of sharing experiences and knowledge and guiding in the decision-making process, but only when required. I have found that empowering capable people to make their own decisions, irrespective of their backgrounds, affords faster individual development and accountability, which helps builds a more responsible team. What do you like about it? I am very fortunate in that our founder chairman, and my champion, is Brenda Hopkins, a strong admirer of creative thinking and someone who recognised the power and possibilities that design and innovation would breathe into this technology, long enough for it to be nurtured. I take great satisfaction watching young people develop and I particularly enjoy the buzz and pride in FeONIC as our technology gradually becomes more accepted around the world. In terms of the organisational structure where does design sit? Design sits at the very top of our company. Of eight full-time employees we employ a textile designer, a product design engineer and myself, an industrial designer. Design greatly affects all aspects of our business, environment, identity, web presence, the products we work on and, most importantly, our choice of partners, products, promotion and our future. How is design used in your company? Design is a strategic part of our business ethic. It affects our approach to our technology and business equally. The metrics of design management are the metrics of our new product development strategy, from the creation of a design brief, through to the testing routines we adopt to validate the design at production, to the assessment of our partners as strategic users of our technology

What value does design bring to FeONIC? Without design as an encompassing set of values FeONIC would not exist today in anything like its current form. Design is helping the technology be taken seriously because it is being used for real purposes for real people. I believe that our chairman was absolutely right to empower design as a means of challenging, nurturing and growing the core technology assets the company has gradually amassed over the past five years. What are the day-to-day challenges you face in terms of design and business? For some years now, I have felt that design, as a process, is quite controllable. Managing design well requires a disciplined approach and can repeatedly yield good results. Business success arising from the use of design however, relies on other dynamics that often control the rate at which things change. With new technology, ‘strategic’ design might not be enough. New technologies have to survive long enough to become credible; industry interest has to be sufficient enough to merit long-term investment; channel partners have to recognise enough inherent value to commit to making an investment; consumers need to clearly understand the value of the proposition; financiers need to be prepared to wait long enough for the technology to mature, and, above all else, the overall climate needs to be receptive to technology change, and this is often influenced heavily by opinion formers and media comment. Business success is more difficult than design to manage, perhaps this is one reason why strong characters, individual or corporate, supported by strong design champions, for example, Steve Jobbs or James Dyson, have managed to succeed. By controlling the business process as they have controlled the design process, they maintain control long enough to achieve success.


Interview

Brian describes his role at FeONIC as a hybrid of technology champion and creative manager. His work encompasses technical development, early product commercialisation and new market seeding as a prelude to technology or product licensing. Brian has a background in design and management.

What are the challenges you have faced in terms of getting people within your company to realise design is strategic and not just implementation? This has been a massive challenge and is, I believe, the single most important factor affecting technology start-ups. Design is the poor sibling of the innovation family in the eye of technologists, engineers and scientists. I believe that there are many reasons for this, including lack of design accountability and the affiliation of design skills to vocational rather than professional ones. At FeONIC our development team consists of physicists, engineers and scientists, who have embraced our design-led culture since the early days of its introduction. In your company how does design impact the bottom line? This is really difficult for us to quantify, as it is impossible to imagine FeONIC in its current form without design as a key skill. In the last five years we have sold over £2,000,000 worth of products that utilise FeONIC technology, developed through our emerging fundamental design strategy, supported by our distributors and partners around the world. Five years ago these products did not exist. More importantly we are establishing a list of very credible partners around the world that are seeing the strategic opportunity that FeONIC technology and our IP actually offers. As such, some very credible market penetration has been achieved in Europe.

What, to you, is the relationship between design and innovation? I believe that design is to a great degree reactive whilst innovation is much more proactive. In design one tends to talk in current, known language and terminologies , or sometimes in the emerging languages of fashion and style, engineering standards, regulations and build configurations. In innovation the languages are less clear, as in many cases new words have to be created to explain new and emerging thinking. Some designers are, of course, particularly innovative in creating completely new languages within their own field of design, however for me the two are completely entwined with good design providing the vehicle for communicating good innovation to the market. Are business skills important in design education? They are critical to our future. Actually, I believe that design is in danger of being marginalised as a ‘non-accountable overhead’ in many of today’s increasingly financially-driven companies. Only with education adopting a more responsible and accountable ‘business relative’ stance will designers achieve the same corporate respect as accountants or lawyers and become properly recognised as a relevant and very necessary profession.


134 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KEY SKILLS

Managing Creative Teams Getting the most from creative teams relies on good communication, delegation and leadership skills, and valuing and respecting the different styles, approaches, talents and skills of all team members. Teams that work well together exhibit high levels of collaboration and trust; they like working with each other. Formally agreeing roles and responsibilities is important (so everyone knows what they are doing and what is expected from them), as is matching the right people and personalities with the right project (so that people are actually able to perform the tasks). However, it is the informal conversations that occur, and the actual ‘chemistry’ of the team, which will stimulate the sort of creative results the organisation's are looking for today. Learning to be comfortable with a certain level of imprecision is part of being a design manager. Design is all about iteration, exploring and revisiting ideas. Stifling creativity by micro-managing, controlling and dominating, or steering a solution in a particular direction before the design team has had the chance to fully uncover the problem and explore new ideas, are all detrimental to the nature of the creative process. The key words for anyone responsible for managing a creative team are freedom, focus and budget. The freedom to allow time and space for divergent thinking, the focus to then encourage convergent thinking, and a realistic awareness of the budget in terms of both time available and costs allocated.

TEAM-WORKING Combining the right people, personalities and skills into project teams that will work well and within tight timescales, is a significant challenge. In the current climate, design is more about team performance than individual achievement, and working within a design team can hold distinct advantages. Projects can be broken down into clearly defined tasks, roles and responsibilities, and then assigned within the team as appropriate. However, every team member should retain equal responsibility for the outcome of the project, and for completing his or her task on time (as some team members may be relying on one person finishing a task before another can begin). Negotiating and facilitating, cooperating and supporting, looking for win-win solutions and congratulating team members for a job well done, will inspire positive team working. STRUCTURE, GUIDANCE AND LEADERSHIP Design teams work best when there is structure, guidance and leadership. Structure means agreeing roles, responsibilities and tasks, the timing of design reviews and decision-making processes, and project goals, deadlines and milestones. Design managers often have to exercise judgement and compromise between honouring the client agreement and trusting the team’s creative ability. If the structure, budget or timescale is detrimental to the creative process, clear communication with the client will be needed in order to negotiate the benefits of an extension. In other situations, the design manager may need to exercise formal or informal disciplinary measures in order to prevent individual team members undermining the overall goals and time scales of the project team and the client relationship.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What different ways are there to find the right designer to complement an existing design team? How would you go about finding and engaging a whole design team to carry out a specific project?


Managing Creative Teams | 135

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Guidance means keeping the team informed of changes, sharing information, providing feedback, offering constructive criticism of design ideas (as opposed to destructive criticism of individuals), and giving praise where praise is due. Providing guidance also means encouraging initiative and responsibility, drumming-up enthusiasm when morale is low, maintaining the quality of creative solutions, and encouraging the team to communicate effectively and considerately with each other and those outside the immediate team. Design is a collective process and as such someone needs to be in charge. Due to the differences in how designers and managers communicate and operate, design managers need to provide leadership, promoting the abilities of the design team and taking responsibility when the situation so demands. Conflict is a natural part of the creative process, but it needs to be dealt with quickly and decisively so as not to undermine the overall team goals. Bringing roadblocks and conflicting agendas out into the open and dealing with them positively will allow the team to move forward once again.

1. Joyn is a new concept for work in an office environment. Joyn recognises that the office is no longer the only place where people work. Since many of the tasks that used to be part of daily office routines can now be handled at home or on the road, the office’s most important function now is it’s provision of a central hub for the intensive interpersonal exchange of information. Traditionally, office interiors take their cue from the fixed pattern of individual work and a strict division of labour. Joyn challenges this. Image courtesy of Vitra.

2. Joyn is the culmination of Vitra’s 40-years worth of office research, combined with fresh insights from French industrial designers Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec. It is an open system that can dynamically adjust to changing demands. Rather than impose one way of working, Joyn supports many. The design encourages mobility, mixing and natural collaboration between employees. Image courtesy of Vitra.

3. St Luke’s threw out the traditional, hierarchical arrangement of teams grouped by function or discipline. Instead multidisciplinary teams work together collaboratively to explore the specific needs of each client in dedicated brand rooms, such as this one for Clarks. When clients themselves are invited into the brand rooms, they have a sense of ownership for the unfolding ideas by being involved in the process. Image courtesy of St Luke’s.


136 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KEY SKILLS

Facilitating the Design Process Design methods and processes provide a structured way of performing specific tasks. Their success relies on making sense of information and research, hunches and suppositions and the constraints and contradictions found in any design problem. The planned approach may vary in reality somewhat due to the iterative nature of the design process and new discoveries made by the team in the process of addressing client needs. It is a matter of experience and good judgement as to whether a design manager needs to bring the process back on track, or question the design process in relation to the brief without actually stifling the creativity of the design team. Facilitating the design process requires a good people person that can listen and understand disparate department cultures and their associated agendas. Design managers usually have a good understanding of the client’s business agendas, and can help the design process by keeping the team abreast of any changes happening within the client organisation, particularly with regard to the client’s vision. The design manager plays an important role in making sure information flows to the design team, whether about changes within a client organisation, or information on new materials or processes. Translating business terms to designers, and explaining design terms to clients, promotes clear communication and understanding on both sides.

DESIGN REVIEWS Held at intervals throughout the design process, a design review evaluates the project against the criteria in the brief and the agreed key stages. According to Hollins & Hollins, lack of communication between people from different occupations is especially rife in large companies. ‘People quite often do not understand what information the other needs to do their job, and they do not understand how one persons decisions can affect the work done by others.’ (1991). Design circles – small groups from throughout the organisation put together to review design – can help alleviate these problems. For example, design reviews are a common occurrence within Apple’s creative working processes. Apple employees talk incessantly about deep-collaboration and cross-pollination. Essentially this means that products do not pass from team to team, and there are no discreet, sequential development stages. Instead, Apple’s design process is simultaneous and organic. Products are developed by all departments simultaneously – design, hardware, software – and in endless rounds of interdisciplinary design reviews (Grossman, 2005).


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1 9

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Product champion

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8 A maximum of nine people

7

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People join when their experience becomes relevant

People leave when their expertise is no longer required

And may return later

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Main design circle

8

Supplementary circles

Product champion

1. Design circles can be used at all stages of the design process to help improve communication and facilitate decision-making. Small groups from throughout an organisation can come together to review the design. Groups of larger sizes than nine individuals tend to break down into sub-groups, which will lead to less effective communication and decision-making. Members of the design circle will change depending on who is best suited to meeting the objectives or a particular stage of the design process. Source: Hollins and Hollins, 1991.

2. For larger projects, supplementary design circles can be formed around the main design circles, with lines of communication as indicated in this diagram. The design manager should be a constant member of the main design circle, and should provide feedback to those design team members that are relevant to the project, but are not in the main circle. Source: Hollins and Hollins, 1991.


138 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process STIMULATING WORKING ENVIRONMENTS

SMART OBJECTIVES

Design managers need to seek ways to safeguard the creative process, and to shield the design team from the unproductive comments of others. Creating the right working environment for the team also creates the necessary conditions to aid the design process and creative thinking. By nature, designers are reflective beings and need to go through periods of divergent (debate and dialogue and lateral thinking) and convergent (processing ideas on ones own) thinking. These different thinking and working styles require different environmental conditions, for example, open-plan and lively spaces for stimulation, versus quiet areas for concentrated thinking.

Making multiple choices and decisions, and accommodating the varying demands of others, makes it important to plan and prioritise workloads, over the short and the long term. Setting objectives that are SMART (specific, measurable, achievable realistic and timed), can guide the decisions made by design managers and help team members be more effective.

Table 1: Smart Objectives Goals Have the expected outcomes Specific been made clear? Is the information necessary to complete the task available?

It is also a powerful way to motivate teams to achieve outstanding results. Once the goal of any task or project are defined, the order of priority can be established. The task can then begin, one step at a time.

Priorities Clarify what needs done and when. Establish the priority of the task in relation to other tasks. Not knowing what the expected outcome should be leads to poor time management – the team will not be sure of where to focus their skills.

How does the task support the organisational goals, and is this measurable? How does the task help customers, or reduce expenses?

Clarify the expected outcomes in quantifiable and qualifiable terms (if possible).

Achievable

Is the task achievable within the time and cost allocated?

Communicate throughout the process. Get support if extra resources are needed to complete the task. If necessary, say no to taking on the task if the resources are not available to succeed.

Realistic

Are the objectives realistic?

Take into account public and employee holidays. Ensure the team are able to proceed as quickly as it is scheduled.

Timed

Is there a clearly prioritised and defined schedule for the project?

Ensure a realistic timetable and deadline for the task is agreed with the client.

Measurable

Be able to demonstrate the relationship between the completed task and the success of the business.


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3. Dyson Demo in London is a space used by Dyson for educational and media events, and to showcase their latest technologies, which are developed in the company’s research, development and production facilities. Image courtesy of Dyson.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How can design managers lead, and support the design of products and processes that stand out, emotionally connect with consumers and add value to the business? In what other ways can design and management support each other?


140 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KEY SKILLS

Developing Collaborative Cultures Organisations that encourage their employees, stakeholders and shareholders to share resources, ideas and innovations are often the ones which deliver products, services and experiences that their customers actually want. Design managers, because of their familiarity with both design and business, are well placed to act as catalysts within organisations, by contributing to new initiatives. In addition, design managers are also in a position to form the ‘glue’ between business and design, influencing the way that units can work together in new and surprising combinations. Engaging a variety of stakeholders in the creative process facilitates and integrates different disciplines, functions and divisions.

CLIENT TEAMS In a design consultancy, individuals from a range of disciplines or functions can be organised to work together in specific client teams. The advantages of client teams are that its members can immerse themselves in the project problem, and maintain a level of confidentiality away from other client teams. As teams are interdisciplinary, the client problem can be viewed from different perspectives simultaneously. Another benefit of client teams is that they are isolated from functional units and other day-to-day business concerns or distractions. PROJECT TEAMS

FUNCTIONAL TEAMS The conventional, and rather hierarchical, approach to design teams dictates that each function or discipline, such as designers, project managers or account directors, should work in isolation. Design teams set up in this way are good for sharing discipline-specific knowledge, as team members benefit from a cross-fertilisation of ideas from colleagues working with different clients and in different industry sectors.

In a client organisation, people from a range of disciplines or functional units can be organised to work together in specific project teams. Having people from variety of backgrounds in a project team can generate the all-important creative spark. In the words of Rockwell (2003), it’s not about ‘getting people to sit in a room and agree with you…it’s about getting enough voices in a room that are dissimilar, create some friction, and use that friction to make a decision you wouldn’t have made otherwise.’

Within a client organisation, functional business units such as marketing or finance departments are established so that people from each area work in a self-contained way. The way the units work is focused around the hierarchies, lines of authority and conventions of the business and its culture; people from different disciplines meet and work together in team and client meetings. Working in separate business units creates focus, but business units by default do not allow for the crossfertilisation and knowledge of ideas from different units on a day-to-day basis.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: In what other ways can design managers help build collaborative cultures, and inspire team members to lead by design?


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DESIGN AND INNOVATION Is it possible to develop a culture of innovation, throughout an organisation, by creating a separate innovation team, one that is remote from day-to-day business activities? Or does the act of collaborating in day-to day business concerns actually stimulate new responses to organisational challenges? In some the organisation's, design operates as a separate resource (the design team); in others design is embedded within several different resources (for example, marketing and new product development). In either case, collaborative cultures have healthy levels of trust and communication, both within and across divisions and teams. Powell has observed that ‘a company is made up of people whose informal relationships are more important than their formal ones’. There may be formal reporting structures and working hierarchies, but it is frequently ‘at the nittygritty interpersonal level, that hundreds of decisions are made everyday that are ultimately more important than those few made at the top’ (1992).

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1. The BMW Group debated the merits of division-oriented versus project-oriented organisation, and developed a concept where associates within technical departments join project teams for the duration of the concept phase. Then, in a subsequent implementation phase, the associates return to their original technical departments, but still maintaining their close links with the project team. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.

2. Creative brainstorming methods are taught to employees by organisations such as Whirlpool and Toyota. Suggestion boxes are also provided by these organisations to encourage new ideas or improvements from any of their employees. Companies like these are said to be operating in the spirit of kaizen, a word taken from the Japanese work ethic of everybody improving all the time. In this approach employees are seen as potential innovators.


142 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process KEY SKILLS

Visual Communication The ability to represent ideas visually is key to the design team’s ability to communicate with clients, and the success of a project. Visual presentations can take many forms, from thumbnails and rough sketches of initial ideas, through to finished representational drawings and computer-generated renderings of a product or concept. Visualising ideas is a form of thinking that designers use to come to terms with a design problem, to explore the issues involved and to gain familiarity with a particular type of content or context. It is also one of the key ways in which the process of design works by exploring ideas and testing and prototyping different solutions. Designers and their clients go through a process of exploration and elimination of what does and does not work. Anyone needing to communicate abstractly would do well to gain confidence in visualising, sketching and paper prototyping. The ability to draw is critical for designers as it allows them to capture and communicate their ideas in the process of designing; to create final presentation drawings that visualise the end-result; and to communicate within a team conversation or client meeting. Drawing is a means of research and analysis and of checking and testing inventive ideas. We draw to communicate, capture a fleeting thought or idea and to record and represent information. MIND MAPPING Mind maps are tools that allow you to generate ideas quickly. Originated by Tony Buzan, mind maps are non-linear representations of abstract words, colours and images, which allow the free flow of ideas by organisation and association.

To mind map your idea, take a large piece of blank paper and some different coloured pens, start with a central word or image, then branch out, putting key words or images on connecting lines. Specific examples and creative associations can be accommodated, and links are made using lines, and associations with themes or categories are made by use of different colours. By clustering themes around associations and links, similarities and differences between them can be identified and evaluated. Mind maps are an excellent means for generating a wealth of possibilities that, through brainstorming and review, can illustrate and suggest unanticipated relationships and potential opportunities. WHOLE-BRAIN THINKING The two sides of our brain contain two distinct forms of consciousness. The right side is known to process information holistically, and the left analytically. The right brain is decisive and controlled, it breaks words and thoughts apart. The left brain is random, creative and unstructured, it blends words and thoughts together. People have a natural preference for brain dominance and for hand dominance. Both sides of the brain play a role in our day-to-day activities, each making a different contribution. Managers are frequently stereotyped as being right brain, while designers are often labelled left brain. Successful design managers have the ability to see things from both the design and the management perspectives. Tapping into different thinking styles as necessary and improving whole-brain thought processes, can help in the quality of decision-making when it comes to design-related situations. The following exercise will help you tap into both sides of the brain, to take a ‘whole-brain’ approach to situations.


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‘Thinking does not have to take place in words. Nor are concepts limited by the availability of words to describe them. Thinking can take place in images and feelings which are quite definite but too amorphous to be expressed in words. People often have to think in practical, messy ways in order to solve problems and bring things about.’ Edward de Bono


144 | PART TWO Managing the Design Process Exercise 1: Whole Brain Thinking 1. Mirror writing Draw a line vertically down the centre of a page. Then, holding a pen in each hand, mirror-write your name. 2. Double doodle On a large sheet of paper, draw with both hands at the same time, in out, up and down. This relaxes the arms and the eyes. 3. Figure of eight Draw the figure ‘8’ three times with each hand, then three times with both hands together. DRAWING Drawing is a process. It is about representing an idea, or series of ideas, of how something will look or the format it will take, but it is also a form of visual thinking, a way to make decisions in the process of creation. For those skilled in sketching, the best way to draw is quickly, to get the idea down on paper and record it while it is still fresh in your head. You don’t have to be able to draw well to communicate an idea (stick men are fine), but the practice does help you to see better, and to notice things. The following exercise will help free your eye and your mind from habitual ways of seeing.

Exercise 2: Ways of Seeing 1. Core shapes Look at an object nearby and visually break it down into triangles, circles, squares, lines, curves or dots. 2. Upside-down drawing Upside-down drawing can free us from purely viewing an object, say a chair, and not the series of shapes from which it is made. If copying another drawing, merely turn the page upside down and get started. 3. Opposite-hand drawing This will free you from habitual ways of drawing and seeing. It is an excellent way to subvert the controlling, dominant hand-eye co-ordination and experience seeing differently. COLLAGE Collage is a technique of visualising an idea using given or found images. A useful client exercise is to put a stack of magazines on a table, and ask them to cut out pictures and form image boards that represent their perception of a situation or customer need. The visuals then act as a prop around which insight and understanding can be gained. Often, the significance of the choices, and the way clients describe them, can reveal latent needs that are not explicitly described in an initial brief.

‘For Leonardo, drawing was an instrument of research and analysis, a means of checking and testing inventions. His sketches became teachers in their own right.’ Irma Richter


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PRESENTATIONS

ARTICULATING THE NATURE OF DESIGN WORK

Standing up in front of a group of people, many of whom may be unknown, and presenting work can be fairly daunting. There are however, a number of preparations that can help things go smoothly.

For people without a background or training in design, it can be difficult to understand the value that good design thinking can bring to an organisation. Client presentations are a good opportunity to provide insight not only into a proposed design solution, but also into the nature of the design process itself. When presenting a design project, the project presentation should have a rationale, which explains the design team’s approach to the brief, the nature of the process followed, and how the solution was arrived at.

First, identify your audience. Who exactly are they? Each person may require a different level of language, vocabulary and formality. Identify what they are expecting from the presentation. Think about things from their point of view and be empathetic about their expectations. Ask yourself, what they need to know and keep focused on what information is actually required. Second, assemble your presentation material. Talking and presenting with visuals to hand will give you and your audience something to focus on. It will then become easier to plan or stage your presentation in a step-by-step manner, and describe or explain the thinking behind each step. When presenting, using prompt cards is better than reading off a page, as it allows for making eye contact and a more spontaneous sounding delivery.

Preparation is the key here, first review the brief to ensure that its requirements have actually been addressed, and communicate your presentation in a way that demonstrates you have understood the brief. Quoting directly from the brief shows you are aware and have paid attention to the business needs of the client organisation.

If presenting in a group, an elected team member should first outline to the audience what the team is going to talk about, introduce each member of the team by name and briefly say what each person will talk about.

Secondly, outline how you approached the brief and the design direction you pursued; the way the design functions and the appeal or qualities that align the design solution with the client’s brand or mission. Tell the story of your creative process in a way that will generate enthusiasm and excitement about the design solution, and then, go into detail about particular aspects of the solution, for example, the layout, format, or materials used.

Remember to be systematic about the order in which you present your work. Stage your presentation visuals (whether in a digital format or large boards pinned up on a wall) in a rational order, and go through them one by one. Finally, it is always good practice to sum up at the end of the presentation.

Finish the presentation with a summary of why you believe the design solution achieves the objectives set in the brief, and if possible touch on the value design can bring. Remember to take into account the expectations of your audience, and use language they will understand.


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Part Three: Managing the Design Implemen


ntation

This is the stage where design projects are delivered. The focus of this stage is placed on the process and practice of managing projects. Once a project has been completed, the delivery of it can entail further stages of design management, such as developing guidelines and manuals that will, for example, maintain the design, or translate it for a global marketplace. At this stage, the design focus is placed on the management of design agendas, projects and possibilities.


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KNOWLEDGE

The Project Management Process In this context, project management is about how to translate design strategies and processes into a finished result. This entails planning and coordinating the people, stakeholders and resources necessary to get the project built, on time and within budget. Maintaining a good client relationship throughout this process relies on clear, effective and frequent communication, a good design brief and agreement of defined roles and responsibilities. There are a number of questions that must be addressed, for example, what is the scope of the project? What activities, tasks and resources are needed? How much time should be allocated to each step, and what will the cost be? Identifying these needs forms the basis of good project management. For a design manager operating as a project manager, it involves taking ownership and responsibility for the client relationship and how design decisions are communicated. The ultimate goal for all involved is to achieve the best end result possible, within the timeframe and budget available, and to maintain a positive working relationship throughout.

COST, TIME AND PERFORMANCE Putting together a schedule of how a project will run, and making sure that it stays on track, is not easy. Design is an iterative process, and many trade-off decisions need to be made in response to the issues and concerns raised during the lifetime of a project. In addition, in response to the conflicting demands of numerous stakeholders, compromises will need to be made. For the project manager, strong leadership, good judgement and the ability to make informed decisions will be needed to balance the demands of cost, time and performance of the end result. Poorly-managed projects often result in delays and high costs, whereas well managed projects are more likely to be implemented on time and within budget.

‘The two main resources that affect creativity are time and money. Managers need to allot these resources carefully. Like matching people with the right assignments, deciding how much time and money to give to a team or project is a sophisticated judgement call that can either support or kill creativity.’ Teresa M. Amabile


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Table 1: Measures of Quality, Time and Cost Measures of Quality Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability, Aesthetics Perceived quality/reputation Value for money Measures of Time Manufacturing lead time Due date Rate of product information Delivery lead time Frequency of delivery Measures of Cost Manufacturing cost Value-added Selling price Running cost Service cost Profit Source: Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge.

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1. Projects must be managed to maintain an appropriate balance between time, cost and performance, which are the three key influencing factors of any project. Trade-off decisions and the implications of each factor will need to be evaluated against potentially conflicting demands (for example, reducing cost and raising the quality) from a range of different stakeholders and contributors.

2. Translating design strategies and processes into finished results involves making a number of trade-off decisions between time, quality and costs, right to the very end of the project. Here, Chris Bangle, Global Chief of Design for BMW, discusses a design with some of the 300 designers, modellers, engineers, ergonomicists and material specialists in Munich, who are all working together to achieve the benchmark of BMW quality. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.


150 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation PROJECT PLANNING When planning project implementation, and in consultation with the design team and the client contact, the design or project manager estimates the amount of work involved on a project and defines the terms of the contract. Roles and responsibilities will then be formally assigned, both within the client organisation and the design team. At this point, confidentiality clauses and non-disclosure agreements can also be included, as appropriate, to the needs of each party. Broadly, projectimplementation planning can be deconstructed into five key areas of activity. Firstly, the design or project manager should ensure the client and design teams agree and understand the project brief, and what will actually be delivered. This is achieved by breaking down the design or project brief into manageable project stages. The project manager must make sure that the design methodology, process, development and implementation stages are mapped out in the sequence in which they must occur. Secondly, the design or project manager should breakdown what needs to be done within each project stage into smaller tasks and activities, prioritise the tasks and estimate the time needed to complete each one. He or she will also need to identify relationships between tasks and determine what activities need to occur before another can begin. These interdependencies should be monitored as delays can have serious knock-on effects to later project stages.

Thirdly, project roles, responsibilities, lines of communication and team-management procedures will need to be identified. The project team should be set up and the project or design manager will need to make sure all parties are aware of their responsibilities, as well as ensure the time estimated for each stage, and the duration allowed for each task, is realistic. Fourthly, the design or project manager should identify any additional resources or stakeholder involvement that will be needed to complete the project. Key milestones such as deadlines, reviews and presentations should also be identified. These will serve as useful points to evaluate actual project progression against the project plan. Project review meetings allow the design or project manager to monitor progress, both internally with the design team, and externally with the client team, as well as in combined team meetings. Finally, the project or design manager should set up a project file and ensure the team understands the system for information flow, documentation, record keeping and administration. The project manager is responsible for making sure information flows between the design and client teams, and for mediating decisions, providing leadership and direction and making informed decisions at key stages. Everyone involved on the project should be aware of how his or her roles and responsibilities fit within the overall project plan.

‘Good communication in project management has four characteristics: ensuring that all sides understand the problem and are fully briefed; ensuring that all sides understand each other and are talking the same language; ensuring that all sides are always fully informed, sharing problems and solutions; and encouraging all sides to share experiences and knowledge, especially on details, procedures and knowledge.’ Dick Petersen


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3. Volkswagen’s retail moving-in identity guidelines for its car showrooms include suggestions on how to delegate responsibility for managing their identity standards. The champion system consists of a team of key people drawn from within the organisation who are responsible for ensuring specific areas of the retail standards are implemented and maintained. Image courtesy of Volkswagen/Integrity Design Management. 4. Each of the delegated roles, or champions, are responsible for different tasks and activities of Volkswagen’s moving-in day action plan. Image courtesy of Volkswagen/Integrity Design Management.


152 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation PROJECT PLANNING TOOLS

PROJECT MANAGEMENT BENEFITS

There are a number of tools that will help a design project manager plan and track the works. Commercial project-management software includes applications like Microsoft Project, Basecamp or Filemaker. A design industry standard however is a Gantt chart. This form of bar graph is a working document that lists each of the project stages and the tasks to be completed, in the order that they must be completed. The Gantt chart also highlights any dependencies between different activities and stages. In any project there will be tasks that cannot be carried out until a previous step is completed, for example, an interior designer cannot develop the design of a specific retail space until the site itself is surveyed for accurate measurements.

Good project planning and management can make a big difference to whether projects run smoothly and ‘are’ on time and ‘on’ budget, or fall into ‘firefighting mode’ and other difficulties. For design consultancies, sound project management can also provide operational benefits and in some instances, a crucial competitive advantage. For the client, good project management and planning is a reassurance of how design operates and delivers results, and how the design process and project progress can be communicated in a transparent and accountable manner.

Information highlighted in a Gantt chart includes: a prioritisation list of activities, the likely duration of tasks from start to finish, the duration of intervals between tasks, links and interdependencies in relationships between tasks, critical and non-critical tasks and key project milestones. A Gantt chart is a plan for how a project should run in an ideal world, and does not necessarily reflect how the project will run in real life. Regular reviews to assess progress will be necessary throughout the project; key stakeholders may go on holiday or become ill, and client contacts can change. Gantt charts provide a focus for monitoring progress, anticipating how resources are managed, and minimising the chance of pitfalls and delays.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What, specifically, can a design manager do to help lead and support the process of design? Consider this from the point of view of planning, budgeting, communicating and educating.


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Preparing for moving-in day Task list and timeplan There are twelve key tasks that must be undertaken by the Brand Manager (BM) and the Regional Construction Manager (RCM) to ensure moving-in day goes according to plan. The timeplan in Appendix A shows the recommended number of weeks before moving-in day that the following tasks should be undertaken: 1 Review Retail ldentity Standards Guide (RISG) on Desktop (BM & RCM) 2 Review Architect plans to determine point of sale (POS) requirements and order showroom materials (BM & RCM) 3 Confirm totem layout and order totems (BM & RCM) 4 Agree moving-in day with everyone concerned (BM & RCM) 5 Order identity materials (BM) 6 Provisionally book merchandiser (RCM) 7 Appoint showroom Champions (BM) 8 Train Champions on VRC and the RISG (BM) 9 Confirm moving-in day to all parties (BM & RCM)

5. Gantt charts are critical to the process of managing projects. This task list and timeplan are from Volkswagen’s retail moving-in identity guidelines for its car showrooms. The list outlines twelve key tasks that must be undertaken by the brand manager and the regional construction manager to ensure moving-in day goes according to plan. Image courtesy of Volkswagen/Integrity Design Management.

10 Check all materials and POS have arrived (Champions) 11 Plan moving-in day with everyone concerned (BM & Champoins) 12 Train showroom staff in VRC and retail identity standards (BM)

December 2003

6. Twiki, (a structured Wiki), is a collaborative software platform and knowledgemanagement system used in project management. It can be used on the Internet, or on a company intranet, to manage documentation and project planning for teams of hundreds of people in various locations all over the world. Twiki is used by companies such as Yahoo!, BT, Disney and Motorola. Image courtesy of Twiki.org.


154 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation KNOWLEDGE

Project Management in Practice Bad project management is the main reason for client dissatisfaction with design, and why clients take their business elsewhere. No project ever goes exactly according to plan, but what happens if the project is going off track, over time and over budget? Managing the client’s design expectations is an important part of how successful a project is considered to be. As an iterative process, design encourages the integration of new discoveries, opportunities and constraints identified during each project stage. This is a process that requires each team member to be comfortable with continual change. Monitoring progress regularly, and communicating effectively with the client and the design teams, will inspire confidence in both the process and those involved with the project. During the course of a project’s lifetime, a number of circumstances will inevitably influence how closely the proposed project plan maps what is actually happening. Good project managers are flexible and adaptable in the face of unforeseen circumstances, yet remain objective, balanced and realistic in how they respond to the client and design challenges that arise. CRITICAL PATH The critical path is used to track progress of the project implementation. It identifies those tasks that must occur on time and in sequence for the final project deadline to be achieved. Project managers will be responsible for monitoring actual progress against the proposed schedule, for controlling the project, and steering it back on track if necessary. Three steps must be taken when tasks, activities or external events prohibit things going according to plan. Firstly, the original project plan needs to be saved as the baseline version. Secondly, the project plan needs to be regularly and honestly updated so that it reflects the progress actually being made. Thirdly, the baseline plan should be compared to the updated one, and, if they do not match, an appropriate course of remedying action can be taken.

RISK MANAGEMENT AND AUDITS Risk audits identify where problem areas are most likely to crop up on a project, and propose what should happen in the event of one occurring. If things start to go wrong, or a project deadline is not going to be met, various responses can be considered and the wider implications on time, costs and resource allocation estimated. The original project scope will be de- and re-scoped in response to the changed conditions and in an attempt to get the project back on track. Weak points will be identified and solutions proposed. For example, in client organisations with many internal stakeholders, client sign-off may take longer than originally estimated, delaying a part of the design process from meeting its deadline. This may be resolved by reducing the number of stakeholders that can approve the design, or perhaps by extending the time allowed at each stage. By monitoring actual progress of the project against an agreed schedule, potential delays can be proactively brought to the attention of the client and the design team. Proposing a solution at this stage reduces the risk of the delivery date incurring actual delay, but in any live project a level of compromise will still be needed. If the priority is to meet a deadline, the client and project manager can increase the size of the project team, which may mean increased costs. If it is important to keep the project on budget, it may be agreed to extend the deadline for completion but alter the material specification or reduce the size of the project team. Decisions must, where possible, be made in consultation with the design team, to gauge the impact on the design process itself.


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1. Inditex, one of the world’s largest fashion distributors, has over 2800 retail outlets in 64 countries. Its largest retail chain is Zara. A key element of Inditex’s operations are the fashion stores themselves, which are carefully designed so as to be inviting to customers, and are used by the company to collect information that is then used to adapt their business offers to meet customer demands. Shown here is the Zara store in Casablanca.

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2. Inditex’s risk-management model is based on flexibility, and the ability to adapt their offers to meet customer desires in the shortest time possible. For Inditex, time, above cost, is the main factor to be considered. The way in which the organisation manages its internal and external processes with stakeholders and suppliers, enables Inditex to shorten turnaround time and achieve greater flexibility, which reduces stock, and therefore the number of items left unsold, to a minimum.

3 & 4. Inditex’s logistics system,which is based on software designed by the company, means that the time between receiving an order at Inditex’s distribution centre to the delivery of goods is on average 24 hours for European shops and a maximum of 48 hours for American or Asian stores. All images courtesy of Inditex.


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‘There are costs and risks to a programme of action, but they are far less than the long range risks and costs of comfortable inaction.’ John F Kennedy.

SCOPE CREEP

COST EFFECTIVENESS

When the tasks and activities defined in a project brief or scope of works grow beyond what has been agreed between the client and the design resource, it is referred to as scope creep. Designers can unwittingly agree to carry out additional design or redesign work in response to a client request, without being fully aware of the implications on the original agreements in the design brief. A good project manager will act as the first line of defence against scope creep, and will work internally with the design team to estimate the time and resources needed to carry out any extra work, and then present a proposal to the client for consideration. A design team member faced with a client request for extra work outside of the original scope of works should always refer the client back to the project manager. This has the added benefit of keeping budget negotiations away from designers, allowing them to focus on the creative design thinking for which they have been hired. Scope creep should not be viewed as a bad thing provided it is responsibly managed. Often, the growth of a project from the design brief creates additional opportunities for the design resource to win more work and so generate more income. The client team can also benefit by addressing additional organisational concerns through already established design projects.

According to Borja de Mozota (2003), managing the project budget requires the control of three types of costs: the type of payment (fixed or hourly rates, royalties or variable rates), the actual budgeted costs, and cost effectiveness. The client is most likely to measure cost effectiveness in terms of what they consider to be value for money, and what they are getting in exchange for their investments of time, money and resources. Cost effectiveness can also include the benefits of longterm relationships, where trust is built and design teams develop familiarity with, and are well able to accommodate, the working conditions, personalities, and the constraints of the company culture. REGULAR REVIEW MEETINGS Good project management should create regular opportunities for clear and open communication, both with the design team and the client team. This can happen daily through informal conversations and through review meetings, held regularly and frequently, to assess and monitor progress. The design or project manager plays an important role in the review meeting as they negotiate on behalf of the design team, leaving the designers free to concentrate on project considerations. They also manage the client contact with the design team, encouraging the opportunity for design discussion and additional project commissions, while

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: In what ways can design delivery be improved to get the best value from the design budget, and the organisation’s investment in design?


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simultaneously reducing potential conflicts over scope creep and hasty promises of results, which the design team may not actually be able to meet. As well as keeping the client abreast of project progress and reviewing and revising the project schedule, the project or design manager should also keep the design team informed of changes within the client organisation that could affect the project. POST-PROJECT REVIEW Reviews held after the completion of a project are useful for both the client and the design consultancy as, with the benefit of hindsight, there are always better ways to do things. Independently or together, both sides can acknowledge key achievements, identify areas for improvement and learn from the process. In addition to the project outcome and the performance measures and metrics that will indicate the successes (and failures) of the project, the relationship between the client and the design consultancy itself can be reviewed. In this way, the client can become a more effective user of design, and the consultancy can become a better provider of design solutions. For the consultancy, a better understanding of the client organisation increases the chances of their being engaged again; long-term relationships based on trust and previous project successes encourage clients not to move their business elsewhere. Post-project reviews are also the place for clients and consultancies to negotiate how to promote the success of projects, without breaching either party’s confidentiality agreements. 5. Innocent take advantage of distribution and delivery as an opportunity to promote their brand. Innocent’s delivery lorries, or ‘Cow Vans’, have horns, eyelashes, udders and a tail. Each truck has designed specifications, in this instance, a name and a button that, when pressed, makes the ‘moo’ sound of a cow. Image courtesy of Innocent.

6. This is part of Volkswagen’s point-of-sale guidelines for its showroom cars. Volkswagen specifies the position of the demonstration car’s promotional graphics. Image courtesy of Volkswagen/Integrity Design Management.


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Social and Environmental Responsibilities The materials specified and the production processes used in the design and delivery of products and services is increasingly under scrutiny by share and stakeholders, consumers and clients, pressure groups and government bodies. Design can, and frequently does, play a role in contributing to environmental and social problems, but taking a responsible approach to design brings the opportunity to shape a more environmentally and socially aware future, and leads to valuable competitive advantage amongst increasingly demanding and emotionally involved audiences. Companies that do not take a long-term view are missing important and rapidly shifting trends. Corporate accountability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) agendas are part of a global move to do the ‘right’ thing. These agendas can advocate change and transformations within organisations and regulatory bodies if they go beyond public relations exercises, and become embedded in the ethos and ethics of the business. Design decisions will be made consciously and unconsciously and responsibly and irresponsibly, within the total lifecycle of a product or service. Environmentally-aware design seeks to reduce the material and energy used and waste created at each stage in the development process. Socially-aware design seeks to broaden the accessibility and inclusiveness of people able to make use of the products and services on offer, for example, by incorporating disabled access to buildings. Design managers play an important role in improving the flow of information on new sustainable materials and techniques. They also monitor changes in legislation and financial incentives, for both the client and the design team. For example, consumer trends indicate that people are willing to pay more for ‘ethical’ (healthier, safer, environmentally

friendly or socially responsible) products and services. Many existing business models are based on a 200-year old view of industrial society, and the impact of these models is now being called into question because of their effect on the planet and the eco-system as a whole. Legislation can attempt to enforce new behaviours, but it is more likely that growing consumer regard for the environment and responsible products and services will drive changes. SOURCING RAW MATERIALS Products and services are made with materials chosen to satisfy a number of factors, for example aesthetics (do they look good?), function (do they work?) or costs (can we make a profit?). Increasingly, customers want to know more about a product, how it was made, where it was made, and even who made it and under what working conditions. In short, is the product or service environmentally and socially responsible? Regulatory bodies are in place to monitor and control the flow of where raw materials come from, and many products, services and suppliers now carry kitemarks or other guarantees of quality, origin of materials, and ethical trading standards (such as the Fairtrade, Timber or Soil Association stamp marks). Designers play an important role in the process of sourcing and specifying both materials and suppliers, and the subsequent effect that these decisions have on natural resources. Organisations such as The Body Shop actively source ingredients based on the quality and purity of materials, and in the knowledge and support of healthy and sustainable working conditions. In an increasingly competitive environment, this can become a real selling point for product and service differentiation.


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1. Specifying the use of environmentally-friendly materials and systems can bring additional benefits in terms of financial savings and government-sponsored tax breaks. Genersys supply, distribute and install solarpanel technology and solarpower applications. By harnessing the limitless and free energy from the sun, the solar collectors in the heating systems of each panel provide hot water, space heating and air conditioning, for individual households and businesses alike. Image courtesy of GenersysIreland.com. 2. Terra Plana’s Worn Again shoes, are made from an assortment of weird and wonderful reused materials, from coffee bags and t-shirts, to jeans and surplus military jackets. These disused materials have been creatively recrafted, so that each pair of 99% recyled shoes is full of history and personality. Image courtesy of Terra Plana. 3 & 4. One of Muji’s three product development principles is to select materials to keep costs down and quality high. Muji use industrial materials, (often materials that are ignored by other organisations), which can be bought at low cost and in bulk. Here, Muji have re-used yarn for one of their t-shirt ranges. Image courtesy of Muji.


160 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation PRODUCTION PROCESSES Design can make manufacturing and production processes more efficient, whether through refining existing workflows or setting up a whole new system from scratch in order to reduce massive environmental burdens. For example, the manufacture of a tiny 32Mb memory chip for a mobile phone or digital camera requires more than a litre of fossil fuel, 32 litres of water and 72g of chemicals, which can include corrosive hydrogen fluoride (Harris, 2006). Companies such as Nike are increasingly moving towards closed-loop production processes (where no waste is produced as a byproduct of production), and setting specific design challenges and constraints to address social and environmental concerns, with the added benefit that efficient production processes help keep manufacturing costs down. Businesses are part of any community, and as such need to be responsible and accountable for their actions and their local and global impact. Detrimental environmental impacts can be reduced, for example, through sustainable processes and working relationships, addressing ethical responsibilities and disposing of waste appropriately, all of which can enhance the customer perception and reputation of a brand globally as a green, socially responsible, organisation. ENVIRONMENTAL COST Environmental costs and the amount of natural resources used to produce a good or service is an increasingly influential factor in our purchasing choices. Design has a direct impact on the energy and resource consumption of the products and services we buy and use. For example, Whirlpool is redesigning its washing machines to use less energy and water, and Honda recently engineered an environmentally superior hybrid car, which combines a petrol engine with an electric motor for greater fuel efficiency and less damaging emissions.

Design can also raise social and environmental awareness by communicating broader issues to consumers. Including well-designed instructions with consumer goods that illustrate how to use the product in an energy-efficient way can motivate users to think about the wider environmental debates. For example, the electricity wasted by people leaving televisions and videos on standby can be reduced through new environmentally-friendly approaches to the design of technology, where inefficiencies are literally designed-out of the system. END DISPOSAL In a move towards a zero waste society, organisations are looking at their internal systems, including their design and development processes, to find new ways to be more responsible for the total lifecycle of the products and services they create. Historically, goods and services were sold for profit, and owners were wholly responsible for disposal of the goods beyond their usable life. Now, with shifts in consumer and societal preferences and in acknowledgement of environmental challenges, taking a long-term view of how to deal with waste is a valuable competitive advantage. Packaging is a major contributor to unnecessary cost and waste, both in manufacture and transportation. Redesigning, and even rethinking the necessity of packaging, is a challenge that can be addressed through the design of, for example, refillable bottles or totally recyclable packaging. Design can bring enthusiasm, excitement and opportunity in finding ways to ethically and sustainably differentiate products and services, making disposal part of the whole ‘life story’ of the brand.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What are the design challenges of creating sustainable products that consumers actually want?


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5. Muji’s P.E.T. Bottles are recyclable and refillable, and their modular sizing and square shape makes them functional and practical. The simplicity of Muji products derives not only from their minimalist style, but also their ongoing commitment to the use of utilitarian materials and rational production processes. Image courtesy of Muji. 6. This lightweight, foldable, and collapsible pair of speakers is also by Muji. Muji’s packaging is simple and uniform, to emphasise the natural qualities of the product as well as minimising both cost and waste. Efficient production processes prevent wastage and costs are kept to a minimum through constant inspection at every stage of the production process. Image courtesy of Muji. 7. With one minute of winding up, the Freeplay Devo wind-up radio provides five minutes of power-hungry DAB digital radio, or up to an hour of traditional FM reception. The radio can also be plugged-in a home stereo or used with headphones. Image courtesy of Freeplay Energy. 8. In a move towards a zerowaste society, NEC has designed and manufactured a biodegradable mobile phone. The NEC 701I ECO has a casing that is 75 percent vegetable matter. Image courtesy of NEC Corporation.


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Design Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Documenting an organisation’s attitude to design helps everyone engaged in the business understand how design operates at the various of levels within it. This documentation usually takes the form of design policies, procedures and guidelines, and these are useful building blocks for embedding design into the way a company thinks and acts, both strategically in the long term and in its day-to-day choices and decisions. They help connect the engagement of design to the organisational goals, decision-making processes within business units, and to the implementation of design projects. Design policies, procedures and guidelines define the objectives, processes, and metrics against which design decisions can be made. They are useful tools to not only describe how to go about engaging design services, but also to establish exactly what design services are needed in the first place. Whether design gets used or misused largely depends on the organisational attitude to design, and how well these policies are defined, documented and communicated. Engaging design services and setting up design projects should only be done after proper consideration of a range of matters, as lack of awareness and preparation can sabotage good intentions for design. Equally problematic is the issue of achieving a successful design outcome, only to have no measures in place protect all the initial investment of time, money and other resources. Oakley comments, ‘Too many companies make the big mistake of rushing into design projects without first considering the implications of what they are doing. It is even true to say that managers sometimes get so carried away by their enthusiasm for creating new or improved products and services that it may be only after many months of hard work that they realise they are heading in quite the wrong direction.’ (1990). Getting the most out of investments made in design is in everyone’s interests.

DESIGN POLICIES These are linked to the organisation’s long-term strategic objectives for design. Design policies explain the thinking behind why something has to be done a particular way, and give broad outlines for making design decisions. According to Cooper and Press (1995), a design policy defines the meaning of design within the organisation, and serves to reinforce the brand and vision. They insist that ‘design managers must ensure policies are developed on design and related issues, to enable employees to plan strategy and implementation in light of the policy.’ Some of these related issues will include setting up design standards on quality, legal and environmental criteria. An organisation’s design policy will set the framework for the procedures to be followed when using design. DESIGN PROCEDURES Design procedures detail what needs to be done internally to successfully procure and engage design services or initiate a project. In some organisations, hiring design skills is like procuring any other goods or services, and proper internal procedures need to be in place before anyone can make the purchase or engagement. Design procedures might include the formal documents and contracts needed to engage design consultants and agencies, and may also outline the processes for tendering, bidding, formulating a roster, supporting in-house design teams, forming partnerships, allocating budgets and signing-off procedures. In principle, design procedures improve the ability of the organisation to contract design resources effectively and efficiently. As such design managers should help to set up these procedures, as they will ultimately define the criteria under which services will be procured, evaluated and compared, and how design will be measured by the company, in terms of money spent versus value added.


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1. Comprehensive brand guidelines can be developed as a true manifestation of an organisation’s brand and as an everyday tool for the creation of its communication materials. In their work for NICE Systems, Karakter designed six volumes, each addressing a key topic in the implementation process: brand basics, brand architecture, photography and writing, print communications, and electronic applications. Image courtesy of NICE Systems/Karakter. 2. To ensure consistency across all applications, brand guidelines not only provide practical information about how to create an on-brand piece, but also serves as an inspiration for the reader through the chosen format, typeface, colours, photography and layout. This spread about the NICE colour palettes illustrates how they provide a distinctive visual impact if used correctly. Image courtesy of NICE Systems/Karakter. 3. Karakter developed a graphic device to express the idea of ‘uncovering hidden value’, which is at the heart of the NICE brand strategy. Using a photographic style featuring camouflage scenes from nature, the device consists of an outline of two squares that serve as both a focus mechanism and a framework for titles, creating an effective combination between photographic and graphic elements. Image courtesy of NICE Systems/Karakter.


164 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation DESIGN GUIDELINES

MAINTAINING AND MONITORING THE DESIGN

Design guidelines outline how to translate an organisation’s brand vision into its products, services, spaces and the day-to-day experiences with which the end user comes in contact. They are created to ensure the consistent application of design across all customer touchpoints. Design guidelines can include, for example, the use of logo, colour and type for graphic design, or the layout of a physical space, or visual merchandising for a retail environment. The guidelines will also outline the organisation’s approach and attitude to design, in order to put design in the context of its overall goals. They may also set out a framework within which to make decisions about the application of design in a specific context.

Design investments need to be looked after, just like any other asset in the organisation. Commitments made to fund and build design projects also need to include provision for the upkeep and maintenance of the project. Upon completion, projects may be handed over to clients, with accompanying maintenance manuals, instruction books or other help tools. These provide advice on looking after the design asset, whether it be a product, service, building or retail space. Such advice might include, tips on upkeep, maintenance and aftercare, supplier contacts, and where to go for help with a particular aspect. Using customer after-care principles and following up on what has, or has not, worked well, is a form of valuable learning for all parties involved, since return on investment can be improved by analysing the design outcome and making recommendations for future projects. Frequently,clients will engage a design ‘guardian’ from either inside or outside the organisation to ensure the use of design is consistent with their brand image.

Design guidelines can be communicated visually and verbally, and are referred to by some organisations as design principles. They are especially useful when working with external design consultancies, and form a useful starting point when rolling out a regional or global design solution. They are also useful when an organisation is involved in a franchise or third-party arrangement, where the representation may be difficult to control and consistency is crucial.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What steps can a design manager take to ensure that design policies are used by all relevant stakeholders, inside and outside the organisation? How can design polices be made more accessible?


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4. Tauw is an international company of consulting engineers who design and measure for the development, implementation and management of the built and natural environment and infrastructure. Eden Design & Communication put together a set of design guidelines to help consistently communicate Tauw’s values of being independent, open and innovative. Image courtesy of Tauw/Eden Design & Communication. 5. The Tauw logo consists of picture trademark and a brand name. The guidelines describe the relationship between the trademark and the name as one that is fixed and unchangeable. Image courtesy of Tauw/Eden Design & Communication. 6. Tauw’s design language is based on vertical and horizontal elements. The vertical bar represents the company standard and the horizontal bar signifies the landscape. A recognisable graphic element for Tauw communications is the purple vertical bar running on top of coloured backgrounds or photographs Image courtesy of Tauw/Eden Design & Communication. 7. The guidelines visually and verbally describe how the company’s language can be used. The width of the vertical bar can vary, but it must always run from top to bottom. The horizontal bar runs right across the page, but its height can vary. The vertical bar is always on top, creating a layered effect. Image courtesy of Tauw/Eden Design & Communication.


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Translating Global Design into Local Design Companies wanting to expand their customer base often have to transcend geographic borders to increase their revenue and market share. Many companies with global reach (so called global brands), make the mistake of using a standard, uniform approach in all locations when their brand is rolled out. This can initially appear to make sense in terms of cost savings – it is cheaper to have a standard, non-customised model solution to implement everywhere and anywhere – but it is more expensive in the long run. A customised approach, one adapted to suit specific countries, regions or cities will bring many benefits to the organisation. Design managers often play a key role in helping to translate global brands into locally and culturally relevant products and services. Organisations need to think about what channels are appropriate for reaching new, growing and emerging markets. Communication channels such as the Internet cross geographical and political boundaries, but cultural boundaries still need to be carefully addressed. Accommodating variations in the way that different cultures do and see things is vital in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. Design plays a key role in reflecting and adapting to these cultural differences, while simultaneously representing the strength and integrity of the brand image. Often, it is this cultural sensitivity and understanding of local and regional conditions that dictates whether local stakeholders adopt and buy-in to the company, product or service on offer.

LOCAL CONDITIONS Local insight and knowledge play an important part in the adaptation of a brand to respect local differences. When considering the design of an advertising campaign, retail shop or point of sale, for example, sensitivity to local tastes or customs will be especially important in a market that may be already served by well-established and preferred organisations. Certain colours, words and behaviours can have symbolic meaning. For example, in Russia red is associated with beauty, whereas in South Africa it is the colour of mourning. It is well worth paying attention to local conditions, and how a branded product or service offer can be fine-tuned to suit them. Although alteration may be required, it should be done within the framework of established design guidelines and retain the spirit of the brand. One way that companies and brands operating internationally can ensure they don’t appear as the homogenous face of a global brand is by making a difference to lives locally. Organisations that are seen to benefit local stakeholders – employees, local communities, social and environmental representatives – can gain valuable competitive advantage and marketplace differentiation.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What cultural, economic, societal, environmental or political challenges do design managers face when working in different regions of the world? How can advance preparation help?


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1. To communicate Coca Cola’s brand values at kiosks on Shanghai’s famous Bund, Studio Red designed and built attention-grabbing structures with dynamic visual styling to create a branded consumer experience for the millions of pedestrians who pass by them each day. The kiosks, by their design and function, communicate Coca Cola’s brand values of refreshment, freedom, and celebration. Studio Red developed a signature style for these kiosks that reflect Chinese architectural traditions and offer a globally relevant product experience. Image courtesy of Studio Red at Rockwell Group. 2. The Red Lounge provides a means for Coca Cola to build new emotional connections with teenagers. Starting with the insight that teens need a place of their own to hang out, Studio Red envisioned cool, contemporary ‘lounge’ spaces that could be erected where teens congregate, for example inside shopping malls. These branded, interactive environments are flexible and modular in their design, and offer comfortable seating for large and small groups, in public and semiprivate areas, vending a supply of Coke brands, and, in this instance, a media wall that previews games, music and movies. Image courtesy of Studio Red at Rockwell Group.


168 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation GLOBAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Global design guidelines provide a fast-track solution for the successful launch or implementation of branded products, services and environments. Using global guidelines ensures that brand values are consistently and accurately communicated in any location worldwide. The challenge when expressing global brands and projects is to reflect the brand essence in all international occurrences, while simultaneously respecting local differences. Ultimately, the success of any project will rely on the quality of the brand experience, and the understanding that the local brand representatives have for their local environment. In terms of design, most global organisations form partnership agreements and strategic alliances with local agents, consultancies and service providers, thereby gaining expertise and insight into these markets. Global design guidelines should provide advice on how to translate the company image in different regions. For example, retail design guidelines may include advice on choosing locations, building types and spatial requirements appropriate to the offer and target audience, information on local holidays, customs, and trading conditions, exterior and interior design principles, materials, fixtures and fittings to use, site-delivery criteria, products and services on offer, and best practice on launches, product demonstrations and showcase events.

Guidelines often show good practice examples of successful implementations. Illustrating different examples of how products and services have been designed, redesigned or otherwise customised will ensure that anyone using the guidelines can understand the thinking behind the design decisions made. It also encourages a level of independence and local autonomy, provided, of course, that any local decisions are made within the parameters of the agreed global design guidelines. This is often a judgement call requiring knowledge of both the brand and the local market, and is frequently a place where design managers are asked to play a leading role as brand guardians. LOCAL STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT Multicultural, global corporations, often benefit from the cross-cultural differences within the organisation. Understanding different behaviours, senses of humour, courtesies and working styles is crucial for global organisations operating internationally to successfully integrate local work forces with global transplants. For example, if a British national is working in China, or a Chinese national is working in Britain, each side will need to be aware of and show respect for cultural differences, therefore reducing the potential for misunderstandings.

‘Society, consumers and products are all changing radically – and with them the nature and scope of design. We are moving from local orientation to global orientation, from predictable to unpredictable consumer behaviour, and from highly tangible, even cumbersome products to those that are tiny and barely more than packaged information. The advent of digitalisation affects the design of all products and services, whether they are themselves digital or not…. While the globalisation enabled by new digital technologies is leading to a deeper appreciation and enjoyment of cultural diversity, it is not doing away with the need for products and services to be seen as having local significance.’ Stefano Marzano


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Starting up an overseas operation or a local unit of an organisation usually goes through three phases. Firstly, local staff that possess insights into the area act as cultural advisors to the global company representatives who set up in the new location. Secondly, partnerships are formed, where global teams and local teams work together. And finally, the local resource develops a level of autonomy and decision-making power, referring to the global head office for advice. For a global brand to be locally successful, localmarket demand must exist, and a new loyal customer base must be built. Design connects locally in terms of business offers, and also through cultural offers. One of the best ways to connect business and culture locally is to tap into the existing networks of local stakeholders such as employees, suppliers, agents, consultancies and local trade associations. This way, local information and knowledge can be shared formally and informally with global organisations, creating opportunities and incentives for both sides. As an outside organisation going into a new market, trust is more likely to be built if there is local stakeholder involvement and collaboration. For example, from a design point of view, there may be local community events and sponsorship opportunities available that may help embed the organisation positively into the local mindset.

3. Heineken, one of the world’s largest breweries, asked Amsterdam-based design agency Eden to develop a new global visual identity to increase the organisation’s recognisability and to amplify the coherence between the various operating companies at home and abroad. Image courtesy of Heineken/Eden Design & Communication. 4. After various design phases, a brand-parent approach was opted for. The worldwide corporate identity was based on the brand identity of Heineken’s beer label, but with a more corporate look and feel to it. Image courtesy of Heineken/Eden Design & Communication. 5. In collaboration with former Eden employee Lucas de Groot, an extensive type family was developed for the identity scheme. The online manual IdentityWeb was an important tool for the worldwide implementation of the new visual identity. Image courtesy of Heineken/Eden Design & Communication.


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Measuring the Success of Design The success of a design strategy or project will inevitably be different for each of the stakeholders involved. Marketing, engineering, sales and product development will have different ways of thinking, prioritising and evaluating what they mean by ‘success’. Whether a project is judged to be successful or not will depend on the business objectives, project aims and end goals defined in the brief, and the performance criteria against which success will be measured. Value can be measured by, for example, looking at the direct bottom-line impact (profit or loss), or by looking at the impact on the value of the brand (customer perception). To measure the success of design – whether design thinking, consultancy or projects – the criteria for assessing value must first be agreed amongst all the stakeholders involved. There are many different metrics for measuring success: commercial value, emotional and sensory benefits or perhaps economic, cultural, political results. In business, there is often a drive for quantitative measurements that are taken over short-term, quarterly timescales. These ‘hard’ criteria, include development costs, capital budget, profit margins, units sold, annual growth in sales and increase in market share. Design often sits more comfortably with qualitative measures, or ‘soft’ criteria, such as organisational learning, improved processes, better company image and easier communication. The hard truth is that most CEOs want to know three things about any business expenditure, including design: how many sales have been generated? how much profit has been made? And what shareholder value has been created?

EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF DESIGN SERVICES When organisations buy-in design expertise to resource the delivery of agreed programmes and projects, they are procuring design services. They do this because they have a strategic goal that needs to be addressed, and do not have the resources internally to staff the project. Companies bring in outside consultancies to work on a design project for a range of reasons that don’t always equate easily into immediate or direct financial benefit. For example, companies may need access to consultants with specialist skills; or those that can bring new creative processes, energy and enthusiasm to an internal team; and companies can benefit from having an objective, outside perspective. Consultants may be highly influential and beneficial to an organisation, yet often their activities can appear to be invisible and difficult to quantify. Design managers procuring design services often have to develop a strong business case to justify the hiring of the consultants and produce evidence at the end of the project to show that value has been somehow realised in a transparent and accountable way, often to satisfy both internal auditors and the CEO. Establishing and agreeing the criteria for what a successful outcome would be, at the beginning of a project, is crucial. If this is not done it will be difficult to evaluate the project, as no metrics will be in place against which to measure success. Measuring performance using criteria agreed in the early stages can influence how successful others think the project has been, as the ‘hard’ data will substantiate what has been achieved.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: What other metrics can we use to measure the success of design? If design is successfully integrated into business strategies, how can we measure its effectiveness?


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1. Innocent. The name of the company and the design of the brand successfully differentiates their product offers from those of the competition, and simultaneously suggests a guarantee of purity (enforced by the fact that there are no additives in Innocent's drinks). The company has won several awards including Best UK Soft Drink and Employer of the Year, and is the number one smoothie brand in the UK. Image courtesy of Innocent. 2. To help ensure a project’s success, organisations frequently buy-in consultancy expertise. Buildark provides marketing support to help building and construction businesses in Catalunya and Spain. The logotype design successfully communicates Buildark’s offer and values; the grey is used to represent buildings, the green reflects the consultancy’s respect for nature and the lighthouse is a symbol of the light and knowledge that Buildark consistently supplies. 3. Unique design concepts and assets can be a valuable source of revenue. Groups such as ACID (Anti Copyright in Design), are committed to fighting copyright theft. Their objectives are to challenge the culture that it’s acceptable to poach or infringe another’s design equity, and to create a safer trading environment in order for the creative industries to flourish. Image courtesy of ACID.


172 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation MEASURING VALUE FOR MONEY The reason it is difficult to measure value for money is because no standards exist for quantifying all the added-value benefits that design can bring to an organisation. In addition, many of the benefits of the design process will be reaped gradually over time, so imposing financial measures too early could be misleading. As a recent Design Council report points out, ‘the relationship between money spent and deliverables produced is rarely linear. Most of the tangible results will appear towards the end of the project. It might worry the person managing the project budget, when 80% of the money has been spent and only 20% of the deliverables are visible.’ Design managers can help establish the performance criteria and procedures under which services can be evaluated, compared and made accountable. MEASURING THE BENEFITS In business, measuring value usually equates to defining value for money, and working out how company shares are performing in terms of profit and loss, but there are other ways for measuring value and performance beyond the financial spreadsheet.

Some models attempt to put sustainable development at the centre of running a business. A number of banks use the Equator Principles, which evaluate the social and environmental risks of the business proposals they fund, including the impact on local stakeholder communities. The Triple Bottom Line is a framework for measuring business performance along three sets of values: economic, environmental sustainability, and social responsibility (or profit, planet, people). Organisations embracing Triple Bottom Line accounting usually need to expand the traditional corporate reporting framework to take into account not just financial outcomes but also environmental and social performance. The UK’s National Health Service for example is developing a model that puts patient safety at the centre of running a health system or service, where benefits are measured on the improvements made to the patient care experience – and the number of lives saved. PROTECTING THE VALUE OF DESIGN One way to put a value on design, and get design valued within an organisation, is to register creative output as intellectual property. Properly protected and exploited, intellectual property and other intangible assets such as names, images, concepts, designs, music and writings can generate additional

‘Measuring success in innovation by looking at the size of the R&D budget is like figuring out how successful a song (or a film or a book) will be by measuring how long the creator took to write it.’ Vivek Kochikar


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revenue streams and increase the value of how design is perceived within the organisation. For example, by registering and protecting an idea for an innovative new product or service, other companies wanting to offer the same product or service will have to enter a licensing agreement or royalty arrangement. Protecting creative and intellectual assets is a valuable form of competitive advantage as other companies will be prohibited from copying, manufacturing or otherwise ripping off the offer. Intellectual property can be registered in the form of trademarks, copyrights, patents, licensing agreements, design rights and transfer of ownership.

4. The iF Design Award is a mark of design excellence, evaluated in relation to the key criteria of design quality workmanship, choice of materials, degree of innovation, environmental friendliness, functionality, ergonomics, visualisation of use, safety and brand value. The iF quality seal is recognised worldwide. Image courtesy of the iF Design Awards.

MEASURING OUTCOMES

5. The Patent Office, part of the UK’s Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), helps stimulate innovation and raise the international competitiveness of British industry through intellectual property rights (IPR). These rights are: Patents (which protect the technical and functional aspects of products and processes), designs (which protect the visual appearance or eye appeal of products), Trademarks (which protect the origin of products or services), and copyright and related rights (which include unregistered design right and rights of performers). The Patent Office’s main business is to grant patents and register designs and trade marks in the UK. Image courtesy of The Patent Office.

Different ways that design success can be measured include: awards, peer and press reviews, improved brand image and customer perception of the organisation, improved product and service quality; improved user experience, better customer service and communication, increased brand awareness or improving client or customer satisfaction. Design success can also be measured in terms of reduced costs, reduced waste material produced as a byproduct of manufacturing, reduced overheads and reduced customer ‘churn’, which is a term used to describe the defection of loyal customers of a product or service from one organisation to the competition.


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Reviewing and Revising the Design Strategy Successful projects and design outcomes will inevitably affect an organisation’s approach to design. Provided the value of design can be measured, demonstrated and advocated in a way that stakeholders throughout the organisation can understand, these successes will sow the seeds of future projects, design involvement and working partnerships. Design managers play the central role in reviewing the design strategy, and providing the evidence and recommendations for its revision. In this way, stepby-step, design can move closer to the ‘heart’ of the organisation. For example, in the 1950s, Braun began to see the market potential of ‘defined’ products and began to differentiate itself from its competitors by means of product design. A corporate design philosophy began to emerge, with innovation, quality and design at its core. After Dieter Rams joined the company in 1955, Braun Design became solidly established and increasingly influential. Their approach shifted from functionally driven to being user-centred, with simplicity and attention to detail as important elements in realising this vision. Today, Braun continues to be a global leader in design. Its brand values remain at the heart of the organisation and drive all levels of the business. Braun and Braun Design – the corporate strategy and the design strategy – share the same foundations.

INTEGRATING DESIGN Looking at how to integrate design into business is more challenging for organisations that do not think of themselves as being design-led. They are unlikely to list design as one of their core values, and are instead likely to view design as a separate functional resource from the rest of the organisation. But, as Bruce & Bessant point out, ‘design is not just for “creatives” walled off from the rest of an organisation, but is a process with a large number of participants which can, and must, be managed effectively if it is to add maximum value.’ (2001). Whether design is already embedded in an organisation, or brought in from the outside, there are several best practices for design managers revising the design strategy and raising the profile of design. Firstly, and most importantly, he or she should look at the success of design within the wider context of the organisation, and from a consumer perspective, in order to identify other ways that design thinking can help the business. The design manager should, ideally, report directly to the CEO (as opposed to another business unit, such as the marketing), and should also look for opportunities to promote success and raise the influence of design throughout the organisation. Secondly, the organisational approach to design should be reviewed and any changes to it should be recommended in a language that everyone will understand. Finally, the design manager should take a long-term view and allow time and space for designers to explore how future contexts might drive the design of new products and services. This can be achieved by trend spotting and seeking news ways that design might respond to wider changes.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: How can design most effectively help lead business to new markets and to new customers? What new management structures could help the effectiveness of design leadership?


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1. Whirlpool constantly reviews its approach to design, and continually collaborates with customers to discover ways that design can make a difference. The company believes that innovation and design fit naturally together, and view design as something that should be embedded within the company, not just an aesthetic afterthought. In

this example, Whirlpool Europe’s global consumer design group presents its vision for ‘in.kitchen: design landscape for a new, built-in experience’ Image courtesy of Whirlpool Europe. 2. This image shows ‘Built Out’, Whirlpool’s modular approach to building ‘out’ from the heart of a central

appliance, instead of building in from the walls of the kitchen itself. Through design initiatives like these, Whirlpool is creating a distinctive look and feel that successfully differentiates the organisation from the competition and, crucially, increases profits. Image courtesy of Whirlpool Europe.

‘Innovation is not only about creating new and better products, but also about developing better systems and new business concepts. IKEA, SW Airlines, Virgin… invested in new ways to run old industries and have been profit leaders. Marketers play a critical role in suggesting their potential, and refining their features and launch plans.’ Peter Drucker


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Case Study

PRACTICE

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1. FooGo develop new products and convenience food offers continually, involving customers in the actual creative development of their convenience food offers. As the most important stakeholders in the company, customers are invited to send in their comments via the product packaging, which reads: ‘FooGo have created this range of sandwiches for you, so please tell us what you think.’

SIMPLICITY, HONESTY AND INNOVATION

THE HUMAN TOUCH

With rising awareness of health and environmental issues, consumers want to know where their food is coming from, what it contains and how fresh the ingredients are. Launched in 2001, FooGo produce premium convenience foods. Their concern for food quality, health, the environment and their customers’ well being is evident in all of their products and processes, and in the design and specification of their packaging.

The FooGo range is freshly prepared by selected suppliers and shipped to outlets on the same day. ‘The human touch replaces machines in much of the production, providing individual attention to each item. Even the cutting of fruit is done by hand using sterile precision knives, which wouldn’t look out of place in an operating theatre, to ensure that the fruit is not bruised or damaged.’ Even when quantifying the ingredients and nutritional information, the descriptions remind consumers of the human element in the process (‘made by Marion and others in Sherwood Forest for FooGo’), and the fact that natural ingredients don’t grow in neat 100g quantities (‘values may differ due to natural variability’).

FooGo is about simplicity, honesty and innovation. The organisation states that ‘every time you eat or drink one of our products you are entrusting your health and well being to us. It’s quite a responsibility and we take it very seriously.’ FooGo do not believe that convenience means compromise, and this philosophy underpins their corporate strategy, which is to ensure they offer customers the freshest preprepared range of snack foods anywhere in the UK. This belief extends to all stakeholders, including employees and shareholders, customers and suppliers, and the wider community itself.


Case Study

TRANSPARENCY, RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY 2 FooGo adhere to strict quality-assurance procedures that ensure full transparency, responsibility and accountability for everything they buy, make and sell. Within the supply chain, every raw ingredients is of the highest quality that FooGO can source and they are proud of the personal relationships they have built with each of their suppliers These values are communicated to consumers in FooGo’s product packaging. For example, the customer will be told that FooGo’s eggs come from free-range hens that forage in open fresh air, or that their Stilton is made by Long Clawson Dairy, which is only ten miles from where their sandwiches are made. FooGo’s commitment to having a positive impact on the supply chain also extends to considering the needs of their suppliers. By placing regular orders with the farmers supplying FooGo’s high-quality produce, the farmers own businesses are kept commercially viable. Similarly, by sourcing produce locally, the fuel consumed in transportation and food ‘miles’ are reduced. SUSTAINABLE SPECIFICATIONS FooGo recognised that although there was substantial consumer choice in the ready-made sandwich market, there was little choice in the packaging. They looked at the growth of the convenience food market, the impact of the waste packaging on the environment – the evidence of which was visible in city parks after every lunchtime – and decided to do something about it. Working closely with branding specialists The Formation, FooGo developed an exclusive range of biodegradable packaging. The carton board used for their sandwich wedges and salad boxes will biodegrade in the right conditions in approximately 14 weeks. The clear material used for the wedge window is made from 100% cornstarch, and the ink, varnish, and coatings for printing and lining the carton board are water based and food-grade safe. The range is the first of its kind, and FooGo are continually searching for ways to

move towards a zero-waste environmental policy throughout the company and are currently exploring the concept of producing their bottles and bowls from corn starch. FooGo have successfully considered packaging beyond merely selling the product, and actually think about the user experience from point of purchase, to consumption, to final packaging disposal.

2. FooGo ensure full traceability of all their meat, including ‘Pampered Pork’, which can be traced back to their curer in Dumfriesshire. FooGo alerts their customers to the unique processes of each of their suppliers, such as the Derbyshire farmer who sits his ham in brine for three days to ensure it cures slowly, to highlight the personal relationships that they have with their suppliers and their commitment to high-standards of raw ingredient quality.

All images courtesy and copyright of FooGo.

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3. FooGo’s packaging tells the story of their commitment to sustainability and environmental issues. In their own words, they would ‘rather see our packaging disappear than the planet’.


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Case Study

PRACTICE

The Silken Group 2

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1. The Silken group was the first hotel chain in Spain to bet on the unique concept of designer hotels. All Silken Group Hotels are architecturally outstanding buildings, thanks to their collaborations with acclaimed architects and designers. Zaha Hadid’s design for the first floor of the Puerta America Hotel is a space of remarkable fluidity and interplay of daring lines. 2. For the rooms on the eleventh floor of the same hotel, Javier Mariscal and Fernando Salas used a broad palette of colours on the floors and walls, which provoke different sensations, and convey liveliness and imagination.

A NEW HOTEL CONCEPT Founded in Spain in 1955, The Silken Group identified a gap in the Spanish hotel market and undertook the opportunity of filling this niche by offering modern, high-quality hotels of distinctive personality. The group’s hotels use design to add value to their organisation by their association with prestigious architects and designers. Each Silken hotel has its own bespoke identity and personality, thanks to these collaborations.

The Silken Group have hotels located throughout Spain (a total of 3600 rooms in 26 hotels throughout the country), and are continuing their expansion internationally. Their mission is to offer ‘the best hotel service in the best rooms, with the highest standard of customer service, from the best team of people.’ As a business goal they focus on the quest for a new hotel concept, aiming to offer clients a new dimension in services and facilities to make their stay more enjoyable. The Silken Group understands that not all guests expect the same things from a hotel. Its facilities and services are adapted to the ensure that their guests’ needs, whether they are business or pleasure, are catered for.


Case Study

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A COMMITMENT TO DESIGN

HOTEL PUERTA AMERICA

Following their commitment to be at the forefront of technology, design and architecture, the group’s hotels are characterised by modern facilities and painstaking attention to design and architectural detail.

The Hotel Puerta America has become the group’s flagship hotel, and the benchmark for its future standards. Located in Madrid, it was conceived as a homage to the world of design. In total, an international team of 18 architects and interior designers were commissioned to design and develop each floor of the 12-storey, 360-room hotel.

The importance of design to The Silken Group is evident in their professional collaborations. The Silken design brief describes the commitment to signature their hotels as an all-embracing concept, and one in which the designer must think through each and every detail of the hotel, right down to the seemingly insignificant, and to consider them as a whole. Beauty and functionality coexisting in harmony is central to the group’s hotel concept and each of their hotels is renowned for its use of advanced technologies and environmentallyfriendly design.

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The hotel was envisioned to be a meeting point for creative freedom and the Silken Group produced a cultural manifesto that unified world-class architects and designers. Each possessed different disciplines, cultures, beliefs, nationalities and race, and all were encouraged to let their imagination run riot. The goal was to offer each architect and designer the opportunity to best reflect themselves, their work, their culture and their way of viewing the world. As such each designer’s concept for different aspects of the hotel was totally unique.

3. The Italian architect Teresa Sapey has saturated the underground car park with colour, creating an emotional stimulus in her quest for ‘freedom’, and preventing the car park from being an ignored urban space. Paul Eluard’s poem Freedom provides inspiration for the simple iconographic code on the walls that lead guests through the garage. The motifs are a finger pointing to the exits, people running with a dog, a person in a wheelchair, all of which have been rendered by mixing words from the poem.

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4 & 5. The exterior of the Puerta America Hotel designed by Jean Nouvel, playfully expresses the concept of freedom; which was the cornerstone of the project. Guests can enjoy the changes in colours provided by the awnings and the words of Eluard’s Freedom, which covers the façade in various languages.


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Case Study

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6. In Zaha Hadid’s room design, guests will feel as if they are in a space almost out of science fiction, yet paradoxically, it is also accessible, within an arms reach. The doors are lit with LED strips that illuminate messages on the doors, allowing guests to indicate whether of not they want breakfast, or to be disturbed. 7. The hotel’s Marmo Bar 8 is a single 8.25m unit made of white Statuario Venato marble from the Carrara quarries. The original piece of marble weighed around six tonnes and was the first element to be installed, even before the hotel’s façade, due to its enormity.

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8. The bathroom in each of Zaha Hadid’s rooms is a single structure from floor to ceiling that changes colour according to the room. The waste-paper basket is a deluxe design created exclusively for the hotel. 9. Arata Isozaki’s bathrooms in the rooms on the tenth floor hark back typical Japanese traditions; the wooden bathtub and shower are placed together, and the use of a shoji panel.

‘An idea of freedom comes true, a gathering space merging different cultures and ways of interpreting architecture and design. A masterpiece that awakens guests’ senses, that breaks the mould by using different colours materials and shapes.’ Jean Nouvel


Case Study

THE DREAM TEAM

AN IDEA OF FREEDOM COMES TRUE

Jean Nouvel was commissioned to design the hotel’s façade, its penthouse apartment and suites on the twelfth floor. Nouvel highlights the importance of creating links between freedom and pleasure, and his work on the hotel aimed to capture a crossroads between art and architecture, which would allow guests to experience exceptional moments and create small worlds for people to enjoy.

Attention to detail is one of the hallmarks of a Silken Hotel. As well as the experience of high quality, excellent service and comfort, guests are encouraged to ‘search for new forms, to interact with them, to touch, to see, and even to breathe and smell’. Innovative thinking can be found in the unusual specifications of materials and the refreshing combinations of art, design and architecture of the Hotel Puerta America. On its twelfth floor, for example, Jean Nouvel has designed twelve suites that are purely devoted to pleasure. The rooms feature a system of sliding panels with rails on the floor and ceiling to allow guests to organise the space as they wish. Effectively, the guests can act as architects of their own room, reorganising the area to suit their own tastes.

SGA Estudio, a multidisciplinary design team with extensive experience in construction projects, was responsible for developing the design for the structure and the hotel plan and layout. Felipe Saez de Gordoa laid the foundations for the space upon which the other architects and designers would work. This ‘dream team’ of architects included Zaha Hadid, Norman Foster, David Chipperfield, Plasma Studio, Victorio & Lucchino, Mark Newson, Ron Arad, Kathryn Findlay, Richard Gluckman, Arata Isozaki, Javier Mariscal and Fernando Salas, John Pawson, Christian Liaigre, Teresa Sapey, Harriet Bourne and Jonathan Bell, Arnold Chan and Oscar Neimeyer.

Design successfully adds value to every aspect of the design, from the quality of the materials and finishes to the choice of relationships and design collaborators invited to ‘leave their mark’ in a way that enhances the overall personality of the hotel. All images courtesy and copyright of The Silken Group.

10. John Pawson, who designed the hotel’s lobby and meeting rooms, has created, in his words, ‘a space to encounter peace and quiet in the heart of the hotel’. The design harbours the reception area in a semicircle, thus sheltering the guests from constant motion passing through the area. 11. Architect Kathryn Findlay collaborated with the interactive designer Jason Bruges to turn the eighth floor lobby into a ‘space guests must play with, must discover for themselves’. Fibre optics in the Memory Wall capture guests’ movements, only to later project a distorted image of them over the panels made with points of colour.

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Interview

INTERVIEW

Colum Lowe, Head of Design and Human Factors, National Health Service (NHS), UK How long have you worked in this industry? I have worked for the NPSA since November 2003, but have been in the design industry in one form or another since graduating from Chelsea School of Art in 1989. What does management mean to you? The smug answer would be the skilful or resourceful use of materials, time, people and money to achieve a fixed task, at least that’s what it probably says in the dictionary. The art of management is obviously much more complex than that. Money, materials and time can be edged this way and that on a computer spreadsheet, but people cannot. As such, most management skills lie in understanding human relationships and motivational factors. Turning a group of individuals into a team and then getting that team to do what you or your organisation want, especially if it is not what they want, can be incredibly challenging. What do you love and hate most about management? I remember reading a motorcycle magazine and somebody famous was asked what their most and least favourite bike was, to which they replied that their least favourite bike was a Honda, because it was a Honda, and that their favourite bike was also a Honda, for exactly the same reason. Being well-built, well-designed, affordable and utterly reliable can be both positive and negative, especially if you have a taste for Italian exotica, but have to commute to work 12 months of the year. Managing people can be just like that, in the main it’s the most rewarding part of the job and the reason for my getting out of bed, but occasionally it is also the part that makes you instinctively update your CV and flick to the appointments pages of Design Week Week..

From your perspective, what is design? Ah, now that’s the million-dollar question, there are as many definitions of design as there are designers. Design is, of course, everything that we do, we all plan and invent and solve problems on a daily basis and at some level this is design, but that doesn’t loosen the purse strings of your finance director and encourage him or her to invest in your programme. It’s fundamentally part of a design manager’s role to be able to define design to a non design-literate audience, and I think therefore that the definition might change depending exactly on whom your audience is and what their level of understanding is. The definition I currently use is a user-centred problem solving process as it encompasses the three main elements that I believe are vital to defining design. Firstly it is a process not a product, a verb not a noun, you cannot look at a product and say it is well designed, you can say you find it pretty, or that it works for you, but as you did not see the design brief, know how well the process or costs were managed, you cannot say it is good design. Secondly, there must be a problem to solve, a challenge that might not be purely commercial, this is what differentiates design from art and sculpture, which are predominantly about the personal expression of an abstract idea. Design is much more structured and focused. Thirdly, and probably most importantly, design is user centred, it is for someone; a person has to interact with the end product and it must work for them. If what you do does not achieve all three of these then you might be a stylist or an engineer or an artist, but you are definitely not a designer.


Interview

Colum is Head of Design and Human Factors at the NHS National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). Colum is the main focal point and liaison for the Design for Patient Safety agenda to government and industry bodies. Colum’s role involves promoting better design in healthcare, and providing advice and implementation strategies for patient safety in the areas of architecture and human factors. What value does design bring to the industry you work in? Value is another one of those issues the design industry has wrestled with, how to prove the financial impact of design and whether financial, rather than societal, impact is what you should be measuring. In my industry it is much simpler, good design can save patient lives and deliver better quality healthcare for staff and patients alike. In what ways can design be strategic? I believe the phrase design strategy is an oxymoron. Design is inherently non strategic, it is a tactical delivery channel of a business strategy. Designers can think strategically for sure, but the process of solving problems is tactical not strategic. The word strategy seems to have been adopted by anyone who wants to make their service offer appear more important than it actually is. Using design is not a strategy, delivering sector growth through focused design might be. What are the challenges you face in running design projects? Just the usual; trying to do too much, with too little money, in too short a period of time, it’s the project management time/cost/quality triangle in reverse. It’s a bit different working in the public sector when you are spending taxpayers’ money and every design project you run could have paid for another doctor or nurse in a hospital for a year. It rather focuses the mind and makes you very focused on the end product, sometimes too much so.

What, to you, is the relationship between design and innovation? To me there is a very limited relationship. Innovation is the exploitation of a new idea. Design can help create the idea, it might even be able to assist in its exploitation, but they are fundamentally different things. Innovation is another one of these words that people throw about without understanding the meaning of it. Today it seems to be interchangeable with the word creative, but it is fundamentally different. Are business skills important in design education? Business skills are completely essential, partly because many designers will one day set up their own practices, but mainly because a failure to understand the basic organisational structure of your client as well as its processes and politics will almost always result in a problematic design process and expectations not met, on both sides. Design colleges failure to adequately teach these subjects says much about the current state of design education. What is it that annoys you most about the design industry? Bad design winning design awards has to be my pet hate. The world is full of bad design; some of it just happens to be pretty and wins awards. the result of a really good design process is usually invisible to all, but the most observant; it gets on with doing its job without drawing attention to itself, consider the London Underground Map for example. Bad design on the other hand is really hard to miss, mainly because you keep banging your shin on it!


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Interview

INTERVIEW

Lynne Elvins, Co-Founder of A420 What is sustainability? For design managers, applying sustainability is not about having to employ a separate design practice that is only pulled out when a sustainable product or service is asked for. It is about being aware of an emerging set of twenty-first century issues that are putting new pressures on businesses, in-turn the businesses feeling these pressures hire or employ designers who, by association, must also respond and be able to provide design solutions to deal with these issues. What are the issues? The sorts of issues that we are facing on a global scale are environmental, such as climate change or water shortages, as well as social, such as poverty or health care. We all see these issues being discussed on TV or in the newspapers, but what we hear less about are the details of how businesses are working toward dealing with these problem areas. This is one of the barriers when trying to understand how design is connected to sustainability. Designers didn’t create our financial or political systems, so what have these issues got to do with them? What has it got to do with designers? There are many ways that designers can address sustainability. Every design project has the potential to be more sustainable, but there are three more common areas where designers are getting involved. Firstly there are all the products and services that can be redesigned to be more sustainable, whether rethinking the materials they are made with, the amounts of energy they use or their accessibility – the list of issues will change depending on the nature of the product or service. Secondly, the subject of sustainability is highly complex. The use of design to better communicate the issues is incredibly valuable whether through brands, websites or print. It is all very well for businesses to have corporate sustainability aims or for governments to have targets to meet, but if these are not easy to understand or navigate, good intentions can be wasted. Thirdly, when we look at all the issues together it is apparent that we urgently need highly innovative solutions to some of the problems we will face if we don’t make those changes. As a process to

visualise and provide creative solutions, design, and those that manage it, has a potentially major role in completely rethinking the way we live and envisioning the sustainable products and services of the future. What do designers need to do? Whichever way design might be applied to address sustainability issues, through product changes, communication design or entirely new concepts, the challenge is to balance financial, social, environmental and personal agendas. Meeting financial constraints from clients and the personal requirements of the end user have been the primary concerns for business and designers in the twentieth century. Being able to negotiate environmental and social issues as well is the challenge for the twentyfirst century. The misperception is that sustainable design is only about eco-friendliness or charitable aims, but if designs don’t make money, don’t look great or don’t function properly, they won’t survive in today’s markets. Sustainable design work has to be financially viable, socially acceptable, personally desirable and environmentally responsible. Why don’t we hear more about this already? At the moment it is not uncommon for managers of design to be unaware of the sustainability issues a business client is trying to deal with. This is fuelled by the fact that often the people managing sustainability within a business are not involved in commissioning design. The difficulty is getting these two sets of people together in ways that they can understand each other. One side has a big list of problems, the other side are providers of solutions. It might sound simple, but it is by no means a straightforward conversation. But those design managers who participate in these issues will gain competitive advantage. Those that ignore them will struggle. Is anyone doing this already? From the big design leaders, companies like Philips are expressing their wish to ‘explore new business opportunities and new markets with sustainability as a key driver’ (www.philips.com/about/Sustainability). Nokia’s Chairman and CEO states that ‘corporate


Interview

Lynne Elvins trained in design management and went on to work with SustainAbility, an international sustainable business consultancy. After working independently, she co-founded A420 to change the understanding of sustainability within the design community and design education.

responsibility drives performance, promotes strategy and efficiency and supports our strong Nokia reputation and brand’ (www.nokia.com/crr/ crr_index.html) and Apple say ‘we are committed to reducing the environmental impact of the work we do and the products we create’ (www.apple.com /environment/). Most large companies have something to say about these issues. In fact in 2004, more than half of the top 250 FTSE companies produced publicly available reports covering their environmental issues and of these, 98 included social issues as well. Try exploring a company’s website and if you don’t find ‘sustainability’, ‘environmental performance’, ‘corporate responsibility’, ‘global citizenship’ or some similar sounding term on the homepage, try the ‘about us’ section instead. How do designers get sustainability on the brief? Business statements are clearly not actual design briefs, but they do allow design managers to discuss sustainability issues with business clients. Corporate sustainability reports are not exactly gripping reads, but with this additional research material design managers can approach the subject of sustainability backed with the confidence that they are acting in-line with existing company interest and not just presenting some sort of personal crusade to save the planet. The suggestion here is not that design managers take the moral high ground and storm in waving sustainability reports in people’s faces. But there is a major opportunity for those who manage design to take a leadership role and get design into the heart of sustainable business strategies. Where should design managers start? This is the question that led to the founding of A420. If design managers try to approach sustainable design it is easy to be overwhelmed by what has become a deluge of information around the subject. The problem we found is that there is little consistency in how it is communicated and it is very difficult to quickly obtain the relevant information for your design project. We felt there should be an easier way, so we created sustainability issue mapping [see page 110] by sitting down with all the issues we could find and designing an information hierarchy for them. What we are able to do with this

is navigate designers to the one or two key issues that would be best for them to tackle, rather than bombarding them with the whole field. The process can also bring about a whole range of design management questions about client relationships and how much authority design managers have to bring new issues to the table, but the starting point is for design managers to be open to these new discussions. It is then our job to shed positive light on the options that are of practical use to them. What opportunities are there for students of design management who are interested in building a career in sustainability issues? At the moment, you can’t just approach any design agency or in-house team and expect them to already be talking positively about sustainability. They may even be quite negative about it. Students need to be wary that they don’t get labeled as some sort of eco-freak from the outset. Instead, do some extra homework and approach people on specific issues that are relevant to their projects. Research the companies or clients involved and I can almost guarantee there will be some environmental or social issues that they have to deal with. I have never come across a ‘sustainable design manager’ title and I wouldn’t expect to ever see this, instead sustainability issues will become embedded into design management generally. It’s not general knowledge at the moment, but the appreciation of how design and sustainability relate is rising rapidly and if you can show some intelligence on the subject, this should help your career. What books, magazines and websites would you recommend to students to find out more about this area? One of the problems is that whilst there is lots of sustainable design information out there, it is fragmented and often focused only on eco-design. If you were only to read one book I would recommend Cradle to Cradle by William McDonough and Michael Braungart. Other than that I would recommend our own A420 website, www.a420.com, where we are building a design issues databank full of links to information sources.


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‘Design management is about delivering successful design solutions in an efficient, cost effective way. Design leadership is about helping organisations to envision the future and to ensure design is used to turn those visions into reality.’ Raymond Turner

KEY SKILLS

Management and Leadership The qualities that make a good leader are not necessarily the same qualities that make a good manager. In design, the terms design ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ exist to differentiate between these two approaches. Both management and leadership roles involve balancing the day-to-day goals with the long-term ones, and mutual respect for the different strengths, roles and responsibilities of everyone involved. In each case, it will at times be necessary to manage upwards to achieve results, whether increasing a particular project budget, or changing whole company structures to spur creativity throughout the organisation. Some design managers may find themselves transitioning from a management role to a leadership one, which inevitably will involve giving up certain responsibilities and adapting to new ways of performing and leading by setting a ‘winning’ vision and then inspiring others to understand and deliver it (Landry 2004). MANAGEMENT In general, management is about day to day operation, and relies on people who know how to get the job done, deliver on time, to budget and specification. In the design business, it is traditional to promote designers to managerial positions even though design training typically does not provide the full range of management skills that are necessary to cover the people, project and business management challenges faced. As Patterson notes ‘like people becoming parents, managers are transformed through experience. Designers, as they take on management responsibilities, go through the same kind of shift in their world view’ (2001). Organisations should provide training, support and encouragement to allow designers to move into management positions.

Most business managers are already very busy running day-to-day business operations. They don’t always have time to put together proposals for bringing design thinking into their functional projects. Design managers can make it easy to bring in design resources by, for example, ensuring that design policies and procedures are in place, and that a variety of different design skills are engaged on a roster or retainer, for ease of access. Design managers can also help form a strong business case for using a design resource for a particular project or strategic goal if design input is needed. LEADERSHIP Leadership is about setting and driving vision, and taking a long-term view. People who are brilliant leaders are not necessarily good managers or good team players, nor particularly adept at day-to-day operations. However, a leader that explains how long- term goals can benefit individual business units, and individuals themselves, is more likely to motivate others to cooperate. Different types of leadership exist, and within any organisation or any role, different styles may predominate at different times. Pearson (1998) identifies six approaches to leadership: advocacy (campaigning for better conditions), pioneering (initiating new ways of thinking), strategic (leading from the front), servant (leading by helping others), visionary (creating new visions of how things could be) and transformative (initiating change at many levels). Leaders have authority, that they can choose to delegate, for example, the execution of a clearly defined task or making project decisions. Delegating authority is different from delegating responsibility. Authority, from the Latin for ‘advice’, persuasion’ or ‘encouragement’, is about ‘influence with people rather than over them. It is about ‘the right to make decisions or the right to take action, in the course of discharging responsibility, and to require others to accept the decisions, and if necessary to enforce them’(Denyer 1972).

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: In what ways can designers, design managers and design leaders work together to gain more influence and autonomy for design within an organisation? What new responsibilities will this necessitate?


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1. The Danish company Bang & Olufsen (B&O), creators of audio-visual equipment, work with many individuals that lead and manage different aspects of design. B&O has no in-house designers, all design work is carried out by a small number of freelance product designers, and only those designs exhibiting the distinctive B&O quality are considered for production. Image courtesy of Bang & Olufsen/Peter Krasilnkoff. 2. David Lewis, one of the key external designers working with B&O, provides creative leadership in the form of new product ideas and proposals. Within B&O, the department responsible for facilitating external design services and integrating them within R&D and management is called ‘Idealand’, and acts as B&O’s innovation mechanism. The

design manager for Idealand combines management and leadership roles, working with B&O’s internal decisionmakers and management teams and the external designers to decide which of the ideas will go into production (Cockerille, 2004). Image courtesy of Bang & Olufsen/Solkaer. 3. The company values of performance, design and craftsmanship drive the company. All design decisions are made under the guidance of the company’s vision: ‘the courage to constantly question the ordinary in search of surprising and longlasting experiences’. This is B&O’s BeoSound 2 Bag. Image courtesy of Bang & Olufsen/Morton Lassen.


188 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation KEY SKILLS

Leading and Advocating Design When leading design teams, thinking like an entrepreneur can certainly help promote the value of design, since an entrepreneurial mindset is the best one for identifying new opportunities where design can add value and make a difference. Once these new opportunities are identified however, design managers then need to follow them through, and help to successfully exploit the ideas in the context of the organisation and the market. To do this requires a good understanding of which design ideas can deliver the most value to the organisation, how any design asset can be protected, and what ideas and assets should be exploited. The goal is to turn design ideas, assets and opportunities into commercially, and increasingly, environmentally, viable ventures, products, services and experiences. PROTECTING DESIGN ASSETS Design and designers work comfortably with the idea-generating processes that can result in the creation of valuable design assets. In most countries, legislature will exist to protect designs from being copied or otherwise exploited against the wishes of the originator of the work. Designers normally hold moral rights to a design, and will charge a flat fee to a client for its one off use. For multiple use of the design, a legal contract detailing the terms for the rights of use should be agreed. Additional protection of creative outputs and ideas can be sought by registering intellectual property (IP), for example copyrights, patents and trademarks, and registering designs in different geographical areas (national, regional, international), or business sectors.

Protecting design assets makes good business sense in that it can prevent costly legal battles in the case of infringement. It is also a good way to get design valued within an organisation, since intellectual property (IP) is considered a valuable asset for generating additional revenue streams. Design teams within organisations are valuable assets. Recruiting for an expanding team can be an expensive process, so attracting, hiring and keeping the best staff is key to creating and maintaining a strong design resource that delivers exceptional results. EXPLOITING DESIGN ASSETS Once adequately protected, design assets can be commercially exploited. This can be achieved by setting up third party licensing agreements, royaltypayment agreements, international business relationships with manufactures abroad, or by selling rights to new geographical locations where expanding market opportunities have been identified. Other sources of funding and investments can also be solicited, both inside the organisation (different business units), and outside it (government grants and trade bodies). Currently there is a growing trend for design-led organisations to build relationships with universities and colleges by setting up ‘knowledge transfer partnerships (KTP), consortiums and research clusters as a means to leverage the value of design research and education within the industry.

‘Autonomy around process fosters creativity because giving people freedom in how they approach their work heightens their intrinsic motivation and sense of ownership. Freedom about process also allows people to approach problems in ways that make the most of their expertise and their creative thinking skills. The task may be a stretch for them, but they can use their strengths to meet the challenge.’ Teresa M. Amabile


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Table 1: Staff Recruitment Question Objective How is the organisation Attracting and workplace culture perceived from the outside?

Hiring

Retaining

Considerations The reputation of organisation Its mission and values Its public or industry profile Its work-life balance policies Any internal rewards schemes? It’s relationship with good quality head hunters Its community involvement

What steps are taken to introduce new employees and visitors to the organisation?

Is there an induction programme? Is there time to build familiarity? Is there a mentoring scheme? How do skills fit within the team, are there adequate levels of staffing?

Is the organisation looking after their existing employees?

Is there sufficient training and development? What is the quality of the work environment? Are there varying tasks and responsibilities? Are there opportunities for career growth? Are there varied career opportunities for different life stages? Does the company attracting past employees or ‘rehires’?

1. As well as having internal design teams, BMW also have an ‘external design house’, DesignworksUSA. The reputation and quality of work delivered by DesignworksUSA keeps them in demand with both BMW and other external clients. BMW acquired DesignworksUSA because they wanted to enhance their knowledge about the world of their customers, to look beyond the motorcycles and cars and understand the forces shaping the lives and desires of their own clients. BMW also wanted more than just a strong design supplier or a permanent in-house partner, but a group that would understand the cultural trends and contexts that BMW cars and motorcycles exist in. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG. 2. This is DesignworksUSA’s Munich studio. To make sure that DesignworksUSA functions outside the BMW ‘world’, they operate as a profit centre, and therefore must continually sharpen their design and business practices to remain competitive. BMW require DesignworksUSA to apply themselves to the design considerations of diverse range of customer experiences. This encourages crossover thinking and skills, which is enhanced from the richness of having a variety of viewpoints. Image courtesy and copyright of BMW AG.


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‘Organisations are about people, and in order to get the best out of people, you have to create an environment where people will thrive.’ St. Luke’s Communications Ltd.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: In what other ways can a company lead by design? Are there other design assets within an organisation that need to be brought to the attention of senior management?


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VALUING THE DESIGNER Investors interested in making an investment in a design consultancy will look at the design team (the human resources) and the client list (people for whom the consultancy delivers projects) and then will establish if these design assets are of value, and if they are likely to deliver a return on investment (ROI). It is therefore important to protect and value all those involved in the design process, this can be done in two ways. Firstly, the design manager can manage the relationship between staff costs, staff levels of experience and the value individuals can actually bring to a project. It is tempting to employ less experienced designers in an effort to keep staff costs down, but having experienced (and therefore more highly paid) staff can be worth their added value in terms of productivity, efficiency and their ability to mentor less-skilled designers. Secondly, design managers need to protect the morale and productivity of the designers. Creatives often thrive when working within defined parameters, restrictions of time and budget can spur designers to think inventively within the resources allocated. However, too much restriction over a prolonged period of time can undermine motivation and morale, and lead to long hours, high stress levels and possible burnout. A successful design manager will instil a sense of challenge and trust, and agree realistic delivery schedules in consultation with the designers.

1. Vitra’s company headquarters in Birsfelden, Switzerland, and their manufacturing factory in Weil am Rein, Germany, have become meccas for architecture lovers all over the world. Vitra is renowned worldwide for commissioning distinctive architecture that encapsulates the innovative and design-led image of the organisation. Illustrious architects such as Frank Gehry, Tadao Ando, Zaha Hadid, Nicholas Grimshaw and Alvaro Siza have all realised significant designs at the invitation of company

head Rolf Fehlbaum. The buildings are true design assets that celebrate the organisation’s innovative and design-led image. Image courtesy of Vitra, (photographer: Thomas Dix). 2. Vitra’s Design Museum in Weil am Rein, was designed by Frank Gehry. To accommodate extensive public interest in the buildings on the Vitra site, the museum offers regular guided architecture tours in numerous languages. Image courtesy of Vitra, (photographer: Thomas Dix).

3. Vitra’s buildings, such as their manufacturing hall, designed by Nicholas Grimshaw, visualise their philosophy towards design, and are part of the company’s heavy investment in high-quality work environments for their valued employees. The buildings help create a culture of creativity and send a powerful message to the outside world by putting their work ethos into practice in order to realise their own ideas on the ideal work environment. The building’s interior and furnishings are used to invite and encourage mutual collaboration amongst employees. Image courtesy of Vitra, (photographer: Thomas Dix).


192 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation KEY SKILLS

Written Communication Writing varies in style and purpose, from the formal to the informal, and from being entertaining to being a forewarning. Writing, as a form of communication, has the ability to capture complex information accurately and succinctly. The written documents themselves become a very useful form of agreement between people, as well as a permanent record. The reminder to always get it in writing makes good business sense, since each of our backgrounds will influence how we interpret a situation or conversation. Each of us will inevitably draw different conclusions if things are not clarified. The type of written business correspondences to be used will frequently be determined by the cost, speed and accuracy needed. Emails are faster to write than letters, and can be sent simultaneously to any number of people. Faxes are more expensive and time consuming to send, but do provide a fairly instantaneous hard copy of a document or design detail which may be critical. Mailing a letter may sometimes be the most appropriate method as delivery, for example, can be recorded.

WRITING LETTERS In the context of design and business, letters are a formal record of the correspondence between two or more people. The exact level of formality will depend on the nature of the relationship between the people involved, but as a written record, a letter can become a legal document if circumstances so require. The most common purposes for sending a letter are to obtain information or action, to persuade, sell, clarify, enquire, answer a question, and to create an impression of ourselves and our organisation. Letters usually follow particular guidelines in terms of format (opening, main body, action point, concluding remarks, close and signature), salutation (title, name, form of address and level of familiarity), and structure (paragraphs, indentation, layout, position of address). When writing a letter, always leave enough time to plan, draft, review, check, read, edit and send. Consider the overall image the letter is making. Is it communicating what you want it to? The beginning and the end of any correspondence (the open and close) is likely to be what the recipient will remember and, more importantly, is most likely to judge the letter by. People form impressions based on how they read, encode and decode information, and this process, although not fully within the writer’s control, can be steered in a positive direction by being aware of the impression that is created.


Written Communication | 193

‘To get the right word in the right place is a rare achievement. To condense the diffused light of a page of thought into the luminous flash of a single sentence, is worthy to rank as a prize composition just by itself... Anybody can have ideas – the difficulty is to express them without squandering a quire of paper on an idea that ought to be reduced to one glittering paragraph.’ Mark Twain


194 | PART THREE Managing the Design Implementation WRITING REPORTS

QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION

The purpose of a report is usually to inform, provide answers to a question, or provide the evidence necessary to help sell an idea. Reports are a factual documentation of a business situation, and are based on thorough research and analysis that is assembled in a presentable, organised and useful way.

Poor grammar, spelling and punctuation is distracting and confusing, and can create mixed messages about what is actually meant. Always aim for clarity, succinctly getting to the point in a way that is most appropriate to the recipient of your correspondence. Keep your sentences short so as to allow the recipient to read, decode and assimilate the information more effectively. Read and proofread your correspondence before sending it, and if possible have someone else in your team proofread for clarity and legibility. Is your letter readable and understandable, or incomplete, overly complicated or unfocused? If you’re not proud of it, don’t send it.

The most common purposes of business reports are to monitor and control operations; to implement policies and procedures; to comply with regulatory agencies; to obtain funding; to document work for clients; and to guide decisions. Thinking about the intended audience for the report will guide the level of information included about the wider business context, and what words and terminology may be unfamiliar and therefore need to be explained. Visuals and diagrams can be a very useful way to give an overview of a particular aspect, and frequently can communicate a great amount of information to people from a range of different backgrounds. Reports should open by identifying who commissioned it, what its purpose is, and the questions the report is intending to answer. Use of heading and sub-headings will quickly allow the reader to obtain an overview of the report and ldentify the main conclusions. Report formats will vary depending on their purpose, but typically will include a cover, title page, commissioning letter, foreword, synopsis or executive summary, table of contents and list of illustrations, introduction, report findings, conclusions, recommendations, appendices and a bibliography.

Any documents leaving your team will always present an image of how you operate. Maintaining a high standard of presentation in terms of paper quality, neatness and accuracy helps convey a good impression of an individual, and team, which cares about attention to detail. The language and vocabulary used in written communication should be specifically chosen so that it is appropriate to the intended audience. For example, technical descriptions or foreign words may need to be translated to provide meaning in the context of the project. In general, always use a thesaurus or dictionary to find just the right word, and specifically, keep up to date on the vocabulary relevant to existing and new debates in design and business, to ensure you use the right word in the right context. The recipient of your correspondence may be from a different target audience to the one you personally represent. Being able to see and communicate things from an objective point of view, with empathy for a client, audience or end user, is a valuable skill to have when analysing entirely different market sectors.


Written Communication | 195

STYLE OF COMMUNICATION Seeing the situation from the recipient’s point of view, not your own, is often the best way to achieve cooperation, buy in and agreement. A useful exercise is to imagine what it would be like to receive your letter. Does it present the message and attitude you want to convey? Is it direct, succinct and to the point, or direct, aggressive and rude? Words are powerful weapons that can help to build, or break, relationships. Being empathetic means seeing the recipient as central to the message you are trying to convey, and identifying what may be of concern to them. Think about the appropriate form of address for the correspondence. Using ‘you’ makes your writing more immediate, and more interesting, to the reader. Saying ‘the design team will finish working on the problem by Monday’ has a different tone to ‘you will have a solution from the design team by Monday’.

There may be other times where written correspondence serves as a carrier of good or bad news. In daily business dealings, most correspondence contains a mix of positive and negative progress, and how this is communicated will affect the level of trust and confidence a client, for example, places in a design team. Positive phrasing focuses on what can be done, rather than draw attention to what cannot be done. The use of active voice (where the person performing the action is the focus of the sentence) and passive voice (where the person performing the action becomes the subject of the sentence) is a useful method of accentuating a positive message, or reducing blame in a negative message. As an example, ‘the CEO announced a profit’ is active voice, whereas ‘a loss in profits was reported’ is passive voice. Writing can leave an impression of who you are so remember to take a few moments to read through what you have said, and the way in which you have said it, as this is time well spent. It is not possible to ‘unsend’ a piece of written correspondence once it has been delivered.

‘The ability to express thoughts and communicate information in clear written English (or another language) is central to the work of a design consultancy. Clients often feel out of their depth or unqualified to make aesthetic judgements, but they will be influenced by the quality of written work and the quality of service coming from the consultancy.’ Liz Lydiate


196 | Appendix

Appendix


Design management is an intricate subject, but there are clear guidelines that design managers can follow to manage the investments made in design to maximum impact. As the role of design in the world continues to broaden, organisations are increasingly viewing design as something that is integral to their decision-making processes. The design management strategies that enable design to influence organisations and their place in the world are also the tools that can challenge organisations to question their role, purpose and responsibility in business, society, the economy and the environment, as well as in people’s everyday lives. To follow are 18 points of view from leading individuals in the field, on what design management constitutes for them.


18 Views on Design Management Helen Atkinson

Clay Burns

Inyoung (Albert) Choi, Ph.D.

Senior Design Manager, Integrity Design Management Ltd. (Formally Sainsbury’s Head of Design 1993–1999).

Vice President, Smart Design, Barcelona.

Associate Professor of Brand Design, Hanyang University, Korea.

Its easy to feel overwhelmed by the mass of messages that clamour for our attention. We are surrounded by direct and indirect demands on our time. So I believe a design manager’s role is to ensure that every form of ‘brand’ we experience makes sense to us. The role is therefore so much more than strategy and creative ideas. A design manager has the diversity of business and creative experience, the will, and the people skills to make things happen. They have the ability to nurture good ideas and deliver them in a way that makes sense. Sounds simple. But of course this requires us to address all factors that influence a successful project – timing, content, location, structure, materials, process, costs, consistency and return on investment. It would be very easy to over-intellectualise a response to this question, I think many design managers are as concerned as our creative cousins that design cannot be taken seriously unless we secure a place on the board and use the word ‘strategic’ as often as possible. For me the design manager is simply someone who can take the whole design process from great idea to even greater reality. A design manager must be a diplomat, peacemaker, planner and plate spinner. It’s about rolling your sleeves up and doing what it takes to nurture every good creative idea from everyone in and around you organisation, regardless of rank. And then it’s about making sure that the best ones get to live and breathe and build your brand. The best design managers that I have worked with, from both sides of the client divide, are those who take a much humbler and hands-on approach, who educate through example by delivering what others can’t. We don’t mystify our colleagues with complexity, we gain their trust by demystifying the complexities of implementation - to many, the biggest burden of any project. We impress and influence through our supportive, professional approach and our uncommon common sense. And in this way we make brands make sense.

One of the interesting issues facing designers and leaders today is the confluence of responsible initiatives. Staying focused on people, not just consumers, is a key counterbalance the design team offers. What happens when we are faced for example with an alarming trend such as the increase of diabetes? From a universal design angle we must help create care systems and products that make living easier. But as sustainable designers we might better direct our influence toward to the conditions which drive such epidemics – e.g. the overabundance of sugar in our communities – so that we may reduce the number and size of the things we make. Design is about people, and today more than ever society needs leaders and creators who try to hold on to two things: integrity and perspective. As Sun Tzu, Drucker, Rand, Jung and others have observed in different forms, the results of our work are often determined beforehand by preparation, approach, individuals, and natural conditions. The best thing design leaders and managers can do is to find the right people, explain the opportunities and goals, and provide the resources that allow design teams and businesses to create meaningful solutions.

Design can express the brand and impress the consumers. Today’s consumers are becoming more ‘active’ and less ‘passive’. To express a brand to active consumers, more than ever, designers must act as brand strategists who must consider how to deliver consistent design solutions that impress consumers with their actual physical form. Hence,I see no boundaries between designers and design managers. In a competitive marketplace, designers must have the knowledge to fortify design solutions, to compete in the battle of recognition. Design managers must understand good design and be able to incorporate an appropriate design for each branding or marketing strategy. If the designs of the twentieth century are based on artistic intuition, because there was a less competitive market and a more unbalanced world economy, then the designs of twenty-first century are based on both artistic and analytical logic, because the market place is very competitive and the world economy is more evenly spread throughout the world. Therefore, I believe today’s designers should have the following qualities: •Able to include empathy for the consumers and culture •Able to distinguish design styles and cultures •Able to manage design solutions that are sustainable or ephemeral in nature •Able to formulate a relationship between verbal and visual communication •Able to write and represent strategic plans and contents •Able to transcend a marketing strategy to design applications •Able to manage time and duties With these qualities, designers and design managers work together as a team to create, manipulate, maintain, constrain, and express strategic design solutions for highly complex consumers.


18 Views on Design Management | 199

Joe Ferry

Rudolf Greger

David Griffiths

Head of Design, Virgin Atlantic Airways.

Managing Partner, GP designpartners, Austria.

Design Management Consultant, UK and Advisor to Indian Design Clients and Consultancies.

Change is seldom greeted with affection but is a necessity for organisations that depend on design and innovation to either sustain or gain a market lead over their competitors. The optimism and energy of a design manager should inspire change throughout a company at many different levels and through many different disciplines.

In our daily work we are confronted with two faces of design management:

A design manager has the ability to coherently communicate aspirations to both internal clients and external consultants. Understanding how new product developments affect all aspects of the Company enables them to design out the unnecessary and include the essential, resulting in commercially successful projects that show a real return on investment. Being the champion of innovators and the guardian of design, the design manager can also ensure the brand is protected for its long-term health, especially within companies where design and innovation is the lifeblood of its future. By doing so, the design manager concentrates on delivering the true needs for the end customer. Having design managers that are visionaries with empowered leadership, can assist in delivering a company’s manifesto and creates a culture within the company that is design aware. They should inspire change by using considered innovation, which will ultimately create the visions for the company’s future.

First it is a kind of managing the design process within our design team. Although this is a typical management task, the difference is that it will be fulfilled by designers. This means that even the planning of resources, the planning of the project execution of each project is designed - is a design process by itself. The advantage of this approach is that we can adapt the whole or parts of our team, as necessary, to the given requirements of a project. In my opinion, this is one of the significant differences between management and design management. Design management is not only about managing design processes, but also about designing management processes. The second kind of design management we are faced with is to manage the design strategy of our clients or, at least, support them in doing so. Designers can help their clients to set up a strategy to strengthen their brand and their position in the market. This is especially true of designers who work in diverse industry areas, who can give an outside view to the client and supply advice on what they need to do to achieve maximum impact with the product portfolio; how to expand the product portfolio; how to position the brand, and how to differentiate themselves from their competitors. The primary task of design management in this case is to capture the corporate identity, the philosophy of a corporation, and to visualise and communicate this through the product and product experience, so that the core brand values are tangible to the customers. This has the effect of both strengthening the brand and making it robust in the market.

The language of design management is changing, in the same way that we no longer talk so often of corporate identity, but describe everything as branding; so design leadership is the new mantra instead of strategic design management. Design management is often used to describe what we might Have called design project management in the past, i.e. tactical and operational issues. This has been occurring alongside a shift in who is involved in design. The paradox of success for design becoming more widely discussed and appreciated is that it is no longer the dominant preserve of designers (those trained in the craft of design and able to realise ideas in physical form). Organisations are recognising the role of design in creating success and design leadership is viewed increasingly as a core competency to be provided internally or through a trusted partner (namely, a design consultancy). The language we use often symbolises the substantive basis on how we interact socially or in an organisational context of an enterprise. The change in the language of design management points to a positive future for the subject area.


18 Views on Design Management Bill Hollins

Mary McBride

Sanjeev Malhorta

Direction Consultants.

Founding Partner of Strategies for Planned Change and Director of the Pratt Institute Graduate Program in Design Management.

Director, Aliagroup, India.

Design management is the organisation of the process for developing new products and services. As design is multidisciplinary and iterative, it will involve coordinating and leading a large number of specialists. The process needs to list activities, time, costs, concurrencies, priorities and people, if the outcome is to be successful (which means profitable) on time and within budget, and leading this is part of the design manager’s role. The design manager’s effort will be mainly focussed at the early low cost stages of design where the main management decisions are made and the finance committed. It is also where the main causes of design failure are rooted. The design manager must also contribute to the strategic positioning of the organisation and the planning of products and services well beyond those currently being designed. As such, good design management ain’t easy. Despite there being British Standards on how to manage design since 1989 and even one on definitions used in design management (BS700-10 1995), until now, none included an actual definition of ‘design management’. The next publication in the series (an update of BS 7000-3 on service design), will include the following: ‘Design management: the totality of the design activity, its administration and contribution to an organisation’s performance. NOTE: Design management encompasses the organisation and implementation of the process for developing new products and services.’ Clearly, I was one of the people involved in compiling this definition.

Design management is an often misunderstood term that evolved its meaning from the traditional definition of managing a design department or firm. In the Pratt DM program design management is defined as the ‘identification and allocation of creative assets within an organization to create strategic, sustainable advantage.’ Design management is design-minded leadership.It is the bridge between design and business. It moves beyond the aesthetic to change experiences, organisations, and opportunities. Design managers are trained to lead this process. In many companies, designers are not asked to be part of the strategic conversation. At the point where executives are having conversations about the company’s strategic intent, designers need to be directly involved in that conversation, not ‘loopedin’ to that conversation later. Designers can execute directly on an organisation’s strategic intention by saying for example, ‘if our intention is to be profitable, we can do the following things. If our intention is to also care about our community, we cannot do the following things.’ Design management is the bridge between design and business that enables the designer’s voice to be heard. Building a future for business in the twenty-first century will require organisation, innovation, direction and the ability to imagine new possibilities. Designers are able to look at a problem and wonder, ‘What if this was completely blank and I could start over again?’ That kind of intelligence is now really necessary. It’s a creative intelligence that enjoys problem-solving and can find opportunities in places where other people have given up. That is way past strategic – that’s leadership by design.

India is the world’s seventh largest country, the second most populous at over a billion people, and has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The country has a diverse range of people, languages, traditions and lifestyles. The success of India as a developing nation – with its software, IT, manufacturing and outsourcing industries – has led to a strong, emerging middle class of young, educated people with increased disposable income. In a country building upon the creative success of their film industry, and just beginning to understand ‘life beyond advertising’, design is slowly being identified as ‘underleveraged tool’ in India’s regional, national and international presence. As the number of consumers grows dramatically, so brand awareness and design awareness are on the increase. People are becoming more selective about the consumer requirements they have, the lifestyle choices they make and where their brand loyalty lies. They are becoming more brand aware, more brand conscious, more conscious of the differences between local and global brands – and the difference design can make to their expectations for high quality products, services and consumer experiences. There is an emerging opportunity for design to be valued, to be managed, and to take into account the dramatic changes in progress. Most people managing design or managing brands are subconsciously thinking ‘how can these design and brand management programmes be paid for?’ But design management, like brand management, affects every part of an organisation’s existence and behaviour. It is not a one time initiative, it is an ongoing mission. If embraced truthfully, it can give a company a competitive edge which carries across product lines and industries. It is a decisive management programme for long term success, because, well managed, it can help earn the trust and confidence of customers, suppliers and the pride of its employees. It can help make the company the supplier of choice, permit greater pricing flexibility, assist in moving into new markets and help companies recruit and retain the best people.


18 Views on Design Management | 201

Stefano Marzano CEO & Creative Director Philips Design. I see it as the leadership task of design to partner with companies toward making the right choices – helping them select the best strategies, vision, competencies, and approach to the customer. In practical terms, we fulfill this task ideally in three ways. We help companies articulate their vision, making abstract aspirations tangible and understandable. We safeguard a company’s higher ambitions, ensuring that products not only meet market demands but also contribute to sustainability. And we help companies prepare for the future, spotting and interpreting long-term trends in society, technology, business and science. But design’s leadership task is not limited to help guiding companies along their chosen path; it crucially also involves supporting them in choosing the path itself. Rooted in humanistic tradition, our discipline is fundamentally about creating a more sustainable, civilised world. We therefore have a duty as professionals to ensure that our companies apply their energies and resources in this direction. Fortunately, I believe that, as more and more people recognise and appreciate the need for sustainability, our voice is increasingly likely to be heard, and the strategic leadership that we can provide will be increasingly relevant for business success.

Samantha Selby, Victoria Walton, Sarah Schlingmann Graduates of University College for the Creative Arts, BA (Hons) Design Management. A design manager forms the link between the creative and the business world. They have the ability to communicate with both sides of these industries and speak their different languages. A successful design manager is capable of managing the development of a piece of creative work, smoothly introducing the concept to a business environment, and then further managing the process through to its success – ultimately ensures that all parties are satisfied. Studying design management entails exploring a wide range of design disciplines such as interior design, product design, packaging, branding, graphics, advertising, website design as well as film and media. Projects are team based, reflecting how design works in industry, and resulting in students developing a wide range of skills. It has allowed us to develop creatively, and also to have the opportunity to build managerial skills. We learned how to see a project through every stage, considering a project from its initial stages to its closure. This taught us to think objectively and consider all possible scenarios, giving us greater flexibility and adaptability within a business environment. In addition to this every project required us to demonstrate our organisational and time management skills, which has stood us in good stead for a future within management roles.

RitaSue Siegel Design Executive Search, RitaSue Siegel Resources, NYC. Forget managers, corporations need leaders, design leaders Lately I have been asking clients who come to us to find ‘design managers’ to use the words ‘design leaders’ instead. Managers optimise resources to implement programs in the most efficient and profitable way. I want our corporate clients to put design in the context in which it belongs so they know what they are really looking for. Leadership is where it’s at. Design leaders are concerned with innovation, design and strategy. The only reason to hire designers is because you want to lead your marketplace. We know that every company has tried to improve its competitive position with better design than the next guy, increasing productivity, outsourcing, and so on. But that’s just not enough today. Integrating the design thinking process into the other strategies by which an organisation plans to achieve its goals will improve its competitive position. To develop a leadership organisation and culture, one must hire talented people who work, and play well together, to collaborate on a constant stream of always improving products, communications, services, experiences and processes that customers didn’t know they needed or wanted, but do and will spend a premium for when they see them. This is a competitive advantage in the twenty-first century and it’s impossible to knock-off.


18 Views on Design Management José Manuel dos Santos

Michael Thomson

Edo van Dijk

Account Manager, Node Partners SA, Barcelona.

Founder and Principal, Design Connect, London.

Design Director and Partner, Eden Design & Communication, Amsterdam.

José: Hi José, some quick questions. What’s a design manager? José: I lack another term to define what I do. I am closer to being a creative people manager, but as this is so general, I prefer to be called either a design or innovation manager. José: What exactly do you do? José: I manage designers and non designers working creatively for a common goal - asking the right questions and getting to the best solutions. José: This sounds like the same definition as what a surgeon or politician does! José: In a certain way, everyone ends up doing design management within their profession, the difference is that I am involved in solutions for new products and services. José: Does design equal innovation? José: Well, they’re closely linked by their core responsibility - change. You could do one without the other, when you do both = powerful solution. The major difference I see in both is that design seems to be a restricted field for designers, though everyone knows non designers are making design decisions every day. Designers tend to see this as an attack to their profession. Innovation doesn’t belong to any one profession, it becomes a richer process. Today, designers are in most of the cases out of the decision loop, they are the ones that have to think about how they want to add value to what’s happening around them, they are the ones that have to enter other territories, sharing their specific skills and knowledge and leading the process. José: Are designers good leaders? José: I am not saying they are better leaders, but they lead the change process very little and they have to lead more, trust their special abilities, stop whining and move into the playing field. The fact that designers can go into a project they never worked with before, learn enough not to say or do dumb things, abstract the problems, ask good questions, search for creative and differentiating solutions and then communicate them to very different audiences in a powerful way must be worth something! José: Thanks!

Corporate leadership and management utilise skills that are generally well defined and understood in relation to the overall growth and well-being of a business in its fight to remain competitive and to grow. They are applied across all the business areas including finance, HR, marketing and business strategy. Leading or managing design in organisations – usually large ones – utilises many of the critical behaviours of corporate leadership and management. But it also demands distinctive qualities and characteristics that are shaped by the belief in design as a way of thinking and behaving that builds differentiation and total value. Design managers and leaders communicate and build meaning and consensus of direction horizontally across the vertical silos in organisational cultures, through inspiring a vision and strategy for design to achieve corporate goals. Design managers and leaders use design language and design semantics to build meaning in the minds of an organisation’s employees – from top to bottom. They do this in order to enable a culture that acknowledges the potential of all the participants in the creation process each one of whom has the possibility to become a design champion in their own right – continually facilitating better design within their own sphere of influence. This deeper approach calls for design managers to also behave as teachers and mentors, proactively creating a climate for individual and team learning towards shared goals. For me, in this sense, design behaviour in an organisation then becomes more akin to some form of ‘collective musicianship’ operating within a climate of continuous learning.

Design management for me is one of the main strategic tools that the management of an organisation should use to define and realise change. Organisations have to respond to changes in order to become successful (defining change) or to remain successful (keeping up with change). Strategic design helps to make business strategy tangible. Makes intended changes visible. Corporate identity design gives a distinctive identity to the organisation. A face and voice that sets the company apart from its competitors. And brings all personnel together under one recognisable flag. Branding, packaging, product design and retail design give a univocal identity to the products and services of a company, helping to improve sales and the successful growth of the company. Information Design and interaction design improve administrative and communications processes. Within the organisation as well as in the dialogue with its clients and other stakeholders, both online and offline. Finally, user experience design improves usability, accessibility and comprehensibility. On all levels, design management ensures that the identity of the organisation, its products and services are steered in the right direction in order to build the desired relationships with all its stakeholders, internally and externally. Well executed design management is the art of synergising all these design fields.


18 Views on Design Management | 203

Thierry Van Kerm

Dr Bettina von Stamm

Cameron Watt

Founder, Designing Hub, Brussels.

Founder, the Innovation Leadership Forum.

Design and Creativity Consultant.

One often looks at design management from the ‘high-end,’ as it is or should be in big corporations. I like to take it from the ‘low-end.’ Looking at facts and reality can help provide appropriate answers: the average size of companies in Europe is less than 10 people. Lots of definitions of design management are not relevant to the vast majority of enterprises. Design management discourse is flowing far above companies’ managers heads and it’s therefore not surprising they don’t take it into account.

Design, design management, and innovation.Why, you might ask, am I concerned with design and design management when innovation is the topic close to my heart and the one I can get passionate about?

Over the years it has become clear to me that many people seem to find the term design manager misleading or confusing. Is it an account manager or project manager by another name or is it something more in line with marketing and brand management. In part I believe it to be all of the above but with one added and critical component. For me the main role of a design manager is to facilitate the creative process, to enhance the quality and quantity of original ideas produced by their teams and to fight tooth and nail to get those ideas implemented. They are there to provide boundaries and focus to the team, they are there to support, cajole and negotiate with all stakeholders, they are there to say no (diplomatically) as well as say yes (enthusiastically) and they are there to fend off or absorb the negative external pressures placed on their teams. But perhaps above all they are there to build and maintain trust with stakeholders, for without trust there can be no creativity.

Design management is a competence to be owned by enterprises. This competence is simply be made of: •Being aware of design •Being aware of what design can do for the company •Being aware of how to conduct a design project and work with designers •Being able to empower designers •Being able to assess quality of designers’ proposals Simple. But there is already a lot to be done by designers and design promoters to achieve such an objective. And always keep in mind, the average size of companies is less than ten people and that’s where the largest potential of the design market is.

For me innovation is a frame of mind. It is about challenging the existing – with the ambition to improve and create value. Innovation is about identifying and understanding latent consumer needs, spotting things that people would love to have, even though they don’t know it yet. As Henry Ford said, ‘had I asked people what they wanted they would have told me: faster horses.’ Innovation is about synthesising differing requirements into one solution where the result is greater than the sum of its parts. And innovation is about developing new solutions that are simple and easy, that look and feel like ‘why did we not think of this before’. So what about design and design management then? Design and design thinking are key to innovation. And so are designers because, by their inclination and training they already have an ‘innovative mind set’. That’s their job. For me design management has several components not least the following three: •Most importantly, the injection of design thinking into organisations; in particular, helping leaders of organisations understand and appreciate the value and contribution of designers, design and design thinking; •Providing a bridge between designers and nondesigners as their values and beliefs are often very different; this includes the management of the designers, internal as well as external; •Aiding the creation of a consistent and coherent representation of an organisation; for me this includes not only products and services but also architecture, culture, and organisational structures; any inconsistency between saying and doing will be noticed, by people within the organisation as well as outside.


APPENDIX

Further Resources BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackoff, R. Creating the Corporate Future John Wiley & Sons, 1981 Aldersey-Williams, H. (Ed) The Methods Lab: User Research for Design Design for Aging Network (DAN), for the 1999 Presence Conference Amabile, T. How to Kill Creativity Harvard Business Review on Breakthrough Thinking, Harvard Business Review Paperback, 1999

Camper Imagination Can Change the World Camper, 2000

Design Council Measuring Design Value www.businessinformationsite.co.uk, 2001

Clark, P. and Freeman, J. Design: A Crash Course The Ivy Press, 2000

Design Council The Business of Design: Design Industry Research A Design Council Research Publication, 2005

Cockerille, J. B&O Goes to the Head of the Class Design Management Review, Winter, 2004

Dormer, P. Design Since 1945 Thames & Hudson, 2000

Conran, C. The Advancement of Design Awareness in Gorb, P (Ed) Design Talks! The Design Council, 1988

Drucker, P. The Daily Drucker Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005

Austin, R. and Devlin, L Artful Making: What Managers Need to Know About How Artists Work Pearson Education Inc./Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003

Cooper, R and Press, M. The Design Agenda John Wiley & Sons, 1995

Beckwith, D. Design’s Strategic Role at Herman Miller Design Management Review, Spring 2004

Cox, G. Cox Review of Creativity in Business: Building on the UK’s Strengths Commissioned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 2005

Berensen, J. Twelve Principles of Design Management in Oakley, M. (Ed) Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods Basil Blackwell, 1990 Borja de Mozota, B. Design Management: Using Design to Build Brand Value and Corporate Innovation Allworth Press, 2003 Breen, B. BMW: Driven by Design Fast Company Magazine Sept 2002 Bragg, A. & Bragg, M. Developing New Business Ideas Pearson Education, 2005 Bruce, M. and Bessant, J. Design in Business: Strategic Innovation Through Design Pearson Education, 2002 Bruce, M. and Cooper, R. Marketing and Design Management Thomson Business Press 1997

CRSS/Penna, W. CRSS Architectural Programming Technique AIA Press, 1987 Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention HarperCollins, 1996 Cruikshank, J. and Malcolm, C. Herman Miller, Inc.: Buildings and Beliefs The American Institute of Architects Press, 1994 Davenport, T. The Coming Commoditization of Processes Harvard Business Review, June 2005 Denyer, J. Student’s Guide to the Principles of Management Zeus Press, 1972 De Bono, E. Teaching Thinking Temple Smith 1976

Flaherty, J. Peter Drucker: Shaping the Managerial Mind Jossey-Bass Inc., 1999 Gorb, P. Design Management: Papers from the London Business School Architecture, Design and Technology Press, 1990 Grant, J. The New Marketing Manifesto Orion Publishing Group Ltd.., 1999 Grossman, L. How Apple Does It/What’s Next in Innovation Time Magazine, November 14 2005 Harris, M. Gadgets Go Green Metro, 4 Jan 2006 Harvard Business Essentials Hiring and Keeping the Best People Harvard Business School Press, 2002 Harvard Business Essentials Managing Creativity and Innovation Harvard Business School Press, 2003 Heap, J. The Management of Design and Innovation Cassell, 1989 Heller, R. and Hindle, T. The Essential Manager Dorling Kindersley, 1998


Further Resources | 205

Hollins, B. Design Management Education: the UK Experience DMI Journal, Vol. 13, No.3, 2004

Patent Office, The What is Intellectual Property? The Patent Office, 1997

Rollestone, G. Scenario-Based, Value-Driven Design Methods A MetaLondon/Icon Medialab White Paper, 2003

Hollins, G and Hollins, B. Total Design: Managing Design in the Service Sector Pearson Education, 1991

Patterson, A. Managing Upwards New Design, Issue 7, 2001

Silbiger, S. The 10-Day MBA Piatkus Ltd.., 1999

Jowit, J. Now High Street Stores Bow to the Organic Shopper The Observer January 8 2006

Pearson, C. The Hero Within Harper Collins 1998

Sparke, P. A Century of Design Mitchell-Beazley/Reed Consumer Books Ltd., 1998

Kelley. T. The Art of Innovation HarperCollinsBusiness, 2002

Pine, B. J. III Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition. Harvard Business School Press, 1993

Swann, A. Design and Marketing Phaidon, 1990

Kotler, P. FAQs on Marketing Marshall Cavendish Business, 2005 Landry, J. Book Review of ‘Leadership Passages’ Harvard Business Review, September 2004 Laurel, B. (Ed.) Design Research, Methods and Perspectives MIT Press, 2003 Lidwell, W., Holden, K. and Butler, J. Universal Principles of Design Rockport Publishers Inc., 2003 Lydiate, L. (Ed) Professional Practice in Design Consultancy: A Design Business Association Guide Design Business Association, 1992 Nokes, S. and Greenwood, A. The Definitive Guide to Project Management Pearson Education, 2003 Oakley, M. (Ed) Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods Basil Blackwell, 1990 Olins, W. The New Guide to Identity Gower Publishing Ltd.., 1999 Olins, W. On Brand Thames & Hudson, 2003

Porter, M. Competitive Advantage Free Press, 2004 Powell, E. ‘How to Win Friends’, Review of DMI Conference/ID Magazine Jan 1992 Design Review, Spring 1992 Preddy, S. Using the Spoken Word in Lydiate, L. (Ed) Professional Practice in Design Consultancy A Design Business Association Guide, 1992 Press, M. and Cooper, R. The Design Experience Ashgate, 2003 Raeburn, M. Vision: 50 Years of British Creativity Thames & Hudson 1999 Read, H. Art and Industry Faber & Faber 1932 Reingold, J. The Interpreter: Claudia Kotchka at Procter & Gamble Fast Company Magazine, June 2005 Richter, I. (Ed) The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci Oxford University Press, 1998

Topalian, A. Promoting Design Leadership Through Training Design Leadership Forum, 2003 Turner, R. Leading the Way New Design, Issue 39, 2006 von Stamm, B. Managing Innovation, Design & Creativity John Wiley & Sons, 2003 Wheeler, A. Designing Brand Identity John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Whitehead, T. Sleeping with Celebs: Puerta America Hotel Frame Magazine Issue 47, Nov/Dec 2005 Wikipedia Entry on Design Management www.wikipedia.org Wood, A. Cost Management Begins to Reshape Design Industry Design Week, May 11 2006 Zeldin, T. Conversation: How Talk Can Change Your Life The Harvill Press, 1998 Zimmerman, E. The Iterative Design Process in Laurel, B. (Ed) Design Research, Methods and Perspectives MIT Press, 2003


JOURNALS BusinessWeek BusinessWeek publishes a quarterly Innovation and Design section in their magazine, and online resources include a weekly column by Bruce Nussbaum (NussbaumOnDesign), which takes a look inside the business of innovation and design. Creative Review Creative Review is the world’s leading monthly magazine for visual communication, drawing attention to important new trends in graphic design, advertising, new media, photography, illustration, typography and more. Based in the UK, the magazine has subscribers in 80 countries around the world. Design Management Review Articles and case studies exploring how design (in products, communication and environments) is an essential resource, a component of every organisation that can be effectively managed to make important contributions to the bottom line and to long-term success. Design Week Weekly UK-based magazine for designers and designaware clients, bringing significant news in the design world as it happens. Design Week includes news, research, surveys, features and reports, as well as invitations to pitch, campaigns and product launches, new logos and branding devices, award winning work, and the latest appointments. Fast Company Fast Company explores the areas of innovation, leadership and creativity. Their mission is to find the creative workers and organisations that are building the future, and to present their stories in smart, compelling, beautiful, and useful ways. Harvard Business Review Published by Harvard Business School Publishing Ltd.., Harvard Business Review is an executive level magazine for professional managers. Harvard Business Review’s goal is to be the source of the best new ideas for people creating, leading, and transforming business. The focus is on areas such areas as leadership, organisational change, negotiation, strategy, operations, marketing, finance, and managing people.

WEBOGRAPHY Management Today The monthly business magazine of the Chartered Management Institute. Management today features intelligent articles by respected columnists giving practical advice to help managers at all levels to advance their careers and develop their business. Strategy + Business Strategy + Business is a quarterly thought-leadership magazine for senior business executives and the people who influence them. It aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice in contemporary global business. The magazine is sponsored by the leading global management and technology consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton.

AHDS Visual Arts www.ahds.ac.uk/visualarts Based at the University College for the Creative Arts, AHDS Visual Arts is an independent body serving the digital needs of the visual arts education community, and is one of five centres making up the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS). Their aim is to provide collections of visual arts digital resources and advice for their creation and use; to preserve visual arts digital resources to ensure their long-term use; and to promote good practice for the creation and use of visual arts digital resources. American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) www.aiga.org AIGA, a professional association for design, is committed to furthering excellence in design as a broadly defined discipline, strategic tool for business and cultural force. AIGA is the place design professionals turn to first to exchange ideas and information, participate in critical analysis and research and advanced education and ethical practice. AIGA sets the national agenda for the role of design in its economic, social, political, cultural and creative contexts. Better by Design www.betterbydesign.org.nz Better by Design helps New Zealand companies make world class design a bigger differentiator for their products and their services in export markets. Their aim is to raise awareness regarding the challenges of design leadership, and promote conversations to help expand design’s reach. Their programme provides practical support and assistance to help companies integrate design through all aspects of their business – right from the leadership, culture, strategy and research through to functional and aesthetic design, product packaging, branding and distribution. Chartered Institute of Marketing, The (CIM) www.cim.co.uk The CIM, the world’s largest professional marketing body, defines the marketing standards that operate in the UK and champion best practice globally. The CIM exists to develop the marketing profession, maintain professional standards and improve the skills of marketing practitioners, enabling them to deliver exceptional results for their organisations.


Further Resources | 207

Chartered Society of Designers, The www.csd.org.uk The Chartered Society of Designers (CSD) is the professional body for designers. It is the world’s largest chartered body of professional designers and is unique in representing designers in all disciplines. D&AD www.dandad.org Founded in 1962, D&AD is a UK-based charity whose remit is to champion excellence in creativity globally. We run awards schemes, education programmes and work with the business community to ensure that creativity is high on their agenda. Design Business Association www.dba.org.uk The Design Business Association exists to promote professional excellence through productive partnerships between commerce and the design industry to champion effective design which improves the quality of people’s lives Design Council, The www.designcouncil.org The Design Council is the UK’s national strategic body for design. Their aim is to strengthen and support the economy and society by demonstrating and promoting the vital role of design in making businesses more competitive and public services more effective. The Design Council undertakes real-life projects to help UK managers become the best users of design in the world. Designing Hub www.designinghub.org/ Originating in Brussels, Designing Hub is a tool and a participative platform that will support the design industry and associated organisations in charge of fostering integration of design and innovation among enterprises. Design in Business www.designinbusiness.org.uk The Design Atlas is a framework for studying the design capability, processes and planning within a business. The Design Atlas gives an overview of how the design capability of an organisation can be audited, and how strategic innovation through design can be proposed.

Design Management Institute, The www.dmi.org The Design Management Institute (DMI) is an international nonprofit organization that seeks to heighten awareness of design as an essential part of business strategy. Founded in 1975, DMI has become the leading resource and international authority on design management. DMI has earned a reputation worldwide as a multifaceted resource, providing invaluable know-how, tools and training through its conferences, seminars, membership program, and publications. Design Research Society www.designresearchsociety.org The Design Research Society is the multi-disciplinary learned society for the design research community worldwide. Their members are present in 40 countries, and are drawn from diverse backgrounds such as design, the arts, engineering, psychology and computer science.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) www.iso.org ISO is the world’s largest developer of International Standards used by industrial and business organisations, governments and other regulatory bodies, trade officials, professionals, suppliers and customers of products and services, and people in general in their roles as consumers and end users. ISO standards contribute to making the development, manufacturing and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner; making trade between countries easier and fairer; providing governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental legislation; aiding in transferring technology to developing countries; and in safeguarding consumers, and users of products and services.

NextDesign Leadership Institute www.nextd.org The next design movement was launched in 2002 by Gary van Patter and Elizabeth Pastor as an experiment in innovation acceleration. Their focus is to raise awareness of design leadership through graduate design education and events involving practicing designers.

Patent Office, The www.patent.gov.uk The Patent Office is responsible for granting patents, registered designs, and registered trademarks that are effective in the UK. It provides information on how to protect and exploit ideas, sell ideas to another company and how to legally protect form plagiarism. UsabilityNews.com www.usabilitynews.com Founded by Dave Clarke and edited by Ann Light, Usability News is part of the British HCI Group that offers a service to practitioners, researchers, consumers, students and anyone with an interest in highly usable computing and communications systems. The site covers the latest news on human computer interaction, usability, events, products, jobs and paper calls.


APPENDIX

Glossary Added Value Increased or additional benefit with regard to, for example, real and perceived worth, market value, desirability, merit or use. Agenda A list of items or matters of business requiring attention. Audience The intended target market of people to which a particular product or service is aimed or created. Audit An inspection or verification of a particular aspect of an organisation by a qualified person or consultancy. A risk audit assesses potential dangers or losses, whereas a financial audit assesses the health and status of accountancy systems and procedures. Brand Identity An identifying mark or trademark which represents an organisation’s vision, mission, beliefs and purpose. Competitive Advantage The position or condition adopted in order for a company, product or service to differentiate itself beneficially from other offers, so gaining favour with consumers. Competitive Analysis The process of investigating and separating into parts the merits of particular companies, products or services over other rival and competing offers. Comparisons are made relative to, for example, price and quality, and a position defined to ensure success against these competing offers. Consumer The end user, purchaser, buyer, customer or user of particular products or services. Context The background information that provides the frame of reference for establishing the relationship between one thing and another, and the meaning associated with surrounding conditions related to, for example, history, location or position.

An allowance (for example, of time or money) put aside in the event of any unforeseen circumstances or future emergencies sustained during a project.

Differentiate Unique product and service features and benefits, or unique advertising and promotion, to sustain competitive advantage and enable consumers to tell the difference between competing offers.

Copyright An exclusive right giving legal protection to the use of a particular design, creative work or other publication, for example music, literature and art.

Hidden Agenda An implied, but unspoken, reason for doing something.

Contingency

Customer Satisfaction The fulfilment of the customer relationship and the customer experience in a gratifying way that, in the face of increased competition and rising consumer expectations, helps to attracts and retains customers. Demographics Classifies consumer ‘types’ according to where they live. Types are assumed to share attitudes and beliefs and purchasing habits. Design Guardian Person or consultancy responsible for ensuring an organisation is using design to its maximum effect, monitoring and promoting the effective use of design, and ensuring coherence between the organisational vision, the brand identity and the design guidelines. Design Process The specific series of events, actions or methods by which a procedure or set of procedures are followed, in order to achieve an intended purpose, goal or outcome. Design Review Group assessment of design work held at periodic or key stages of the design process, during which design work is critically discussed, debated and assessed against the brief or other performance measures. The goal is to make the decision to progress to the next stage of the process, redesign, or even abandon the project all together. Design Standard An authorised measure, a set of principles, or an established level of quality and achievement, serving as a benchmark for an acceptable outcome.

Inclusive Design Design that takes into account the needs of individuals or groups normally excluded; for example, the partially sighted. Innovation To introduce new methods or ideas, or to make changes and variations which indicate a radical departure from the usual way of doing things. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Gives legal protection to the ownership of new ideas or brand names and gives the owner the right to stop other people exploiting their property. IPR includes patents, registered designs and design right, registered trademarks and copyright. Interaction Design A way of designing such that the customer, user or viewer is actively involved in the product, service, process or experience being designed, in a way that both sides ‘act upon’ each other. Invention To think up, conceive, originate, create, design, devise, discover, imagine or improvise or produce a new product, service or process. Lifecycle A behavioural pattern associated with the introduction of new products and services, passing through four stages. Introduction of the product to the marketplace; growth with increased demand; maturity where the product has reached its peak performance in terms of customer satisfaction and retention; and decline with a reduction in sales, and the ideal time to introduce a next-generation product.


Glossary | 209

Methodology A set of working procedures, methods, practices or rules used when engaged on a particular project or process of inquiry. Milestones Agreed points for the completion of important events or key project responsibilities and deliverables, by when, and by whom.

Qualitative Describes an analysis or research approach based on the subjective thoughts, feelings, reactions and motivations of customers. Qualitative results can provide rich insights into people’s emotional connections and habitual behaviours with regard to people, places, products, services or other contexts.

Patent A form of legal protection that grants exclusive rights to make, produce and sell an invention or innovation, for a particular length of time. Patents usually protect the functional and technical aspects of products and processes.

Quantitative Describes an analysis or research approach based on collecting and compiling data based on defined subject areas or specific questions posed to a sample of customers. The data is compiled for statistical analysis, and used to predict consumer behaviours, potential markets and future growth areas.

Procure To obtain, engage or buy goods or services for use within an organisation. The procurement department usually keeps a list of approved or existing suppliers, and a set of regulations and procedures for engaging and securing the services of new suppliers.

Rationale An explanation of the response to a brief, the thinking process and explanation of why something has been designed or produced in a particular way. Will include decisions made in relation to, for example, form, function, aesthetics, user requirements and client needs.

Profit The excess returns over expenditure from having a business advantage, which results in making money, gaining value and achieving return on investment.

Research and Development A systematic and careful investigation of a particular subject; followed by the expansion of investigations and proposals into a chosen direction.

Proposal A scheme or plan for consideration as part of a bid that describes both the opportunity available and a suggested approach for carrying out the plan.

Retainer Financial support to retain or keep in place the services of an individual agency or consultancy.

Prototype A physical or virtual model created to test ideas and designs, and to solicit user-feedback, from which a final product or service will then be created. Public Relations The practice of promoting and maintaining the image of an individual or organisation, through media and promotions such as press releases, press kits, case studies, interviews, company newsletters and sponsorship opportunities.

Roster A list of approved consultancies, suppliers and service providers, that are referencechecked, financially audited and approved by procurement, prior to consideration for engagement on a project and negotiation of terms of engagement. Scope of Work The extent or range of work to be undertaken.

Shareholder A holder of shares in a company, which entitles the holder to a portion of the profits. Stakeholder An individual or group with involvement, interest or claim in a venture, which may be related to, for example, financial, societal, cultural, political or personal benefit. Sustainable Design The study and application of how products, services, systems and processes could be designed or redesigned to have a positive impact on social, economic and environmental factors (i.e. people, profit, planet). Considerations might include, materials, their origins and their end disposal; energy and transport policies; product lifespan and waste-reduction strategies. Trademark ™ A way of identifying goods and services, and of differentiating between competing offers. The trademark is a sign or symbol that allows for instant brand recognition, is unique to each business, and guarantees the origin, quality and consistency of the goods or services. Trend Forecasting/Spotting The act of predicting a tendency, a current style or fashion, or a future market opportunity, as identified by marketers, retailers, designers and consumers themselves. Turnover The volume of money or sales a business transacts in a given period. High turnover is not necessarily related to high profit, since costs and expenditure can reduce profits and make projects financially unviable. User-centred Design A process of designing a product or service experience around the life and behaviour of the consumer or user. User Friendly A process, product or service that is easy to understand or do.


APPENDIX

Index A A420 110–11, 184–5 accountability 158, 177 ACID (Anti Copyright in Design) 171 adaptability 60 added value see value added/created alliances 56 Alloy Total Product Design 63, 95 Amabile, Teresa M. 148, 188 Amsterdam 45 analogies 42 analytical skills 6 Ansoff Matrix 38–9 Apple 53, 136 architectural programming 106 Argus®3 thermal-imaging camera 62–5 Arup Group 72–3, 113 Atkinson, Helen 198 audiences 34–9 auditing 44–7, 154–5 Austin, Rob 112, 114 authority 186 awareness of design 96–9 B Bang & Olufsen (B&O) 187 Bangle, Chris 149 Basecamp software 79 beliefs see values and beliefs Benetton Group 101, 102, 119 Bernsen, Jen 54, 58 Beverley Knowles Fine Art (BKFA) 41 BMW Group 33, 37, 83, 115, 141, 149, 189 board level 49 body language 86, 89 Borja de Mozota, Brigitte 14, 48, 156 Boston Matrix 38–9 brainstorming 104, 141 brands 100–3, 129, 163, 166–9 Braun 97, 174 the brief 92, 94 Buildark 171 buildings design 97, 122–7, 178–81, 191 Burns, Clay 198 business, definition 12 business models 40 business objectives 28 business skills 73, 131, 133, 183

business strategy 92–5 see also strategic level business-unit level 49, 92 C CACI Ltd. 43 Camper 66–71, 121 change 28–9 China 113 Choi, Inyoung (Albert) 198 classification tools 42–3 client brief 92 client needs 40–1, 94 client relations 76–9, 80–1, 195 client teams 140 Coca Cola 167 collaborative cultures 140–1 collage 144 communication 84–9, 142–5, 192–5 competitive advantage 118–21 competitive analysis 30, 31 confidentiality 80, 81 Conlastic 57 consultancies 50–2, 78, 95, 98, 170–1 consumer society (1958–81) 23 consumer voice 36, 38 Cooper, Rachel 12, 40, 162 corporate identity 14, 28 corporate social responsibility 158 corporate strategy 28, 92 see also strategic level cost effectiveness 156 costs 148–9 see also environmental costs Cox Review of Creativity in Business 18 creative brief see design brief creative process 112, 138 creative teams 134–5 creativity 6, 18 critical path 154 Csikszentmilyi, M. 112 CSR see corporate social responsibility cultural differences 166–9 customer needs 28, 40, 42–3, 63, 128–9 customer-satisfaction surveys 38 customer touch points 100 customisation 118–19, 128–9 customised processes 114

D decision-making 80–1 demographics 42–3 design categories 14 definition 6, 12, 18 design-activity level 49 design assets 188 design audits 44–7 design awareness 96–9 design brief 94 design circles 136, 137 Design Council 56, 59 design guidelines 162–5, 168 design implementation 146–95 design leader’s roles 17 design-led organisations 100, 102 design management definition 12–15 importance 16–19 design manager responsibilities 47, 48 roles 12, 17, 82, 134–5 design methods 108–9 design policies 49, 162 design procedures 162 design processes 90–145 design projects see project... design resource 60, 95 design reviews 136 design services 170–1 see also consultancies design society (1998–2006) 25 design strategy establishing 48–53 examples 66, 130, 133, 183 managing 26–89 promoting/selling 54–7 reviewing/revising 174–5 see also strategic level designers roles 17 valuing 191 designing, definition 6, 12 DesignworksUSA (BMW) 189 Devlin, Lee 112, 114 differentiation 120 Doblin Group 107


Index | 211

drawing process 142, 144 Drucker, Peter 30–2, 77, 175 Dyson 37, 83, 115, 139 E e2v technologies 63, 65 Eames, Charles 61 ED&S 59 Eden Design 45, 47, 165, 169 Electrolux 107 elevator ‘pitch’ 82 Elvins, Lynne 110, 184–5 empathy 86 end disposal 160 environmental costs 160 environmental design 14 see also working environments environmental responsibilities 158–61 evaluation see measurement experience drivers 29 F Fabrica (Benetton Group) 101 Feldman, Darryl 74–5 FeONIC Plc. 33, 132–3 Ferry, Joe 199 field research 38 firefighters 63–5 Flaherty, J. 30, 32 flexibility 60 Flux·, Antoni and Lorenzo 66 focus groups 38 FooGo/The Formation 176–7 Freeplay Foundation 19, 161 functional teams 140 G Gantt charts 152–3 gatekeepers 82 Genersys 159 global to local design 166–9 Gorb, P. 12, 14 GP designpartners 57 Greger, Rudolf 199 Griffiths, David 199 guidance 134–5 guidelines see design guidelines GuixÈ, Marti 69, 71

H Heart Cone Chair 13 Heineken 169 Herman Miller 61, 81 Hollins, Bill 12, 136, 137, 200 Hollins, G. 136, 137 HomeLab (Philips) 105 Honda 128–9, 160 hotel design 178–81 Hunter, Mat 130–1 Hydro 99 I IBM POWER chip 57 ideas-management committees 98 IDEO 108–9, 130–1 if Design Awards 173 implementation see design implementation improvements versus innovation 120 in-house design teams 50–1, 96–8 Inditex 155 industrial society (1830–1944) 20–1 Info-Shops (Camper) 68, 70–1 information design 14 Innocent Drinks 103, 157, 171 innovation collaborative cultures 141 definition 18 design strategy review 175 examples 63–4, 75, 131, 133, 176, 183 marketing 36 versus improvements 120 working relationships 83 Innovation Landscapes 107 integrating design 174 intellectual property (IP) 172–3, 188 interpersonal skills 86 Intersect Portfolio (Herman Miller) 81 interviews 42 IP see intellectual property iterations 114, 115 J Journals 206 Joyn 135 Jump 129 JVC 122–7

K kaizen ethic 141 Kajima Design Europe (KDE) 122–7 Karakter 99, 163 knowledge transfer partnerships 188 Kotler, Philip 98, 118 L Lamb, James 63 leadership 134–5, 186–91 letter writing 192 Lewis, David 187 listening skills 86, 87 local design translation 166–9 logos 100 long-term growth planning 58–61 Lowe, Colum 182–3 Luebkeman, Dr Chris H. 72–3 M McBride, Mary 200 maintaining design 164 Malhorta, Sanjeev 200 management skills 182, 186–7 Mandarina Duck 33 market position 46 marketing 34–8 markets 34–9, 120 Marzano, Stefano 104, 168, 201 mass customisation 118–19 measurement benefits 172 outcomes 173 quality, time and cost 149 success 170–3 meetings 76, 78, 156–7 metaphors 42 method cards (IDEO) 108–9 mid/business-unit level 49 mind mapping 142 MINI 33, 37, 115 models 7 Moleskine 15 monitoring design 164 mood boards 42 Muji 61, 159, 161


N N Projects 128–9 National Health Service 60, 172, 182–3 NEC Corporation 55, 161 negotiating skills 87 network society (1982–97) 24 networking 82 NHS see National Health Service NICE Systems 163 Nouvel, Jean 179, 180–1 O observation method 106 operational level 17 operational strategy 28, 92 opinion polls 42 opportunities for design 28–33, 66 Orange Brand Futures group 93 organisational chart 54 organisational goals 12, 16–17, 26–89 out of house design teams 50–2, 98 see also consultancies outcomes measurement 173 Oyster cards 49 P packaging design 177 paradigm of change model 30–2 partnerships 33, 56 Patent Office/patents 173 performance 148–9 PEST analysis 30 Philips 93, 105 ‘pitch’ 52, 82 planning 32, 58–61, 76, 150, 152 PLC see Product Life Cycle policies see design policies Porter, Michael 118 post-project review 157 post-war society (1945–57) 22 Powell, E. 18, 141 power figures 82 Power.org 57 presentation skills 88, 145 Press, Mike 12, 40, 162 pricing design 52 problem owners 82

problem-solving 104–6, 112 product design 14 Product Life Cycle (PLC) 38–9 product and service development 34, 36 production processes 160 profitability 52 project brief see client brief project management 104–7, 148–57 project planning 76, 150, 152 project teams 140 promoting brands 102, 129 design strategy 54–7 proposals 50 protecting designs 172–3, 188 prototyping 104–5, 107, 115 Q quality measures 149 R R&D see research and development RAP UK Ltd. 176–7 raw materials sourcing 158–9 RED Unit (Design Council) 56 report writing 194 research and development (R&D) 34, 36 responsible design 158–61, 177 review meetings 156–7 reviews 136, 174–5 RIBA see Royal Institute of British Architects risk management/audits 154–5 Rockwell, David 102, 140 role playing 106 rosters 95 Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) 116–17 S Said Business School 18 St. Luke’s Communications Ltd. 135, 190 Santos, JosÈ Manuel dos 202 scenario planning 32 Schlingmann, Sarah 201 scope creep 156 Selby, Samantha 201 selling design strategy 54–7

service development 34, 36 service offers 114 shoe design 66–71, 159 Siegel, RitaSue 201 Silken Group 178–81 SMART objectives 138 Smith, Brian 132–3 social responsibilities 158–61 software tools 79, 152, 153 sourcing materials 158–9 SPeAR see Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine speed to market 120 staff recruitment 189 stakeholder buy-in 54–5, 66, 168–9 standardised processes 114 Starck, Philippe 13 stimulation 138 strategic level 12, 17, 28, 92–5 see also design strategy structure, creative teams 134–5 Studio Red 167 success measurement 170–3 sustainability issue mapping 110–11 sustainable design 127, 177, 184–5 Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine (SPeAR) 113 Swatch 119 SWOT analysis 30 T tactical level 17 Tauw 165 team-working 127, 134–5, 140–1 see also working relations telephone skills 89 Terfenol-D 33 Terra Plana 159 TfL see Transport for London thermal imaging cameras 62–5 thinking styles 138, 142–4 Thomson, Michael 202 Thonik 45 time factors 148–9, 155 Topalian, A. 12 Toyota 141 trademarks 173


Index | 213

Transport for London (TfL) 49 Triple Bottom Line 172 Twiki 153 U user needs see customer needs V value added/created 6, 36, 170, 172–3, 183 value for money measurement 172 values and beliefs 28 van Dijk, Edo 202 Van Kerm, Thierry 203 verbal communication 84–9 visual communication 142–5 visual identity 46 Vitra 13, 135, 191 Volkswagen 151, 153, 157 Volvo 102 von Stamm, Dr Bettina 203 W W. W. Stool 13 Wabi shoes (Camper) 67, 71, 121 Walk-in-Progress stores (Camper) 69 Walton, Victoria 201 waste disposal 160 Water Cube 113 Watt, Cameron 203 websites 206–7 Wegener 47 Whirlpool Corporation 13, 141, 160, 175 whole-brain thinking 142, 144 working environments 14, 120, 135, 138 working relations 82–3, 127, 134–5, 140–1 written communication 192–5 Y Yahoo! 74–5 Yorkshire Water 95 Z Zoomer (Honda) 128–9


APPENDIX

Additional Credits All diagrams redrawn/designed by Giles Rollestone.

p.24. The Euro. Symbolic-2001, copyright of European Community 2006. Courtesy of the European Commission Audio Visual Service.

p.20. Wedgwood cameo. Courtesy of Wedgwood Visitor Centre. p.24. Portrait of Stefano Marzano. Courtesy of Philips Design. p.20. Portrait of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Courtesy of The Brunel Engine House, London. p.20. Crystal Palace exterior. Courtesy of Tallis’ History and Criticism of the Crystal Palace. p.20. Toast rack, designed by Christopher Dresser, from the collection of Ellen & Bill Taubman. Courtesy and copyright of Michael Whileway 2001/the Victoria and Albert Museum Collections.

p.25. D-school manifesto. Courtesy and copyright of Stanford University Institute of Design, 2005. Attila the Hun, p87. Supplied by Nancy Carter at North Wind Picture Archive. Winston Churchill, p.89. Copyright 1941. J. Russell & Sons. Leonardo da Vinci, p.154. Supplied by Alinari Archives.

p.21. AEG Turbine Hall: Courtesy and copyright of Max A Monaco. p.21. Bauhaus table lamp MT8 1924, designed by Carl Jacob Jucker & Wilhelm Wagerfield. Courtesy of the Victoria & Albert Museum Collections. p.21. Portrait of Wells Coates. Courtesy of WellsCoates.org. p.22. Time magazine cover October 31 1949. Courtesy of Time magazine. p.22. Eames chair. Courtesy of Vitra Design Museum/The Furniture Society. p.22. Olivetti Lettera 22, designed by M. Nizzoli. Courtesy of Olivetti. p.22. AT&T telephone, designed by Henry Dreyfuss. Courtesy of the IDE Virtual Design Museum/ Henry Dreyfuss Associates. p.22. Panton chair. Courtesy of Art Net. p.23. portrait of Thomas Watson Jr. Courtesy of IBM.

URL Credits A420. www.A420.com ACID. www.acid.co.uk AHDS Visual Arts. http://visualarts.ahds.ac.uk Alloy Ltd. www.thealloy.com Banana Design. www.bananadesign.co.uk Basecamp. www.bascamphg.com Beverley Knowles Fine Art. www.beverleyknowles.com Buildark. www.buildark.com ED&S. www.novar-eds.com Eden Design & Communication. www.edendesign.nl Genersys. www.Genersys-Ireland.com Giles Rollestone. www.rollestone.com GP Designpartners. www.gp.co.at Innovation Leadership Forum. www.innovationleadershipforum.org Integrity Design Management. www.integritydm.co.uk JosĂŠ Manual dos Santos. www.thenodecompany.com Jump Studios. www.jump-studios.com Kajima Design Europe. www.kajimadesigneurope.com Karen Wilks. www.karenwilks.co.uk RAP UK Ltd. www.rapuk.com Twiki. www.twiki.org Vitra. www.vitra.com

p.23. Beovision 1400. Courtesy of Bang & Olufsen. p.23. Sony Walkman. Courtesy of Sony. p.23. Carlton cabinet, designed by Ettore Sottsass. Courtesy of the Design Museum. p.24. Apple Mac. Courtesy of Entire Low End Mac.

All reasonable attempts have been made to clear permissions and trace and credit the copyright holder of the images reproduced. However, if any have been inadvertently omitted, the publisher will endeavour to incorporate amendments in future editions.


Acknowledgements | 215

APPENDIX

Acknowledgements Special Thanks Giles Rollestone; Caroline Walmsley, RenĂŠe Last and Brian Morris at AVA Publishing; Karen Wilks at Karen Wilks Design; The Directors Fund at the University College for the Creative Arts; Dick Petersen, John Hawkes, Cameron Watts, Chris Holt, Ian Dumelow, Roni Brown, Stuart Hodges, Helen Bacon, Sonja Dahl, Alice Huang, Lynne Elvins, Darryl Feldman, Mat Hunter, Colum Lowe, Chris Luebkeman, Brian Smith, David Hands and Caroline Norman. Thanks Dids MacDonald, Mick Eadie, Marie-Therese Gramstadt, Nina Warburton, James Lamb, Jennifer Greitschus, Jackie Young, Anna Davidson, Jason Fried, Martina Hettel, Birte Cobarg, Katja Reimund, Alison Walden, Soledad Olmo, Ruth Coughlan, John Pipino, Jeff Tull, Laura Brock, Mark Finnie, Vanessa Hopkins, Edo van Dijk, Sarah Vernon, Dave Floyd, David Cooper, Matt Chetwood, Ingeliese Neilsen, Silke Becker, Rocio Diaz Fernandez, Ailana at Innocent, Justin Shennan, Jade Hutchinson, Simon Jordan, Akiko Koga, John Chapman, Tony Quinn, Pierre Vinsot, Shahar Sibershatz, James Lawless, Diane Foley, Caroline Farley, Emma Fieldsend, Emma Karidian, Nicola Fowler, Jamie Ford, Ange Dunselman, Marta at Silken Hotels, Melissa Hemsley, Joan MacKeith, David Jones, Peter Theony, Annabel Buckingham, Adelaide Turnbull, Annette Evans, Chris at Moleskine, Marta Meneres, Alan Hely, Sheryl Seitz, Graham Taylor, Lorette Natal, Angela Knorr, Rory Caren, Susan Dean.


Design Management Design management – the management of design strategies, processes and projects – is an intricate subject. As the role of design in the world continues to broaden, organisations are increasingly viewing design as being integral to their decision-making processes. This book leads the student through the key knowledge, practice and skill areas of design management, focusing on the strategy, process and implementation involved in the management of design. Opening with a contextual overview of the subject, this book then explores the stages involved in the application of design to business. Each topic is accompanied by key questions that get the reader to think about the issues raised, and professional case studies and interviews demonstrate the knowledge and practices described. Areas of key practical skills are outlined in order to bridge the gap between creativity management and academic theory, and professional practice.

an AVA Academia advanced title

ISBN 13: 978-2-940373-12-3

9 782940 ÂŁ27.50

373123

Design Management  

Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation Kathryn Best a n A V A A c a d e m ia a d v a n c e d t it le Design Management Managin...

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