Page 1



Dog Days of Summer 2018 Northern VT & NH

Is Your Dog a Good Citizen? Alternative Pet Diets Summer Dog Events Dogs of the Titanic Why Dogs Don’t Listen

Inside this issue of 4 Legs & a Tail


2. August 15th is National Check the Chip Day Erin Forbes, DVM Is your pet's chip up to date?

Pg. 4

3. All Breed Rescue Is your home looking for a new family member? 4. Pet-A-Palooza! Curtis Lumber to host the 9th annual event 4. An Improbable Friendship

For one small town in Minnesota, a dog and duck make for an interesting pair

5. Green Mountain Dog Club See thousands of dog's and more than 100 breeds compete this summer in Tunbridge, VT

8. Gaining Ground on Habitat Loss Julie Longstreth Ways to help our New England wildlife thrive

9. What is a CGC Test? Judith Suarez Is your dog a good citizen?

10. Fear of Thunder and Loud Noises Pat Rauch

Pg. 10

Tips to help your dog deal with the sounds of summer

11. Mounting Health Benefits of CBD Products

Learn more about the positive effects of cannabidiol for your pets

12. 3 Simple Tips for Teaching Your Dog NOT to Pull on the Leash Chet Womack 14. 10 Reasons to Get a Dog When You’re Over 50 15. Five Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs Marty Becker, DVM 16. Pasture Strategies for Horses with Metabolic Disorders Nicole Sicely 18. Not Just Nutrition: Environmental and Social Causes Behind Pet Food Brands Holly McClelland 20. Alternatively Speaking: Are Raw Foods Right For You? Dr. Anne Carroll, DVM, CVA 22. Does My Dog Have Dental Disease Sandra Waugh, VMD, MS If your dog is 3 years of age or over and does not receive routine dental care, then it is very likely, YES

24. An Ode to Pen Karen Sturtevant

A touching story of the love of an English Bull Dog

26. Dogs of the Titanic: Three Who Survived Kate Kelly 4 Legs & a Tail Volume N.218

Publishers: Tim Goodwin, Tim Hoehn

P.O. Box 841

Senior Editor: Scott Palzer

Lebanon, NH 03766

Office Manager: Beth Hoehn


Graphic Design: Kristin Wolff

Sales: Scott Palzer, Ashley Charron

Summer 2018

Pg. 26 If you have a tale about a tail or a photo that will make us smile, we’d like to hear from you. 4 Legs & a Tail is published quarterly and distributed free of charge throughout Northern VT & NH. 4 Legs & a Tail, Inc. is locally owned and operated and acts as a moderator without approving, disapproving or guaranteeing the validity or accuracy of any data or claim. Any reproduction in whole or part is prohibited. 1

August 15th is National Check the Chip Day Erin Forbes, DVM - Vermont Veterinary Medical Association


icrochips greatly increase the chances that pets will be reunited with their families if they are lost or stolen, and the majority of veterinarian offices can give one to your pet. A microchip is a tiny object, no bigger than a grain of rice that can be injected under the skin of your pet. The procedure is no different than a vaccination. Using a special scanner, the microchip can be detected and a number unique to your pet is shown, along with the company that made the chip. An animal control officer, shelter, or veterinarian can then call the company and track down the owner using that number. Statistics show that one in three pets will become lost at some point during their lives, and cats and dogs with registered microchips are much more likely to be returned to their family. Microchips only work if the information on the chip is kept up to date. If an owner does not know if their pet has a microchip, they should make an appointment to have their pet scanned by their veterinarian. If they do have a chip but are unsure of who it is registered to, owners can go to and access the Universal Pet Microchip Lookup Tool provided by the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA).

2 4 Legs & a Tail

The tool allows users to enter the code from the microchip and will direct owners to participating microchip registries associated with that microchip’s number and manufacturer. Owners can then update the information associated with the chip as needed. In a recent study published by the Journal of the AVMA research showed that microchipping greatly increased the chance a lost dog or cat would be reunited with their family. In dogs without a microchip there was a 22 percent chance of being returned to their family but with a microchip that rose to 52 percent. For cats, better results were obtained: about one in 50 cats are returned to the owners, but when microchipped, two of five cats were reunited with their family. Implanting a microchip is a simple procedure: the chip is embedded under the skin using a hypodermic needle, similar to those used for vaccinations. No surgery or anesthetic is needed and this procedure can be done during a routine visit. The chip will then be scanned, added to the medical record, and owner’s will be given information on how to register the chip. If your pet gets lost, an office or shelter can scan for a chip, and if found can contact the owner associated with the chip. The VVMA urges pet owners to talk with their veterinarians to learn more about proper identification for their pets, schedule an appointment to have their pets microchipped, and make sure their pets’ microchips have up-to-date information that will ensure a happy reunion if their pets ever become lost. The Vermont Veterinary Medical Association (VVMA), founded in 1898, is a professional organization of 360 veterinarians dedicated to compassionate animal care and quality medicine. Summer 2018

All Breed Rescue S

ummer is a wonderful time to adopt a new dog! What better way to enjoy hiking, swimming and road trips than with a furry four-legged companion? If you are thinking about adding a pup to your life, consider adopting a dog in need from All Breed Rescue! Founded in 1996, All Breed Rescue is a 501c3 non-profit organization that works with partners in southern states to rescue at-risk, highly adoptable dogs and transport them to our facility at 491 Industrial Avenue, Williston, VT. We get a variety of dogs that come through our doors, from puppies to seniors, Chihuahuas to Great Danes and everything in the middle! So far in 2018, we have adopted out over 260 dogs and can’t wait to adopt out even more! Our friendly staff strive to work with adopters to find the dog (or dogs!) that best suit their lifestyle and are always willing to provide post-adoption counseling. Summer is full of adoption events for ABR! Check us out at the Caws for Paws Pet Expo on June 9th at the Barre Recreation Facility from 10 am-2 pm for a day filled with fun and pups! We will also be at the Curtis Lumber Pet-A Palooza event in Burlington on June 16th from 10 am-3 pm where we hope to find many amazing dogs new homes! Check out our Facebook page in the next few weeks to see posts about puppy classes that will be held at our facility with local dog trainer Nancy Poitras of Brick Approved K9 Performance- ABR alumns and nonABR pups are welcome! Our website ( has our online application, profiles for all of our adoptable dogs, training resources and much more! We are very active on social media- Facebook and Instagram (@allbreedrescue_vt) are updated daily and are where you will find pictures, descriptions and arrival dates for all of our new dogs. Give us a call at 802-489-5889 or email at for more information about our organization, upcoming events, adoptable dogs or anything dog related - we would love to hear from you and see you at our facility!

Duke is looking for a happy home. Visit All Breed for details.

Summer 2018 3

Curtis Lumber To Host 9th Annual PetAPalooza Pet Adoption Day & Fair!


urtis Lumber will host their 9th annual PetAPalooza Pet Adoption Day and Fair on Saturday, June 16, 2018 across select retail stores located throughout New York State and also in Burlington, Vermont. Each store will host multiple pet adoptions/rescue groups. Many adoption rates will also be lowered for the day! Hundreds of animals from over 80 (to date) shelters and rescue groups will be available for adoption including cats, dogs, rabbits and birds. There will also be pet service providers in attendance such as local veterinarians, groomers, pet sitters, photographers and trainers offering valuable discounts off their services. Other events raffles, food, free facepainting and more. Bring your family and your pets and enjoy a great day of pet adoptions, fur and fun! Last year’s event resulted in over 400 animals finding new forever homes! Curtis Lumber’s President and Owner Jay Curtis and wife Kendra, along with the Curtis family of 600 plus employees are very excited to host this annual event. For a list of locations, participating shelters/rescue groups attending and more details visit or CONTACT: Jennifer Stickney - Marketing Coordinator 885 Rt. 67 • Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-490-1441

An Improbable Friendship Between a Dog and a Duck Is the Good News Story We All Need Right Now


Chelsea Adelaine Hassler

ick and tired of only hearing about the bad things going on in the world? We’re right there with you — and, thankfully, we’ve got the cure for exactly what ails you. Meet the unlikely pair of Max, a 12-yearold Husky, and Quackers, a 4-year-old duck. Against all odds, the two animals — both owned by Patrick and Kirsten Riley — are inseparable best friends, and they’re the pride and joy of the teeny-tiny town of Strout, MN. The town boasts a population of just 25 people, so Max and Quackers are well-known to all the residents and can frequently be seen out patrolling their domain. “Sometimes on my way home, I actually hope they’re out there because they’re just too precious to look at,” Strout resident Alisa Godejahn told CBS affiliate WCCO-TV. In the interview below, the Rileys describe how they adopted Max when he 4 4 Legs & a Tail

was 5 and he became fast pals with the couple’s other dog, Sasha, and after she died, he was left without a friend. “He was without any friends, and Max would sit next to Quackers’ pen all the time, I think they just bonded that way,” Patrick Riley says, adding, “after we let him out, they just never left each other’s side.” Kirsten Riley goes on to say, “they sleep together, they eat together, they drink together, they go for walks together down the road . . . everything is together.” The improbable friendship between a dog and a duck provides a poignant reminder that kindness and compassion transcends all of that which may traditionally divide us. It’s not impossible to buck tradition and create a bond with someone who may not be exactly the same as you. As such, the pair is often used as a symbol of how to “put aside differences” among the

residents of the town in which they reside. Symbolism aside, it’s hard not to have your heart melt at the sight of these delightful animals trotting along in unison. And you can bet that we’ll be bookmarking this video of Max and Quackers and be watching it all year long, because it’s exactly the kind of thing that we need a little more of in our lives right now. Best-Friends-Max-Dog-Quackers-DuckMinnesota-44244906 Summer 2018


rea dog lovers are invited to the Vermont Scenic Circuit, a four-day cluster of dog shows running from July 12 through July 14 at the Tunbridge Fairgrounds. The fun kicks off with two days of shows put on by the Woodstock Dog Club on Thursday and Friday, July 12 and 13. The Green Mountain Dog Club hosts its two shows on Saturday and Sunday, July 14 and 15. The four days of shows attract about 1000 entries and over 100 breeds. There will be conformation competition in each breed leading up to Best in Show every day, along with junior showmanship, obedience and rally events. With exhibitors coming from over 35 states and Canada, a long weekend of dog shows can bring in over $450,000 to the area. Each show is open from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Newcomers are invited to take a guided dog show tour to better understand the dog show scene. Woodstock Dog Club will host an ice cream social on Thursday and Friday afternoon during group judging and Best in Show. Green Mountain Dog Club throws a barbecue on Saturday evening complete with a beer tent, and live music. The Green Mountain Dog Club is

Summer 2018

a non-profit organization serving the Central Vermont area. In addition to holding annual dog shows, GMDC holds activities to promote responsible dog ownership and dog sports, including match shows, obedience and handling classes, and educational programs. Many members and their canine partners show in conformation, but some are primarily interested in agility, rally, and other events. There are a few therapy dogs as well. Membership meetings are held the fourth Thursday of every month and guests are always welcome. For more information on the Green Mountain Dog Club, the show in July, or other events, call Mary at 479-9843 or visit greenmountaindogclub or To compete, dogs must be entered by June 27.

Conformation Judging Obedience & Rally

Caulder Ripley of Duxbury is the president of GMDC. Caulder bred and showed Siberian Huskies for many years. He’s also the instructor for the club-sponsored handling classes that teach owners and their dogs how to show. Darin Gillies of Barre is this year’s show chairman. 5

6 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

Summer 2018 7

Gaining Ground on Habitat Loss Julie Longstreth


n human terms, habitat is home. It is environment. It is the place where a plant or animal lives and grows. It is where we dwell, congregate, and continue the species. People understand the meaning of homelessness. To animals, homelessness means habitat loss. This loss is the result of habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation. In pursuit of our own connectivity, we build roads. What brings us together fragments wildlife habitat, including that of the spotted salamander. This species winters upland and spends the spring in wetlands known as vernal pools. And, like clockwork, when the first cold rains wash down, the spotted salamander migrates from its burrow to deposit eggs in a targeted pool. Three months later, young survivors clamber out, only to return the following spring to the same pool. Unfortunately, many of these sites are segmented, creating “salamander crossings.” Green Mountain Animal Defenders encourages everyone to do their part to protect known wildlife corridors. Most animals require resources from a variety of places to thrive, such as uplands, wetlands, and grasslands. A successful linkage for amphibians like the spotted salamander can be seen at a known salamander crossing along the Monkton/Vergennes road in Vermont. This heavily trafficked byway fragments upland from wetland. Before construction of the “amphibian underpass,” an assessment measured species loss due to vehicular traffic at a rate of 50

Watercolor by Julie Longstreth/ NoStraightLinesArtVT

percent. Once completed, species that were observed to increase in number included yellow spotted salamander, blue spotted salamander, four-toed salamander, eastern newt, wood frog, and spring peepers. Bats are another Vermont species affected by habitat loss. Six million bats across North America and Canada have succumbed to a fungal disease known as white-nose syndrome (WNS), initially identified in a cave in New York in 2006. The cold-loving fungus engulfs the muzzle of hibernating bats in caves and mines. It also damages the skin and wing tissues of these wintering mammals. This motivated Green Mountain Animal Defenders to add a bat-box-building campaign to our ever-growing list of projects. Be mindful of the following list to help preserve bat habitats: • Install bat boxes to encourage nesting • Do not cut down trees unless absolutely necessary • Eliminate excess outdoor lighting • Reduce the likelihood of transmission by avoiding bats’ wintering sites Vermont pollinators (flies, butterflies, and bees) also are in dire need of attention. Pollinators assist in producing 70 percent of crops grown in Vermont. Pesticide use, parasites, and habitat destruction have caused pollinator density and diversity loss. As if that were not devastating enough, neonicotinoids (agricultural insecticides resembling nicotine) render whole plants toxic, affect organisms other than pollinators, and eventually contaminate soil and water. How You Can Make a Difference • Create hedges to provide shelter • Leave dead trees standing as a habitat for butterflies • Install nesting boxes • Place bird baths on your property • Plant wildflowers and vintage varieties • Do not purchase plants that have been treated with neonicotinoids We can gain ground on habitat loss every day by composting, but proper composting is a must. Remember to contain and cover your compost, as the process of food decomposition creates a neurotoxin called tremogenic mycotoxin. It can be deadly to wildlife or pets who ingest it, and early diagnosis and treatment is critical. Some pets recover within 24 to 48 hours, while others do not. So be sure to keep wildlife and pets safe and away from compost. People can decimate, reduce, and fragment, but we can also choose to take action and reclaim what once was destroyed, one amphibian underpass, batbox, and garden at a time. More Ways to Help Wildlife Green Mountain Animal Defenders encourages the use of effective and humane approaches for solving problems with wildlife who may be getting into your home or garden. A list of humane solutions can be found here: To help a wild animal who you think may be orphaned or injured, call a licensed wildlife rehabilitator for advice. Here is a list of Vermont’s rehabbers: SAVE THE DATE! We are excited to announce our 8th Annual Walk for All Animals at noon on Saturday, September 29, in Burlington, Vermont. We invite you to join us, so please mark your calendar now! For details or to ask questions, please e-mail GREEN MOUNTAIN ANIMAL DEFENDERS has been working to protect the well-being of all animals since 1983. Please check us out at and QUESTIONS? Contact us at or 802-861-3030.

8 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

What is a CGC Test? Judith Suarez

I s your dog a “good citizen?” Most of us would like to think of our

dogs as great companions, who also have excellent manners. But if asked by an insurance company or a landlord, we might have trouble proving our point. That is one of the driving forces behind the American Kennel Club’s Canine Good Citizen (CGC) Test. It is a super way to demonstrate to others that our dogs have what it takes to be responsible and well behaved. Started in 1989, the CGC Program is designed to reward dogs who have good manners at home and in the community. It is a two-part program that stresses responsible pet ownership for owners and basic good manners for dogs. Since its inception, it has had an extremely positive impact in many of our communities. This is a program that can help us assure that the dogs we love will always be welcomed and wellrespected members of our communities. Many dog owners choose Canine Good Citizen training as the first step in training their dogs. The Canine Good Citizen Program lays the foundation for other AKC activities such as obedience, agility, tracking, and performance events. But perhaps more importantly, CGC training for humans and their dogs helps keep dogs from entering the rescue system. And astounding 98% of dogs who have passed CGC tests, according to AKC research, remain in their homes. It is a pleasure for both dogs and those around them to have a solid background in what “being a good dog” actually means. Having skills like walking on a loose leash around other people and dogs, being able to sit on command, waiting for a minute or so while the human walks a few feet and returns, coming when called, and staying calmly with a stranger are all elements of having good manners – and are all elements in a CGC test. When you work with your dog to teach the CGC skills, you’ll discover the many benefits and joys of training your dog. Training will enhance the bond between you and your dog. Dogs who have a solid obedience education are a joy to live with – they respond well to household routines, have good manners in the presence of people and other dogs, and they fully enjoy the company of the owner who took the time to provide training, intellectual stimulation, and a high quality life. All dogs, including both purebred and mixed breed dogs, are welcome to participate in the AKC’s Canine Good Citizen (CGC) Program. Dogs must simply be Summer 2018

old enough to have received necessary immunizations such as rabies vaccines. After passing and registering the testing, the AKC provides a certificate. Many insurance companies accept proof of CGC testing as the qualification for homeowners insurance. Landlords, who do not always take companion animals, also accept proof of good manners from a CGC test before renting their property to dog owners. Best of all – it is fun. Whether you take a training class or do the work on your own, the feeling of success when your dog can complete the ten elements of a CGC Test is amazing. And the dogs all seem to know they have done something brilliant, as well. Oddly enough, even for those of us who go on to do many other “tests” with our dogs in obedience or sports like agility, the feeling of passing a CGC is a fond memory. CGC Tests feel like a “real world” experience. There are other people and other dogs around. The elements are practical and clear. And the cheering from observers and helpers is a real ego boost. The AKC website has a wealth of

information on the CGC Program. You can check it out at dog-owners/training/canine-good-citizen/ what-is-canine-good-citizen/ Judith Suarez is the Training Chairman for Pioneer Valley Kennel Club, an allbreed AKC club based in Greenfield MA and offering year round training in Brattleboro VT. 9

Fear of Thunder and Loud Noises Pat Jauch - Caledonia Animal Rescue, Inc.


ome time ago we were awakened around 3 A.M. by ferocious barking and the gentle rumble of thunder in the distance. Our companion canine, fearless in the face of loud noise, apparently thought she was protecting us from potential harm. As the storm came closer her enthusiasm grew and she barked ever more fervently. Lightning flashed, thunder roared, and still she barked.

10 4 Legs & a Tail

What a contrast she is from her predecessor (twice her size) who cowered at the slightest hint of a storm, truck backfire, or starting gun at the high school’s sporting events. Much to the chagrin of our children, their dog would tremble and his bowels would go limp in the presence of any loud noise. Because he was a foundling, we never knew his heritage, so a genetic link could not be documented as the cause of his fear. Perhaps his previous owner traumatized him, something we often considered because of the wretched condition he was in when we found him. Whatever the reason, he never overcame his fear of loud noises, no matter how much we tried to help him. Fortunately, he never ran away as some dogs will do when confronted by thunder and loud noises. We never shouted at him, for fear that he would become more bewildered. We tried playing soft music to distract him during storms, to no avail. Confining him to the bathroom with the exhaust fan running and the television playing in an adjoining room should have provided some comfort. Unfortunately, no household noises were sufficient to create a buffer on the Fourth of July when fireworks lit up the downtown sky and the air reverberated with each explosion. Reconditioning simply never helped him. Behaviorists recommend repeating reconditioning strategies, rewarding the dog with toys and treats whenever he begins to overcome his fear, and reinforcing the process as the level of sound increases and the fear appears to abate. They say that this process can take a while. Coupled with “sit,” “stay” and “down” commands, you may be able to help your dog overcome his fear of loud noise. If you care enough to try, you may at least reduce the level of the dog’s anxiety. Summer 2018

Mounting Health Benefits of CBD Products Bring New Customers and Their Pets to Un-Dun’ I

t’s nothing new to Christine Clarenbach, owner of the eclectic combination vape bar, smoke shop and craft-beer hub, called Un-Dun’ tucked neatly on the busy corner between Main Street and Route 12 A in West Lebanon, N.H., she’s known about the benefits of CBD oil for years, long before she opened her shop in 2001. News coverage about the positive effects of cannabidiol (CBD), one of many cannabinoid molecules produced by Cannabis, has been prevalent over the past few years and is gaining momentum. Another molecule THC is the psychoactive component of cannabis but what makes CBD stand out is that it is non-intoxicating and yet has the ability to act on the cannabinoid receptors that are part of human and other mammals’ endocannabinoid system (ECS). That means that many of the positive benefits that humans experience can also happen to their pets. In fact, the reason that plant cannabinoids have psychoactive and medicinal effects within the body is because of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) that they can interact with. It’s this ECS that helps the cells regulate to keep them on an even keel or maintain “homeostasis”. There is evidence, mainly from animal studies, that CBD may have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-relieving) properties, and potential therapeutic value in the treatment of motivational disorders like depression, anxiety, and addiction. More importantly than CBD just being

Summer 2018

in the news is the positive anecdotal evidence people are hearing from friends, neighbors, and colleagues who have started incorporating CBD into their lives and the lives of their pets and have seen positive changes. For Un-Dun’, that means an increase in customers who may not have been a traditional customer in the past, but who are now seeking answers about CBD. First-time customer Dave Rock came to Un-Dun’ to get help for his two German Shepherds, Zoe and Bella, on the advice of his sister-in-law. Zoe had recently been in a fight and had just come home after 3 days at the vet hospital. Bella is older and has difficulty with mobility. Based on advice from staffers, Rock purchased Edibites, a dog treat with 3mg of Cannabinoids in each snack. According to Rock, within four hours of eating their treats, Zoe was

up from her bed and walking around and Bella was running with ease. Although Rock had no experience with CBD before, he’s a fan now. “Makes me think I might want to try it for myself,” he said. According to Christine, “customers have either read the positive health benefits or know someone who is using CBD and that brings them to us asking more.” That’s where her terrifically knowledgeable staff and her many CBD products come in. Un-Dun’ has shelves and shelves of all different kinds of CBD infused products including topical creams and salves, tinctures and vapable oils, and edibles like gummies, chocolates and other snacks. Their products for pets are extensive as well and include dog and cat treats, pet specific oils and topicals. The staff doesn’t just point to products though. Staffers like Department Manager Chris Wentworth know every detail about each product, how the CBD oils are extracted, their concentrations and what products will work best for you. He also takes pride in the quality of their selection saying, “95% of our products are extracted with CO2 which produces a very highly concentrated, full spectrum product.” Un-Dun’ is located at 1 Main Street in West Lebanon. They are open seven days a week, Monday - Saturday 10 a.m. to 7 p.m., Sundays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 11


for Teaching Your Dog NOT to Pull on the Leash Chet Womack


o many dogs these days do not have any leash manners. They pull while on the leash, choking themselves, and making the walk miserable! But, there are a few simple tips you can use to teach your dog to NOT pull on the leash, so you both will be able to enjoy your walks. Here Are My Top 3 Tips to Teach Your Dog to NOT Pull on the Leash: 1. Teach Your Dog How Long His Leash Is! First off, this means DON’T USE RETRACTABLE LEASHES!! Retractable leashes are unfair because the dog doesn’t know if the leash is 3 ft, 10 ft or 25 ft. A dog needs to know how long his leash is to learn not to pull. So, find a leash that is about 6 ft long and stick with it for training. I often “let my dogs be dogs” by allowing them to have the length of the leash to wander while we are walking. However, my #1 rule is that you don’t pull me, EVER!!!! And, to achieve this, I must teach my dogs how far they can go on their leash before they pull (about 5 feet). So, I put them on a leash, and if they are not paying attention to me, I change my direction. Yes, the dog hits the end of the leash. But, in my opinion, the dog is “correcting” himself, and I am teaching him how much room he has on his leash before this happens. This also teaches the dog to pay attention to me. Yes, you can sniff and wander and have a good time and still have an idea of where I am and what I am doing. Whenever my dog appears not to be paying attention, I change my direction and make a 180-degree turn. This helps the dog learn how long his leash is, and teaches him to pay attention to me. 12 4 Legs & a Tail

2. Reward Attention Very few people ever recognize when their dog looks at them. Even fewer people reward it! This is one of the biggest mistakes people make! Your dog should be praised for looking at you, and paying attention to you. Paying attention to me is NEVER wrong! I want my dog staring up at me or looking back at me; always checking in with me. If your dog is paying attention to you, he probably isn’t pulling on the leash. When I teach puppy classes, 100% of those puppies will look up at their owner, on their own (even when they haven’t been taught eye contact). It is a given. It is something I wait for during class, so I can point it out and have them reward it. However, if you don’t recognize it and reward it, the behavior will disappear and turn into pulling and paying attention to everything else. 3. Stimulate His Mind Dogs often pull because they are bored! He doesn’t have really anything else to do, or anything else to think about, so he pulls you from one thing to another. Give him something else to do! Stimulate his mind!! I rarely walk with a total purpose of getting somewhere fast. When I am walking with my dog, I am walking AND training. I change my direction. I change my pace. I have my dog sit. I have my dog “down.” I ask him to find heel. I bring his tug and play with him when he does something right. I ask for eye contact. I ask my dog to do push-ups (sit and down in succession). I make circles to the right and circles to the left. I want my dog’s mind stimulated. I want my dog to pay attention to me. And, I recognize that just walking at a slow pace is not stimulating for my dog, and, without me providing him with stimulation, he is more likely to pull! Follow these three tips, and your walks will significantly improve! Chet Womack is the founder of

Summer 2018

Summer 2018 13


f your nest is empty — by circumstance or by choice — think about getting a dog. Known for their devotion and happy dances, dogs can take a big bite out of isolation. Just hanging out with a furry friend, studies show, has a revitalizing effect. Here are 10 benefits of later-life dog ownership. Dogs Keep You Fit Adopt a dog and ditch that pricey personal trainer. A study in The Journal of Physical Activity and Health found that dog owners walk approximately one hour longer per day than those without a fetching friend in their lives. They Make You Healthier Studies show that dog-owning seniors have lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol than their petless peers. Having a dog also reduces the risk of heart attack — and boosts your chances of long-term survival if you have one.   Dogs Are Social Mediums A natural-born icebreaker, your dog will introduce you to everyone from next-door neighbors to perfect strangers. It’s impossible to pass a dog without making a “pat stop.” So head for the park — Bowser will take it from there.   They Organize Your Day A dog may keep you sane, showered and solvent. Studies show that dog owners exhibit higher degrees of self-discipline than those without. Makes sense: Dogs, like humans, thrive on structure; they need to be fed, walked and nurtured at regular intervals. Dogs Get You MRI scanners showed that the canine brain reacts to voices and sounds, such as crying or laughter, in the same way the human brain does. Dogs are also the only nonhuman animals who scan the left side of a face — the process whereby people, too, “read” emotions.  They Boost Quality of Life For many older Americans, a dog means the difference between a life lived and a life merely endured. Dogs help you stay safe and independent: They provide ears for the deaf, eyes for the blind and an early warning system at the approach of dangers (both real and imagined, of course!).  They Can Be an Old Friend No need for housebreaking and training when you adopt an older pooch. Studies show you can teach an old dog new tricks — or simply take it for long, calm walks. They Help You Volunteer When is a dog like a grandchild? When you can play with it during the day and then head home! Shelters and rescue organizations are desperate for volunteer help. And you’ll get a boost from that tailwagging mood elevator. Dogs Make You a Better Person Consider this: Ozzy Osbourne, the bat-chomping rocker not known as an SPCA poster child, once wrestled a coyote to the ground to pull his pet Pomeranian, Pipi, from its jaws. As the “bumper snicker” exhorts us, “Be the person your dog thinks you are.” They Let You Be a Hero The Humane Society estimates that 6 to 8 million dogs and cats wind up in animal shelters every year. The majority would make loyal and loving companions, yet at least half of that number are euthanized annually. Visit a local shelter; maybe some buddy needs you. Summer 2018

10 Reasons to Get a Dog When You’re Over 50

14 4 Legs & a Tail

Five Surprising Things You Didn’t Know About Dogs Dr. Marty Becker DVM


hile most of the country will have a hot streak or two this summer, they weren’t officially “dog days” unless they occurred in late July or August, at least in the Northern H e m i s p h e r e. That’s because the term “dog days” refers to a period when Sirius - the “dog star,” part of the constellation Canis Major, rises and falls with the sun. The ancient Romans marked these days from July 23-24 to August 23-24, noting that they were typically the hottest days of the year. Eventually, the phrase “dog days” came to mean any hot streak in the summer. The origin of dog tags: Putting collars on dogs is an ancient practice, but dog licenses are much more recent. In the United States, at least, the practice is a little more than a century old, and it started in Cincinnati, Ohio. Charging dog owners to license their pets caught on with other cities as well and was so common that by the time American soldiers in World War I were issued ID tags, they reminded everyone so much of what dogs wore that they were humorously called

Summer 2018

“dog tags,” a term that sticks to this very day. Guard dog on duty: The phrase “Beware of Dog” is so old that its Latin equivalent, “cave canem” has been found on signs in Roman ruins. The word “watchdog” isn’t quite so old; the first mention of it is by Shakespeare, in The Tempest. First-aid cream is better: The idea that a dog›s saliva has healing powers has been around at least since the ancient Greeks and Romans, whose physicians believed it to be an antidote for poisoning. Later, St. Roch was often pictured with a dog licking a sore, reflecting the belief that the patron saint of plague victims knew something about a cure and that his dog’s saliva made him healthy. Modern medicine, no surprise, doesn’t look kindly on such theories. And by the way: Dogs are attracted to open wounds because the serum from them is sweet. Doggie dreads: If you let the hair of Poodles grow, it will form dreadlocks. While not common, Poodles with “cords” do turn up at dog shows now and then, and they always attract

attention. While pet Poodles are typically kept in a short “puppy clip” and show Poodles are groomed for fluffy, big hair, there are breeds who cannot be shown competitively without their cords: the Puli and the Komondor. In Europe, the Bergamasco is shown not only corded but also matted, with what look like large pieces of felt hanging from his pelt. Cords are impractical for pet dogs, which is why these breeds are often shorn of their distinctive coats when they’re retired from showing. A few years back, a top-winning American Komondor was shaved down, losing 2,700 cords and 15 pounds in the process. Fleas aren’t picky: When dogs have fleas, it’s more likely they’ll be what are called “cat fleas,” or Ctenocephalides felis. As for cats, they’re more likely to have cat fleas, too. There is a “dog flea,” but it’s nowhere near as common. The reason “cat fleas” are named after our feline companions is pure coincidence: They were found on a cat when they were first named, in 1834. And, yes, modern flea control from your veterinarian will control these heinous hitchhikers on both cats and dogs. 15

Pasture Strategies for Horses with Metabolic Disorders Nicole Sicely - Cambridge, VT


anaging a horse with a metabolic disorder is a lifetime dedication. Like a child having a peanut allergy, it will always be something you need to be cautious of. There is no such thing as a safe pasture for horses with metabolic disorders. However, there are strategies to reduce the risk. At risk horses, such as those who are over-weight, have EMS, PPID, or insulin resistant (IR), cannot tolerate free choice grazing due to the excess intake of sugar and starch during certain environmental conditions. Pasture management strategies can reduce the risk of high sugar and starch intake. Know your horse’s risk level and exercise caution. If your horse’s insulin level is not in the normal range (Cornell:10-40 uIU/ml), has a Cresty Neck Score of three or more, or is hoof sore, use a dry lot or tract system. Cresty Neck Score System Score Description

Source: Carter et al., 2009


No palpable crest.


No visual appearance of a crest, but slight filling felt with palpation.


Noticeable appearance of a crest, but fat deposited fairly evenly from poll to withers. Crest easily cupped in one hand and bent from side to side.


Crest enlarged and thickened, so fat is deposited more heavily in middle of the neck than towards poll and withers, giving a mounded appearance. Crest fills cupped hand and begins losing side to side flexibility.


Crest grossly enlarged and thickened, and can no longer be cupped in one hand or easily bent from side to side. Crest may have wrinkles or creases perpendicular to the topline.


Crest is so large it permanently droops to one side.

In Vermont and New Hampshire we have Cool Season Grasses (C3). Cool Season grasses thrive in temperatures between 65-75° F. Growth begins in C3 grasses when the temperature is 40-45°F. Many factors affect the sugar and starch

content of forage including: species of forage, light, light duration, temperature, nutrients and water, stage of growth, and grazing management practices. Grass accumulates sugar and starch through photosynthesis. During the day, sugar and starch are produced peaking in the afternoon. Once the sun goes down, respiration begins, the sugars and starches produced from photosynthesis during the day are utilized for continued growth. By early morning the sugar and starch has been used up, leaving the time between 3am and 10am a safer grazing time. When nighttime temperatures drop below 40°F respiration is not active, therefore sugar and starch is not used up for growth. However, it is still accumulating during the day, making grass a large holding pot of sugar and starch. This makes spring, fall and early winter a dangerous time to graze. C3 grasses can adapt so well to cold that a low rate of photosynthesis can continue under a light layer of snow. Most susceptible horses should be kept completely off green grass during periods with freezing nights. Even an insulating layer of snow may not be enough to create a safe turnout. Check your pastures in the winter, if the base of the grass is still green, then the sugar and starch will have accumulated at an unsafe rate, don’t turn your horses out.

Photo courtesy of

16 4 Legs & a Tail

C3 grasses store sugar and starch in the stem base. Ever seen a horse nibbling on an over grazed section of the pasture with lovely tall blades of grass being completely ignored? Horses can be selective grazers and prefer the shorter, sweeter blades of grass. C3 grasses have a higher genetic potential to accumulate sugar and starch under stressful conditions. Stress, just like temperature, can cause respiration to shut down before photosynthesis. In these situations, even morning grazing can be dangerous. Examples of stress are drought, over grazing, or lack of soil nutrients. On cloudy days photosynthesis is reduced creating less accumulated sugar and starch. Planting trees around a paddock, or setting one up next to buildings helps provide shade and limit photosynthetic rates. With two cloudy days in a row, it is safer to let your horse out to graze a bit longer on the second day, as very little sugar and starch will have accumulated. Maintaining your pastures in a vegetative (growing) state will also prevent sugar and starch from accumulating. Seed heads are very high in sugar and starch, and pastures should be mowed prior to it going to seed. A recent study found that mowing pasture during seasons when sugar and starch concentrations are the highest; spring and fall, can maintain forage in a “re-growth” phase that consumes stored sugar and starch. In this study pastures were mowed to a height of 5.9” prior to seed heads forming. Additional ways to help your overweight and/or metabolic horses are Continued Next Page

Summer 2018

exercise, muzzles, strip grazing, track systems or dry lots. Exercise is the #1 insulin buster there is. It will help induce weight loss and increase insulin sensitivity. Muzzles can be beneficial in restricting intake by 80%. They restrict intake, and only allow access to the tips of the leaves which are lower in sugar and starch. Turning your horse out during safe grazing times with a muzzle, along with exercise, is a good option for over-weight horses. Strip grazing restricts the amount of grass horses have access to by use of a portable fence. Every few days you move the fence to a new section to limit the amount of grass they have access to. Moving the grazing sections limits damage to the previously grazed areas and allows for re-growth. When pasture turn out is not a safe option, as on a sunny afternoon, dry lots are your best friend. They should be completely bare dirt with no short grass. A small overgrazed pasture is not a dry lot. Remember, over grazed grass is under stress and accumulates sugar and starch in the grass stem closest to the ground. Create a safe dry lot using dirt, manufactured sand, or pea gravel. Take Home Highlights • Introduce all new pastures more gradually with at-risk horses. • Turn out early morning between 3 - 10am. • Avoid sunny afternoons • Longer turnout may be possible on cloudy days. • Shaded grass will accumulate less sugar and starch, being a safer grazing location. • Spring and fall are the most dangerous seasons. • Don’t turn out when night temperatures drop below 40°F. • Access to grass in the winter is only safe when the grass is completely dead. If it is still green near the base of the stem, then sugar and starch are still present in high quantities. • Avoid grass that may be stressed due to drought or overgrazing. • Mowing pastures keeps grass in a state of re-growth so less sugar and starch accumulates. • Seed heads are extremely high in sugar and starch, mow prior to heads forming. • Use a muzzle to restrict intake during safe turn out times. • Use a dry lot or track system for periods that are unsafe to graze. • And the #1 thing you can do for your horse….Exercise!

Week One

Week Two Resting


Grazing Grazing Week Two Week One


Week Three Resting

Week Four Grazing


Starting paddock

Single-fence strip grazing, where the fence is moved every week to gradually in crease grazing paddock size. The grazed paddock is not rested.



Dual-fence strip grazing, where two fences are moved at the same time over a 4 week period, allowing previously grazed areas to rest

Strip grazing photo courtesy of Inside-Out Hoofcare.

Nicole’s passion for equine nutrition started in 2002 the day her Tennessee Walker gelding “Chance” was diagnosed with PPID (Cushings Disease). Stumbling across the “Equine Cushings and Insulin Resistance” Yahoo group opened the door to a complete fascination (some would say obsession!) with the benefits of nutrition for PPID and IR horses.  Chance lived to the wonderful age of 31yrs old.  Diagnosed at age 18, Nicole contributes these years to a tightly balanced diet, amazing vet and farrier. *Information in this article may not be copied or reproduced without consent from Custom Equine Nutrition, LLC.

Summer 2018 17

Not Just Nutrition: Environmental and Social Causes Behind Pet Food Brands Holly McClelland


ccording to the 2017-2018 APPA National Pet Owners Survey, U.S. pet parents spend an average of $307 per year on dog food and $235 on cat food. Recent estimates show that traditional kibble and wet food products still dominate the market; however, natural pet food sales comprise about 25% of the total U.S. pet food market and continue to grow. Some pet owners have shifted their food budgets to natural foods as they’ve become more educated about ingredient quality and nutrition. To further evolve the natural foods segment, several manufacturers have taken their product offerings to the next level by touting the environmental and social causes supported by their brands. Here are some of the tactics that these manufacturers are using to stand out from the crowd and gain brand loyalty: Sustainable Sourcing: Environmentally conscious consumers want full transparency about ingredient sourcing and foods with low environmental footprints. Numerous manufacturers focus on sustainable harvesting and farming practices to protect the land and ocean. Annamaet Petfoods cares for natural resources through its collaborations with the Pet Sustainability Coalition and the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). A few of Annamaet’s dog and cat food lines contain certified sustainable line caught Alaskan Cod to help protect the oceans. Earthborn Holistic’s Venture line sources Alaska Pollock that is responsibly harvested by a MSC sustainable fishery; it also sources giant squid from coastal pacific waters of Peru and Chile that are wild-caught by established fishing communities in

South America. BareItAll Petfoods works to combat the Asian Carp invasion in the Southeast U.S. and protect native fish by harvesting omega and protein-rich Asian Carp for its food and treats. Manufacturers are also committed to sustainable sourcing land practices. Ziwi only sources ingredients from ethical, humane, and sustainably managed local farms that exceed strict New Zealand regulatory standards. Champion Petfoods focuses on regional ingredients that are locally sourced from Kentucky farmlands and grasslands, and delivered to kitchens fresh daily by trustworthy farmers. Open Farm is devoted to ethical and transparent sourcing by allowing pet parents to trace the origins of every single ingredient in their bags of food by simply entering lot codes. Additionally, Open Farm works with farmers that are dedicated to sustainable farming practices and only focus on premium proteins, fruits, and vegetables that are raised naturally. Animal Welfare: Pet food consumers have also become concerned about animal welfare and want to make sure that their pet foods contain proteins from humanely treated animals. Tender & True is partnered with the Global Animal Partnership (GAP) and uses GAP-certified meat as the first ingredient to make sure that animals are raised in an enhanced environment with outdoor access. All its organic chicken and turkey recipes are raised in reducedstress environments to make sure that pets are eating proteins with humanely-raised ingredients. Earth Animal touts its support for pasture raised animals and believes animals need the right amount of pasture space to be happy and healthy. Similarly,

Open Farm is committed to animal welfare and believes that animals require vegetarian diets free from animal byproducts, antibiotics, and growth hormones; easy access to food and fresh water; and a stressfree eating environment. To achieve its principles, Open Farm works with farmers that treat animals fairly from birth to slaughter, and partners with an independent, industry-leading farm animal welfare organization that ensures the humane treatment of animals. Social Responsibility: Pet parents who are concerned about sound environmental practices tend to care about social causes as well. Portland Pet Food company focuses on social responsibility by donating 5% of net profits to local non-profit animal shelters and programs so that pet owners know that their purchases are making a difference. Lucy Pet Products’ mission is to reduce pet overpopulation and support animal welfare causes through donations to the Lucy Pet Foundation. Additionally, Lucy Pet Products strives to raise awareness of rescue pets through its brand ambassadors – Surfin’ Jack and Ricky the Rescue Cat – which were both adopted from local shelters and have loyal social media followers. I and Love and You focuses on social responsibility through its digital channels. Website visitors are encouraged to sign up for the company newsletter, which results in the donation of 10 meals to a featured shelter. A “rescue of the month” is also featured on its social media platforms, including Instagram, to promote rescue organizations and encourage pet food customers to adopt. We can anticipate that manufacturers will continue to implement sound environmental practices and develop innovative social initiatives to encourage consumers to stay committed to their brands. These practices are expected to grow the natural pet foods segment as both manufacturers and consumers become even more concerned about ingredient quality and the nutritional integrity of pet food. Holly McClelland leads marketing and is an analyst for Fletcher/CSI, a boutique market research and strategy consulting firm headquartered in Williston, Vermont. Holly monitors industry trends and product developments for several brands in the CPG space, including the pet industry. The pet research is focused on tracking nutrition and ingredient trends, technological innovations, and new product launches for dogs and cats.

18 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

*We will not sell or give your information to a third party N218

Summer 2018 19

Alternatively Speaking:

Are Raw Foods Right For You? O

Dr. Anne Carroll, DVM, CVA

ur family loves food, who doesn’t? Eating is a source of pleasure, and hopefully good health when we do it right. Our family includes our pets of course, so it is really no wonder that we want our furry friends to equally enjoy their food and our pursuit for the ‘perfect’ dog food is driven by that desire to have happy,

healthy pets. As that search leads more people to fresh or raw foods, I thought it would be a good time to revisit the topic of raw feeding. We have addressed the pros and cons of processed food in previous articles, so we will not revisit that debate, but instead just take a look at how to evaluate whether raw feeding may be a good fit for your family pet. Before we start, remember that no matter how potentially valuable any one type of food may be, there are no one-size-fits-all when it comes to nutrition. One dog’s perfect meal is another’s digestive upset, so always check with your veterinarian about how to safely evaluate diet choices and make diet changes. Why do we consider raw feeding, when dry dog and cat food is so convenient, requiring no warming, thawing, prep work or planning – just scoop and serve? In modern times we are recognizing what we have given up for convenience and are looking for fresh ingredients that match what dogs naturally would have eaten, like cartilage and ligament tissues, and organ meats. The appeal of mimicking a ‘natural’ eating experience is not a small trend. The raw food industry was doing $65 million in sales in 2013, as of last year that number had risen to $195 million. While still less than 5% of the overall pet food market, raw food sales are growing three times the rate of the rest of the pet food industry. Some have argued this is all a fad or an unfounded theory, but years later too many dogs are healthier on raw foods and that makes fresh feeding likely to continue to be a major growth area in the pet food market. Continued Next Page

20 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

A growing market means more choices and more ways to add fresh food to our pet’s diet, but that comes with the price of needing to be educated to know how to choose. Some elect to start slowly and simply add fresh ingredients on a small scale to the current diet, and this can be an easy way to try out fresh feeding. Appropriate foods that agree with your pet’s digestion can be added to a balanced base meal plan, and it gives the flexibility to focus on certain nutrients that kibble tends to lack or to address specific needs your pet may have. Options include complete meals of quality local meats to use with a supplement balancing mix, making small batch raw or cooked meals to add to dry food, or just supplement commercial food with choice items to augment health. As long as the additions are mindfully chosen and make up less than a quarter of the diet, this approach can really brighten your dog’s menu with nutritional benefits. For those wanting a larger part of the diet to be fresh food, or even all of it, then making sure it is balanced is much more important. Simply providing a buffet of lovely fresh food does not mean it is magically complete. Humans use multivitamins, fortified foods like Iodine in salt and Vitamin D in milk, so why would we not expect to need some effort to complete our pet’s food? Raw meat alone is not a balanced meal, and too much meat without an appropriate balance of other nutrients can actually be detrimental over time. Balance is even more important for growing puppies and kittens, where too little or too much of certain nutrients, especially calcium, can have a huge impact on their proper development. Another consideration is that it takes a lot of metabolic energy to break down raw food, and that can be too much for some animals, no matter their age. Younger animals may find this more of a challenge given everything their digestive systems and immune systems are facing – intestinal parasites passed on by their mothers, getting all those baby shots, diet change from mother’s milk to solid foods and then new foods as they join a new household. Plus at this age, there is a lot less room for replacing dry food and still keeping nutritional balance. At our practice we usually recommend sticking to commercial and cooked foods for most juveniles until they are older and on solid footing to handle raw foods, but if used homemade diets must meet AAFCO nutritional standards for your pet. Elderly animals may have similar needs for an ‘easier’ diet to digest given the decline of digestive capabilities as they age. Consulting with your vet is Summer 2018

important for any diet plan, but even more so for the young and old. Once you have talked to your vet and tried out some fresh feeding to check that it agrees with your pet, you may be ready to take the plunge and make some larger diet changes. The first decision is whether you will make it yourself or buy commercial. Making it yourself gives you more control over ingredient quality and sources, and can allow you to meet any dietary restrictions your pet may have. It does require a legitimately balanced recipe and do expect to have to use some supplements. It is virtually impossible to provide the variety of tissues, including organs, hair, and glands that animals eat in their prey, not to mention the other nutrients dogs would look for from the stools of plant-eating animals (yes, there is a reason they want to go out and eat poop!). Like all things worthwhile, there is a learning curve and it is not a bad idea to have your veterinarian double check your recipes For those that aren’t up for making petfood themselves, commercial diets are abundant, both frozen and dried. However, this still requires some education since there are many choices and not all raw diets are created equal. There are dried fresh foods that are served soaked to return them to a reconstituted state and frozen raw foods. The same rules apply as for dry or canned foods, ignore the advertising on the front of the packaging and read the ingredient list. Many raw foods and even canned or pouches are meant for ‘supplemental’ feeding which is not a balanced meal and will not meet your pet’s nutritional needs if fed exclusively. The package should be clearly labeled but also look at the ingredient list – is not going to be balanced if it only has 3 or 4 ingredients and no supplementation. The other slightly tricky part in feeding complete commercial raw diets is the idea that raw vegetables are a good source of vitamins and minerals. Raw vegetables, unless diced super small or pureed, often have too much fibrous cellulose that dogs simply can’t break down, and cats can’t utilize. A quick look at your dog’s stool will tell you if all that vitamin A in the carrot is feeding your dog or fertilizing your lawn! Dogs would eat pre-digested plant materials in the viscera of their prey, but it is questionable how much they can extract from raw materials. The more fresh feeding you do, be educated. But don’t be intimidated by needing a little information, talk to your veterinarian about the endless options for fresh feeding because even small amounts can go a long way in providing a benefit. Who knows, your whole family may benefit from a little

experimentation in home cooking, and keep everyone excited for their next healthy meal. Dr. Anne Carroll is the owner of the Chelsea Animal Hospital where she practices both conventional medicine and surgery as well as several alternative modalities including traditional Chinese acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. Her associate Dr. Betty Jo Black brings classical homeopathy to the practice. For more information on alternative veterinary medicine visit their website at 21

Does my Dog Have Dental Disease? If So, How Can I Recognize it? How Painful is it? OK, Then Lets Fix It! Sandra L Waugh VMD, MS

Does my dog have dental disease? Over 80% of dogs over the age of 3 have some degree of periodontal disease. If your dog is 3 years of age or over and does not receive routine dental care, then it is very likely that your dog does have some degree of periodontal disease. As discussed before in 4 Legs & a Tail, periodontal disease starts with bleeding gums and ends with very loose teeth and infection in the mouth. This infection can spread to other organs in the body. Early periodontal disease can be reversed, but once bone is lost the disease can be halted but not reversed. Too much bone loss and the teeth must be extracted. Periodontal disease is very common in smaller breeds but occurs in all breeds.

13 year old Yorkshire Terrier with severe periodontal disease. The green arrow points to exposure of the root with plaque and pus on the root. This tooth was extracted. Other dental diseases common in dogs are fractured teeth and teeth that have died without fracturing (called non-vital teeth). This occurs most commonly in larger dogs.

7 year old German Shepherd with severe periodontal disease in the upper jaw. These teeth (yellow arrows) are not obviously diseased to the eye. The amount of tartar does not necessarily translate into the severity of the periodontal disease. I have seen periodontal disease in teeth that appeared perfectly clean and have removed large chunks of tartar from teeth that were healthy.

Fractured upper right canine tooth. The hole in this tooth (green arrow) goes into the pulp chamber. Any tooth with a hole like this is dead, rapidly becomes infected and will eventually become painful. This tooth should be extracted or treated with a root canal procedure. It will never become a living tooth again and there is no reason to “watch and wait�.

Continued Next Page

22 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

Trauma to a tooth can cause bleeding inside the tooth. The dentin inside the tooth absorbs some of the blood and becomes discolored. The color ranges from pink to dark purple, deep yellow or grey. The upper right canine tooth (yellow arrow) and the lower left canine tooth (blue arrow) are both discolored and are dead teeth. They will eventually become infected. Again these teeth should be extracted or treated with a root canal procedure.

How might I recognize dental disease in my dog. You need to get a good look at the teeth! Train your dog to allow you to look at and touch the teeth. Routinely getting a good look at the teeth and gums will then allow you to notice any changes in the mouth. What if I don’t see such dramatic changes in my dog’s mouth? Then what? In addition to using your eyes, use your nose! Periodontal disease creates bad breath of the “rotten egg” or “swamp gas” variety. This smell comes from sulfur compounds emitted by the bacteria that cause periodontal disease. Some people can smell plaque, which has a sour smell, similar to milk that has just gone “off”. Plaque breath is unpleasant, periodontal disease breath makes you want to run away from your pet to get to fresh air. Carefully watch your dog eat and observe any changes such as • Difficulty picking up food • Tipping the head to one side while chewing • Chewing on only one side of the mouth • Dropping food out of the mouth • Preferring soft food over hard or eating only if the hard food has water added • Eating slowly or eating a small amount at a time (when normal behavior was to eat the bowl clean) • Listen for chattering jaws when your dog eats. Other things to look for • Red or bleeding gums • Blood in the water bowl or on a chew toy. • Lumps or bumps in or around your dog’s mouth, especially any swelling present on one side but not the other. • If you are brushing the teeth, be alert for increased resistance to toothbrushing and note what teeth were being brushed if it occurs. • If tartar is much thicker on one side of the mouth than the other, then your dog is chewing on the side with less tartar, which is the less painful side. • Loose teeth • Head shyness (your dog not wanting you to touch their head) • Nasal discharge and sneezing (advanced gum disease in the upper canine teeth can lead to bone loss between the nasal and oral cavity) • Your dog may be reluctant to jump up into the car or especially jump out of the car. As dental disease advances it not only can cause significant pain but also causes a generalized lack of energy and enthusiasm. Dental pain is generally not expressed by whining or whimpering but by a gradual withdrawal from activity and interest. The dog that used to be jumping up and down to go for a walk now has to be encouraged to go outside. This is often attributed to changes with age but it certainly can be caused by dental pain. I compare this to a person with a really bad headache. How much enthusiasm does that person display? How grouchy are they? And what a change once the headache goes away. Summer 2018

All of the photographs in this article were taken at my dental practice within the last 4 months. These conditions are routine in dogs and can be treated to restore the mouth to a healthy state. If you are worried that your dog may have dental disease, make an appointment with your veterinarian. Diagnosing dental disease in dogs requires that dental x-rays be taken, in addition to using a probe and explorer on each tooth. Treating all of the dental disease in the mouth and restoring the mouth to a healthy state can make a dramatic difference in your dog’s life. I have so often been told by clients “My dog is like a puppy again!! I can’t believe what a difference getting the teeth taken care of has made. Now I feel guilty for not doing this sooner.” Don’t wait to feel guilty, get your dog’s teeth examined and treated! Next issue I will address dental disease in cats.

Dr. Waugh is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She also holds a Masters Degree from Washington State University of Veterinary Medicine and is owner of Windsor Veterinary & Dental Services. 23

An Ode to Pen Karen Sturtevant


hen I was a kid living in a small Vermont rural town, I thought going to the sprawling city of South Burlington was a life-changing event. On occasion my mom would take my sister and me to the University Mall. A big outing to be sure! I don’t remember the school clothes we purchased or the lunch ordered at Papa Gino’s, but I do remember hoping I could sit on the floor of The Pet Menagerie and play with the puppies when they were taken out of their cages. As a kid, my thinking capacity went only as far, “Oh, they are so cute. I wish we could have one.” Not a deep thinker at that tender age. I will always cherish the joy of patting those pups and getting their wet kisses. What I didn’t realize was that these fluffy, innocent beings were the product of a puppy mill operation. Their parents were bred strictly for the goal of earning money, big money. As with most bred-forprofit animals, little if any humane care was afforded them. Medical care, nutritious food, shelter, and compassionate attention, in all likelihood, were something their parents never had. Abuse and neglect was. When their money-making abilities were done, they were probably discarded in the dumpster beside yesterday’s trash. If I only knew. From being a wide-eyed little girl to today, a middle-aged (somewhat evolved) woman, that feeling of tenderness towards dogs, and all animals, has not faltered. When not working or sleeping, I’m typically at the Vermont English Bulldog Rescue (VEBR) in Williston volunteering. In my new role I met a recently rescued puppy mill survivor renamed Penelope, Penney Continued NEXT PAGE

24 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

for short. Penney yanked at my heartstrings, she officially became mine in October 2014. English bulldogs, on a good day, are medical nightmares. On a bad day they will drain the bank and the owner will forgo mortgage payments to give them the care they need. Prone to allergies and respiratory issues, extremely heat sensitive, requiring special nutrition, susceptible to changes in routine and environment, bulldogs are not for the weak of heart or casually committed. I found this to be accurate as Penney and I teamed up for entropion and soft pallet surgery, dentals and extractions, bouts with alopecia, a cornea scratch and more. We shared an air mattress. She would hold our stare after coming inside from ‘doing her business’ if we forgot to give her a cookie for her remarkable achievement. Penney was our ambassador at VEBR fundraisers. She was patient and kind with new rescue arrivals. My commitment to her never waned. I was in love. Her personality: sweet and gentle. Her gait: think Eeyore from Winnie the Pooh. Her attitude was ‘go with the flow’ if she could nap 18 hours each day on her mountain of blankets, chewy bones within reach. Her greeting was her signature, yet subtle, bulldog butt wiggle, similar to a bowl of jiggly Jell-O. All, with two-legs and four, agreed that she was one special soul. So with weakness in her back legs, we assisted in getting her outside, brought her to our vet and she was diagnosed with arthritis in one hip and one knee – opposite sides. A manageable fix with medications to treat the pain and inflammation. Not too long after, something was very wrong, as she could not manage to support any weight on her hind legs, didn’t want to get up, and making the trek outside was not an option. Off to the emergency vet, Dawna her surrogate mom, and I, went on a Sunday night. We agreed a CT scan was needed.

Summer 2018

The call came Monday afternoon, a tumor in her spine. Penney had bone cancer. We are challenged with certain bumps along our human lifeline. This was such a time. With Dawna’s council, handholding, and shoulder, we formulated a plan to keep Penney comfortable until we needed to make the impossible decision. We brought Penney (all 70 beautiful pounds of her) upstairs where she could have a view of the snow-covered backyard through the sliding glass door. Dawna made her steak and gave her extra treats. We lined her area with potty pads and plastic. She had her toys within reach and her friend, Peter, visited often. Penney was stoic, proud. My shaky composure was broken while lying face to face with her, weeping and talking, she licked my face, my tears. She knew it was time and it was okay. The world stopped the following Sunday. With heavy hearts we said goodbye. The doctor talked to us with each step. “She’s gone,” time stopped. My breath caught. My energy drained. My Penney was gone. Penney’s early life was fear and uncertainly. Her universe changed when Dawna and I met her. I am humbled by the time we had together. She taught me lessons. Taught me to be a better person, a kinder person. I still hear Penney’s bark during my sleep and wake inclined to run down to her. When my brain catches up with my mind I realize she’s gone. Some people say that when an animal passes, they go over the rainbow bridge. I don’t know about that, but I do know that Penney and I will meet again and when we do, we’ll lie face to face and cry tears of joy instead of sorrow. For information on Vermont English Bulldog Rescue, please visit, and find us on Facebook. 25

Dogs of the


Three Who Survived Kate Kelly


he fact that there were dogs traveling on the Titanic with their owners would come as no surprise to anyone who considers it. However, with all that has been written about the 1912 sinking of the Titanic, little has been written about the dogs who were passengers. Dedicated research by J. Joseph Edgette, Ph.D., Widener University professor emeritus, has revealed the story of the canine passengers. Dogs of First Class Passengers Only Only first class passengers were permitted to travel with their animals.  Most of the dogs were kept in kennels on the F deck and were fed and exercised by members of the crew. Truly devoted dog owners certainly visited the animals regularly; Miss Ann Elizabeth Isham was known to regularly visit her Great Dane. A few of the dogs were small, and they were kept in the cabins with their owners, perhaps surreptitiously.  The dogs who survived were ones kept with their owners, though the attempt was made to save others. While a count of the dogs on board the ship cannot be verified, Professor Edgette has found documentation of several of them: The dogs on board included a King Charles spaniel, two Airedales; a chow; a Great Dane; a champion French bulldog, newly purchased in England; a Pekingese, and a “toy dog” owned by Helen Bishop, a 19-year-old bride. Another passenger, Charles Moore of Washington, D.C. had intended to bring on board 100 English foxhounds that he planned to use to inspire Americans to enjoy English-style fox hunts.  He had to make other arrangements for those dogs, which proved life-saving. Other Animals On Board In addition to dogs, there were also birds Continued Next Page

26 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018

on board. Ella Homes White of New York had with some poultry—a rooster and several hens—that she was importing them from France in order to mix in with her stock.  Another woman had 30 cockerels that were coming to the United States with her. There may also have been some canaries, a popular pet of the day. Ships generally had cats to keep down the mouse and rat population. One cat had given birth to a new litter of kittens just before the Titanic docked at Southampton. For some reason, the cat and her kittens were left in Southampton.  While one would assume there were other cats on board, there is no known mention of them. The Night of the Sinking Because the Titanic was considered “unsinkable,” movement toward life boats was slower than it might have been.  In addition, a lifeboat drill, scheduled for April 14—the day before the sinking—was cancelled for some reason. When the ship began listing decidedly to one side and the staff finally began getting out the lifeboats, chaos reigned. Someone went down to the F deck and opened the kennels so while it proved impossible to save these animals, the last sight of the dogs reportedly was of them running along the upper deck. The dogs who were saved were all ones who were kept with their owners.  Margaret Hays’s Pomeranian boarded a lifeboat in Hays’s arms and both were saved; Elizabeth Rothschild refused to board Lifeboat 6 without her dog (also a Pomeranian) and they, too, survived.  Henry Harper (scion of Harper & Row Publishers) and his wife Myra were rescued. Myra was carrying their Pekingese in her arms and so Sun Yat Sen was saved.

great sadness she left him there when they went to board a lifeboat. At a Senate inquiry she said: “there would be little sympathy for a woman carrying a dog in her arms when there were lives of women and children to be saved.” Miss Ann Elizabeth Isham, 50, who had regularly visited her Great Dane was said to have boarded a lifeboat with her dog, but she was told the dog was going to have to be removed. She left the lifeboat with him. It is said that her body and the dog’s body were found later by a rescue boat. Insurance claims were placed on several animals: the prize bulldog, the chow, the King Charles spaniel, and one of the Airedales as well as the lost poultry. A story circulates about a dog helping to rescue passengers. That story is said to have been fabricated by a crew member who sold the story to a New York newspaper and then subsequently disappeared. All in all, the Titanic was a tragedy for all involved. This article first appeared on the website,  America Comes Alive publishes more stories about American dogs and other animals. Visit the website and sign up for “American Dogs” to receive the stories in your In Box. Or email Kate Kelly at

Other Dogs and People Weren’t So Fortunate Of the 2224 people on board the Titanic, 1500 of them lost their lives. There were not enough lifeboats, and some lifeboats were not fully filled before they pushed off, adding to the tragedy. A few other dog-related stories are worth mentioning.  Helen Bishop’s toy dog had been kept with her in her cabin, but with Summer 2018 27

28 4 Legs & a Tail

Summer 2018



Dog Days of Summer 2018 Northern VT & NH

Is Your Dog a Good Citizen? Alternative Pet Diets Summer Dog Events Dogs of the Titanic Why Dogs Don’t Listen

4 Legs & a Tail North Summer 2018  
4 Legs & a Tail North Summer 2018