Jun -2010 ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻨﺢ اﻟﺸﮭﺎدات اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﮫ ذات اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت اﻷرﺑﻌﮫ ﻓﻰ إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﻋﺎت
Project life Cycle
Collected & Prepared By Contents:
Eng Ahmed Said Mohammed Refaei
1. Introduction to the life cycle of a project ------------------ ----- 2
2. Definitions ---------------------------------------------------------------- 2
3. Project Life Cycle -------------------------------------------------------- 2
4. Benefits and reasons of using life cycle phases ----------------- 3 5. Start up phase------------------------------------------------------- 4 6. Close out Phase --------------------------------------------------------- 6 7. Close out – Post Evaluation ------------------------------------------- 7
International Competence Baseline
Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK).
Project management Managerial approach - Murdith
The project life cycle An introduction to the life of a project: The project life cycle model describes the different phases that a project normally passes through as it progresses to conclusion. The model is based on the idea that, although all projects are different, they all progress through similar phases. Each phase completes a stage of the project. For example, the first phase is called project definition and it is completed when the project has been thoroughly defined and the project brief has been written and agreed. The idea of a life cycle suggests that the project has a life. This implies a sequence of phases, including birth, growth, maturity, ageing and death.
Today, there is no agreement among industries, or even companies within the same industry, about the life-cycle phases of a project. This is understandable because of the complex nature and diversity of projects.
Definitions: PROJECT PHASES (as ICB) A PROJECT PHASE is a discrete time period of the project sequence, which is clearly separate from other periods. A project phase includes both major project deliverables and decisions which are the basis for the next phase. Phases have defined objectives and may have specified time limits. Different phase models may be used for different kinds of (sub) projects which increases the complexity of their coordination .Milestones can be used to work towards specific targets or phase limits or intervals in between.
Project Phases (as PMBOK) Project phases are divisions within a project where extra control is needed to effectively manage the Completion of a major deliverable. Project phases are typically completed sequentially, but can overlap in some Project situations. The high level nature of project phases makes them an element of the project life cycle. A project phase is not a Project Management Process Group. The phase structure allows the project to be segmented into logical subsets for ease of management, Planning and control. The number of phases, the need for phases, and the degree of control applied depend on the size, complexity, and potential impact of the project. Regardless of the number of phases comprising a Project, all phases have similar characteristics.
Milestones & Milestones List: A milestone is a significant point or event in the project. A milestone list identifies all milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, Such as those based upon historical information.
Project life cycle/Phases:
In the next figure there are five phases:
The theoretical definitions of the life-cycle phases of a system can be applied to a project. The phases include: -Conceptual -Planning -Testing -Implementation -Closure 2
The first phase, the conceptual phase, includes the preliminary evaluation of an idea. Most important in this phase is a preliminary analysis of risk and the resulting impact on the time, cost, and performance requirements, together with the potential impact on company resources. The conceptual phase also includes a "first cut" at the feasibility of the effort.
The second phase is the planning phase. It is mainly a refinement of the elements is the conceptual phase and requires a firm identification of the resources required and the establishment of realistic time, cost, and performance parameters. This phase also includes the initial preparation of documentation necessary to support the system. For a project based on competitive bidding, the conceptual phase would include the decision of whether to bid, and the planning phase would include the development of the total bid package (i.e., time, schedule, cost and performance). The third phase –testing –is predominantly a testing and final standardization effort so that operations can begin. Almost all documentation must be completed in this phase.
The fourth phase is the implementation phase, which integrates the project’s product or services into the existing organization. If the project was developed for establishment of a marketable product, then this phase could include the product life – cycle phases of market introduction, growth, maturity, and a portion of deterioration.
The final phase is closure and includes the reallocation of resources. Consider a company that sells products to consumers. As one product begins the deterioration and death phases of its life cycle (i.e., the divestment phase of a system), new products or projects must be established. Such a company would, therefore, require a continuous stream of projects to survive,
Benefits and reasons for using life-cycle phases: More companies are preparing procedural for projects management and for structuring work using life-cycle phases. There are several reasons for this trend:
Clear delineation of work to be accomplished in each phase may be possible. Pricing and estimating may easier if well-structured work definitions exist. Key decision points exist at the end of each life-cycle phase so that incremental funding is possible.
Project Start up Start-up provides the basis for a successful programmed or project. It is frequently characterized by uncertainty,
with information that is sketchy or not yet available. Interested party requirements may be ill-defined, their expectations unrealistic and time-frame undeliverable, whilst early optimism and enthusiasm needs to be tempered with reality. A well-prepared and effectively managed Start-up workshop and the recruitment of the right program/project team personnel can improve the chances of a successful program/project. The start-up workshop should focus on developing the program/project charter and preparing the program/project management plan, setting out the team roles and critical path for the program/project. After the decision to continue with the program or project, the start-up of the next phase is carried out with the following in mind: the specific objectives for the next phase of the program/project; any organizational changes necessary; the need to reconfirm or modify the program/project charter and program/project management plans; updating the detailed time schedule and cost plan; and engagement with the resources. Where there are phase time limits, a program/project transition process should be managed by the program/project management team. Possible process steps: 1.
Initiate start-up process.
Communicate the program/project objectives and their/ its context.
Create a shared vision or mission for the program or project in the plans.
Develop a detailed program or project management plan.
Gain acceptance for the program/project and program/project management plan.
Get the program/project team working together and focus on the purpose of the program/project.
Secure resources, finance, equipment and facilities.
Ensure adequate start-up of the program/project, its projects/sub-projects and project phases.
Get agreement on the program/project charter and program/project management plan, review at every phase of the program/project and its projects/sub-projects and modify as necessary.
10. Document the lessons learnt and apply to future programs/projects.
The project start up is the early phase of a project in which the precondition for a successful project is created and the foundation-stone for the project execution is laid. It is characterized by undefined expectation, great uncertainty and time pressure. The most relevant tasks of the startup process are: 1. Gathering project personnel (kick off meeting). 2. Securing equipment and facilities (resources). 3. Setting the project objectives and scope. 4. Clarifying and designing the basic conditions. 5. Defining and setting-up the project organization. 6. Defining procedure of collaboration. 7. Initial project planning. 8. Creating the project charter.
Close out Close-out refers to the completion of the project or program or of a phase of the project, after the Results of the program, project or phase have been delivered. Each phase of a project or sub-project should be formally closed with an evaluation and documentation of the phase carried out, checking that objectives have been achieved and customer expectations met. The proposals for the next phase(s) of the project should be reviewed and any issues requiring a decision submitted to the appropriate body for authorization. For the close-out of the project or program, where a formal contract has been signed, considerations include transfer of responsibilities from the contractor to the project owner, the commencement of the warranty period and the final payments that need to be invoiced. Hand-over (also known as ‘as built’) documentation needs to be produced and training provided to those who will use the project results. These are essential to ensure that the benefits of the investment made in the project or program are realized. Project results and experience gained are evaluated and lessons learned are documented so that they can be used to improve future projects. The members of the project team will be required for new assignments and should be formally released from their roles and responsibilities.
Possible process steps: 1. Start to use deliverables. 2. Formalize project completion process, hand over operational documents and agree on a process to resolve open issues. 3. Obtain customer feedback. 4. Update/Agree on deliverable-related services, e.g. ‘as built’ documentation (what has actually been delivered); training courses, and product support. 5. Update/Agree on conditions of warranty. 6. Close contracts with contractors and suppliers. 7. Complete all financial transactions and update the final costs. 8. Hold a project close-out meeting. 9. Release human resources and other assets, dissolve project organization, obtain release from Project management role and hand over responsibility to project owner. 10. Archive project records. 11. Issue final report. 12. Update the lessons learnt database and apply to future projects.
Close Project or Phase Close Project or Phase is the process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase. When closing the project, the project manager will review all prior information from the previous phase closures to ensure that all project work is complete and that the project has met its objectives. Since project scope is measured against the project management plan, the project manager will review that document to ensure completion before considering the project closed. The Close Project or Phase process also establishes the procedures to investigate and document the reasons for actions taken if a project is terminated before completion. This includes all of the activities necessary for administrative closure of the project or phase, including step-by-step methodologies that address: • Actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project; • Actions and activities necessary to transfer the project’s products, services, or results to the next phase or to production and/or operations; and • Activities needed to collect project or phase records, audit project success or failure, gather lessons learned and archive project information for future use by the organization.
Project close out And Post- evaluations: Project close out (phase out) is the completion of project work once the project results have been realized. This process starts from the beginning of the project and should be considered during the complete project life cycle, especially in the contracting phase. It may include the following issues: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Commissioning of the project deliverables and their acceptance by client. Liability transfer. Demobilization. Starting of operating and maintenance. Contract close-out. Documentation and forwarding all experiences made in the project.
The hand-over of the project deliverables follow a certain close out procedure, agreed by the project client and the project manager. The main tasks are: 1. Hand-over of product manuals, testing protocols, inspection reports. 2. Final appraisal of financial situation (post project calculation). 3. Final project report and the project documentation. 4. List of open points and finishing works. 5. List of claims. 6. Agreements on training courses, warranties and liabilities. In the context of a project close out meeting, a review process of experiences. This includes. 1. The generation, verification and validation of all relevant data of the project deliverables, such as data sheets, final configuration. 2. Important events, such as interference, control actions. 3. Experiences database for knowledge management (lessons learnt). 4. Satisfaction of customer and project members. 5. Performance evaluation and ratio of objective achievement. 6. Collection of recommendations and proposals of improvement.