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 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ١٥٦


 

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

?‫א‬‫א‬?? ‫א‬ ?‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫؛‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 


‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬٥W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

-١-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W١ J١  W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬١ J٢ ‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

 KE١ J١F‫א‬‫א‬(water/cement ratio)‫א‬‫א‬ -٢-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٨‫א‬‫א‬W١ J١  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ (w/c ratio)

(MPa)٢٨

 ٠{٧٠

 ٢٠

 ٠{٦٢

 ٢٥

 ٠{٥٥

 ٣٠

 ٠{٤٨

 ٣٥

 ٠{٤٣

 ٤٠

 ٠{٣٨

 ٤٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K١ J٢ J١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K٢ J٢ J١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   E F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫• א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬���‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫• א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١ J١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ١٣ ‫א‬

E‫א‬H‫א‬H ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٠{٠٠٤ -٣-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.%٥٠

   K‫א‬‫א‬W١ J١  Mixing timeW‫א‬K٣ J٢ J١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ٢ J١   K‫א‬    

 K‫א‬K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١ J٢  EF‫א‬

E٣F‫א‬

 ١

 ٠{٨

 ١{٢٥

 ١{٥

 ١{٥

 ٢{٣

 ١{٧٥

 ٣{١

 ٢

 ٣{٨

 ٢{٢٥

 ٤{٦

 ٣{٢٥

 ٧{٦

 W‫א‬K٣ J١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫• א‬  ‫• א‬  ‫• א‬  ‫א‬‫• א‬   •  ‫א‬‫• א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (segregation)K‫א‬‫א‬(cohesion)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١ J٢  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢ J١  

 W‫א‬K٤ J١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE٢ J١F‫א‬ 

 ٤٠ ٤٢٠‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬٤ J١K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣ J١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬        ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 K٢٢٠‫א‬‫א‬٣٦٠

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬W٤ J١  W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 K٧٥‫א‬٢٥‫א‬K‫א‬

‫ א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬K٠{٩٥٠{٩٠‫א‬١٠٠٤٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ٢٥ ١٥‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬K٥ J١ ،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬   ‫א‬     K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬   E١ J٥  F    ‫א‬  

K‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KE١ J٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ١٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E‫א‬F‫א‬W٥ J١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦ J١ F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٨ J١٧ J١

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬W٧ J١ - ١١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬W٨ J١  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KE٩ J١KF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

  KE١٠ J١  F ‫א‬         ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ٢   ‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ٥٠‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٩ J١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٠ J١

- ١٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬         K‫א‬     

(durability) ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١١ J١ ,K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   % ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬    K ‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٢ J١K% ٣٠‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ (permeability)‫א‬  % ٣٥ % ٣٠‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٢ J١ ١١ J١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

  ‫א‬   K‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W ‫א‬   

K‫א‬

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ‬

70 60 50 40 30 20 0

2

4

6

(%) ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت‬

8

10

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬W١١ J١ - ١٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

10

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﺎذﻳﺔ‬

8

6

4

2

0 0

10

20

30

40

(%) ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت داﺧﻞ اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٢{١   W‫א‬‫א‬K١ J٦ J١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K٢ J٦ J١ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 W(vibrators)‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

(internal vibrators)W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣ J٦ J١

KE١٣ J١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KHz ٢٠٠ ٧٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

K‫א‬E١٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE١٤ J١F‫א‬‫א‬E ١٥٠‫א‬F

 K٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬���‫א‬ ٢٠ ١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

K(segregation)‫א‬‫א‬ (over-vibration)‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٣ J١  K



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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٤ J١  

(external vibrators)W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤ J٦ J١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KHz١٥٠٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

(vibrator tables)W‫א‬K٥ J٦ J١

  (precast concrete) ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬ 

       ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  K  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 KHz١٢٠٢٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 (revibration)W‫א‬

K٦{٦{١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K%١٥

‫א‬(bleeding)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬    K‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬K٧ J١

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE١٥ J١F ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

‫א‬ (floating)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬KE١٧ J١FE١٦{١F

‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬   - ١٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬W١٥ J١

 

K‫א‬‫א‬W١٦ J١

- ١٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬W١٧ J١

- ٢٠ -


‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ ‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    KW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  K١ J٢ ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١ J٢F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬ % ٧٥‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٢ J٢F٢٨‫א‬

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ‬

50

(‫ﻣﺪة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬

40

‫ﻃﻮال اﻟﻤﺪة‬ 7

30

3 0

20 10 0 0

30

60

90

120

150

180

(‫اﻟﻌﻤﺮ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١ J٢

- ٢٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(%) ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

100 75 50 25 0

0

3

7

28

(‫ﻣﺪة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬

 ٢٨‫א‬‫א‬WK٢ J٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K٢{٢ 

 ٢L ٠{٥ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ KE٣ J٢F‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬W٣ J٢   - ٢٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤ J٢‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٨‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(%) ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

120 100 80 60 40 10

20

30

40

50

(‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )درﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 K٢٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤{٢  K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • W‫א‬‫א‬٣ J٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬١ J٣ J٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

W‫א‬٢ J٣ J٢ ‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬     K‫א‬       ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬٢ J٣ J٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬  ‫א‬

،E٥{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

 K‫א‬W٥{٢

- ٢٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬       ،‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤ J٢ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬١ J٤ J٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE٦ J٢F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦ J٢   - ٢٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬٢{٤{٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٧ J٢F ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ٢٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٧ J٢ W‫א‬‫א‬٣{٤{٢  K EF‫א‬‫א‬

KE٨ J٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

       ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫• א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ - ٢٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨ J٢  K‫א‬

 W‫א‬K٥ J٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧‫א‬(ACI 308)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  K‫א‬ ‫א‬   % ٧٠  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬١ J٢‫א‬

١٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧  K١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٢١Z‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W١ J٢

 KEACI 306R-78F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬

٢٨‫א‬ %٩٥

%٨٥

%٦٥

% ٥٠

٢٣

١٦

٨

٤



٢٤

١٨

١٠

٦

‫א‬

٢٠

١٢

٤

٣

‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،٢٥٥‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(BS8110)‫א‬   60   t + 10

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

80 t + 10

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  %٥٠‫א‬

 

 

80 t + 10

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

140 t + 10

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   - ٣٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wt    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١ K٢٠Z‫א‬%٧٠Z E  K١٠Z‫א‬٪٤٠Z E   W‫א‬  2 =  4 =

60 KZ‫א‬E 20 + 10

80 K٤Z‫א‬E 10 + 10

  %٤٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢

 K١٠Z‫א‬‫א‬

 7 =

140 K٧Z‫א‬W‫א‬ 10 + 10

  ‫א‬E٠{٤‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

E٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬         ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬

- ٣١ -


‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٣


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    KW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

- ٣٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 W١

 K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE١ J٣F٢٤‫א‬‫א‬

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٣  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ��� KECaCl2)

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ - ٣٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫• א‬  ‫א‬ •  ‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬%٢١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ %٢E٢{٣F  K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K١٠٥‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬%١  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

35

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

‫اﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼ ﻠﺪ‬

‫اﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺑﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي ﻋﺎدي‬

0 0

4

8

12

16

20

24

(‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )ﺳﺎﻋﺎت‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١ J٣ 50

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

40 ‫آﻠﻮرﻳﺪ اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮم‬

30 20

‫ﺑﺪون آﻠﻮرﻳﺪ اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮم‬

10 0 0

10

20

30

40

(‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٢ J٣

- ٣٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤ J٣ ٢٤K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٣ J٣F٢٨‫א‬‫א‬%٦٠‫א‬‫א‬

(%)‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

100 80

‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎدﻳﺔ‬

60 40 20 0 ‫ﻳﻮم واﺣﺪ‬

28 ‫ﻳﻮم‬ (‫ﻋﻤﺮ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣ J٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

KE٤ J٣F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٣٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

60

(‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

٣‫آﻎ\م‬350 40 ٣‫آﻎ\م‬300 20

0 0

8

16

24

(‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )ﺳﺎﻋﺎت‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤{٣ K‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬٥ J٣   K‫א‬          ‫א‬ 

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     K٣{٣  

K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ E٥{٣F K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦{٣F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٣٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE ٢٠F‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬K‫א‬ ٣٣ ٢٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ١١‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧{٣F

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ٨٢ ٦٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K  K‫א‬

 KE ٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬

 

- ٣٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥ J٣ 80

(‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺘﺮة اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼﻮى‬ 60

‫ﻓﺘﺮة إرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

‫ﻓﺘﺮة ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬

40

‫ﻓﺘﺮة ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫إدﺧ���ل اﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬ 20

0 0

5

10

15

(‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت‬

 K‫א‬W٦ J٣

- ٣٩ -

20

25


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧ J٣  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٨{٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ = ∑ at (T + 10)  F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٩{٣

- ٤٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

40

30

20

10

0 0

500

1000

1500

(‫ أﻳﺎم‬x ‫ﻧﻀﺞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨ J٣   ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ = اﻟﻨﻀﺞ‬

‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

-١٠o ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ (‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٩ J٣  ‫א‬

  - ٤١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 80o 50o

10o -10o‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 3

6.5

14.5

16

EF ‫א‬  

   W‫א‬   

‫א‬

⎛ 20 + 90 ⎞ 193 = 3,5 * ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

L 60 = 20 * 3 L

L 720 = 90 * 8 L

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ 90 + 60 ⎞ 113 = 1,5 * ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠

١٠٨٦ = ‫א‬ - ٤٢ -

‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬٦{٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K٢٠٦‫א‬٢١٠ J١٦٠‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ٢٤  ‫א‬‫א‬  K٢٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K١٠٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٨  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ٣  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ٣٠ ٢٠‫א‬‫א‬K ١٧٥‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    KW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ - ٤٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WK١{٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫ א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬      K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  K

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١ J٤F‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٨‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٢٨٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W���‫א‬

- ٤٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ •  ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ‫א‬ •  ‫א‬ • 50 (‫ﻋﻤﺮ )اﻷﻳﺎم‬ 28

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

40

7

30

3 20 1 10 0 -10

0

10

20

30

40

50

(‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٤     ‫א‬      ،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE٢ J٤F     ‫א‬  K ‫א‬  ‫א‬     E٣ J٤  F ‫א‬  - ٤٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K٤ J٤‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(mm) ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬

150

100

50

0 0

10

20

30

40

(‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢ J٤

- ٤٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(٣‫آﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء )آﻎ\م‬

190 180 170 160 150 0

20

30

40

(‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ )درﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣ J٤

‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

80

(MPa)

 

10

60

40

20 0.2

0.4

0.6

(W/C ratio)

0.8

1

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء إﻟﻰ اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤ J٤

- ٤٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬K٣

‫א‬‫א‬K ١٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   (T) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K٣٢‫א‬‫א‬K  KE‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F

T=  

0,22(TaWa + TcWc ) + TwWw + TwaWwa 0,22(Ww + Wc ) + Ww + Wwa  W

 K‫א‬‫א‬WT

 E٣LF‫א‬WW  ‫א‬Wa  ‫א‬Wc   ‫ א‬Ww   K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬Wwa   ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬F  ‫א‬   (T) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ W١ 

 KE‫א‬  

 E٣\F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 50

 335

 ‫א‬

 40

 1839

 ‫א‬

 30

 167

 ‫א‬

EF‫א‬

- ٤٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  T =

0,22(40 x1839 + 50 x335) + 30 x167 24878 = = 38.5o C.  0,22(1839 + 335) + 167 645

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬   645 0.22 x335

 ‫• א‬

645 0.22 x1839

 ‫• א‬

645 167

 ‫• א‬

  8.8 =   1.6 =

  3.8 =

   W‫א‬١{٣{٤ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

K‫א‬ % ٨٥ ٧٠‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬

K ١٦‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  

- ٥٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬K٢{٣{٤ ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ٠{٥‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٠{١٢‫א‬  ١٠‫א‬‫א‬٣٨‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬EF • KE٥ J٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 

.‫ ﺟﻬﺎز ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﺎء‬:٥-٤

‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K(T)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

T=

 

0,22(TaWa + TcWc ) + TwWw + TwaWwa − 112Wi 0,22(Ww + Wc ) + Ww + Wwa + Wi

    W

 K‫א‬WWi   E‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬T‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢ K٣٥ZWi‫א‬

  EF‫א‬

 E٣\F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

50

 335

 ‫א‬

 40

 1839

 ‫א‬

 30

 132

 ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

T=

0,22(40 x1839 + 50 x335) + 30 x132 − 112 x35 19908 = = 30.8o C. 0,22(1839 + 335) + 132 + 35 645

 K٧{٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٥‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦ J٤F‫א‬   - ٥٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

(‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ﻣﺎء اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

30

35 20

32 29 27

10

24

0 20

25 30 35 40 (‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺮآﺎم واﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦{٤ J٤ K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K٤{٤  W���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ • K‫א‬ • - ٥٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٥‫א‬‫א‬

K٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ • (Retarding admixtures)W‫א‬‫א‬K١{٤{٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫• א‬ ‫א‬ • ‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬ •   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬٢٨‫א‬٧‫א‬‫א‬  KE٧ J٤F،‫א‬ - ٥٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KEF،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬%٠{٠٥‫א‬  K‫א‬%١٠{٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬

 

‫ﻳﻮم واﺣﺪ‬  

‫أﻳﺎم‬7

‫ﺑﺪون إﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬

‫ﻳﻮم‬28

‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٧{٤ W‫א‬K٥{٤

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ - ٥٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٨ J٤F ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨ J٤F

K(ACI 305, R-77)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ - ٥٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W٤ J٨‫א‬ Concrete temperature:  ‫א‬‫א‬  Relative humidity:

 ‫א‬

 Wind velocity:

 ‫א‬

Air temperature:

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Rate of evaporation:

   

٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬L٢L  K‫א‬L٢L١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٩ J٤F  K٧٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 

 K‫א‬WE٩ J٤F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨ J٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١  K١٨W‫א‬‫א‬  .٪٤٠W‫א‬‫א‬  K٢١W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫\א‬٢٤W‫א‬  K‫א‬L٢L٨{٠ Z‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-8F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢  K٣٠٠W‫א‬‫א‬  . ٪٣٠W‫א‬‫א‬  K32 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫\א‬٣٢W‫א‬  K‫א‬L٢L٢{٠Z‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ٢١  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،‫א‬   

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫\א‬ ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬L٢L٢{٠

- ٥٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬٦{٤ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(JoulesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١ J٤F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٤  

 

 ‫א‬

 ٪100

 ‫א‬

I

 ٪85 J80

 ‫א‬

 II 

 ٪150

 ‫א‬

  III 

 ٪60 J40

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  IV 

 ٪75 J60

 

  V   

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬٤ - ٦٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤ J٣F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥‫א‬  ‫א‬ ٣L ٥٠‫א‬ ١٢  K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K٧{٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫• א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ٢٤     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦١ -


‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٥


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ •    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

    - ٦٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬K١{٥

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬KMPa ٣{٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٥٠‫א‬‫א‬K ٢٤‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ١٠   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ���W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E٣F‫ א‬K١ E٣L١٢٠٣L٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢ K‫א‬‫ א‬K٣   F(CaCl2)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬٪٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  W‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ ‫א‬F  KE٨٠٦٠F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬٥٢‫א‬ ،‫א‬F‫א‬EΤF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١ J٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬

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 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ﻣﺎء اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

75

‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

21

65 18 55

16

45

13 10

35 7 25 0

5

10

15

20

(‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺮآﺎم واﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ )درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٥ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢{٥F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   KE٣{٥F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   KE٤{٥F‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬         ‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥ J١F‫א‬

 KE١٠Z

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5-2

   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5-3  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤ J٥   E ١٠Z‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٥  (ACI 306R-78)‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٢٨‫א‬

 

 %٩٥

 % ٨٥

 % ٦٥

% ٥٠

 ٢٩

 ٢١

 ١١

 ٦

 ٣٥

 ٢٨

 ١٤

 ٩

      ‫א‬

 ٢٦

 ١٦

 ٥

 ٣

‫א‬  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

٢٨‫א‬‫א‬٪٥٠‫א‬‫א‬٦‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣‫א‬K  

               

 

               

 

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  


‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

٦


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  .‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻼﻃﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺪراﺳﺔ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ٦٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W١ J٦ ‫ﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻼﻃﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد ﻣﻦ إﺳﻤﻨﺖ و رﻣﻞ و رآﺎم آﺒﻴﺮ و ﻣﺎء و‬ ‫ وﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪة ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ آﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺮآﺎم و ﺣﺠﻤﻪ و ﺗﺪرﺟﻪ و ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ و‬.‫إﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ و هﻨﺎك ﻋﺪة ﻃﺮق ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت‬.‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ و ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺪﻣﻚ و ﺗﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﻤﻮاد و درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة و ﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‬ .‫ﻓﻬﻲ إﻣﺎ أن ﺗﻜﻮن ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ و إﻣﺎ أن ﺗﻜﻮن ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ذات ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ آﺜﻴﺮة‬  ‫א‬‫• א‬  ‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫• א‬

   W‫א‬‫א‬١{١{٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٤W٢W١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

   W‫א‬٢{١{٦

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •

 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٧٠ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ وﺑﻌﺪ‬C‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ • KW‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  EMPaF٢٨

 ٠{٣٧

 ٤٥

 ٠{٤٧

 ٣٥

 ٠{٤٢

 ٤٠

 ٠{٥٤

 ٣٠

 ٠{٦١

 ٢٥

 ٠{٦٩

 ٢٠

 ٠{٨٠

 ١٥    W

 ٢٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KMPa٣٥ ٦{٦٧١٠‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬٪٤٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬K ٠{٤٧‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K١{٥٠٤٣{٢٠

 ٣٥٠  ٧‫א‬F W‫א‬

 KE‫א‬٣

- ٧١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫ اآﻴﺎس إﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬٧‫آﻤﻴﺔ ل‬

(‫آﻤﻴﺔ )آﺠﻢ‬

١٦٤.٥

١.٥٠٤

‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬

٣٥٠

٣.٢٠

‫اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬

٧٢٩.٥

٦.٦٧

‫اﻟﺮﻣﻞ‬

١٠٩٣.٧

١٠

‫اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬

٢٣٣٧

٢١.٣٧

‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮع‬    W‫א‬‫א‬٣{١{٦

H‫א‬H‫א‬H‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬

W C A1 A2   ρ + ρ + ρ + ρ =1 w c 1 2

 

 W  ‫א‬ :C  ‫א‬ :A1

 ‫א‬‫א‬ :A2  ‫א‬ :W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

A1/A2, C/(A1+A2), F‫א‬‫א‬EA2, A1, C, WF‫א‬

 KEW/C

- ٧٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W

 K٢٨KMPa٢٥

 

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{٦١ ZW/C  ٠{١٥ ZC/(A1+A2)

 ٠{٣٥ ZA1/(A1+A2)

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

  0.35 = 2.33

  0.65 = 4.33

 ١

 ٠{٦١

0.15

0.15

   

‫ ﻓﻴﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬ρcZ٣{١٥ ‫ وﻟﻺﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ρ٢Z٢{٦ ‫ وﻟﻠﺮﻣﻞ‬ρ١Z٢{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :‫اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬   W C A1 A2 + + + =1  ρ ρ ρ ρ w

c

1

2

  0.61C C 2.33C 4.33C + + + =1   1 3.15 2.60 2.50

 

- ٧٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K٣L٢٨١Z٣L٠{٢٨١ZC‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬/‫آﻤﻴﺔ )آﺠﻢ‬ ١٧١

= ٢٨١ x ٠.٦١

 ‫א‬

٢٨١

 ‫א‬

٦٥٥

= ٢٨١ x ٢.٣٣

 ‫א‬

١٢١٧

= ٢٨١ x ٤.٣٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬/‫ آﺠﻢ‬٢٣٢٤

 ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬٤{١{٦

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ slump

:‫ اﺧﺘﺒﺎر هﺒﻮط اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬.١

:‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٦  ‫א‬‫א‬



‫ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺪﻣﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺰازات اﻵﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺪﻣﻚ ﻳﺪوﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻘﻒ واﻟﺒﻼﻃﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذات اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﻤﻜﺜﻒ‬

- ٧٤ -

 ‫א‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

 EF‫א‬ ٢٥ – ٥ ٥٠ – ٢٥ ١٠٠ – ٥٠ ١٧٥ – ١٠٠


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

Max aggregate size :‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٢

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

b 5

d a

3a 5 d 3

b

‫ א‬

  water content

:‫א‬‫א‬K٣

 KE٢ J٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬W٢{٦  E٣\F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ ﻣﻢ‬١٥٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٧٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٥٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٤٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٥

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٠

١٢٥ ١٤٠

١٤٥ ١٦٠ ١٧٠

١٥٥ ١٧٠ ١٨٠

١٦٠ ١٧٥ ١٨٥

١٨٠ ١٩٥ ٢٠٥

٠.٢

٠.٣

٠.٥

١

١.٥

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫ ﻣﻢ‬١٠

١٨٥ ٢٠٠ ٢١٠

١٢.٥ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ ٢٠٠ ٢١٥ ٢٣٠

٢٠٥ ٢٢٥ ٢٤٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٥٠-٣٠ ‫ ﻣﻢ‬١٠٠-٨٠ ‫ ﻣﻢ‬١٨٠-١٥٠

٢

٢.٥

٣

E٪F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

water/cement ratio

W‫א‬‫א‬

 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   E٣ J٦F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     KE٢٨‫א‬

  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ W٣{٦    K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  EMPaF٢٨

٠.٣٧ ٠.٤٢ ٠.٤٧ ٠.٥٤ ٠.٦١ ٠.٦٩ ٠.٨٠

coarse aggregate content

٤٥ ٤٠ ٣٥ ٣٠ ٢٥ ٢٠ ١٥

W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬      KE٤ J٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤{٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣.٠٠ ٠.٤٤ ٠.٥٣ ٠.٦٠ ٠.٦٥ ٠.٧٠ ٠.٧٢ ٠.٧٦ ٠.٨١

 K‫א‬ ٢.٨٠ ٠.٤٦ ٠.٥٥ ٠.٦٢ ٠.٦٧ ٠.٧٢ ٠.٧٤ ٠.٧٨ ٠.٨٣

٢.٦٠ ٠.٤٨ ٠.٥٧ ٠.٦٤ ٠.٦٩ ٠.٧٤ ٠.٧٦ ٠.٨٠ ٠.٨٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢.٤٠ ٠.٥٠ ٠.٥٩ ٠.٦٦ ٠.٧١ ٠.٧٦ ٠.٧٨ ٠.٨٢ ٠.٨٧

 EF ١٠ ١٢.٥ ٢٠ ٢٥ ٤٠ ٥٠ ٧٥ ١٥٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

fine aggregate content

WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬H ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬E٥ J٦F‫א‬  

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 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٦   EF ‫א‬ ٢٢٨٥ ٢٣١٥ ٢٣٥٥ ٢٣٧٥ ٢٤٢٠ ٢٤٤٥ ٢٤٦٥

‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬ ١٠ ١٢.٥ ٢٠ ٢٥ ٤٠ ٥٠ ٧٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬٥{١{٦  

  K‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Concrete Mix Design Software suite.  K‫א‬���(Durabilty of Concrete)‫א‬٢٨‫א‬

W‫א‬

See Mix III (Concrete Analysis and mix proportioning Software) ƒ MixCalc 101 and MixCal102 (Concrete Mix design Calculator ƒ

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W٢ J٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،(segregation)‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٪٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٪٣٠‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬١{٢{٦  

 K٣٠‫א‬١٥‫א‬E١{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 KW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   • W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 π 4

W LD

2

= ‫א‬‫א‬

W ‫א‬‫א‬ =W  ٣٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫= א‬L

 ١٥٠Z‫א‬‫א‬ =D - ٧٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١{٦

 

 W

 K١٢{٣ZW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬

 K 0.005298 =

3.14 × 0.152 × 0.3 π 2 = D L Z‫א‬‫א‬ 4 4

 

 ٣L 2321 =

12.3 Z‫א‬‫א‬ 0.005298

 

- ٨٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬٢{٢{٦  

 W

،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (W/C)‫א‬ •

 (A/C)‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬    ‫א‬           •   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬  F  ‫א‬    ‫א‬      • KE‫א‬

‫א‬ ١٥٠ ٥‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   • K

‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  •  K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨١ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ (R.A.M.)  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    E٢ J٦  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   (BS. 1881:part2) ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬١٠٠٠٠Z

 ‫א‬١١٠٠Z

 K‫א‬١٠٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬٧٠٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬٨٩٠٠F‫א‬

K‫א‬٤٥٠٠٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬٢٥٠٠٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٪٢Z‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬

  10% = 100%

1000 − 1100 ‫א‬ 1000

 K‫א‬٨٩٠٠Z١١٠٠ J١٠٠٠٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬٧٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬١١٠٠Z٧٠٠٠ J٨٩٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬١١٠٠

 K‫א‬ 809 = 8900 × 100 Z‫א‬‫א‬٨٩٠٠ 1100

 K‫א‬١٠٩١Z٨٠٩ J١٩٠٠Z‫א‬ 140 = 7000 ×

2 ‫א‬ 100

 K‫א‬٦٦٩Z١٤٠ J٨٠٩ZE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

669 Z‫א‬ 1091  6.41 = 7000 Z‫א‬ 1091

  0.61 =

 

   ‫א‬‫א‬(RAM)W٢ J٦ slump testW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣{٢{٦ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 (frustum cone)      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K(ASTM C143-78)  KE٣ J٦F

- ٨٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

100‫ﻣﻢ‬

300‫ﻣﻢ‬

200‫ﻣﻢ‬

  W٣{٦  W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٦٠١٦‫א‬٢٥  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���א‬‫א‬ E٤{٦FK‫א‬

KE٥{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K(cohesion)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(lean concrete)‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K     ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬W٤{٦

 

c) collapse‫א‬ b) shear

 a) True slump

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٦    ‫א‬٤

J٢ J٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٦{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٥٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠٠‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   K‫א‬‫א‬W٦ J٦  WEF‫א‬‫א‬٥ J٢ J٦  ١٩٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬V. Bahrner ‫א‬‫ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ א‬vebe‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   (BS 1881 part 104 1983) ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E٧-٦) KK٤٠‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  (slump test)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ٢٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٢٠٠

 K‫א‬  E٨{٦ KFE٢{٧٥ZF‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   (T) ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

.‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬٣٠ ‫ إﻟﻰ‬٥ ‫ ﻳﻜﻮن هﺬا اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺎ ﺟﺪا ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮاوح اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ‬.(Vebe seconds)‫א‬

 K‫א‬(T)‫א‬‫א‬٩-٦ ‫وﺷﻜﻞ‬

 

 EF‫א‬W٧-٦

- ٨٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 EF‫א‬W٨-٦ 1

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺪﻣﻚ‬

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6 0

4

8

12

(‫زﻣﻦ ﻓﺐ )اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬W٩-٦ - ٨٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 compacting factor testW‫א‬‫א‬٦ J٢ J٦

 K(BS.1881:part2)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٤٧‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬           ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE١٠{٦F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE١١{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ P1Z‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K

P2Z‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬(compacting factor)‫א‬

C.F =

P1 P2

‫א‬ E٦-٦FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٦٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٦٠

‫ﺑﺎب‬

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٤٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٤٠

‫ﺑﺎب‬

‫ ﻣﻢ‬١٥٠

‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٨٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠-٦F    

- ٩٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   ‫א‬‫א‬W١١-٦

- ٩١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦{٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF‫א‬

‫א‬

  -

 ٠{٧٨

 ٢٥ J٠

 ‫א‬

  -

 ٠{٨٥

 ٥٠ J٢٥

 

   -

 ٠{٩٢

 ١٠٠ J٥٠

 

F -

 ٠{٩٥

 ١٧٥ J١٠٠

 

 ‫א‬ -

E‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬١{٣{٦  ‫א‬    K‫א‬   ‫א‬      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ K‫א‬ K‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬١٥٠١٠٠ C470-(ASTM ‫א‬‫א‬KE٣٠٠Z���‫א‬١٥٠ZF‫א‬‫א‬

 K١٢-٦E81  W‫א‬

 ٢٥‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K ١٦

 KE١٣-٦F

 KE١٤{٦F‫א‬ ƒ  K٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ ١{٥F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  K‫א‬‫א‬E٣

  ‫א‬  E١٥{٦  F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ƒ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٩٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬MPa٠{٤٠{٢‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ ‫א‬   K ٢٨       ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ƒ K‫א‬٢٦،١٣٧٣‫א‬‫א‬

   W‫א‬‫א‬١{٢٥‫א‬‫א‬   f cu = 1.25 f cyl  ‫א‬Zfcu  ‫א‬‫א‬Zfcyl  K ⎛⎜ h ⎞⎟ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ⎝d ⎠

  h =2 d

 ‫א‬‫א‬

h =1 d

 ‫א‬  

‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٢-٦ - ٩٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٣-٦  

 

 K‫א‬W١٤-٦ - ٩٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٥-٦  W‫א‬‫א‬٢{٣{٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  

- ٩٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦ J٦F

 

   ‫א‬E١٦ J٦F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧ J٦F

- ٩٧ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

10

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﺎذﻳﺔ‬

8

6

4

2

0 0

10

20

30

40

(%) ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت داﺧﻞ اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٧{٦    W‫א‬‫א‬٣{٣{٦

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  K٢٨‫א‬ ƒ

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ ،‫א‬٤١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١٨ J٦F‫א‬

- ٩٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   E ٣٠٠x١٥٠F ‫א‬   ƒ  KE١٩{٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٨{٦

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬W١٩{٦   - ٩٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬EσtF‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

2P

 σ t = πLD ‫ א‬Wp  ١٥٠Z‫א‬‫א‬WD

 ٣٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬WL

  

 W‫א‬  σ t =

2P πa 2  ‫א‬Za

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-20F  

K

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٠ J٦  

- ١٠٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ٪١٥ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     

 K‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬٤{٣{٦  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬E٢١{٦F‫א‬

 ٧٥٠ x ١٥٠ x١٥٠ (ASTM C78) ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ٥٠٨x١٥٢x ١٥٢    K(BS:1881)K‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢١ J٦  W���‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ K٢٨‫א‬ ƒ

  MPa ٠{١٠  ٠{٠٢  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ƒ  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   K٢٢ J٦ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ƒ

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ modulus of F ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 KE٢٢{٦F ‫א‬‫א‬KErupture

ERF‫א‬،E٢٢{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  K‫א‬

Pl R =   bd 2  ‫א‬‫ א‬Wp  ٤٥٠Z‫א‬‫א‬Wl ١٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬Wd  ١٠٠Z

‫א‬ Wb  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬٪٥

3Pa R =   bd 2 K‫א‬‫א‬Za  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

P/2

d

P/2

d

d

4d ‫ﻋﺰم اﻹﻧﺤﻨﺎء‬

pd M= 2

V=

‫ﻗﻮة اﻟﻘﺺ‬

p 2

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٢{٦  K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢ J٦F  

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٢٣{٦ - ١٠٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬٥{٣{٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤{٦F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬(fp)‫א‬‫א‬  

f

p

=

F A  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZF  K‫א‬‫א‬ZA  

(F)‫א‬K‫א‬(fp)‫א‬

 E٢٥{٦F‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬W٢٤{٦

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(MPa)‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ‬

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0

 

10

20

30

40

50

(kN) ‫ﻗﻮة اﻹﻗﻼع‬  K‫א‬‫א‬:٢٥ J٦

 

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦ J٣ J٦ ٢٥٠‫א‬ E٢٦{٦F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  

- ١٠٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

KW٢٦ J٦  (Ultrasonic pulse velocity)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧{٣{٦  (T) ‫א‬E٢٧{٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ وﻳﺮاﻋﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﺠﻬﺎز ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻗﻀﻴﺒﻲ‬.%١‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧{٦F‫א‬‫א‬ .‫ ﻣﻢ‬٢٥٠ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺑﻄﻮل‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٢٧ J٦ K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٨{٦F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  (a) ‫א‬‫א‬

K(c)(b)

- ١٠٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ‬

L

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬:(a)

 ‫א‬‫ א‬:(b) ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

L

‫א‬‫ א‬:(c)  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٨ J٦  K(V)‫א‬  V =

L T  EF‫א‬ZL  E‫א‬F‫א‬ZT

 W‫א‬(E)‫א‬‫א‬(V)‫א‬  V =

E

ρ

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   K‫א‬ = ρ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬    (pulse velocity) ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   KE٢٩ J٦  F ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬ ƒ

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ‬

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4000

4500

5000

5500

(‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎت )م\اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٩ J٦  K‫א‬

 

- ١٠٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(cracks) ƒ  K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ  Schmidt hammerW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨{٣{٦  (non-destructive testing)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

KE٣٠{٦FK‫א‬‫א‬

 

 KW٣٠ J٦

KE٣١{٦F (plunger)‫א‬‫א‬

     K‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   

 KE٣٢{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ١٢ ١٠ ‫א‬���K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٥‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 KE٣٣{٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF - ١٠٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬ W٣١ J٦

(MPa) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ‬

50

40

30

20

10 10

20

30

40

50

‫رﻗﻢ اﻹرﺗﺪاد‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣٢ J٦  

- ١١٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬

‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ EaF

EbF

 EcF

 (c)>(b)>(a)‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬W٣٣{٦  

  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬١{٤{٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EXF‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EX1,X2, …..XnF‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

EX1,X2, …..XnF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 RangeW‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬ XnK‫א‬،X1‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬(Range)‫א‬EXn – X1F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

(Classification and the Histogram) W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٥

(Intervals)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ KEΝF‫א‬EΙF‫א‬‫א‬

N=

Range ( X n − X 1 ) = I I

 

‫א‬(Frequency)‫א‬  K(Histogram)‫א‬‫א‬  

 W

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ (‫א‬‫א‬F ٥ ١٥ ٢٠ ٣٠ ١٥ ١٠ ٥

‫א‬ (N/mm2) ٢٠ – ١٨ ٢٢ – ٢٠ ٢٤ – ٢٢ ٢٦ – ٢٤ ٢٨ – ٢٦ ٣٠ – ٢٨ ٣٢ – ٣٠

  W‫א‬ N/mm2٢{٠٠=I N/mm2١٤=١٨ J٣٢=‫א‬ ٧ = ٢\١٤ = N= ‫ﻋﺪد اﻟﻔﺌﺎت‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،EΙF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١١٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﺘﻜﺮار‬

KE٣٤{٦)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 18-20 20-22 22-24 24-26 26-28 28-30 30-32

(‫ﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﺮدﻳﺔ )س‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣٤{٦

 

 W(Distribution)E‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K٦

،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (Normal Distribution)E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE٣٥ J٦F‫א‬

 

- ١١٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥ J٦F‫א‬

 

W‫א‬K٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E X F‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(n) 

 X =

X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + ......... + X n n

 

n

 X =

∑X i =1

i

n

 

 W

‫א‬n‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬X1, X2, X3,……..Xn  K‫א‬

 

- ١١٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٨ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EσF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

[(

⎧⎪ X − X 1  σ = ⎨ ⎪⎩

) + (X 2

− X)

2

2

+ ....... + (X

n −1

− X ) ]⎫⎪ ⎬ 2

n

 

1/ 2

⎪⎭

 

∑ [X n

 σ =

i =1

i

−X

 

]

2

n −1

  W‫א‬K٩

‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 V =

σ X

  × 100

   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ���

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢{٤{٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬   f cu

 

= f cm − tσ

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬:fcu

 K‫א‬‫א‬:fcm

 Kfcu‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:t  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wσ  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٥t‫א‬E٧ J٦F‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬tW٧{٦ t

n‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢{١٠

 ١٢

 ١{٩٧

 ١٥

 ١{٨٤

 ٢٠

 ١{٧٥

 ٢٥

 ١{٧٠

 ٣٠

 ١{٦٤

 ٣٥  

 W٣٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١١٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  f cu = f cm − 1.64σ    K‫א‬‫א‬E١{٦٤σF‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬،‫א‬

 Kfcu‫א‬‫א‬٢L٨٥‫א‬fcm

 

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EfcmF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣٠٠Ffcu‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٥

 ٢L٤٣‫א‬‫א‬E٢L

 

  f cm

  f cm = f cu + 1.64σ  = 300 + 1.64 × 43 = 370 ٢L

W‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   f cm = 300 + 85 = 385 ٢L

 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬٣{٤{٦   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨ J٦  KEVF ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٥>

١٠ >

٧-٥

١٥ -١٠

١٠ - ٧

٢٠ – ١٥

 

١٠ <

٢٠ <

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  

   W‫א‬‫א‬٤{٤{٦ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٪٥‫א‬‫א‬  K٪٥‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٥  K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ (MPa) ٢٩ ٣٠ ٢٦

(MPa) ٢٣ ٢٥ ٢٨

4 ٥ ٦ - ١١٩ -

١ ٢ ٣


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬E١ X =

 

X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + ......... + X n 23 + 25 + 28 + 29 + 30 + 26 = = 26.83MPa n 6

   

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

[(

⎧⎪ X − X σ =⎨ 1 ⎪⎩

) + (X 2

)

2

2

(

− X + ....... + X n − X n −1

 

) ]⎫⎪⎬ 2

1/ 2

⎪⎭

 

[

]

 

⎧ (23 − 26.83)2 + (25 − 26.83)2 + (28 − 26.83)2 + (29 − 26.83)2 + (30 − 26.83)2 + (26 − 26.83)2 ⎫ σ =⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭

1/ 2

=

    σ=

34.8334 = 6.96668 = 2.6394 MPa 5

 

 V =

σ X

 

× 100 =

 W‫א‬E٣

2.6394 × 100 = 9.837 p 10 26.83

   

 K‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٢٠ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

١٠ ١٥ ٢٥ ٤٠ ٣٠ ٢٠ ١٠

٢٠ – ١٨ ٢٢ – ٢٠ ٢٤ – ٢٢ ٢٦ – ٢٤ ٢٨ – ٢٦ ٣٠ – ٢٨ ٣٢ – ٣٠

 

(N/mm2)

E‫א‬‫א‬F

 

 W٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ (MPa) ٣٥ ٣٢ ٢٨ ٢٦ ٣٤

١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥

- ١٢١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K١٩٩٠K‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬

K١٩٩٩K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K

K١٩٨٦K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K١٩٩٢K‫א‬K‫א‬

K١٩٩٢K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

K٢٠٠٠K‫א‬

  7.

Neville A. M. and Brooks J. J. Concrete Technology. London, Longman, 1990.

8.

Neville A. M. Properties of Concrete. London, Longman, 1996.

9.

Pigeon M and Plean R. Durability of concrete in cold climates, Spon Press, 1995.

10. Maier. High Performance Concrete, Spon Press, 1992. 11. Soroka L, Concrete in Hot Environments, Spon Press, 1993. 12. Richardson. M. G. Fundamentals of durable reinforced concrete, Spon Press, 2002. 13. Illston J. M. and Domone P. L. J. Construction Materials, Spon Press, 2001. 14. ACI-committee 305R-77 (Revised 1982), Hot-weather concreting, Part 2, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, 1984. 15. ACI-committee 306R-78, Cold-weather concreting, Part 2, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, 1984. 16. Concrete Society, Concrete core testing for strength, technical Report No. 11, Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1976. 17. Sidney Mindess and Francis Young J. Concrete. Prentice Hall, 1981. 18. Bungey J. H. The Testing of Concrete in Structures, Surrey University Press, 1982.


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٥٦

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

19. Concrete Society, Pumping Concrete, Report No. 1, Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1984. 20. Colin Deacon R. Concrete Ground Floors. Their design, construction and finish. Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1974. 21. Kosmatka S. H. and Panaresse W. C. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. Portland Cement Association, Illinois, 1994. 22. Shirley D. E. Introduction to Concrete. Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1984. 23. Kirkbride Tom. Review of Accelerated Curing Procedures. Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1971. 24. Concrete Society, Guide to Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, technical Report No. 18, Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1980. 25. Boukendakdji M. Mechanical Properties and Long-term Deformation of OPC and Slag Cement Concretes, PhD Thesis, Leeds University, 1990.


‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ١٥٦‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻷوﻟﻰ‪ :‬ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﺔ ‪١ ................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.١‬ﺧﻠﻂ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪٢ ......................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.١‬ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪٥ ............................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٤.١‬ﺿﺦ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪٧ ..........................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٥.١‬ﺻﺐ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪١٠ ...................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٦.١‬دﻣﻚ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪١٤ ....................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٧.١‬ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺐ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪١٨ ................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪- ٢١ - ...................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.٢‬اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺨﺮ اﻟﻤﺎء‪- ٢٣ - ............................................................................................................ :‬‬ ‫‪ ١.٣.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻐﻤﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.٢١..............................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ ٢.٣.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻧﺜﺮ اﻟﻤﺎء‪٢١.......................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ٣.٣.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻷﻏﻄﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺒﻠﻠﺔ‪٢٢.................................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫‪ ٤.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻘﻂ‪.٢٢..........................................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ ١.٤.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻮرق ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎذ‪٢٢................................................................................................................ :‬‬ ‫‪ ٢.٤.٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻷﻟﻮاح اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪٢٣.............................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫‪ ٣.٤.٢‬اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪٢٤.......................................................................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ .٥.٢‬ﻣﺪة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪- ٢٩ - ................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻃﺮق اﻹﺳﺮاع ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ‪- ٣٢ - .......................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .١.٣‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪- ٣٣ - ..............................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.٣‬اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ اﻟﺘﺼﻠﺪ‪- ٣٣ - ........................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.٣‬اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ )ﻣﻌﺠﻼت اﻟﺘﺼﻠﺪ(‪- ٣٣ - ............................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫‪ .٤.٣‬اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﺮارة‪٣١ ................................................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫‪ ٥.٣‬اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎر ﺗﺤﺖ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻮي ﻋﺎدي‪٣٢.................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ٦.٣‬اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎر ﺗﺤﺖ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪٣٧............................................................................................................ :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﻘﺲ اﻟﺤﺎر‪- ٤٤ - ..............................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .١.٤‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪- ٤٥ - .............................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.٤‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‪- ٤٥ - .......................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.٤‬ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻮاد اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪- ٤٩ - .......................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ١.٣.٤‬ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﺮآﺎم‪:‬‬ ‫‪٤٣................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ ٢.٣.٤‬ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﺎء‪.٤٤............................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٤.٤‬اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت ﺣﻮل ﺻﻨﻊ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻟﺤﺎرة‪- ٥٣ - .....................................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ ١.٤.٤‬اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﻟﺘﺒﻄﺊ اﻟﺸﻚ‪٤٧...........................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٥.٤‬ﺗﺸﻘﻖ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪- ٥٥ - ................................................................................................................................ :‬‬ ‫‪ .٦.٤‬ﺣﺮارة اﻹﻣﺎهﺔ‪- ٦١ - ................................................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫‪ .٧.٤‬اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪٥٢ .................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﻘﺲ اﻟﺒﺎرد ‪- ٦٢ - ...........................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .١.٥‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ اﻟﻄﻘﺲ اﻟﺒﺎرد‪- ٦٣ - ........................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.٥‬اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت ﺣﻮل ﺻﻨﻊ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﻘﺲ اﻟﺒﺎرد‪- ٦٣ - ...................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.٥‬ﻃﺮق اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ و اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪- ٦٥ - ..................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ١.٦‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪٥٩....................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .١.١.٦‬اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪- ٧٠ - ........................................................................................................................ :‬‬


‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ١٥٦‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ٣.١.٦‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪٦١...........................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ ٤.١.٦‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪٦٢...............................................................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ ٥.١.٦‬اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ‪٦٥.............................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٥.٢.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ )ﻓﻲ ﺑﻲ(‪٧٢............................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٦.٢.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺪﻣﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫‪٧٤......................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺪة‪:‬‬ ‫‪٧٧...............................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .١.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‪٧٧.......................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ٢.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻧﻔﺎذﻳﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‪:‬‬ ‫‪٨٠...................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٣.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻻﻧﻔﻼق‪:‬‬ ‫‪.٨٢..................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٤.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺸﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎء‪:‬‬ ‫‪٨٤............................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ .٥.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﻘﻠﻊ‪٨٧....................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٦.٣.٦‬ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ داﺧﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ )اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﻜﻮﻓﺮﻣﻴﺘﺮ(‪٨٨....................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ ٧.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎت ﻓﻮق اﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ‪٨٩.........................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ ٨.٣.٦‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻄﺮﻗﺔ ﺷﻤﻴﺪت ‪٩٢................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪ ٤.٦‬اﻟﻄﺮق اﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺪراﺳﺔ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‪٩٤.......................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .١.٤.٦‬اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‪٩٤.................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ .٢.٤.٦‬اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ واﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة‪٩٨....................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ٣.٤.٦‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻮدة‪.٩٩.................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫‪ ٤.٤.٦‬اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪١٠٠................................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻊ‪١٠٢.................................................................................................................................................. :‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬


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