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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

١١٤


 ‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ?   ?  ? ‫א‬‫א‬  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


  

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

١


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬  7 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١-


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫ א‬1-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1-1F���،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KEF

‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬1.67 x 10-27‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬9.11X10-31‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-1

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬E1-1F -٢-


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-1-1 ‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEamuF‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬3-1-1

F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬66‫א‬KE‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K14‫א‬8612 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬1/12 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  12.‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-1-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

1 ‫א‬‫א‬ . n =1,2,3,4...k,l,m,n...‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬KKKEnF2‫א‬EkF

2n2‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬KKKK18( mF3‫א‬‫א‬8ElF2‫א‬‫א‬2EkF1‫א‬‫א‬

p‫א‬‫א‬،2s‫א‬‫א‬Kf,d,p,s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K 14f‫א‬‫א‬10d‫א‬‫א‬،6

 K‫א‬KKKd,p,sn=3‫א‬‫א‬ p,sn=2‫א‬‫א‬sn=1‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  EMgF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-1F‫א‬W

12‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬K 2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1 s 2Fs2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1s2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2

 .E3 s 2Fs2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2 s 2 2 p 6Fp6s   -٣-


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬5-1-1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEGeF‫א‬EZnF‫א‬‫א‬E1-1FW

 -٤-


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 ‫א‬‫א‬E1-1FW‫א‬

 K2E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3d10 4 s 2

1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 2‫א‬‫א‬  K4‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E  

 ‫א‬6-1-1

Kpss‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-1F‫א‬‫א‬

p‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Es, ENe, ArF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ (‫أ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E

 ‫א‬7-1-1

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،   K 

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-2-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ EClF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENaF‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E2-1FE 2-1F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-2-1

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KECH4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1FK‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ 

-٦-


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-1F 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K3000 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1F

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬1-2-2-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

12.011 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.008 amu ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬amu

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1FW‫א‬ 4xH + C ‫א‬

4x1.008 + 12.011= 16.043 amu =

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-2-1 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-1FK‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬-39OC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K3410OC‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-1F 

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-1F 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-2-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬E5 -1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-3-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

KE KE KE

 KE‫א‬FE  ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

E K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬3-3-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬K  KE‫א‬F‫א‬E

KE‫א‬FE

K‫א‬‫א‬E 

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬4-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬E90%F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEBCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬  KEFCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEHCPF

- ١١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 E BCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-4-1

 

  KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J E6-1F  KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬KEBody Centered CubicF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BCC‫א‬ ‫א‬E6-1FK

‫א‬‫א‬E6-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫أ( א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-4-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-1F  .‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-4-1

‫א‬E6-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K1/8‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  1+8x1/8=BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  2=  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-4-1

Lattice F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬E7-1FEConstant  Wr 

√3 a = 4 R  a = 4/√3R 

 K‫א‬EnmF0.124‫א‬‫א‬W 

 a= 4/√3 x 0.124 = 0.2864 nmW‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 EAPFF‫א‬‫א‬4-1-4-1

Atomic Packing Factor‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEAPFF‫א‬ 

  BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7-1F ‫א‬x‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 APF = 2 x 4/3 π R3

 W‫א‬

 (4/√RF٣

 4/3 π R 3

E4/√3 R) 3

=‫א‬ 

=

 ‫א‬ APF = 0.68  FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-1

‫א‬EFace Centered CubicF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FCC‫א‬

E8-1FK

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬E8-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

  KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J E8-1F KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬8-1F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬E8-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K1/2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1/8  8 x 8 + 6 x 1/2=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4=

 :E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-1F √2 a = 4 R a = 4/√2 r

- ١٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

  FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-1F



KFCC‫א‬‫א‬W 

4=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 (4/√2 RF3=‫א‬ APF

(4/√2 R)3

=

4/3 π R 3 = 0.74

 4/3 π R 3=‫א‬

   EHCPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-4-1

‫א‬EHexagonal Close-PackedF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EHCPF‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬E10-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 KHCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JE10-1F

HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

KECF‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬E10-1FW‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE C/2F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEaF  WK0.8165aa‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ C/2 C

= =

0.8165a 1.633a

2.6 a2 a‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬  - ١٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

���‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬x‫א‬=‫א‬

2.6a2= 3 4.24 a =  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F‫א‬ 1.633a

x

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1/6‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F‫א‬  W1/2‫א‬ 3 + 12 x 1/6 + 2 x 1/2=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 6Z

 WE10-1F‫א‬ 

a =2 R

 K‫א‬‫א‬HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 4.24a3=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 6=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  APF = 6 x 4/3 π R3  4.24 x (2R)3 = 0.74



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5-1 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬‫א‬K[O1Ī]‫א‬[121]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Z,Y,X ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K– 1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE11-1)  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-5-1

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  KE11-1F‫א‬

KEaF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬E K

‫א‬‫א‬U[UVW]‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬W,Y ‫א‬‫א‬V,X

K‫א‬E12-1F Z

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

E12-1F 

 2-1-5-1

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

U X‫א‬‫א‬،[UVW]‫א‬‫א‬E X‫א‬U‫א‬X‫א‬(a‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

V‫א‬Y‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KU‫א‬ Z‫א‬‫א‬K V‫א‬ Y‫א‬

‫א‬ Z‫א‬W‫א‬ Z‫א‬W KW

K[UVW]‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  KE13-1FE

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

E13-1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-5-1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬KE10ĪF،E111F‫א‬‫א‬

X,Y,Z‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E11-1F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-2-5-1

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E k X‫א‬‫א‬hEhklF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  .E14-1FKZ‫א‬‫א‬l،Y‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 E14-1F

2-2-5-1

 E15-1F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬EhklF‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬X‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬1/h‫א‬‫א‬X

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬X‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬Z ‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬1/k‫א‬Y‫א‬ KEhklF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬ 1/l ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E KE15-1FK‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-1  ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-1

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

0.408 nmEaF‫א‬‫א‬[110]‫א‬‫א‬W

 KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EnmZF K FCC ‫א‬[110]‫א‬E16-1FW‫א‬

 FCC‫א‬x110z‫א‬E16-1F  √ 2 a

Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 1/2 + 1 + 1/2Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  2Z 2/√2a

Z‫א‬

 / NM 2 /√2 x 0.408 =  L 106x2 /√2 x 0.408

  106 x 3.466

- ٢٣ -

=

=


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-6-1 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



=‫א‬  





0.304 nm EaF‫א‬‫א‬E110F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  KBCC‫א‬‫א‬

 KBCC‫א‬E110F‫א‬E17-1FW‫א‬

 BCC‫א‬E110F‫א‬E17-1F

 Ka√2 a ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 √ 2 a x a =‫א‬‫א‬  √2 a 2  4 x 1/4+ 1=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  2= 2/(√2a2)=‫א‬

  / nm2 - 2/ ( √2 0.304) 2  = - ٢٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 L٢

2/( √2 (0.304) 2)x 1012 =

 K 1.53x 1013= 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7-1  ‫א‬1-7-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،[010]،[ Ī 00]،100]z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKx[00Ī،[001]،0 Ī 0]z

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .<100>‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬2-7-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E Ī 0٢F،210FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KKKE02 ĪF

K{120}‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

HCP, ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬BCC, FCC

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 :‫א‬‫א‬(1

K‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬E

 W‫א‬2F

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫( א‬3

 K‫א‬ E

K E  K‫א‬E

K E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 5 F  K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6F  ‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

KE

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E W‫א‬‫א‬7F  K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

K���‫א‬E 

W‫א‬ ‫ א‬8F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E KE

K‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E 

W‫א‬‫א‬9 F  K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E :‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (10  KBCCE

 KHCPE

 KFCCE

KEF،EFE  - ٢٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (11  KHCPE

 KBCCE

KFCCE

KEF،E‫א‬FE 

W‫א‬‫א‬12F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

- ٢٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W (13  K(2.5 1 1)E

K[121]E

K(Ī01)E

 K(1,2,3,)E

W (14 K(011)E

 K(2,1,1)E K{311}E

 K[101]E

 K (15  K(012)E

 K{000}E

K<103>E

 K{112}E 

- ٣٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ •

KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  5 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ٣١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K E

K E  KE

‫א‬‫א‬1-2

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-2 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-2

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F

- ٣٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  W‫א‬

 K15%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

K E‫א‬F‫א‬ E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-2FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬2-2 ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬1-2-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

E920COF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-2 E‫א‬FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K  FCC‫א‬  K‫א‬(3-2) K‫א‬

 ‫א‬E3-2F ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E4-2FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEbF‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬ (c) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-2F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬4-2 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

E5-2F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬┬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬┴‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬E5-2F 

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4-2

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K K‫א‬‫א‬E6-2FKE‫א‬‫א‬F

  ‫א‬‫א‬E6-2F

- ٣٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E K‫א‬E7-2F

 ‫א‬E7-2F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬KE8-2F‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬E8-2F

 K  ،‫א‬ - ٣٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  K‫א‬ E

K‫א‬‫ א‬E   K‫א‬E  K‫א‬E  ‫א‬1-2-4-2 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-2-4-2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬3-2-4-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬4-2-4-2

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬KEF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٣٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬<110>,{111}FCC‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬<111>,{110}BCC‫א‬  ‫א‬5-2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE9-2F  

 ‫א‬E9-2F

- ٤٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬E1

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2

 KE

KE

KE

KE W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3  K‫א‬E K  ‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E KE W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4  K‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

 KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬E5  K‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6  K‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

KE  KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7  KE KE

KE  KE W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E8  K‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬E

‫א‬E  KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

• 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  8 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬…

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬1-3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬EF

 K‫א‬EF  K‫א‬EF

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4% ‫א‬ E1-3F‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 13%‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬50%  50% ‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K13%‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬ 4%‫א‬‫א‬E

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬E1-3F  ‫א‬2-3 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E---F  K‫א‬E2-3FK‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E2-3F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

E‫א‬F‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬

E3-3FKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٤٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EaF‫א‬K

EcF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬EbF‫א‬

 K‫א‬EdF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-3 ‫א‬Kc, b‫א‬‫א‬d, a‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F K‫א‬‫א‬100%‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ KE5-3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E5-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KB,A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬B 0%A 100%‫א‬

 KExF‫א‬KB‫א‬A 0%B 100%

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬Ex1FF‫א‬ x0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 W‫א‬x2‫א‬ 

  

x1 − x 0 l1 = =‫א‬ x 2 − x0 l x 2 − x1 l 2 = = x 2 − x0 l

‫א‬

K(l=l1+l2) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l 2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l 1x1‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬3-3-3 ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-3F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-3F K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F W‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

α‫א‬Kαβ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E β‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ HGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CBA‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E KBEG

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEEBEG‫א‬FE K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

EGF ‫א‬α+L AEB ‫א‬E α + βCBEGH ‫א‬‫א‬β+L

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬β, α, L‫א‬E‫א‬E ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬71.9%780oC ‫א‬ Eα‫א‬‫א‬FC1‫א‬‫א‬E7-3FK‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬C1‫א‬‫א‬E7-3F

‫א‬‫א‬Eβ, αF‫א‬FC2 ‫א‬‫א‬E8-3F ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-3F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ KELAMELLAEF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

  ‫א‬C2‫א‬‫א‬E8-3F

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-3F

β, α ‫א‬FC4‫א‬‫א‬E10-3F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Eα

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬αELAMELLAEF K α β ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

  α‫א‬C4‫א‬‫א‬E10-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬E11-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11-3F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬E12-3F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E12-3F

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬E13-3F

‫א‬‫א‬E13-3F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E14-3F

 

40%Sn E14-3F‫א‬Sn‫א‬Pb ‫א‬W  W 150 ‫א‬ 

 Kβ, α‫א‬KE‫א‬F  K‫א‬KEF  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬ %89 Pb

11% Sn

 99% Sn %1 Pb 

- ٥٥ -



α



β

99 - 40

=

α

 99 – 11  0.67 40 - 11

‫א‬

= =

β

99 - 11 0.33

‫א‬

=


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-3  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F ‫א‬‫א‬EferriteFα‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬ECementiteFEFe3cF

‫א‬6.7%‫א‬EcarbideF K‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬KEAusteniteF‫א‬γ‫א‬BCC - ٥٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

γ‫א‬‫א‬912 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ KFCC

 1394 ‫א‬δ γ‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEPolymorphismF K

‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ FBCC‫א‬FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬γ‫א‬‫א‬EBCC‫א‬ FCC‫א‬‫א‬

KEBCCF δ α‫א‬EFCCF

‫א‬‫א‬δ‫א‬ • K

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F • K1148‫א‬4.3%E K727‫א‬ 0.77% E

K1538‫א‬ 0.2%E

- ٥٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬5-3  W‫א‬

 K0.008%‫א‬EIronF (‫أ‬

‫א‬0.008% J 2.11% ‫א‬Esteel )‫ب( א‬ K1%‫א‬‫א‬

2.11%J 6.7%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ecast ironF‫א‬‫א‬E  K4.5%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬1% K ‫א‬

E(AISI) American Iron and Steel InstituteF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬EAmerican Society for Testing and Materials) (ASTM):‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(10 )0.4%‫א‬ 401040

‫א‬0.8%‫א‬9280K‫א‬‫א‬

0.25%4025K(1.8% - 2.2%)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K(0.2% - 0.3%)(Mo)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬10 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬6-3  ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-3 E‫א‬F γ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(16-3) b‫א‬‫א‬KbEFFe3c+EFαa  K(Pearlite)

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E16-3F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E17-3F

- ٥٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫ א‬2-6-3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(17-3)

c،KE‫א‬0.77% F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ α‫א‬e ,d‫א‬γ‫א‬  KE+αF+EFα‫א‬727

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E18-3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-6-3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E18-3F

hKγ‫א‬g،K‫א‬ ‫א‬E727Fi‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E+F+

99.65%‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K0.35%  K

 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 K99.98%‫א‬0.022%‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬93.3% 6.7%‫א‬ 6.7 - 0.35

 6.7 - 0.022

=

α‫א‬

= =

‫א‬

0.95

0.35 - 0.022 6.7 - 0.022

0.05

=  W

0.4 %‫א‬3 αγ  K726728850‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

  α

γ‫א‬3 

 α1.54 γ‫א‬ 1.46 α2.83 

γ

W

850

:

728

:

726

K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫ (א‬1

 K E

K E 

K  E

 KE  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E KE  W‫א‬E3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E  KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4  K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E  KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬E

 W‫א‬( 6

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

 KE

 W‫א‬E7

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E  KE  W‫א‬E8  K‫א‬E KE

K‫א‬‫א‬E  KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬E9  K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

KE KE

 W‫א‬E10

 KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬E

KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E KE

 W1040E11

 K 0.4 %E  K 4%E

 K 40%E  KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  4 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WK‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W  K‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4 ‫א‬E15-3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0.77%‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Kγ‫א‬‫א‬KE727F‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬α‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ - ٦٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ETime-Temperature-Transformation diagramF ‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬E1-4FTTT

 K‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬TTT‫א‬E1-4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E Eγ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬ - ٦٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬E K ‫א‬EBFEBainiteF‫א‬

‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EnoseF‫א‬F‫א‬E KEBF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KMEMartensiteF‫א‬‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-4F

 EBF‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-4F  W‫א‬‫א‬KEMF‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬

- ٦٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬E3-4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

1‫א‬abcdefg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-4F���

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬1‫א‬b‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬0.5‫א‬0.5c‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K dE

Ke‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • Ke‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • - ٧٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

0.25E0.5F‫א‬‫א‬f‫א‬E  K‫א‬

0.5‫א‬KK‫א‬g‫א‬E K0.250.25

‫א‬‫א‬E4-4F

- ٧١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W ‫א‬E1-4FTTT‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬800‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

104‫א‬‫א‬350E  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬650E

‫א‬103‫א‬‫א‬400‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬E4-4FW‫א‬ K100%‫א‬EF‫א‬ •

K50%50%‫א‬EF‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬2-4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ecoarse pearliteF‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،540‫א‬  W ‫א‬KEfine pearliteF K‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬

• 

 ‫א‬3-4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬  KEF‫א‬ - ٧٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬4-4 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬EF

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

E 727F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬5-4  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬E KE

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-5-4

A1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-4F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-5-4

‫א‬A3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0.77%‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

KE5-4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Acm‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ - ٧٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-4F  ‫א‬6-4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E5-4FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬7-4 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE5-4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ - ٧٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬8-4  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-‫أ‬ KEF‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ب‬

 KA1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬9-4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F (‫أ‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ب( א‬ K E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬1-9-4 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBrassF‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E BronzeF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٧٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-9-4 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬

980-760‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Ehot-shortnessF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬2-9-4 ‫א‬‫א‬E  F‫א‬‫א‬

KE660F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-9-1-4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K413-343‫א‬

- ٧٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

TTT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  - ٧٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

KE K‫א‬E

 KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2 K‫א‬E KE

K‫א‬‫א‬E  KE  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  KE KE

KE

 KE  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬E4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 KE 

- ٧٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬E5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

KE

 KE

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E6  W‫א‬‫א‬  KE

KHHE

KHE  KH E W‫א‬E7

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬E  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E8  K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

 KE

- ٧٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E9  K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬E

 K‫א‬E  W‫א‬E10

 K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E  W‫א‬‫א‬E11  KE

K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬E  W‫א‬‫א‬E12  K‫א‬E K‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬E KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٥


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬ •

 K ‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  4 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5% ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J   K

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫ א‬2-5  6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬F18‫א‬H2O‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬18‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬18

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-5  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬4-5

‫א‬‫א‬E1-5F ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬���א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

M

M+z+Ze

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬=M  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Z)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZM+z

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZZ  K

 K‫א‬Ze K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬ - ٨٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE1-5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫ א‬5-5

KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 L1EFeF‫א‬‫א‬E2-5F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L1(Cu)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   

- ٨٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-5F

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬  W‫א‬WE

Fe



→ Fe2+ +2e-

 Cu2+ +2eCu ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(2-5)‫א‬  (Fe‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

(2-5)K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  - ٨٦ -




 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬  (Fe)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Cu)  K‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-5F 

(Fe)‫א‬(Zn)‫א‬(3-5)

 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-5

‫א‬‫א‬E4-5F ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E  H+‫א‬L1

‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(4-5) K‫א‬‫א‬L1

 AuE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(1-5)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬EPt‫א‬Au‫א‬AgF‫א‬ Na‫א‬MgE‫א‬F‫א‬

 KK‫א‬

- ٨٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

F ���‫א‬(1-5)(3-5)(2-5) E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬E E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

- ٨٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K(5-5)

 

 ‫א‬E5-5F

 ‫א‬ 7-5 K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (Corrosion Penetration Rate)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ CPR= KW  ρAt

- ٩٠ -

  WCPR

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Zw


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Zt  K‫א‬Zρ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZA



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZK

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K=87.6،  ‫א‬1‫א‬W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7.87‫א‬‫א‬K200  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬0.2‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ CPR = KW    ρAt

 87.6 =K  ‫א‬200=W

‫א‬7.87=ρ

 200Zt

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  W1‫א‬K‫א‬ 5Z1C5=A CPR =

87.6× 200 7.87 ×5× 200 = 2.22  K2.22‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬8-5 .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬1-8-5

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-8-5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(Fe)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E1-5F(Fe)‫א‬(Al)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬2-1-8-5

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K

 ‫א‬‫ א‬3 -1-8-5 .‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬2-8-5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K(6-5)

‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-5F 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬                   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬E1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬E  KE 

 W‫א‬(2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫(א‬3  KE‫א‬

 KE  K E  K‫א‬ ‫א‬E 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E4  K‫א‬ E

 K‫א‬‫א‬ E   K‫א‬‫א‬E K���E  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬E5  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E

 6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E   K

 KE

 K‫א‬‫א‬E    W‫א‬‫א‬E6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 KE  KE  KE 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7 K‫א‬‫א‬ E

 K‫א‬‫א‬ E   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  KE 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E8

 K E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E 

 KE  KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬E9  KE

KE

 K‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E10

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

KE

 K‫א‬ E  K E 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E11  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

 K‫א‬E

 K‫א‬E  K‫א‬E 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E1

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬2  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 (1-6F 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

 

E3J 6F   ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E 2 J 6F

 

 - ٩٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E 4J 6F

‫א‬‫א‬ E5 J 6F E‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫ א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬



  

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  E٦J ٦F

K‫א‬‫א‬  

 - ١٠١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K45°‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ EJ 7J 6F ‫א‬K10 – 2000 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ 7J 6F 



‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٧J ٦F

‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٧J ٦F

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ LEITZ METALLUX2‫א‬  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬  5 10 20 50 100

6.3

8

10

12.5

16

25

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 32 40 50 63 80 125 63 80 100 125 160 250 125 160 200 250 320 500 320 400 500 630 800 1250 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2500 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ١  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ KJ ٣

 KJ ٤

 K‫א‬J ٥  KJ ٦

 KJ ٧

 KJ ٨

 KJ ٩

 K‫א‬J ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬١٠x١٠x١٠‫א‬J

 KE١٥J ١٠F‫א‬E١٥J ١٠F - ١٠٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬E١٨٠F ‫א‬‫א‬

J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E°٩٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J  

K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬

KE٤٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

KE٦٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬J ٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K١  K٠{٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬٠{٠٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  

- ١٠٤ -

K


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٩٨H‫א‬٪٢   ‫א‬   ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬٥

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬٢  ٩٥

 ٪١٥

 

 ٪١٠

 ‫א‬٪٢٥  ٪٥٠  K‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣٠–٢٠‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K - ١٠٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ���‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬E٨–٦F 

E٨J ٦F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٩J ٦F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ( 9 -6 )  ‫א‬‫א‬ E F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

‫ א‬ ‫א‬ 

    

- ١٠٧ -

 

  


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫ א‬J ١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K J ١ K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

K J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

K‫א‬ J ٥ K‫א‬ J ٦

K J ٧  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 ‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬E١W٢F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E٦٠J ٣٠F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E٩٠J ٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K J ١ K J ٢

K J ٣ KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F J ٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥

K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٥ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٠٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٠‫א‬ J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧

 LECI PR-10 MOUNTING PRESS MOUNTING  MATERIAL

 

BAKE LITE

 THER MOSET EPOX Y  TING  

THER MOPLA  STEIC

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

TEMPER PRES TIME ( MINUTES) ATURE SUR 1.00 MOLD 1.25 MOLD 1.5 E  MOLD PO PRE PO PRE PO PR °F ( º C) PSI WD FOR WD FOR WD EF ³F ER M  ER  M  ER OR  M KG /   285 – 300 (140 – 150  )

DIAL LYL PHTH ALAT E LUCI  HEAT 285 – 300 TE ( 140 – 150  ) COOL TO 100 ( 38 )

ECM 4200 ( 286 )

1000 -2000 (68 135 ) 

 4   4  7

 3

 5 

4

 5  9

 7  

6

7

12

 3000 (204)

100 (6.8 )

4200 (286 )

30

30 (AIR COOL )  20 ( WATER COOL )

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١١٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K1.00 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BAKELITE  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K4200PSI‫א‬‫א‬J  K 285-300° F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K4 min ‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬30‫א‬J  W ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

°C  ٣٢٧

 ° F  ٦٢٠

Lead‫א‬

 ٢٣٢

 ٤٥٠

Tin‫א‬

 ٤٢٠

 ٧٨٨

Zinc‫א‬

 ٦٦٠

 ١٢٢٠

‫א‬‫א‬ Aluminum

 ١٠٨٥

 ١٩٨٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Copper

 ٩٠٠

 ١٦٥٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Brass

 ١٤٥٥

 ٢٦٥١

 ١٥٣٨

 ٢٨٠٠

  - ١١١ -

Nickel‫א‬

 Iron‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫��‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

a  ‫א‬‫א‬

T

b

c

d ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ . E١٠J ٦F

 J WE١٠ - ٦F K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬b a J ١

Melting F‫א‬ c ‫א‬EFreezing Point F‫א‬b‫א‬ J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPoint - ١١٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

d c ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  K‫א‬

  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F   E‫א‬

‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬

‫א‬ E ١١J ٦F 

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KPure Lead‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K TinPure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J ٢

K‫א‬ J ٣

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٤ K Stopwatch J ٥

K‫א‬ J ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ E377Z50H327F50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦ K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨ K232ZE‫א‬F‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

°

 - ١١٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

- ١١٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬EF  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KEKKK‫א‬J ‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   

- ١١٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

β

‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺼﺪﻳﺮ وزﻧًﺎ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٦F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬ 

‫א‬E١٣J ٦F

 K

 - ١١٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬E١٣ J ٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬T2‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬T1‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ d‫א‬c‫א‬K‫א‬  ‫א‬

c‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬b ‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤ J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 J W‫א‬E١٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬E١٤J ٦F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬a ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (b‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬cb ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬c 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E ١٥J ٦F ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‬ (‫) اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ B ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰ اﻟﻨﻘﻲ‬

A ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰ اﻟﻨﻘﻲ‬

( ‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ ) اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥ J ٦F 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KPure Lead‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

 K PureTin‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬ J ٣

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٤ K Stopwatch J ٥

K‫א‬ J ٦ K‫א‬ J ٧ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ W‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

100 %

 0

70 %

30 %

2

38 %

62 %

3

15 %

85 %

 4

0

100 %

5

1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬ 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ 377‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬377 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬360‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦ KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

K 100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨

K  34 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩                 

- ١٢٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

°

- ١٢٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

°

- ١٢٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

°

- ١٢٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



°

°

 - ١٢٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 WCarbon steelE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١ –‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢  KE‫א‬–‫א‬

- ١٢٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Cº ‫א‬‫א‬ % C ‫א‬‫ א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٦F 

- ١٢٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K٪٢{١١٪٠{٠٠٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬٪١{٤‫א‬

% c ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٦F 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Low – Carbon steel ‫א‬J ١

 ‫א‬E٪٠{٣٪٠{٠٠٨F‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٪٠{١٥٪٠{٠٧F‫א‬‫א‬

J 

KE٪٠{٣٪٠{١٥F‫א‬‫א‬ J  

J  ––‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Medium – Carbon steel‫א‬J ٢

 KE٪٠{٦٪٠{٣F‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٢٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬  KE‫א‬J F

High – Carbon steel‫א‬J ٣

 KE٪٠{٨٪٠{٦F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–W‫א‬  Carbon Tool steel‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  KE٪١{٤٪٠{٨F‫א‬‫א‬

J ‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ٪

 ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬strips‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬rivets‫א‬K‫א‬ 

٠{١٥J ٠{٠٠٨  

 K‫א‬boilers‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ksections ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ٠{٣٠–٠{١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

K crankshafts‫א‬‫א‬Kaxes‫א‬Kconnecting rods‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

leafs 

 ‫א‬ Medium – Carbon  steel  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠{٦J ٠{٢٠

٠{٨٠J ٠{٦٠

Kband saw‫א‬‫א‬Kwire ropes‫א‬‫א‬Ksprings  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬forging dies‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬W٪ ٠{٩٥J ٪٠{٨٥ - ١٣٠ -

 High – Carbon  steel ‫א‬ steel

١{٤J ٠{٨٠


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Kpunch‫א‬EF‫א‬Kshear blades‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬Kfiles‫א‬W٪١{١J ٪ ٠{٩٥

Tool  Carbon

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٪١{٤J ٪١{١

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬%( 0.77 F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ١٣١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٦F

‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬

J 99.98 % 

‫א‬J 0.09 % C ‫א‬

 250: 1 

 EHF‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 250 : 1 ‫א‬

‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬ J 0.13 % C ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 250: 1 ‫א‬EHF

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬J 0.36 % C ‫א‬  EHF‫א‬  

- ١٣٢ -

200 : 1 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

( ١٩ – ٦ ) ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 E١٩–٦F

‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬J 0.45 % C ‫א‬

‫א‬J 1.13 % C ‫א‬

 EHF‫א‬

 EHF‫א‬

 100: 1 ‫א‬

 500 : 1 ‫א‬

    - ١٣٣ -




‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ DIN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   HB

‫א‬

150 - 90

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  δ % 30 - 15





‫א‬

   σR N/mm²

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ DIN

550 - 280

  0.05 %

‫א‬‫א‬

  % 

   St 0 0

 ‫א‬  135 - 100

25

450 - 370 0.2 - 0.1    St 37

22

600 - 500

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬160 - 140

0.35



    St 50

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EF 230 - 160

17

850 - 600

0.45

 

0.6

  St 60  

 ‫א‬ F 250 - 180 450 ° C

12

900 - 700

‫א‬ 250 - 220

10

900 - 800

J 0.8 0.6

 

 ‫א‬ 800 - 250

7-5

1100 900

 

‫א‬ 400 - 300

5-4

1100 900

J 0.6 0.8 1.2 - 1

 

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

- ١٣٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ٪‫א‬ 0.18 - 0.22 0.32 - 0.39 0.42 - 0.50 0.42 - 0.60 0.57 - 0.65  1

 ‫א‬‫א‬ C22 C35 C45 C55  C60 C100

EAISIF , American Iron and Steel Institute‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   KESAEF Society of Automotive Engineers ‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١٣٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬    

 ٪‫א‬‫א‬  

 

 

‫א‬

 AISI

SAE

 1010

0.05

0.04

 0.6 – 0.3

0.13 – 0.08

 C1010

1015

0.05

0.04

0.6 – 0.3

0.18 – 0.13

C1015

1020

0.05

0.04

0.6 – 0.3

0.23 – 0.18

C1020

1025

0.05

0.04

0.6 – 0.3

0.28 – 0.22

C1025

1030

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.34 – 0.28

C1030

1035

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.38 – 0.32

C1035

1040

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.44– 0.37

C1040

1045

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.50 – 0.34

C1045

1050

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.55 – 0.48

C1050

1055

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.60– 0.50

C1055

1060

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.65 – 0.55

C1060

1065

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.70– 0.60

C1065

1070

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.75 – 0.65

C1070

1075

0.05

0.04

0.8 – 0.5

0.80 – 0.70

C1075

1080

0.05

0.04

0.9 – 0.6

0.88 – 0.75

C1080

1085

0.05

0.04

1.0 – 0.7

0.93 – 0.80

C1085

1090

0.05

0.04

0.5 – 0.3

0.98 – 0.85

C1090

1095

0.05

0.04

1.0 – 0.7

1.03 – 0.90

C1095

 

- ١٣٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

   W‫א‬‫א‬AISI

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ 1

 

 2

  J   

 3 4 5

  J    J J 

6 7 8

   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬EAISI 1020F‫א‬،0.01%‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  EAISI 2340F‫א‬. 0.20% 0.4 %‫א‬ 0.30%

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬(A) K(B)

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(C) K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(D)  K‫א‬‫א‬(E)   - ١٣٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K St 37C15‫א‬ J ١ KC35‫א‬ J ٢ KC45‫א‬ J ٣

K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦ KEF J ٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩–٦F

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 

 

 

- ١٣٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ E٤J ٦F‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٥–٦F Temperature ( ° C )‫א‬‫א‬

J W‫א‬E٢٠–٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤــﻌﺎدﻟـــــﺔ‬

Acm

A3

A1

% C‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٢٠–٦F

 - ١٣٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٣٥٠١٥٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٣ K

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥

E٢١J ٦F  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬    E٢١J ٦FK‫א‬  - ١٤٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  Tempering‫א‬Hardening ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J ٢ 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KHardening E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬A3 (30 – 50 ) ‫א‬

C   ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F0.77 %C   J A1(30 – 50 )E‫א‬‫א‬F0.77 % ‫א‬‫א‬J E٢٠–٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Quenching  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫ א‬J ١

K‫א‬ J ٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

 

- ١٤١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Martensite‫א‬Quenching‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٢J ٦FK ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬EF 

E٢٢J ٦F ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 1220 :1E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TemperingE‫א‬F

EA1 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F 

    - ١٤٢ -


���‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Hardening‫א‬

J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢ KC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

K‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬ J ٥

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦  K J

K J

K J

 K‫א‬J ٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W    K

%0.35 C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ %0.35 C

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

‫א‬EA3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(30 – 50°C )

 K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K ‫א‬ HRC 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤ KThermocouple thermometer 

- ١٤٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦  W25 mm20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K  0.8 × EF‫א‬ Z  20 × EF‫א‬ZEF‫א‬‫א‬ 25

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Quenching‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J I  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J II ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  K‫א‬HRCC‫א‬J ٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١٠ 

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‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



  

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ HRC

   ‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 



‫א‬ HRC

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

- ١٤٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

  

 Tempering‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ١  KE‫א‬

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢ KEFC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

K‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬ J ٥ KEF J ٦

 K‫א‬J ٧ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ( 500 – 650 °C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬ HRC  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣ KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  KE

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

 K‫א‬HRCC‫א‬J ٧ 

 

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‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Normalizing‫א‬Annealing E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K Full E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Annealing

F0.77 %C   ‫א‬A3(30 – 50) °C‫א‬

‫א‬F0.77 %C   ‫א‬‫א‬،E  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J A1(30 – 50 ) °C  ‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   

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‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ (30 – 50 °CF‫א‬ 

‫א‬A3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  E‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬ Full Annealing

0.77 C    ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F% ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬،E‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬F0.77 %C   ‫א‬E‫א‬ A1(30 – 50 ) °C  ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ Process Annealing

A1‫א‬‫ א‬   ‫א‬

 K(550 – 700) ºC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ E‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬430 ºC A1‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 J W‫א‬

J ١ ، ‫א‬‫א‬ 650 – ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ 495 °C

،J ٢ 650 – ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ 495 °C - ١٤٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Stress-relief  Annealing


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Annealing‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢ KEFC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬ J ٥

 K‫א‬ J ٦ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١ EA3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (30 – 50 °C ) ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K ‫א‬ HRC 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  HRC C‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩  K‫א‬

- ١٤٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Normalizing‫א‬J  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(30 – 50 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (30 – 50)A1A3  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬St 37‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

K‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬ J ٥

K‫א‬ J ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (30 – 50 )

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 CEF‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  K ‫א‬ HRC 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ٤  KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ - ١٥٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦ ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨ C‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬J ٩  K‫א‬ HRC     

 

- ١٥١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  Hardenability‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K Hardness‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Hardenability‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Hardness‫א‬  W

‫א‬Hardness0.9%‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ 3% H 0.3% ‫א‬‫א‬

  3% H0.3% ‫א‬Hardenability‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K 

- ١٥٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

HRC

‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬

‫( ﻓﻮﻻذ ﺳﺒﺎﺋﻜﻲ‬1) ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ اﻟﺴﺒﺎﺋﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫( ﻓﻮﻻذ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻲ‬2)

‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰ‬

‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣–٦F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬ Jominy End-Quenching Test‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،ESAEF‫א‬‫א‬،EASTMF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KEAISIF ‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬E 4˝ = 101.6mmF(1˝ = 25.4mmF‫א‬

   20KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬

E٢٤–٦FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

101,6 mm

Φ25.4

‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻣﻨﻲ‬

mm

24 ° C ‫ﻣﺎء‬ 12,7 mm 12,7 mm ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻧﺒﺜﺎق اﻟﻤﺎء‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤–٦F   - ١٥٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K1025‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K1045‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K4340‫א‬‫א‬J ٣

 KJ ٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  K‫א‬J ٧

 K Thermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  KHJ ٩

 K(HRC )C‫א‬J ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬  (30 – 50 ) ° C  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧ K‫א‬0.4 mm‫א‬

50 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨ W‫א‬

- ١٥٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 13 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K1.6 mm

 K37 mm3.2 mm13 mm‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬ C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩ KEHRCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KEHRCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠  W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

 W‫א‬

W‫א‬

HRC HRC HRC 1 2

‫א‬  1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8 16 19.2 22.4  25.6 28.8  32  35.2  38.4 41.6 44.8  48 51.2

 W‫א‬

W‫א‬

HRC

HRC 2

HRC 1

- ١٥٦ -

‫א‬  1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8 16 19.2 22.4  25.6 28.8  32  35.2  38.4 41.6 44.8 48 51.2

W‫א‬

HRC

HRC 2

HRC 1

‫א‬  1.6 3.2  4.8 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8 16 19.2 22.4  25.6  28.8  32 35.2  38.4 41.6 44.8 48 51.2


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Corrosion‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF  K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ 

 W١

،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬��� 

 W٢

K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬E٢٥-٦FKE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬  W‫א‬ 

- ١٥٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫ﺗﻘﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺰداد اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺳﺔ‬

( ٦-٢٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﺠﻬﺪ اﻟﻜﻬﺮو آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎدن‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢٦–٦FEF

‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫( اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﻔﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬6-26 ) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٥٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

R=K

W ATD

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ R   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬T

 K‫א‬‫א‬W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A   K٨٧{٦Z‫א‬K 

 K‫א‬‫א‬D  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  st37‫א‬‫א‬٥ J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤K Φ١٥x 8 mm  Φ٥٥x 8 mm 

Φ٤٥x 8 mm

  Φ٢٥x 8 mm

Φ١٥x 8 mm

 K‫א‬ ١٠٠٠ml J ٢ K ٠{٠٠١gm‫א‬ J ٣

K‫א‬E٦٠٠–٤٠٠J ٢٨٠J ١٨٠F J ٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥

K‫א‬E‫א‬FH J ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬St 37‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

 K ١٠٠٠H‫א‬5 - ١٥٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K St 37 ‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬J ١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١

         

- ١٦٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١

 ٥

 ٤

 ٣

 ٢

  st37

  st37

  st37

  st37

mg

mg

 st37

 ‫א‬

mg ‫א‬‫א‬ W1

‫א‬ W2

‫א‬‫א‬   W= W1- W2

 ‫א‬‫א‬  

A1 A2

  

   

‫א‬=‫א‬   

      - ١٦١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

A1 Z‫א‬‫א‬ A2 

 Kmm² ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬= A1

 Kmm² ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬= A2 π × ( D²- d²) /4 + π × D × L

= A1

π × d² /4 + π × d × l

= A2  

 ‫א‬= D

 ‫א‬= d

 ‫א‬‫א‬=

 ‫א‬‫א‬=

L l

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٢ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E1 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬2  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٣ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

1  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  (1

 (2  (3  (4  (5

 (6  (7

 (8  (9  (10

 (11

 (12  (13  (14

 (15  ‫א‬‫א‬

 (1

 (2  (3  (4

 (5  (6

 (7  (8 - ١٦٤ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  (1

 (2  (3

 (4  (5  (6  (7

 (8  (9  (10  (11  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (1  (2

 (3

 (4  (5  (6

 (7  (8  (9

 (10  (11

(12

- ١٦٥ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  (1

 (2

 (3  (4   (5

 (6

 (7  (8  (9  (10 (11

- ١٦٦ -


‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  

(2)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ Thermal equilibrium

‫א‬

Internal stresses

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Miller indices

‫א‬

Jominy test

‫א‬

Reduction

‫א‬‫א‬

Mounting



Oxidation



Electron



Valence electrons

‫א‬

aluminum



Dislocation

‫א‬

Edge dislocation

‫א‬

Planes slipping

‫א‬‫א‬

Melting

‫א‬

Anode



Anion



Quenching media

‫א‬

Austenite

 

ion



Pearlite

 

Proton



Pretectoid



pretectic



Electric battery

 - ١٦٧ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

Crystals

 ‫א‬  

‫א‬

Bainite

 

Steel microstructure

‫א‬‫א‬

Crystalline structure



Lattice structure



Microstructure



Polymers

‫א‬

Corrosion



Electro-chemical corrosion



Solidification



Phase transformation

‫א‬‫א‬

Annealing

EF

Stress relief annealing

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Full annealing



Gear



Thermocouple thermometer

‫א‬

Deformation



Cold working

‫א‬

Hot working

‫א‬

Hardening



Case hardening



Tempering

E‫א‬F

Quenching

EF

Magnification



Twinning



Molecule



Polar potential

 - ١٦٨ -


‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

Grain

 ‫א‬  



Grain size

‫א‬

Grain boundaries



Iron



Cast iron



Dislocation motion

‫א‬

Cathodic protection



Ceramics



Galvanic cells



Unit cell



Mixture



Recrystallization temperature

‫א‬‫א‬

Substitutional atoms

‫א‬‫א‬

Foreign atoms

‫א‬

Interstitial atoms

‫א‬

Atom



Solubility



Ionic bond

‫א‬

Covalent bond

‫א‬

Metallic bond

‫א‬

Lead



Atomic bonds

‫א‬‫א‬

Secondary bonds

‫א‬

Zinc

EF

Stop watch



Ferrous alloys



Nonferrous alloys

 - ١٦٩ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

Alloy

 ‫א‬  



Ternary alloy



Binary alloy



Impurities

‫א‬

Hardness



Steel



Hypo eutectoid steel

‫א‬

Hyper eutectoid steel

‫א‬

Photo-micrograph

EF

paint



Organic paint



electroplating



Nonmetallic non-organic paint



Phase



Diffusion phenomena

‫א‬

Family of directions

‫א‬

Family of planes

‫א‬

Coordination number



Atomic number



Actual number of atoms

‫א‬

Objective lens



Eyepiece



Machining processes

‫א‬

Forming processes

‫א‬

Crystallization process

‫א‬

Line defects



Surface defects

 - ١٧٠ -


‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

Point defects

 ‫א‬  



Microscopic inspection



Vacancy

‫א‬

Metals

‫א‬

Tool steel

‫א‬‫א‬

Mild steel



High carbon steel

‫א‬

Carbon steel



Medium carbon steel

‫א‬

Low carbon steel

‫א‬

hardenability

‫א‬

Brittleness



Hot shortness

‫א‬

Tin



Brittle



Tension force

‫א‬

Electromotive force

‫א‬

Standard electromotive force

‫א‬

Cation



Cathode



Atomic density



Atomic density for directions



Atomic density for planes



Solid spheres

‫א‬

Gas carburizing



plasticity



Sacrificial material

 - ١٧١ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

Martensite

 ‫א‬  



Toughness



Crystalline directions



Microscope



Etching solution



Electrolyte



Diagram



Phase diagram

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

orbital

‫א‬

Crystalline planes



Ductile



Normalizing



Heat treatment

‫א‬

Atomic packing factor

‫א‬‫א‬

Corrosion rate

‫א‬

Cooling rate



Cooling curves

‫א‬

Engineering materials

‫א‬

Mole



Red copper



Brass



Atomic radius

‫א‬

Crystalline system



Isotope



Melting point

‫א‬

Freezing point

‫א‬

Pure

 - ١٧٢ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

Nucleus

 ‫א‬  

‫א‬

Nickel



Atomic mass unit

‫א‬‫א‬

Atomic weight



Eutectoid



Eutectic

 

- ١٧٣ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  

(3)  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E  W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

K

K‫א‬‫א‬

E 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E TTT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬

- ١٧٤ -


‫א‬ 

 ١١٤  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K .‫ م‬١٩٩٩ , ١٤٢٠ ، ‫واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K .‫ م‬١٩٩٩ ,١٤٢٠ ، ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K .‫ م‬١٩٩٩ ,١٤٢٠ ، ‫واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١ -٢ -٣ J ٤

K١٤١٨J ١٤١٧،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ K‫א‬،‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬K‫א‬K،، J ٦ K١٩٧٩،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٧ K١٩٧٩،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،           - ١٧٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   1) Al-Khtib, Ahmad Sh., “Scientific & Technical terms-English/Arabic”, libraire du Liban, 1993. 2) Althouse, Andrew D., Turnquist, Carl H., Bowditch, William A. and Bowditch, Kevin E., “Modern Welding”, The Good Heart-willcox company,1997. 3) Callister, William D., “Materials Science and Engineering an introduction”, John Wiley& sons, 2000. 4) Keyser, Carl A., ”Materials Science in Engineering”, Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1986. 5) Smith, William F., “Materials Science and Engineering”, Mc Graw-Hill, 1993. 6) Thornton, Peter A., Colangelo, Vito J., “ Fundamentals of Engineering  Materials”, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

- ١٧٧ -


 ‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢

 ‫א‬1-1

 ٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-1

 ٢

 

 ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-1-1

 ٣

 ‫א‬3-1-1

 ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-1-1

 ٤

 ‫א‬5-1-1

 ٥

 ‫א‬7-1-1

 ٥

 ‫א‬6-1-1

 ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1

 ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-2-1

 ٨

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-2-1

 ٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-2-1

 ١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-3-1

 ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-2-1

 ٨

 ‫א‬1-2-2-1

 ٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1

 ١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-1

 ١٠

 ١١  ١٢

 

 ‫א‬3-3-1

‫א‬‫א‬4-1

BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-4-1


 ‫א‬ 

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ١٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-4-1

 ١٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-4-1

 ١٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-4-1

 ١٤

 EAPFF‫א‬‫א‬4-1-4-1

 ١٥

  FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-1

 ١٦

 HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-4-1

 ١٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5-1

 ١٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5-1

 ١٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-5-1

 ٢١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-5-1

 ٢٢

 2-2-5-1

 ٢٠  ٢١

 2-1-5-1

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-2-5-1

 ٢٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-1

 ٢٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-6-1

 ٢٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-1

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7-1

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬1-7-1

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬2-7-1

 ٢٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٧

 ‫א‬

 ٣١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-2

 ٣١

 ٣٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


 ‫א‬ 

٣٢

 ‫א‬2-2

٣٤

 ‫א‬1-2-2

٣٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-2

٣٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-2

٣٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬4-2

٣٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4-2

٣٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-2

٣٩

 ‫א‬1-2-4-2

٣٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-2-4-2

٣٩

 ‫א‬3-2-4-2

٣٩

 ‫א‬4-2-4-2

٤٠

 ‫א‬5-2

٤١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٤٢

٤٤ ٤٥ ٤٥ ٤٦ ٤٦ ٤٧ ٤٨

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-2

٣٣

٤٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-2

٣٣

٤٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-2

٣٢

٤٤

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬1-3  ‫א‬2-3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-3 ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-3


 ‫א‬ 

 ٥٠  ٥٦  ٥٨  ٥٨  ٥٨  ٦٠  ٦١  ٦٢  ٦٣  ٦٦  ٦٦  ٦٦  ٦٦  ٦٧  ٦٧  ٧٢  ٧٢  ٧٣  ٧٣  ٧٣  ٧٣  ٧٤  ٧٤  ٧٥  ٧٥  ٧٥

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3-3  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-3  ‫א‬‫א‬5-3  ‫א‬‫א‬6-3

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-3  ‫��‬‫א‬2-6-3  ‫א‬‫א‬3-6-3  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4  ‫א‬2-4  ‫א‬3-4

 ‫א‬4-4  ‫א‬5-4  ‫א‬‫א‬1-5-4  ‫א‬‫א‬2-5-4  ‫א‬6-4

 ‫א‬7-4

 ‫א‬‫א‬8-4

‫א‬‫א‬9-4 ‫א‬1-9-4


 ‫א‬ 

 ٧٦  ٧٦  ٧٦  ٧٧  ٧٨  ٨١  ٨١  ٨١  ٨١  ٨٢  ٨٣  ٨٣  ٨٣  ٨٤  ٨٥  ٨٨  ٩٠  ٩٢  ٩٢  ٩٢  ٩٢  ٩٢  ٩٢  ٩٤  ٩٥  ٩٨ ٩٩

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬1-1-9-4 ‫א‬2-9-4

‫א‬‫א‬2-9-1-4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5 ‫א‬2-5

‫א‬‫א‬3-5 ‫א‬‫א‬4-5

‫א‬‫א‬5-5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-5 ‫א‬7-5

‫א‬8-5 ‫א‬1-8-5

‫א‬‫א‬1-1-8-5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-8-5 ‫א‬‫א‬3 -1-8-5 ‫א‬‫א‬2-8-5 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬ 

٩٩  ١٠٨  ١١٢  ١١٧  ١٢٧  ١٣٩  ١٤١  ١٤٧  ١٥٢  ١٥٧  ١٦٤  ١٦٧  ١٧٤  ١٧٦

 ١١٤

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬(1) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2) ‫א‬ (3)  ‫א‬‫א‬


      

      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS