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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٢١٠


  

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ?   ?  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

١


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٥ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W

، ‫א‬ ‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬١J ١  W،E١J ١F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١ W‫א‬

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J    K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ KE‫א‬F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ١F

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

      

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬٢J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫ א‬J ١

K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢ K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧ K‫א‬ J ٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬  K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ١J ٢J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬،K‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬٢J ١J ٢J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬–

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 KKKK‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، -٥-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ١J ٢J ١ ،‫א‬٪١–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ١F،‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

    W ‫א‬

W

 ‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬

W ‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬

W

 ‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬

   

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK    KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK ،KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٪KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  K

 KKKKKKKKKK L KKKKKKK L KKKKKKK   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

K  ‫א‬‫א‬KKKKKKKKKKLKKKKKKKLKKKKKKK   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 KE‫א‬‫א‬FKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 

 

 

 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ١F

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   


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ١J ٢J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٥‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣J ١F، ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

    W ‫א‬

W

 W

W ‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

W

 ‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬ 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK            

   ،   KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٪KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK ‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬FKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ١F

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                      


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬٥J ١J ٢J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٥ K،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K   

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ١J ٢J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ١J ٢J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬K––

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، – ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ١J ٢J ١ – J ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬ ���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،KKK‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬٩J ١J ٢J ١

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫ א‬J  ‫א‬ –J ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J

 K

،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٥،‫א‬‫א‬٪٩٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٧٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬٪١٠

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠J ١J ٢J ١

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬١١J ١J ٢J ١

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢J ١J ٢J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢J ١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٢J ١

 –‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ - ١٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K––W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ KKKK‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٢J ١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬–J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J

K‫ א‬J

 W،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

KEF‫א‬‫א‬ J - ١٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،،British Standard (B.S)‫א‬  K٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  K‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٢J ١

‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،–‫א‬–  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J   ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬J  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬  W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،، KKKK‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫ א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٢J ١

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K،‫א‬ J 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J  

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

J ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬٪٢٠–١٠ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

J ٢

،‫א‬

–E٤J ١F– ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ E٥J ١F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈــــــﺎت‬

‫א‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻮاردة ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

   ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ اﻵن‬

     

  

     

  ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺠﺎز‬        

   ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬة‬

   ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬

‫رﻗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

    

‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬     

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ١F

  KKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

- ٢٠ -

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 KKKKKKKKK‫א‬

 

W

‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬

W

‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬

W ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬

 W ‫א‬

W

‫א‬ 

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٪FG

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٪FG 

‫א‬E٪FG

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬G

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

E٪F‫א‬‫א‬G

‫א‬G 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKLKKKKKKKKLKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬

 EFWE٥J ١F

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                 

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬���

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٥ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،K‫א‬  W،‫א‬

، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫ א‬J K‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩ K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F    ���،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ،

   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٢F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 



 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

 



‫א‬

 

‫א‬ W ‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F 

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F 

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

E‫א‬F

E‫א‬F 

E‫א‬F











 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١J ٢F

- ٢٧ -

          


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٢F،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،KKK‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٢F،‫א‬ 

- ٢٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

   ‫א‬

   



      

‫א‬

   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٢J ٢F 

- ٢٩ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬

‫א‬

    



    

‫א‬

   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٣J ٢F

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 

 K‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

،‫א‬W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KKKK‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬‫ א‬J

KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ J 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ –‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ J ٢ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬W‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬ - ٣٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

 K J K‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١

KKKK‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢ K‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

K‫א���‫א‬‫א‬WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬–W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E٥J ٢FE٤J ٢F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬

   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٤J ٢F 

  

‫א‬

  

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

     

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬WE٥J ٢F 

- ٣٦ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،KKK–‫א‬–W‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J K‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬J K‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬E٦J ٢F 

........................‫ﻓﻨﺪﻕ‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ WE٦J ٢F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

        

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٣


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

٥ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،KKK  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٥٠

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KComponents‫א‬Raw materials‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

KK‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ _‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKK

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٤١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٧ W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K

‫א‬،‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬Production moral ‫א‬ J ٨

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Hot orders ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

W‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KJ J 

- ٤٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١J ٣F ،‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬

  

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬WE١J ٣F

     ‫א‬J ١

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ - ٤٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 B‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،A‫א‬ ‫א‬،C‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬، D‫א‬K‫א‬

،

E٢J ٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬J ٢

،‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬W––‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

- ٤٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٠

٪٥

 ٩٠

٪١٠ 

 ٨٠

٪١٥

 ٧٠

 ٦٠

 ٥٠

 ٤٠

 ٣٠

 ٢٠

A

 ١٠

B

C

   ١٠  ٢٠  ٣٠  ٤٠  ٥٠  ٦٠

D

٧٠  ٨٠  ٩٠

١٠٠ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬٪٧٠‫א‬٪١٥  ‫א‬‫א‬٪١٥‫א‬٪٢٥  ‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠‫א‬٪٣٠ ‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٥ ‫א‬ ٪٣٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬ WE٢J ٣F  - ٤٥ -

W

A

W

B

W

C

W

D

   


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫ א‬J  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K Supply?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Supply Quantities

 ‫א‬J ١

 Supply Timing

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،Uncertain ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KProbabilities‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

J  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Usage rate ?‫א‬‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ KDemand

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬J ١  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

- ٤٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 KE٣J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٣J ٣F  - ٤٩ -

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

                 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬W 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،،‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣ K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤ ?–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬J J   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬?–‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦  K?‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

٦

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ١

٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

      

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

Purchasing Cycle

٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٣F

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫–א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J ٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬W K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬٪٥٠ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬? 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E–F‫א‬‫א‬J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩  KE٥J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

  

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   

 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٥J ٣F 

- ٥٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،   ،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

 Load Leveling ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

- ٥٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 E١J ٣F ،٤٨‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٥

 ٤

 ٢٣٠٤

 ٢J ١

 

 ٥

 ٨

 ٩٦٠

 ٤J ١

 

 ٦

 ٥

 ٢٣٥٢

 ٣J ١

 

 ٤

 ٢

 ٧٢٠

 ٥J ٢

 

 ٨

 ٥

 ١٠٠٨

 ٥J ٤

 

 ٧

 ٧

 ٦٧٢

 ٦J ٤

 

 ٧

 ٦

 ٤٦٠٨

 ٧J ٣

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٣٣٦٠

 ٨J ٦

 

 ٣

 ٣

 ١١٥٢

 ٨J ٥

 

 ٥

 ٣

 ١٦٨٠

 ٨J ٧

 

 ‫א‬

         

 W‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E٦J ٣F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،٢١J J   ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٣F،‫א‬

- ٥٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

٣،‫ط‬ ٣

٨

٢

٥،‫هـ‬ ٨

٦،‫ح‬ ٤ ٣،‫ي‬ ٥

٢،‫د‬ ٤

٥

٧،‫و‬ ٧

٦

٦،‫ز‬ ٧

٧

٤،‫أ‬ ٥

 

٨،‫ب‬ ٥

٤ ٣

١

 

٥،‫ج‬ ٨

 

E١J ٣FW‫א‬ WE٦J ٣F   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

 

 

 

 

 ١٢

 ١٦

 ٤

 ١٢

 

 

 

 ٨

 ٨

 

 

 

 ٧

 ١٢

 ٥

 ٧

 

 

 ١٢

 ١٨

 ٦

 ١٦

 ٤

 

 ٥

 ١٨

 ١٣

 ١٣

 ٨

 

 

 ١٥

 ١٥

 ٨

 ٨

 

 ٧

 ١٨

 ١١

 ١٢

 ٥

 

 

 ٢١

 ٢١

 ١٥

 ١٥

 

 ٥

 ٢١

 ١٦

 ١٨

 ١٣

 

 ٧

 ٢١

 ١٤

 ١٨

 ١١

 

          

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٣F 

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E٧J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،٢٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

���  ‫א‬ ٢٠  

 K،

E٧J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ––‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 

٥

٦ 

 

٤ 

 ٨ 

 

٦

٣

 ٥

 

 

 ٥

 

٧

 

٤

 

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

 

 

 

  ٢

٢٤

١٠

٢٤

٢٢

٢١

٢٠

١٨

١٥ 

١٦

 ١٦   

١٤

١٢

١٠

 ٨

١٤

١٦

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

 ٦

 ٤

 ٤

١٥

 ١٢ 

٩

              ٢٤

١٤ 

١٢

E١J ٣FWW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٧J ٣F - ٦٠ -

          


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

E٨J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٢٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬––

،‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 

٦ 

 

٥

 ٤ 

٨ 

 

٦  

٥

 

 

 ٥

 

٧

 

٤

 

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

 

 

 

  ٢

١٠

١٢

١٤

٢٤

٢٢

 ٢١

٢٠

١٨

١٦

 ١٦

١٤

١٢

١٠

 ٨

 ٦

 ٤

٥

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

 ١٨   

١٢

١٧

١٢

 

       

٢٤

١١

١٦

٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٨J ٣F - ٦٢ -

       


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Limited Human Resources ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٢J ٣F

، ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬E٩J ٣F‫א‬  KE١٠J ٣F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٠J ٣FE٩J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٦٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

٣،‫هـ‬ ٣

٦

٣،‫و‬ ٣ ٣،‫ز‬ ٣

٧،‫أ‬ ٤

٣ ٤

٣،‫د‬ ٤

٢

 ٨،‫ب‬ ٥

١

  

٥،‫ج‬ ٢

٥

 

E٢J ٣FW‫א‬ WE٩J ٣F 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬

١٤ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،   W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  KE١٠J ٣F

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ٦٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 

٤

٢

 ٣ 

 

٣  

٥  

 

٦ 

 

 ٣ 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

 

 

  ٢

١٠

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

           ٢٤

 

 ١٤

 ١٠

 ١٢  ٨  ٦  ٤  ٢

١١ 

  

  

    

١٢

١١     

٧   

٤

 ٣

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E٢J ٣FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٠J ٣F

- ٦٥ -

       


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬١١‫א‬E١٠J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ KE١١J ٣F 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

  

 

  ٢

 ٥

١٠

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

‫א‬‫א‬ WE١١J ٣F 

٢٠

٢٢

           ٢٤

   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   KE١٢J ٣F   - ٦٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ٤

 

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

  

 

  ٢

 ٥

١٠

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٢J ٣F 

           ٢٤

  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

KE١٣J ٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

٢

 

 

 ٤

 

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

  

 

  ٢

 ٥

١٠

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٣J ٣F 

٢٠

٢٢

           ٢٤

  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE١٤J ٣F       

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

٣

٢

 

 

 ٤

 

 

 

 

 ٥

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

  ٢

٤

١٠

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

           ٢٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٤J ٣F

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K،W‫א‬ J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

KE١٥J ٣F،‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

٣

 

٣

٢

 ٥ 

 

 

 ٤

 ٦

 ٨

     

 

 

  ٢

 ٤

٤

١٠

٣ 

١٢

١٤

١٦

١٨

٢٠

٢٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٥J ٣F 

       ٢٤

  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬––

‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   – ‫א‬W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،KKK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٧٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١  KKKK‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬W K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  KKKK‫א‬–‫א‬–

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Partial Replacement

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

٪٨٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  Total Replacement‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ٪٨٠ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W،‫א‬

 Life Time

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

Maintenance

Time Cost

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

Storage Cost

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

Running Cost

Transportation

 

‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ 

‫א‬J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

–‫א‬– ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ––‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٣F  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F 





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

         

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬WE١٦J ٣F - ٧٥ -

  


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Bulldozers

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–E١٧J ٣F–‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬              

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧J ٣F

  Scrapers

‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

K‫א‬   –‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

- ٧٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Cranes

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

––W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬،K‫א‬٣٠

‫א‬،–  K‫א‬ 

 Stationary Cranes

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 Monotower Derricks

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١

Tower Cranes

‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

Guy Derricks

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣

Transportable Tower Cranes

‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

Derrick Cranes

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥

Scotch Derrick Cranes

 Climbing Cranes

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦ 

‫א‬‫א‬J 

،‫א‬?? ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Mobile Cranes

‫א‬‫א‬J 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،EF

KE١٨J ٣F،Telescopic Cranes

 E‫א‬F J ١             

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨J ٣FW

  

Truck Mounted Cranes  Traveling & Rail Mounted Cranes

 J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٣F،‫א‬          

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩J ٣F  Excavators

‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬

J ٣FEquipments Based on a Tractor

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٠  W،‫א‬

 K‫א‬J ١

 EF‫א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 W

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ،KKK––W‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬���J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٠J ٣F

   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   Equipments Based on an Excavator's Wire Rope K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١J ٣F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١J ٣F  Trenching Machines

 

 ‫א‬J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EF

- ٨١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Loading Machines

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،CrawlerEF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢J ٣F                    W‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢J ٣F - ٨٢ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Pile Driver & Drill



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Pile Drill

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Pile Driver

‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  Pre-cast Piles

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ١

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Concrete Mixers

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٨

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Central Mixers

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E –––F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬ 

 Batch Mixers

‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬���،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٦J ٣F

- ٨٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

              

‫א‬‫א‬ WE٢٦J ٣F 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٩

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  Trans (Truck) Mixers

 ‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬–‫א‬W   - ٨٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬J ٢ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬E –––F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧J ٣F                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ WE٢٧J ٣F - ٨٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 Dumpers

 ‫א‬J 

E  ‫א‬F‫א‬

،– ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨J ٣F        

‫א‬ WE٢٨J ٣F   Concrete Pumps

 

‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

،٤٥٣٠‫א‬،٤٠٣٠‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬KW‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

E٢٩J ٣FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬ WE٢٩J ٣F 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

،KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

K ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬K‫א‬  W‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬W J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J ٣ K���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥

KEF‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦ K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧

K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨  K‫א‬‫ א‬J 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩

K‫א‬‫א‬E F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٢

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬– 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬   WJ ١

 K‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬J 

- ٩١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬J   K‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬J   K‫א‬J ٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 KE–F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  K‫א‬

‫א‬،––‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬E٣٠J ٣F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬



 

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

EF

 

 ‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F  KE‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٣٠J ٣F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ،W 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W،‫• א‬ K١٩٩٦،‫א‬،

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K،‫א‬K،

 K١٩٩٠،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WK،‫א‬ K١٩٩٣،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

• Addleson, Lyall, Materials for Buildings, Vol. 4. London; Newnes-Butterworths, 1992. • Barrie, Donald S. & Paulson, Boyd C.; Professional Construction Management, 4th. Edition, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1994. • Cantacusino, Sherban, Modern Houses of the World, London; Studio Vista LTD, 1991. • Civitello, Andrew M. Jr.; Construction Operations Manual of Policies & Procedures, 2nd. Edition, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1994. • Fisk, Edward R.; Construction Project Administration, 5th. Edition, Wiley, N.Y., 1995. • Freeman-Bell, Gail & Balkwell, James; Management in Engineering Principles and Practice, Printice Hall, UK, 1993.

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 ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ١ ٢ ٢ ٤ ١٣ ١٣ ١٤ ١٥ ١٧ ٢٣ ٢٤ ٢٤ ٢٥ ٢٦ ٢٨ ٣١ ٣٢ ٣٢ ٣٣ ٣٥ ٣٥ ٣٧ ٣٨ ٣٩ ٤٠ ٤١ ٤٢ ٥٦ ٥٦

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬ 

٦٣ ٧٢ ٧٤ ٧٦ ٧٦ ٧٧ ٧٩ ٨١ ٨٢ ٨٣ ٨٣ ٨٥ ٨٩ ٩٠ ٩١ ٩١ ٩٤ ٩٥

 ٢١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬


      

      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS


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