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‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺤـــﺎﻀﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺤﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫" ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸـــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــﺎﻩ "‬

‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤـــﺎﻀﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻴﺤﻴﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺸــﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺴــــــﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــــﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴـﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴــﺔ ـــ ﺠـﺎﻤﻌــﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻫـﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻘـــﺎﻫــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪ ١٣‬ﺩﻴﺴــﻤﺒﺭ ‪١٩٩٨‬‬

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‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸـــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤـــﺎﻀﺭ‪ :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻴﺤﻴﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺸــﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺴــﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴــﺔ ـــ ﺠـﺎﻤﻌــﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻫـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻀﻭ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤــــــﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ ﻗﺭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻤــــﺎﻥ ﺘﻀــــــﺎﺀل ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺇﺫ ﺤﻠﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫ ﺼﻔﺕ ﺍﻷﺒﻨﻴــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻗﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺇﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ "ﻭﺤﺩﻫﺎ "! ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺠﺫﺒﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻻﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﻴﺯﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ! ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻑ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ " ﺭﺍﺤـــــــﺔ " ﻭ " ﻴﺴــــــــﺭ"‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﻓﺘﻨﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﺘﻠﺒﻴــﺔ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴــﺔ ﺴــﻴﺭًﹶﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗــﺩﺍﻡ ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺭﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﻌل ﻀﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻷﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺴــﺎﺱ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸـــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﻨﻼﺤﻅﻪ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴــﺔ ﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﻭﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴــﺎﺕ ﻜﺄﺴــﺎﺱ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎﻵﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﻠﻭﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻷﻴﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ــ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ــ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﺤﺭﺓ ﺁﻤﻨــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺘﻼﻗﻰ ﻝﻠﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪ ...‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻴﺽ ﺒﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻨﻠﺤﻅﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﻤﺎﻤًﹰﺎ‪ ، !...‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤﻭﻝﺕ ﺸـﻭﺍﺭﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺨﻁـﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺒﻴﺌﻰ ﺩﺍﻫﻡ ﻭﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﺒﺄﺒﺸــﻊ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ‪.!....‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﻀﺭﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻥ ﻗﻭل)‪ }} ) :... ( ١‬ﻴﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﺴﺘﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻌﺎﻨﺎ {{ ‪ }} ...‬ﻴﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﺴﺘﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻌﺎﻨﺎ {{ ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻔﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻴﻤﻴﻨﻰ ﻭﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩًﹰﺍ ﻝﻌﺒﻭﺭﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺒﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ .‬ﻷﺠﺩ ﺸـﻴﺨًﹶﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭًﹶﺍ ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭ ﻝﻌﺒﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸـــﺎﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻜﺎﺩ ﻴﻨﺘﻔﺽ ﻫﻠﻌًﹶﺎ ﻭﺨﻭﻓًﹶﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ " ﺍﻝﻤﻐﺎﻤﺭﺓ " !‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺠل ﻤﻌﻪ ﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻤﻐﺎﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪ ..‬ﻓﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻵﻥ ــ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻘــﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺠـــﻴﺯﺓ ــ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻌ ًﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﺎﺯﻓﺔ ﻻﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﻝﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻀــﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺒﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـﺎﺓ ﻻﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﺸــﻴﺌًﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﻝﻘﺎﺌﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻨﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤــﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻨـﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﺍﻝـﺩﻭل ﺍﻥ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺴــــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻀﻊ ﺃﻯ ﻋﺎﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻤﻪ ﻓﻭﻗﻬﺎ ‪_____________________ .‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻓﺅﺍﺩ ﺴـــﻌﺩ ‪ " ،‬ﺃﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴﺔ " ) ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺠﺭﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻫــﺭﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺴــﻨﺔ ‪ ، ١٢٣‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫‪ ، ٤٠٩٠٠‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ‪ ، ( ١٩٩٨ / ١١ / ٢٩ :‬ﺹ ‪.١١‬‬

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‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴــﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﻌــــﺩ ﺍﻷﻥ ﻹﻋـــﺩﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻴﺴﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻭﺍﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻐﻠﻴﻅ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻝﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﺸﻜﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻫﻭ ﺴــﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻁﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤـﺭ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺴـــﻴﺭًﹰﺍ‪. ( .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻗـﻭل ﺁﺨــﺭ) ‪ ) : ... ( ٢‬ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺘﻤﺎﻤَﹶﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺴﻔﻨﻜﺱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨﺘﻨﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﻀﻴﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﺼﻐﺎﺭًﹶﺍ ﻭﻜﺒﺎﺭًﹶﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـــﺌﻭﻝﻭﻥ ﻓﺸـــل ﻤﺸــﺭﻭﻋﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻫل ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤل ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻜﺒﺭﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺩﺭﻙ ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻓﻭﻥ ﺴﺘﺤﻭل ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺸﻬﻭﺭ ﻭﻻﺤﺼﺎﺩ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﻯ ﻋﺫﺍﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺒــﺎﻗﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺼـﻭﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ }} ﺩﻭﺨﻴﻨﻰ ﻴﺎﻝﻤﻭﻨﺔ {{ ﺃﻭ }} ﻭﺩﻨﻙ ﻤﻨﻴﻥ ﻴﺎﺠﺤﺎ ؟‬ ‫{{ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻹﻨﺴــﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤــــــــﺭﻭﺭ ﻫﺎﻫﻡ ﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻋﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻨﺴﺎﺏ ﺒﺸـﻜل ﺃﻓﻀـل ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﺭﻴﺒــــﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻘﺩ ﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﻗﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺴﻴﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﺸــﻜﻠﺔ ﻋﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﺴﺕ ﺃﺩﺭﻯ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻓﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺍﻜﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻝﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻔﻭﺍ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺠﻨﺩﻯ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻭﺇﺸــﺎﺭﺓ ﺤﻤﺭﺍﺀ ؟ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﻓﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺤﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻥ ﺘﺴــــﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﹶﺎًﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ؟ ﻭﻤﻊ ﻜل ﺇﺤﺘﺭﺍﻤﻨﺎ ﻝﻌﺒﻘﺭﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻨﺎ ﻝﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫل ﻴﺤﻕ ﻝﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻁﺎﻝﺒﻬﻡ ﺒﺈﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺄ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻭﻗﻌﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ؟ ﻭﻫل ﻴﻌﻠﻡ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ؟ ﻭﺇﻨﻪ ﻭﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻨﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺴــﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ ﺩﺤﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺇﺴــﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔﻰ ﻝﻴﺘﺄﻜﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﺃﻀﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻭﺃﺴﻬﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺒﺸــﺭ ؟ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ" ﻝﻪ ﺩﻻﻝﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻰ "ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀًﹰﺎ ﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻎ ﺍﻷﺜﺭﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﻁﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﺨــﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ "ﺜﻠــــﺙ" ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻀــﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻰ ﺭﺤــﻼﺕ ﺘﺘﻡ ﺴــﻴﺭًﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗــﺩﺍﻡ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻁﻔــﺎل ﻴﺸــﻜﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻋﺭﻀــﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﻋﺘﺒــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺒﻬﻡ ؛ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻴﻀﺎﺡ ﺨﻼل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺤــــﺙ ‪ " :‬ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸـــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــﺎﺓ "‪.‬‬

‫_____________________‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﺒﺩﻩ ﻤﺒﺎﺸــﺭ ‪ " ،‬ﻤﻴـــﺩﺍﻥ ﺴﻔﻨﻜـﺱ " ) ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺠﺭﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻫــﺭﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺴــﻨﺔ ‪ ، ١٢٣‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ ‪، ٤٠٨٩٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ‪ ، ( ١٩٩٨ / ١١ / ٢٩ :‬ﺹ ‪.١١‬‬

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‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﻴﺔ ﺃﺴــﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺎﻤﺔ )‪ ، (١‬ﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺒﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ "ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ" ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻷﻭل ؛ ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ" ؛ ﻭﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻰ ‪ :‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸﺭﺍﻜﺔ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻰ ؛ ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل "ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤــﻭﺍﻗﻊ" ؛ ﻭﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ‪ :‬ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫"ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ" ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺭﻴﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺤﺼـﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻤﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻭﻴﺘﺴﻌــﺭﺽ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻔﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــﻜﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴـــــﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺤــــﺩﺍﺙ ﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴـــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜــﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـــــﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺒﻘﻴــﺕ ﺘﺘﻌـــﺎﻗﺏ ﻤﻨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺼــــﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﻴﻤـــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻨﺸﻁــــﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـــــﺎﺝ ــ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﻯ ــ ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺤﻴﻭﻴــــــــﺔ ﻭﻤﺎﺴــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﻝﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﻤﻥ "ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻓﺔ" ﺍﻝﻰ "ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺃﻴﻀًﹶﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـــﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺭﺨﻴﺼــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﺴــﻬل ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺴــﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﻨﻘل "ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ" ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺌﻴــﺔ" ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﻁـﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴـﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺈﻗﺎﻤﺔ "ﺴــﻼﺴــل" ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺘﺘﺤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺘﺎﺤﺕ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﻨﻘل ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻝﻸﻫﺎﻝﻰ ﻝﻠﻬﺭﻭﺏ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻫﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﻏﻴﺭ ﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﺱ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻝﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻭﺠــــﻭﻩ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ) ﺃﻭ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ( ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻰ ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻷﺼﺢ ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫"ﻭﻻﺩﺓ" ﺍﻝﻀﺎﺤﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ؛ ﻭﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺇﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺴــﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻝﻠﻌﻭﺍﺼﻡ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــــﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ١-١‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﺕ "ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻜﻤﺔ" ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﺘل ﻤﻜﺎﻨﹶﺎ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻰ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻝــ "ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﺱــﻠﻁﺎﺕ" ﻫﺫﺍ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﻓﻘﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺸﻙ ﻤﺎﺩﺍﻡ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘــﺎﺠﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﺤﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤــﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻥ ﻜﻜل ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺴﻤﺤﺢ ﺒﺘﺩﻋﻴﻡ ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻹﺨﺘﺭﺍﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴــﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺃﺴــﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴــﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻹﺴــﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﻤــﺎﻫﻴﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﺈﻨﺘﺸــﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﻘــﺎﻓﺔ ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺍﻓﻘﻪ "ﺇﺨﺘﻨﺎﻕ" ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺴــﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻅﻤــﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓل ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻴــﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ــ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ "ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﻴـــــــــﺎﺕ" ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺴــﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺃﺼﻴﺒﺕ‬

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‫ﺇﺼــﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻐــﺔ !‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻀﻌﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴــﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺘﺭﺩﻯ ﻨﻭﻋﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ !‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺴــﻊ ﻋﺸــﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﻘﻼل ﺯﺍﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺸــﺭﺍﻑ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺯﻋﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻜﻤﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫"ﻤﺼﺎﺌﺭﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﻴـــــﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻌﻭﻥ ﺍﻤــﻼﻜﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸــﻜل "ﻗﺴــﺎﺌﻡ ] ﻗﻁﻊ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ [ ﻤﺠـﺯﺃﺓ" ﻝﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻀــﻭﺍﺤﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴــﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻝﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻰ ﺒﺎﺭﺯ ﺠﺩًﹶﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﻁﺄﺓ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﻜﻤﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺌــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺸــﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺤل ﺸــﻴﺌًﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﻴﺌًﹶﺎ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ "ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺠــﻭﺍﺯﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒـــﺎﺭ" ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﻴـــﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻻﺨﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺘﺤﺎﺩﻫﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻋﻤــﺎل ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻀﺨﻴﻡ ﻤﺸــﺎﺭﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻭﺒﺈﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺴــﻜﻨﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻗﻴــﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻨﻘﻠﻭﺍ ﻤﻌﻬﻡ " ﺠﻭﻫــﺭ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺔ " !‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﻠﺼﻴﻥ ﺒﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺃﻭﺸﻜﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ " ﻗﺸـــﺭﺓ ﻓـــﺎﺭﻏـــﺔ " !‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٢-١‬ﺘﺩﻫــﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴــﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـــﻠﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﻀﻌﻔﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــــﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻴﻭﺭﻙ ﺍﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻴـﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻨﻴــﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎﺩﺍﻡ ﻴﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺴــﻪ ﻭﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺴــﻭﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻀﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﻘﺩ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺔ !‪ ...‬ﺇﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻝﻨﺎ ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل " ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺎ " ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻔﺯﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺼﺤﻑ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻌﹶﺎًﺍﻜﺒﺭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ "ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺔ" ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺫﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺼﺤـﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﺤﻴﺎﻨﹶﺎً‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ "ﺍﻝﺤـﺯﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﺸـﻁ" ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﻴﺒﻕ ﺒﻌــﺩﻩ ﺸﻰﺀ ﻴﺅﺒﻪ ﻝﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴــﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺸﺩ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺒﻴﺌﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﻴﺤﺜﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﺼﻼﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺠــــﻭﺍﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺨﻠﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴــﺔ ﺍﻷﺴــﺎﺴــﻴﺔ "ﺍﻝﺤﻘـــﺔ" ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻥ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٣-١‬ﺘﺩﻫــﻭﺭ ﺇﻁـــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴـﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴــﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﺩﻯ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤــﺎﻋﻰ ﺍﻝﻰ "ﺇﺤﺘﻀﺎﺭ" ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻘــﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻀﻌﻔﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻨﻅﺭًﹶﺍ ﻹﻨﻌﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻠﻁﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻹﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﺍﺤﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻓﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﻘﺩﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل ﺍﻷﻋـــﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻔـﺯﻴـﻭﻥ ﻭﺨﻼﻓﻪ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺤــﺎل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ !‪...‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ـــ ﻭﺍﺠﻬـــﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴــﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـــﺔ ــ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺩﻋﻭﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬـــﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻏﺩﺕ ﺍﻷﻥ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫“ﺇﺴﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﺍﻝﻔﺌــﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﻘــــﺭًﹶﺍ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴــﻤﻴﻪ ﺒﺎﻝــ‪:‬‬ ‫] ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻜﻭﺍﺥ ﺍﻝﺒﺅﺱ [ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺌــﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻏﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺩﻋﻰ “ ‪Taudification‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻜﺘﺴــﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺘﺤﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺤﻁـﺔ ﺃﺴــﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﻤﻘﺘﺼــﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

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‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﻜﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺨﻤــﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ‪ ....‬ﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻔﺤﺹ ‪....:‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﻤ ﹺﻭُﻝــﺫ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ" ﻭ"ﺍﻷﺒﺭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ" ــ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺎﻝﻴﺔ ‪ ،....‬ﺍﻝﺦ !‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭًﹰﺍ ﻝﻌﺩﻡ ﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺃﻯ ﺸـﺨﺹ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺔ ﻝﻀﺒﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻨﺴــﻴﺠًﹶﺎ ﻋﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴًﹶﺎ ﻫﻼﻤﻴــًﹶﺎ ﺸﺒﻴﻬًﹶﺎ ﺒﻠﻭﺤــﺔ ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺩﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺴـﻔﺴـــﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﻭﻀــــــﻌﺕ ﻗﻁﻌﻬــــــﺎ ﺠﻨﺒـــًﹶﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺠﻨــﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﻅــــﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ "ﺍﻝﻨﺯﻋـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴـــﺔ" ــ ﻓﻰ ﺃﺒﺸﻊ ﺼﻭﺭﻫــﺎ‬ ‫ـــ ﻤﺅﻜﺩﺓ ﺇﺴــﺘﻘﻼﻝﻴﺔ ﻜل ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺠﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻏﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﺃﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻔﺎﺩﻯ ﻜل ﻤﺸـﻜﻠﺔ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ !‪ ....‬؛ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻜل ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ]ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﻜﻨﻪ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜل ﺭﺠل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ]ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻓﻨﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺭﻜﺘﻪ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜل ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﻠﻴــﺔ‬ ‫]ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻘﺭﻫﺎ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﺘﻘل ﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻬﺎﻭﻯ ﻭﺃﻜﺸــﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻑ‬ ‫]ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺼﻔــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻬﺎ[ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻴﻔﻌل ﺍﻝﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺘﺠﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ـــ ﺃﻨﻅـﺭ ﻭﺘﻔﺤﺹ ﺇﺸﻐﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﺍﺨــل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻝﺸﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻝﺴــﺎﺤﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻡ ﻭﺃﺸﻤل ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘــﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻗﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺇﺨﺘﻔﺕ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــﺎﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﺘﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ]ﻭﺍﻝﺘــــﻨـﺯﻩ[ ــ ﺘﻔﺤﺹ ﻤﻜـــــﺎﻥ‬ ‫"ﺤﺩﻴﻘـــــﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﺒﻜﻴــﺔ" ﻭ "ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ" ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﻝﻠﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺫﻜــﺭ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﺎﻝﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺴﻌﻔﻙ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺠـــﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺤﺎﻝﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻰ ـــ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺩ ﺇﺴــﺘﺤﻭﺯﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤــﺔ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ "ﻤﺤﻅﻭﺭﹶﺍ"!‪ .....‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻜل ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺼــﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﺍﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻰ ]ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ[ ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﻻﻴﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻜﺜﺭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻵﻝﻴـــﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻭﻗﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﻼ ﺴﻴﺌًﹶﺎ ﻭﻀﻌـــﻪ ﻜﺈﻨﺴــــﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻴﺌـــ ٍﹰﺔ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻴﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ !‪.‬‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻤ ًﹶ‬

‫‪ ٤-١‬ﺍﻝﺴــــﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤــﺎﻋﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺴﻜﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻏﺎﻤﻀﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻝﻑ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺘﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺼﻔﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻬﻡ ﻴﺸﻌــــﺭ ﺒﻌﻤﻕ ﻤﺴــﺎﻭﻯﺀ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﻌﻴﺸﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻘﺎﻝﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺩﺭﻜﻭﺍ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸـﻴﻭﻋًﹰﺎ ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﻭﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴــﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌــﺔ ‪1. ،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻭﺏ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻨﺤﻭ "ﻤﻨﺘﺠﻊ ﺁﻤﻥ" ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻨﺴــﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴــﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺒــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺴــﺒﻭﻉ ﻴﺤﺎﻭل ﻓﻴــﻪ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻗﺼــﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫‪6‬‬


‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﻌل ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻪ ﺘﻁﻭل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺴﻜﻥ ﻴﺤﺎﻭﻝﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻨﻤﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺸــﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﻼﻓﻪ‪....‬ﻫﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻭﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺠﺢ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﻘﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘـﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺌل ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺒﺭﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﻬﺩﺌﻴﻥ ﻴﺴــﺎﻋﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺩﺍﺀ ُﻴ‪‬ﻨﻅـﺭ ﺍﻝﻴﻪ ﻭﻜﺄﻨﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺸــﻔﺎﺀ !‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺃﻜﺜ ‪‬ﺭُﻋﻤﻘًﹰﺎ ﻭﻨﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻨﻤﺎ ﺼﺩﺍﻩ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻫﻤــﺎﻝﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ‪2.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻗﺭﻴــﺔ ﻤﻨﺴــﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﺵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ]ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻝﻤﺯﺍﺭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺭﻓﻰ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ[‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﻓﻬﻭ ﺼﻌﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﺎﺩﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺠﻴل ﺒﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﺵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋــﺔ ﻤﺘﻼﺼﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺴﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﻠﺴﻼﺕ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻫﻰ ﻏﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫!‪ ....‬ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻁﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺒﻨﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻔﻀل ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻀﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﻝﻸﻤل ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺘﺭﻯ ﻫل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻯ ﺍﻹﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻻﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻭﻫﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻔﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻁﺭﻭﺤﺎﻥ ﻝﻠﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺼــﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺯﻴﺩ ُﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ‪3.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻘل ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺴﻭﻕ ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴــﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻴﻠﻭﺠﻴــﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﺯ ﺍﻷﺴــﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻁﻠﺔ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺒــﻭﻉ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ‪ ...‬ﻓﺘﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﺼﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺩﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴــﺎﻨﻴﺔ !‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺯﻝﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﻝﻠﺩﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻭﻝﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺴــﻠﻭﻙ ﻨﺎﺸـــﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﺍﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﻫﻡ ﺍﻗﻠﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻠﻴــﺔ ﻨﺸــﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺘﺒﻐﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻠﻕ ﺼــﻼﺕ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺸــﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺘﺼﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻘـل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻥ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺤـــــﺎل ﺤﻴـﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﻴــــــﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻘـــــﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻤـــــﻭﺭ ﻴﻘــــﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎﻝﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺴــﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺠﺯﺀﹰﺍًﺒﺴﻴﻁًﹰﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺒﺎﻜﻤﻠﺔ !‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٥-١‬ﺍﻝﺸـــــــــــﺭﺍﻜﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸــﺭﺍﻜﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــــﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‪ ..‬ﻝﻴﺘﻔﺠــﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻤــﺎﺀ ‪ ..‬ﻭﺘﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻭﻜﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ..‬ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺃﺴــﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺃﺒﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺼـﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴــﺔ ﻭﻻﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺭﻫﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪...‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺍﻜﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻰ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻕ" ﻭ "ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ" ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻅﻬــﺭﻯ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺃﻫﻤﻴــﺔ ﻜﺒﺭﻯ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻅﻬــﺭ ﺍﻹﺭﺘﺠــﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺨﺒﻁ ﻭﺘﺘﻨــــﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻜل ﻭﺘﺘﺸــﺎﺒﻙ ‪...‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬـﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺴــــﻙ ﺒﺤﻠﻭل ﻤﺭﻭﺭﻴـﺔ ﻭﺃﺸﻜـﺎل ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴــﺔ "ﻤﻌﻴﻨــــﺔ‬

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‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻴــــﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﻌًﹰﺎ ﻝﻠــــﺫﻭﻕ ) ‪ ( for its own sake‬ﻤﻘﺼــﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ "‬ ‫‪ ( fermalistic ) ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀــﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘــﺄﺜﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻠﻬﺎ "ﻤﻅﺎﻫــﺭ ﺸــﻜﻠﻴــــﺔ"‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻻﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻤﺒﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻝﺔ ‪" ( superficial ) ،‬ﺴـــﻁﺤﻴــﺔ"‬ ‫‪( whims ) ! .‬ﺒل ﺘﻤﺜل "ﺃﻫــﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﺒﺘﺩﻋﻴﻬﺎ"‬

‫ﻭﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻐــــــﺭﺱ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــــل ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻰ ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺼﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺴــﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺼــﺎﺩﻕ" ) ‪" ( scientific research essence‬ﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻰ"‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴــــــﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫـــﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪( trust interpretation )،‬‬ ‫‪( notional ) ،‬ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜـــﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻭﺭﻫــــﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﻘــﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ "ﺨﻴﺎﻝﻴـﺔ ﻭﻫﻤﻴـﺔ"‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴــــﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ‪" ، ( uprooted )،‬ﻤﻨﺯﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﻭﺭ" ) ‪"( idel‬ﻋﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭﻯ"‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴــﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﻴــﺔ ﻭﺃﺴــﻠﻭﺏ ﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺼﻤــﺔ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻻﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ) ‪ ،( oervers mode‬ﻭﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ "ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻁﻰﺀ"‬ ‫) ‪( depressed‬ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻓىﺎﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ﺒل "ﻴﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ"‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻫـــﻭ‪....‬‬ ‫“‬ ‫‪......‬ﺍﻹﻓــــــــــــﻼﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـــــــﺭﺍﻨﻰ‬ ‫‪URBAN BANKRUPTCY “ !.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻝﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺨﻁﺭ ﺍﻷﻤــﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻗﺎﻤـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗــﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺼﻁﻨﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻑ ﻗﺭﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻻﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻜﻤل ﻭﺃﺒﺴﻁ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜــﺎﻥ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻯ ﻴﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺴــﻬل ﺍﻝﻠﻘﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌـﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌــﺔ ! ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﻀﺤﻪ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (١‬ﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﻬــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺤــﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴــﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻫﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻋﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝﻬﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (٢‬ﻭﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ "ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻫﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺅﻯ ﺍﻝﺒﺼــﺭﻴﺔ" ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻨﻴــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﺸﺘﺭﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺀ "ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل" ﻤﺸـﺎﺭ ً‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﻴﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌــل ﺇﺫﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴــﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﻝﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻭ ﻝﻠﺘﺯﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻷﺨﺒــﺎﺭ ﺍﻭ ﻝﻴﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﻀﹰﺎً‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺤل ﻤﻜﺎﻥ " ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ " ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴــﺔ ﻻﻨﻬﺎ ﻻﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ "ﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺒﻕ" ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻔﺘﻘـﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﺌﻴﺔ ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﻭﺤﺩﻫﺎ ﺘﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﺩﻭﺭ ﻜﻬﺫﺍ ﻓﻰ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺎﻝﻡ ﻴﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺸـــﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺴــﻌﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺼــــﺎﻝﺢ ﻝﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺎﻓﺯًﹰﺍ ﻻﻗﺒﺎل ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺸــﺎﻫﺩﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (٣‬ﻭﻤﺎﻝﻡ ﻴﺴــﻬل ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ " ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜـــــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ " ﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﻭﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ !‪.‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬


‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ‪" :‬ﺴـــﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ" ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻝﻴـﻭﻡ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺴــﻭﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﻴــﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭﻫـﺎ ؛ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻝﺴــﺎﺤﺎﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺍﻝﻰ "ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ" ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﻴﻤــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻭ ًﹰ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴـــل" ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺭﺠﻤــﺔ ﺘﻨﺴــﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺫﻭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻔﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻨﻨﻅﺭ ﺒﺎﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﺸﻐﻠﻪ "ﻋﺼﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ" ﻭﺇﺘﺼﺎﻝﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻨﻤــﺭ ﺒﻬﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴــﺔ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗــــﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸــﺄﺕ ﻭﺃﻤــﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺸــﺎﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻭﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻨﺴــﻕ ﺫﻭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﺄﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺴـﻠﻔًﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻨﻅﺭﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻤﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺅﻴﺘﻨــﺎ ﻝﻪ ﻜﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻨﻪ ﺘﺸــﻜﻴل ﺒﻴﺌﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺴــﻡ ﻭﻤﺘﻜـــــﺎﻤل ﻤﻥ " ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴــﺔ " ﻭ " ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ " ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻴﻀَﹶﺎ ﺘﺸــﻜﻴل ﻝﺨﺼــﺎﺌﺹ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔــﺔ ﻓﻰ " ﺘﻨﺴــﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺘﻬﺎ ‪،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎﻨﺘﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪ ، (٤‬ﻤﺸﺘﻤــــــﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴــــــﺎﺕ ﻋﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﺹ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻷﺸــﻜﺎل " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻷﺤﺠــﺎﻡ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﺴــﺏ "‬ ‫‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜـــــﺎﻓﺎﺕ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻷﺘﺼــﺎﻻﺕ "‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌـﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻝﻪ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘــﺎﻡ ــ ﻜل ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﻩ ﺴــﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ــ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻝﻭ ﺘﻐــﻴﺭ ﻭﻀــﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻔــﺎﺕ ﺍﻯ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻅﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺒﻜل ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼــــــﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴــﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺽ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ‪ " :‬ﻁﻭﺒﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴــﺔ " ‪ " ،‬ﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴــﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ " ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴــﺔ " ﺘﻘﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨــﺭﻯ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ " ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻁﺒﻴــﻌﻴــﺔ " ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴــﺘﻐﻼﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴــــــﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ‪:‬‬ ‫" ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻅــﺭ ﺍﻝﺨــﻼﺒﺔ ــ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴــﻠﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ " ﺘﺸــﻜﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻴـﺌــﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ " ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﻴــﺔ ﻤﻭﻗــﻊ ﻴﺸــﺘﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺜﻼﺙ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭل ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﻭﻯ " ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ "‬ ‫ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﻐﻁــﺎﻩ ] ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ [ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﻜﺸــﻭﻓﺔ ؛ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﻴﺸﻤل " ﺍﻝﻤـــﺭﻭﺭ " ﺒﻘﺼﺩ ﺍﻹﺘﺼــﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻀــﻭﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ ] ﻤﺸـــــﺎﻩ ‪ /‬ﺭﻜـــﺎﺏ [ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻀــﺎﺌﻊ ؛ ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺜـــﺎﻝﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺸــﻤل " ﺍﻝﺘﺸـــﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻤــــﺎﺭﻯ " ] ﺃﻭ " ﺍﻝﺒﺼــﺭﻯ " [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫‪9‬‬


‫ﻓﻰ ) ‪ (٥) ( Precption‬ﺍﻝﻔـﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻭﻀﺤًﹰﺎ ﻋﻭﻤل ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﺔ ﺒﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺭﺠﻤــﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺴــﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺫﻭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (٦‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺎﺕ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴــﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺔ ﺍﻹﺘﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏــﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻤــﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺒﺼــﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺇﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻨﺎﻅـﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﺒﺔ ــ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺭﺍﺤــﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﺇﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﻤﻼﻋﺏ ﻭﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎل ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴــﺎﻝﺒﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺇﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﺎﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻀﻭﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺜﻘﻴل‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺜ َﹶ‬

‫‪ ١-٢‬ﻗــــــﻭﺓ ﺍﻹﺘﺼـــﺎل ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻹﺘﺼــﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻫــﺎﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺘﺨﺘﺹ ﺒـــ‪:‬‬ ‫ " ﻜﻤﻴــﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ " ﻤﻥ ﻭﻅﻴﻔــﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ؛‬‫ﻼ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ " ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﺘﺼــﺎﻻﺕ " ﻓﻰ " ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴــﺔ " ــ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ــ ﻤﺜ ًﹶ‬‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ " ﻴﻭﻤﻴًﹰﺎ "‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻜﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﺠـﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ " ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴًﹶﺎ "‪.‬‬ ‫ " ﺍﻝﻜﻔـــﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ " ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﻌــــﺎل ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻝﻴﻑ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻁــﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠـــﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﻅــــﺎﺌﻑ ﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗـــﺔ ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﻨـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴــــﺔ ﺃﻭﻤﺜل ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺠــﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻹﺘﺼـﺎل ﺍﻝﺒﺼـﺭﻯ ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌًﹶﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﺒﻌﻴﺩﹶﺍًﻋﻥ ﺃﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻭﻓﺼﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ‪ .‬ﻤﺜل ﺇﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﻤﻼﻋﺏ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎل ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻗﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻋﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫‪10‬‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻹﺴــﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ] ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎل [ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻤﻼﺌﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺭﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﺜــﻠﺔ ﻝﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻓﺭﺽ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺼــﺎﻻﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﻭﺴــﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻘﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ "‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـــﺭﺍﻨﻰ " ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻪ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻤﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻴﺯ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬــﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ‪" :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﻨــﺔ " ﺃﻭ " ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻤـﻭ " ‪ " ،‬ﻤﻼﺀﻤﺔ ﻭﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻹﺘﺼــﺎل " ‪ " ،‬ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ "‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺭﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺃﻯ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻷﺘﻴﺔ ‪ " :‬ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ " ‪ " ،‬ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ " ‪ " ،‬ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ" ﻭ" ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓــﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁ " ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻀﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ ﻝﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺒﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻥ ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺴــﻭﻑ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ــ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﺭ ــ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎﻴﻠﻰ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻝﻌــﻼﻗــﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤــﺎﻋﻴــﺔ " ‪" ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼــﺩﺍﻗــﺔ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﺠــﻴﺭﺓ " ؛ ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺴــﻬﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴــﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﺸــﺘﺭﻜﺔ ] ﻤﻨﺩﻤﺠـــﺔ ‪ /‬ﻤﻭﺤــﺩﺓ [ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤــﺭﻭﺭ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻝﻺﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ ] ﻤـﻼﻋﺏ ‪ /‬ﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ [ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ]‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ [ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻁل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋــﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٢-٢‬ﺍﻝﺸــﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺃﻯ ﺸـﻰﺀ ﻤﺘﺤــﺭﻙ ﻴﻨﺘﻘل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ‪ :‬ﻤﺭﻭﺭ " ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ " ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸــﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻤﻴــﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻨﻭﺠﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﺘﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ " ﺴــﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل " ؛ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﺒﺎﺸــﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ"‬ ‫ " ﺍﻝﻭﻀــﻭﺡ " ؛ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﻁــــــــﺭﻕ " ﺴـــــﻬ ﹶ‬‫‪ " ،‬ﺒﺴـــــــــﻴﻁًﹶﺎ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﻤﺴــﺎﻋﺩًﹶﺍ " ﻓﻰ ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻌــﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻜﻜل ‪.‬‬ ‫ " ﺍﻷﺴــﺎﺱ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻯ " ؛ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬‫ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎ ﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺸــﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﺼــﺭﻯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ " ﺍﻝﻤــــﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻵﻤـــــﻥ " ؛ ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻁ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻋﺭﻭﺽ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴــﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ "‬ ‫ﺴــﻠﺴــﺔ " ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻹﺨﻁــــــﺎﺭ" ﺃﻭ "‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺯﻋـــــﺎﺝ " ‪ .‬ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻵﻤﻥ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻝﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﻠﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭﻓﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻝﻴــﺎﺕ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺩﺍﻋﻴﺎ ‪•1‬‬ ‫ﻝﻸﻤــﺎﻥ ﻭﻝﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﻭﻝﺘﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻹﺯﻋﺎﺝ ] ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﻴﻘﺔ [ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻝﻴــﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺤــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل " ‪•2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠــﺎﺕ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﻼﻓﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﻜل ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻋﻪ ﻓﻰ " ﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻫﺭﻤﻰ " ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ‪•3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ " ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺒﻊ " ﻭ " ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺏ " ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﻨﻘل ﺍﻝﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪•4‬‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺇﺯﺩﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ " ﺘﻨﻤﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗــﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴــﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ‬‫ﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﺸﺒﻜــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻁــــﺭﻕ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻕ ﻝﻠﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻜﻜل ‪.‬‬ ‫ " ﺍﻝﺘﺤــــﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻰ " ‪ ،‬ﺒﺈﺩﺨﺎل " ﻝﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ" ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻷﺜﺎﺙ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻝﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴــﺔ " ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ " ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺭﺼﻔـــﺔ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ‪ .‬ﻝﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺄﺘﻰ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻭﻀﻌﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٣-٢‬ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـــﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺌل ﻓﻰ ﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻋﻨﺼﺭًﹶﺍ ﻝﻪ ﺩﻻﻝﺘﻪ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻋﻨﺼﺭﹶﺍًﻫﺎﻤًﹶﺎ ﻤﺅﺜﺭًﹶﺍ ﻭﻤﺴﻴﻁﺭًﹶﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺃﻗﺎﻝﻴــــﻡ ﺍﻝﻤــــﺩﻥ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫـــﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻻﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻏﻔــﺎل ﺃﻫﻤﻴـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﻘل " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺤــﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ"‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌـــﺔ " ﺃﻴﻀﹶﺎً؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴــﺎﺏ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺤﺭﻜــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴـﺎﺏ ﺤﺭﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ــ ﺍﻷﻫـــﺎﻝﻰ " ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠﻠﻴﻥ " ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻘل ﺍﻵﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﻴﺩًﹶﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴــﺎﺕ ؛‬ ‫ــ ﺍﻷﻁﻔــــﺎل ﻓﻰ ﺭﺤﻠﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ ــ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ ــ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴــﻴﺭﹶﺍًﻋﻠىﺎﻷﻗﺩﺍﻡ ؛‬ ‫ــ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ " ﻨﺯﻫﺔ ﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ " ﻴﻌﻘﺒﻬﺎ " ﺠﻠﺴـﺔ ﻫﺎﺩﺌـﺔ " ﺒﻌﻴﺩَﹶﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻭﻀـــﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻠــﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴــﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺤﺭﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺸــﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺴــﻭﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﺠـــﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤـﺔ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹶﺍًﻋﻥ ﺃﺨﻁــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ ...،‬ﺍﻝﺦ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻪ ﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴــﺄﻝﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻀﺘﻴﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝــﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻭﻗــﻊ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻭﺼﻭل ﺒﺎﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤــــل ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﻁﺤﺎﺕ ﺁﻤﻨﺔ ﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﺴـــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻌﺯﻝـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹶﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺸﻰﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻵﻝﻴـــﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁﻭﻥ ﺠﻬﻭﺩﻫﻡ ﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﻁﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻹﺴــﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﻌﺯﻝﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻵﻝﻴــﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺭﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺃﺴـــﺎﺴــﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ‪" :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ " ] ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ــ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻑ ــ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﺘﺏ [ ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ "‬ ‫] ﺍﻹﺴــﺘﺠﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻍ [ ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﻫﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺘﻤﺭ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻀل ﻝﺘﻼﻗﻰ ﻋﺸــﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻝﻭﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﻤﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻰ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎﺴﻭﻑ ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﺭﺡ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻰ ــ " ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ "ــ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴـــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ــ " ﺍﻝﺘﻴـــﺎﺭﺍﺕ "‬ ‫ــ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﻝﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻻﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺤًﹶﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤــﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝــﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺨﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﻜﺭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅـﻴــﻡ ﺍﻝﻌـــﺎﻡ ﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫}} ﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﺭﻨﺴـــــﺎ {{ ــ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺇﺼﻁﻼﺡ ‪ Ile-de-France‬ﺇﻴﻔﺭﻯ " ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝـ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﻁﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﻭﻀﻭﺍﺤﻴﻬــﺎ ــ ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪( ٥‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪" ( ٦‬ﻤﺤﻴﻁ ‪"Ile-de-France‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗــﻊ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻰ ﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ"‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ"ﻭ"ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ" ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺯﻭﺩ ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺘﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﻀﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﻘل ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﻝﻠﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻡ ﻝﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﺘﻨﻘﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎل ؛ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻤﺜل "ﺘﺴﻜﻌﺎﺕ" ﺃﻫل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﺃﺒﺩًﹰﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻋﺎﺝ ﻭﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺼﺎﺏ ﻭﻜل ﻤﺎﺘﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻀﺭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻀﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻻﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺸـﺭﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ] ﻭﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻻﻴﻀﺭ ﺴﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﻕ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻪ ﻝﻜﻰ ﻴﻨﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﺸﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﻘــﻼﺘﻪ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻭﻗﻔـﻪ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ُﻴﺠﻌل ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻫﻭ ﺴﺒﺏ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍ ﻜﺯ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤًﹰﺎ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻘﺒﻭ ًﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸــﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪ ( ٧‬ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺌﻊ ﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺸــﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﺴــﻭﻑ ﻨﻼﺤﻅﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ " ﺇﻴﻔﺭﻯ " ﻨﺒﻊ ﺃﺴــﺎﺴًﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (٨‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻋﻀﻭﻯ ؛ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻫﺩﻓﹰﺎًﻭﺍﺤﺩﹰﺍً‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﻼﺙ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ؛ ﻭﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻨﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ "ﻝﻠﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ" ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ" ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀــﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (٩‬ﻭﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺃﻭﺍﻻﻝﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻤﻊ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ] ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻗﺎﺕ [ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ . (١٠‬ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١١‬ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻤﻭﺭﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬ ‫ــ ﻝﻸﺴﻑ ﻻﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ! ــ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴــﺔ ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ﺤــــﺭﺓ ﺁﻤﻨــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻼﻗﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺠﺎﻨﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٢‬ﻨﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻤﻴــﺔ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٣‬ﺘﻨﺴــــﻴﻕ ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻴﻭﻨﺦ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﻨﻴﺎ ‪.‬ﻭﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁــﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ﺃﻭﺩﻉ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﺓ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻜل ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫" ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤﻴل " ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺴـــﻴﻕ " ﻭ" ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌــﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘـــﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺜﻘــﺎﻓﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻀــــــﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﺴـــﻜﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﺃﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘـــﺎﺭﻴﺨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪" : (١٤‬ﺃﺴـــــﺎﺱ ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴـــﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤــــﺭﺍﻨﻰ "؛ ﻭﺘﻔﺤﺹ ﺴــﺎﺤﺔ " ﺸـــﻭ‪-‬ﺩﻭ‪-‬ﻤﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ؛ ﻭﺘﺄﻤل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻴﻑ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٥‬؟‪...‬؛‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﻭﺤل ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ؛ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ...‬ﻜﻴﻑ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ؟‪...‬؛‬ ‫ﻻﺤــــﻅ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻏــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤـــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪، (١٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺒﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴــــــﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (١٧‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ )‪. (١٨‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝــ ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل" ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻰ ؛ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻨﻼﺤﻅﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﻝﻘﻠﺏ ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﻪ " ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻰ " ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (١٩‬ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭﻯ ﻭﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺘــــﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ، (٢٠‬ﻭﺼﻭ ًﹰ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸـــﺎﺓ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻁﺒﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ . (٢١‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬـﺭ ﺤﻠﻭل ﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻜل ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘــﺔ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸﺒﻜـــﺔ ﺤﺭﻜـــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻌــــﺎﻡ ﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻜــــﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﻴــﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅــــــﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴــــﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﻴـــﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻨﻡ ﻋﻥ‬

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‫ﺤﺴــﻥ ﻭﺠـــﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴــــﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﻰ ﻝﻠﻨﺸـــﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬـــﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫" ﺍﻝﺘـــــــﻼﺀﻡ " ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺘﻜـــــــﻭﻴﻥ " ﻭ" ﺍﻝﺭﻤــــــﺯﻴﺔ "‪....‬‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻝﻭ ﺘﻭﺍﻓـــﺭﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗـــﻊ ﻷﻀﺎﻓﺕ " ﻝﻤﺴـﺎﺕ ﺠﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ " ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل ﺍﻷﺒﺭﺍﺝ ” ‪ “ LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE‬ﻋﻨﺎﺼــــﺭﺘﻨﺴﻴــــﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗــﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻘﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻜﻌﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺸﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻓﻰ ‪ ":‬ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ "‪"،‬‬ ‫[ ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﻭﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ‪ Base‬ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ "‪ "،‬ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴـﺔ " ] ﻴﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺭﺼﻔﻬــﺎ " ] ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﻝﻴﻁﺎﺕ [ " ﺃﻝﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ"‪ "،‬ﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ ﻭﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ " ]ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺠﻴﺭ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺤﻭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻭﺭ[ ‪ " ،‬ﺃﺜـــﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ " ] ﺃﻋﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻀـــﺎﺀﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺸـــﺎﺩﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻠﺴــﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻅﻼﺕ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻓﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺌﻴــﺔ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﻌﺩﻴﻥ ‪ -‬ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎل ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﺴــﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺼﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺠﺯ ﻭﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﻤﺎﻤﺔ ‪ ....‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺘﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻀــﺭﻯ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺎﺴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﻉ ﻝﻠﺩﻤﺞ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺯﻜﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹶﺍًﻋﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﻝﻀﻭﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴــﺔ ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺒﺩﻭﺍﺨل ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﺒﻴﺌﻴــﺔ ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺼﻐـﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺴـﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎﺘﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﻓﺎﺩﺤﺔ ﺘﺼﻴﺏ " ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪ ( Delict Environment ).‬ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻰ "‬ ‫_______________________________‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺴﺘﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻴﻔﺭﻯ ) ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺒﺱ ‪(١٩٨٦ ،‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪.١٠٣ ،٦٧ ،٦٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻰ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل ‪ :‬ﻤﺎﻴﻭ ‪.١٩٩٠‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁﻭﻥ ﻨﺼﺏ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺘﻭﺴــﻴﻊ ﻫﺫﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺈﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﻤﺸــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻻﺘﺨﻠﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﻻﺘﻜﺎﺩ ﺘﻠﺤﻅ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﻭﻝﺕ‬ ‫ﺸـﻭﺍﺭﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺨﻁﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﻯ ﻭﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺒﻴﺌﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺫﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸــﺄﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪ ٤-٢‬ﺍﻝﻔﺼـــل ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــﺎﻩ‬

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‫ﺇﺸــﻜﺎﻝﻴــــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺴــــﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻠﻜﻴـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـــــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺠﺘﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﻼﺩﻨﺎ ﻻﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺭﻫــﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ "ﺍﻝﻀﺨﻡ" ﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺇﻤﺘﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻤﻭﻩ ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﻩ ﻋﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﺤﺘﻠﺕ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻫﻤﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻨﻅﺭًﹶﺍ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫"ﻤﺤـــﺎﻭﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ" ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺤﺴــﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔــﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ "ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻅﺎﺭ" ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺠﻪ ﻤﻥ "ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻝﻠﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ"‪ ، ...‬ﺍﻝﺦ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻝﻘـــــﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺒﺴــﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺁﻤﻨــﺔ ﻝﻠﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺼﺎل ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﻴﺩًﹶﺍ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻀﻭﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﺯﻋﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺼــﻭﺭﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗــﺔ ] ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ [ ﺸــﺎﺌﻜﹶﺎً‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻨﺒﺜﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴـﺅل ‪ :‬ﻝﻤﻥ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺘﺒــــﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻫــــﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴــﺘﺨـﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪" ....‬ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺎﺭﺓ"‪....‬ﺃﻡ‪"....‬ﺍﻹﻨﺴــﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل" ؟‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺴﻌﻴًﹶﺎ ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﻨﻘﻁــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﻜﻨﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ ﺒل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﻪ ــ ﻤﻥ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﺸــﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﻁﺒﺨﻪ !‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻷﺨﺭ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺭﺤﻠﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺭﺤﻠﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ ــ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺩﻭﻝﻴــﺔ ــ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺁﻤﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ُﺃﻤﻬــﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﻝﻴـــﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺎﺒﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠـــﺔ ﻤﻠﺤـــﺔ ﻝﻠﺒﺤــــــﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻠــــﻭل‬ ‫ﺠــﺫﺭﻴــــــﺔ ﻭﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴـــﻡ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴـــــــﺔ ﺨﻼﻗـــــﺔ ﺘﻬــــﺩﻑ‬ ‫)ﺍﻝﻰ "ﺍﻝﻔﺼــــــل ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜـﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﺴـــــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﻩ"‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻔﻌل ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ــ ‪Circulations ( Segregation of Motor ways & Pedestrian‬‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻪ ــ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻔﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁــــﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـــــﻕ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﹶﺎًﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ) ‪( Full Segregations‬ﻤﺎﻴﺴــﻤﻰ ﺒــ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻡ"‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻓﺼ ًﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻤﻊ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒــ‪":‬‬ ‫ــ ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺄﺘﻰ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ) ‪( Semi-segregation‬ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺌﻰ"‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺼـــــل ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴــــً‪‬ﺎ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁـــﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺕ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻨﺎﺠﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫_____________________________‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /.‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ ) ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻥ ‪ :‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ‪ ، ( ١٩٨٨ ،‬ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪.٣١٨-٣١٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺼﺒــﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫـــــﺩﺍﻑ ﺘﺨﻁﻴــﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤــل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺼـــــل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ ﻭﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺘﺎﻤًﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺠﺯﺌﻴـــًﹶﺎ ) ‪( Full Segregation‬ﻓﺼــــــــ ًﹶ‬ ‫‪ ، ( Semi‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼــــــ ًﹶ‬‫ﻻ ﻤﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﺱ ) ‪segregation‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺤﻠﻭ ًﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘــــﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻴــــﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴــــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﻜـــﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬـــﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻨﻴـــﻭﺠﻴﺭﺴﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪( Radburn ) .‬ﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ "ﺭﺍﺩﺒﻭﻥ"‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢١‬ﻨﻤﻭﺯﺝ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "ﺭﺍﺩﺒﺭﻥ" ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺯﺝ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﺴـــﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻁﺒﻘﺕ ﻓﻌ ًﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻓﺼـل ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﺘﻤﺕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﻜﻼﺭﻨﺱ ‪LOWIS MUMFORD‬ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴــﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻴﺩ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪" :‬ﻝﻭﻴﺱ ﻤﻤﻔﻭﺭﺩ"‬ ‫؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺼــﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻌــﺎﻝﺔ ﻓﻰ ‪CLARENCE STEIN‬ﺴﺘﺎﻴﻥ"‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ “ ‪“ Radburn‬ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻋﺭﻑ ﺒﺈﺴﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــﻭﻴﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "ﻜﻤﺒﺭﻨﻭﻝﺩ" ) ‪(Vallingsby‬ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ "ﻓﺎﻝﻨﺞ ﺴــﺒﺎﻯ"‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺃﺴﻜﻭﺘﻼﻨﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻝﺸــﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪ ( ٢٢‬ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺌﻌﺔ ) ‪( Combernauld‬‬ ‫ﻝﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﻘـــــــــــﻕ ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ) ‪( Cul-de-sac‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺨﻁﻴــــــﻁ "ﺸـــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻨﻬﺎﻴـــﺎﺕ ﻤﻘﻔﻠــﺔ"‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺈﺴﻡ ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﺯﻗﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻪ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺁﻤﻨــﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍﻵﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻰ‬ ‫) ‪ . ( Parking points‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ "ﻨﻘــــﺎﻁ ﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﺘﻅـــﺎﺭ"‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺴﻁ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘــﺔ ﺍﻵﻤﻨــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺴــﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻘــﺎل ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻰ ﺘﻨﻌﺩﻡ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎل ﻭﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺁﻝﻰ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻤﻤــــﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬــﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪ ( ٢٣‬ﻨﻤﻁ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﻓﻰ ) ‪( Traffic Segregation‬‬ ‫‪( A Contemporary Refinement‬ﺍﻷﺤﻴــﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜـ ‪":‬ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ"‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﻯﺀ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ "ﺭﺍﺩﺒــــﺭﻥ " ــ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻝﻑ ﺸﺭﺤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻁﺒﻘﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ )‬ ‫)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺃﻭ ) ‪( Basildon‬ﺍﻝﻤـــــﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺘﺠﻠﺘﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ "ﻭﺼﻼﺕ ﻤﺄﻤﻭﻨﺔ" ﻭ"ﻤﺭﻴﺤﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺴــﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ‪":‬ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ "ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ" ﺃﻭ "ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ" ‪....‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺴــﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻤــﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴــﻴﺭًﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺩﺍﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺏ ﻤﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺼﻭﻓﺔ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎل ﻓﻰ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻜﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﻤﻼﻋﺏ ) ‪( Roller Skate‬ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺭﻜﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ "ﺍﻝِﻤﺯﻝﺠــﺔ"‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺸــﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢٤‬؛ ﻭﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻴﺠﺏ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ــ ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻠﻔﻨﺎ ــ ﺍﻥ ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺴــﻭﻑ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ــ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺼــﺭ‬ ‫ــ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎﻴﻠﻰ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻝﻌــﻼﻗــﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤــﺎﻋﻴــﺔ " ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﺼــﺩﺍﻗــﺔ " ‪" ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠــﻴﺭﺓ " ؛ ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺴــﻬﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴــﻁﺔ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫‪17‬‬


‫ﻤﺸــﺘﺭﻜﺔ ] ﻤﻨﺩﻤﺠـــﺔ ‪ /‬ﻤﻭﺤــﺩﺓ [ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤــﺭﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻺﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻫــﺎﻝﻰ ] ﻤـﻼﻋﺏ ‪ /‬ﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ [ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ] ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ [‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻁل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋــﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ..‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻁ ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـــﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺨﻁﻴــﻁ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﺈﺴــﻠﻭﺏ "ﺍﻝﻨﻤــﺎﺯﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴــﺎﺴــﻴﺔ" ﺍﻝﺫﻯ ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺸــﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺍﺨل ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻭﺼﻼﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺩﺨل ﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪1.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﺃﻭﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺸـــﻰ ﺨﺩﻤــﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪2.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ؛‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺸـﻰ ﺭﺌﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ؛ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪" :‬ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻭﺤـﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴـﺔ" ‪3.‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴـــــﺔ[ ‪" ،‬ﺩﻭﺨل ﻤﺭﻜــﺯ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴــﺔ" ‪" ،‬ﻭﺴــﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻭﺤــﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴــﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ( ﺍﻝﺩﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔﻰ ﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﻝﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻫﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺠﺒﺭﻫﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺁﻤﻨــﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤـﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ"ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻨﻭﺼﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌـﻠﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫________________________‬ ‫‪( New york : Reinhold‬‬

‫‪(١) RICHARD P. DOBER , AIR ., ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN‬‬ ‫‪Boock Corporation , 1969 ) , p. 244.‬‬

‫‪ ١-٣‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺭﻴﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﺎﺤـــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻴـــــــﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ ﻴﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴـــﺔ " ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ" ﻭﻋﻠﻰ "ﺃﻨﻤــــﺎﻁ ﻭﻤﺴـــﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺒﻜـــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ "ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴــﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻴــﺔ ﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ )‪:(١‬‬

‫‪18‬‬


‫ـــ ﺒﻨﻴـــــــﺔ ﻤﺴــــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺼﻔــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺸـــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤـــــﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺒــــﻭﺭ ] ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌـﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻤـــــﺘﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌــــﺎﺕ [ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻔــــــﺎﻕ ﻭﻜﺒــــﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺴـــﻼﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤــﺭﻜﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﻴﻤﺜل ﻋﺩﺩ “ ‪“ Level of Use‬ـــ ﺤﺠـــــــﻡ ﺍﻹﺴــــﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ‪...:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻝﺤﻅﺔ "ﻤﻌﻴﻨــــﺔ" ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﺘﻤﺜل ﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻰ “ ‪“ Accessibility‬ـــ ﺴـــﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺼـــــﻭل ‪...:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪“Continuity‬‬

‫‪,...........‬‬

‫ـــ ﺇﺴــﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـــﺎﺭ ‪" ...:‬ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻝﻴـــﺔ" ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀــﻴﺔ" ‪“.‬‬

‫‪ “ Ped Delay “.‬ـــ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺨﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺤﺭﻜــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﻩ ‪...:‬‬ ‫‪“ Level of Ped Hazard “.‬ـــ ﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺨﻁــﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪...:‬‬ ‫‪“ Degree of Conflict “.‬ـــ ﺩﺭﺠـــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌــــﺎﺭﺽ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒـــﺎﺕ ‪...:‬‬ ‫“ـــ ﻭﻀـــــــﻭﺡ ﺇﺘﺠـــــﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺤﺭﻜـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﺓ ‪...:‬‬ ‫‪Clarity “.‬‬ ‫‪“ Directress of Ped Path “.‬ـــ ﺇﺴـــﺘﻘﺎﻤﺔ ﻤ‪‬ﺴــــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ‪...:‬‬ ‫& ‪“Aesthetics‬‬

‫ـــ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﺍﺤﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻤـــﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴـــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺴـــﺎﺭ ‪...:‬‬ ‫“ ‪Environmental Quality‬‬

‫‪“ Security “.‬ـــ ﺍﻷﻤــــــــــﺎﻥ ‪...:‬‬ ‫‪“ Friendliness of Ped. environment “ .‬ﺍﻝﺠـــــﻭ ﺍﻝﻌــــــــﺎﻡ ‪...:‬‬

‫__________________________‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺴــــﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻘﻴل ‪ " ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــــﺎﻩ " ) ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺘﻜــــــﺎﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺴﻴﺎﺴـــــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺠـــــﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻝﻠﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ‪ TSM‬ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻨﺎﻗـــــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻘل‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺠﻤﻌﻴــــﺔ ‪ ، LUM‬ﺘﻨﻅﻴــــﻡ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤـــــﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ ‪ TDM‬ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴــــــــﻡ ﺍﻝﻤــــــﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴـــــــــﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼــﺭﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ‪. ( .‬‬

‫‪ ٢-٣‬ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬


‫ـــ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺇﺴــﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨــﺔ ‪" :‬ﺍﻝـــﺩﻭﺭ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔــﺔ" ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ"؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ‪" :‬ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺇﺭﺘﻔﻌﺎﺘﻬﺎ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻌـﺩل"ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴـﺔ" ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺍﻝﺴــﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺒﻴﺌــﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺴــﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل ‪ ،‬ﻴﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻕ ﺍﻷﺨﻴـﺭ ﻴﻀﻡ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻝﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﻭﺤﻴﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﻕ ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻰ ﻴﻀﻡ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻐﻠﻐﻠﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ" ‪،‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻝﻴﺩ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅــــﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﻝﻠﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ"‪.‬‬ ‫ـــ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻓﺴﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴـــﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﺹ ﺒــ‪" :‬ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ" ‪" ،‬ﻤﺴــﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺭ"‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻴــﺌـــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔــﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٣-٣‬ﺃﻨﻤــــﺎﻁ ﻭﻤﺴـــﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺒﻜـــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺼﻘــﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺴــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺴــﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺸــﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﺤﺘﻤًﹶﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻔــﺎﺀﺓ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻤـﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻠﺨﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﺘﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺴﺎﺭــ ﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺘﺼــﺎل ــ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ "ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ" ﻭ "ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ" ‪1.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻴــﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴــﺔ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺼﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴــﺔ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻘﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﻁﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻁﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﻴﺸﺠﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺴــﺭﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻜل ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺴــﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺘﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﺼﻔــﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﺸــــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﻤﻔﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻭل ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻴﻔﻀل ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺇﺴــﺘﻘﺎﻤﺔ ﺭﺼﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﺸـــﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻗـــــﻼل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒـ"ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ ‪2.‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺍﻝﺸﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻴﺔ" ) ‪( Street Intersections‬ﺍﻝﺸـــﻭﺍﺭﻉ"‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻜﺎﻓــــﺔ ( )‪ Major Road‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ" ) ‪( Access Street‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌــــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﻁــــــﺭﺓ"‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺜﺭﺓ " ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ " ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺤــــﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﻀــﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻝﻐــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺒﺭﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺇﺭﺘﺒﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺃﺭﺼﻔــﺔ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ‪3.‬‬ ‫(ﺇﺩﺨــــــــــــﺎل "ﺇﺸــــــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻀــــــﻭﺌﻴـــﺔ"‬ ‫‪ ( Free Grade - Separated‬ﺃﻭ "ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ ﺤــــﺭﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ" ) ‪Traffic Light Singnals‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﺕ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺃﺭﺼﻔــﺔ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌــــــﺎﺕ ) ‪Intersections .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸــــــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻴــــــﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ "ﻝﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ"‬ ‫‪( Traffic Signage ).‬‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ ﺭﺼﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻗﻁـــــــﺎﻋﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀﻰ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺸــــــــﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻰ ﺒﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪" :‬ﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺸــﺎﺭﻉ" ‪" ،‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﻌﺒﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺸــــﺎﺭﻉ" ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪4.‬‬

‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺸـﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻤﻤــــﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪5.‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ [ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻡ ﺒﺩﻭﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺩﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻝﻴـــــﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ ﻻﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺤﺎﻜﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ٤-٣‬ﺤﺼــﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ)‪ (١‬؛‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌــــﺩ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻁﻌـــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀﻴـــﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘــﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﺼــﺭ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﺒــــﺭﻭﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎ ﻋﺭﻀﻴًﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻤﺎ ﻜل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴــﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ؛ ﻭﺘﺘﺤــﺩﺩ "ﻗــــﺩﺭﺓ" ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺡ" ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺼــﺭ ﻜل ﻤﺴــﺎﺡ ﻝﺤﻭﺍﻝﻰ ‪ ٦٠٠‬ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻜل ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴــﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺘﺤﺭﻜﻬﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺘﺠـــﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺡ ﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻌـﺩ ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌــــﺩل ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﻝﻴﺼل ﺍﻝﻰ ‪ ٣٥٠٠‬ﺴﺨﺹ ‪ ٣٠ /‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﻻﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴــﺎﻋﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‪ ٣٠-١٠‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻪ ‪ ..،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌـﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴـــﺔ ‪،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺼــﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻭﺘـﻭﻏــــﺭﺍﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻭﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺘﻴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ‪" :‬ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ" ‪" ،‬ﺇﺘﺠـﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﻡ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺴــﺭﻋﺘﻬﻡ"‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻝﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﺁﻝــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘـــﺎﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻹﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻝﺘﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻘــﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻜﺎﻑ ﻴﺴــﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬

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‫___________________________‬ ‫)( ﺃ‪ .‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤـــﻭﺩ ﻏﻴﺙ ‪" ،‬ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ" ) ﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــــﺭﻩ ‪.١٢-١ ، (١٩٩٧ :‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺼﺭ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ﻁﺒﻘﹰﺎًﺍﻝﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ـــ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ "ﺍﻝﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀﻰ" ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺒﻁﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺤــﻭﺭ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻌﺎﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــﺎﻩ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﻤﺴﺢ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺼﻔــﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺸﻐﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٥-٣‬ﺃﺭﺼﻔـــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺃﺒﻌــﺎﺩ ﺃﺭﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺨﺩﻤﺘﻬﻡ ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴــﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻹﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺴﻠﻔﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺘﻴﻥ "ﺭﺃﺴﻴًﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻤﻭﻤًﹰﺎ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﺭﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ ٦-٤‬ﻤﺘﺭًﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪" :‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﺤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ" ‪" ،‬ﻨـــﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻁـــﺭﻴﻕ"‬ ‫]ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻠﻨﺯﻫــﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻝﻠﺘﺴﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻝﻐﻴﺭﻩ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺘﺸــﺠﻴﺭ" ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ ] ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴًﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻴﺔ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺸــﻭﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺭﺼﻴﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻴًﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﺌ ًﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴــﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﺭﺽ "ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺠﺭ" ﻋﻥ ﺜـﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻁﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻴﺼل ﺍﻝﻰ ‪ ٤ ،٧٥‬ﻤﺘﺭًﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﻑ‬ ‫"ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﺭﻭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴـﺔ" ﻋﻥ ‪١ ،٥٠‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺼــــــــﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺸـــــﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺘﻌــــــﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴــــــﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺠﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ ٦-٣‬ﻜﻔــﺎﺀﺓ ﻤﻌــﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺸـــﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴــﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜﺜــــﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤ‪‬ـﺴــــــﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺒﺤﺴــﺎﺏ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩﺍﻷﺴﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠﻠﻴﻥ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﻴﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻰ ﻝﺤﻅﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴــﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻌﺩل ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻪ ﻋــﺎﺩ ﹰﺓًﻴﺼل ﺍﻝﻰ ‪ (٣) :‬ﺸﺨﺹ ‪ /‬ﻡ‪ .٢‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ "ﺍﻝﺘﺯﺍﺤﻡ" ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫ﻅــﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴـــﻴﺭ ‪ :‬ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺭ ﺇﻤﺎ "ﺘﺴــﻬﻴﻼﺕ" ﺃﻭ "ﻋﻭﺍﺌﻕ" ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ "ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺭ" ﻭ"ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻪ" ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝىﺎﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺭ ﻭﺤﺎﻻﺘﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺭ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺁﺨـﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻓﺼل ﻵﺨﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻻﺨﺭﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﻅــﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ــ ﺍﻝﻅــــﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴــﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل "ﻨﻭﻉ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻭﺓ ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ "ﺼﺨﺭﻴـــﺔ" ﺃﻭ "ﺭﻤﻠﻴــﺔ" ﺃﻭ‬ ‫"ﻁﻤﻴﻴــﺔ" ﺃﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻤل "ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ" ﻭ"ﺼﻼﺤﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ" ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﺒﻴــﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴــﺔ" ﻝﻠﻤﺘﺭﺠﻠﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺍﺤـﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴــﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺴــﻴﺭﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻝﺨﺩﻤــﺔ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺒﻨﻴـــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻝﺼﺤــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل ﻭﺘﻔﻌﻴل ﻜﻔــﺎﺀﺘﻪ ﻗــــﺩﺭﺍﺘﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴــﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻨﻴـــﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـــ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨـــــﺎﺨﻴــــــﺔ ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﻤ‪‬ﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﺨﻠﻕ ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻤﺭﻴﺢ ﻝﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺭﺠﻠﻪ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﺯﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻴﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻭﻕ ﻭﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﺘﻘﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻭﺍل ﻋﺩﺓ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﺫﺍ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨــــﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻹﺴــــﺘﺭﺨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺯﻫــــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘـــﺭﻴﺽ ﻤﻥ ‪" :‬ﺭﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺎﺴــﻴﻥ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺃﺸــﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺸـــﻤﺱ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﻭﺍﻹﺸﻌــﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ" ﺼﻴﻔًﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻅــﻼﹶﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﺠﻴﺭ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻀــﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﻠﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺍﺤﺔ )‪ ،(١‬ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل ﺨﻼل ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻁﻭل ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺸﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺀً‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻼﻓﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﻗـــﻊ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺤــﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺸـﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻨﻰ ﻝﻠﻤﺴـــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻠﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫_______________________‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻴﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁــــﻕ ﺍﻝﺨﻀــــﺭﺍﺀ ) ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻏﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ( ‪ ،‬ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪.٢٢٦-١٨١‬‬

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‫ـــ ﺍﻝﺘﻠـــــــﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺒﻴـﺌــــﻰ ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺜﻠـﻭﺙ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺒﻴﺌﻴﹰﺎًﻝﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺎﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺴــﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼــﺔ ﻤﻥ "ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻭﺙ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻀﻭﻀﺎﺀ"‪ .‬ﻭﻝﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻭل ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ "ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺍﺭ"‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﺼﺩﺍﻉ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻷﺭﻫﺎﻕ"‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻏﺎﺯ ‪•1‬‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ ﻭﻝﻪ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺸــﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻝﻺﻝﺘﺼﺎﻕ ﺒـ "ﻫﻴﻤﻭﺠﻠﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻡ"‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﺯ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤل ﻝﻠﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﺘﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌــﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻨﻴــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ !‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻊ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﻝﺴـﻘﻭﻁ ‪•2‬‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﻓﺘﺴـــﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻀﻰ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻝﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻔــــــﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺇﻝﺘﻬﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺠـــﻠﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﻬـﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻤــــﺭﺍﺽ ‪" :‬ﺍﻷﻨﻔﻠـــــﻭﻨﺯﺍ" ‪،‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺭﺒــــــﻭ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺤﺴــﺎﺴﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﺃﻜﺴــﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺤﺘﺒـــﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤــﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﺒﺏ ‪•3‬‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨــﺎﺥ ــ‬ ‫]ﻭﻝﻠﺩﻻﻝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺃﺠﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫــﺭﺓ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝــ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻋﺎﻤًﹰﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ‪ ، %٢٥‬ﻭﺨﻼل ﺍﻝــ‬ ‫‪ ٣٠‬ﻋﺎﻤًﹰﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ‪ . %١١‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﺭﺠﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋـــﺔ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﻭﻀـــــﺎﺀ ﻭﻝﻬــﺎ ﻤﻀﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺴــــﻠﺒﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ‪•4‬‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ‪" :‬ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻋﺎﺝ " "ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻰ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﺼﻤﻡ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻷﺯﻥ" ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎﻴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺠل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻭﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻰ ‪.‬‬

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‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﺸﺎﻜـــل ﺒﻴﺌﻴــــــﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺄﻝﻭﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪" :‬ﺇﻏــــﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻝﺘـــــﺎ"‬ ‫ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺠـــﺯﺭ" ﻭ"ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀــــﺔ" ؛ "ﻫﺒــــــﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﺼﻑ" ؛ "ﺍﻝﻔﻴـــــﺎﻀﺎﻨﺎﺕ" ؛ "ﺍﻝﺠﻔـﺎﻑ" ؛‬ ‫"ﺇﻀﻁﺭﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل" ؛ "ﻅﻬـﻭﺭﺍﻝﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ" ؛ "ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ" ؛ ﻭﻅﻬﻭﺭ"ﻓﻴﺭﻭﺴﺎﺕ" ﻭ"ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﺒﺎﺕ" ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌـــــﺎﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤــﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﺴـــــﺎﺭﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــــــﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻤــﺩﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﻭﺠــﻭﺩ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻤـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺘﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺒﻜـــــــﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺘﻭﻓـــﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌــﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴــﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﻭﺯﻴــﻊ ﻤﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔـــﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫـــﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺤــــــﺭﻜﺔ ﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﻼﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻫﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ "ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ" ﻤﻊ ﺤﺭﻜــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒـﺎﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل "ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﺘﻘﻠل ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁــﺭﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺁﻤﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺴــﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـــﻕ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ "ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻤﻰ" ﻓﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ ﻭﻓﻰ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻘل ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ "ﺍﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻅﺎﺭ" ﻭ"ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﺓ" ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ﻫﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ "ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ" ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ؛‬ ‫ـــ‬

‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴـــﺹ‬

‫"ﺍﻝﻤﺤــــــــﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴــــﺴﻰ ﻝﺤــــﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــــﺎﻩ" ﺒﻜﺎﻤﻠﻪ ﻝﻠﻤﺘﺭﺠﻠــــﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻨﻔﺼ ًﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒــــــﺎﺕ ؛‬

‫ـــ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺼـل ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻩ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻰ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫"ﻤﻌــﺎﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ"ﺇﺸــــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴـــﺔ" ﻝﻠﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺼــــل ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺤﺭﻜــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻰ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ ‪:‬‬

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‫"ﺍﻨﻔــــﺎﻕ" ‪" ،‬ﻜﺒـــﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﻠﻭﻴــــﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺴــــــﻼﻝﻡ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜــﺔ"‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺤﺘﻤﻴــﺔ ﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﻘﻁــﺔ "ﻤﻨﺒــــــﻊ" ﻤﺴــــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻬـــﺎﻴﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒـــﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﻘﻁــﺔ "ﺍﻝﻤﺼــــﺏ" ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨـﺎﻁـــــــﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻴﻘﺼﺩﻫــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﺸـــﺒﻜﺔ ؛‬ ‫ـــ‬

‫ﻤﺭﻋﺎﺓ‬

‫ﻁـــــﻭل ﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ـــ ﺍﻝﻤﻌـــﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏـــﻭﺏ ﻝﻤﺴــﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴــﻴﺭ‪ ٥٠٠ :‬ﻡ ــ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﻋﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤــــل ﺍﻝﺴــﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌــــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴـــﻁﺔ ؛‬

‫ـــ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻤﺒــــﺩﺃ "ﺘﻭﺠﻴــــﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــــﺎﺓ" ﺨﻼل ﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻘـــﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺠــــــل ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒــﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼـﺭ "ﺤﺎﻜــــﻡ" ﻓﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤـﻪ ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻜل ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺇﺴـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻝﺤﺠﻤــﻡ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻝﻠﻤﺘﺭﺠﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌـﺔ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ "ﺴـــﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺘﻪ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﺘــﻭﺍﺯﻥ" ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪" :‬ﺴــﺭﻋــﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ "ﺤﺠــــﻡ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﻋــــﺭﺽ"‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــــﺎﺭ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺃﺭﺼﻔـﺔ ﺒﻌﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﻼﺌﻤــﺔ ﻝﻠﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺴــﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﺴــﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺸــﺭﻭﻁ "ﺍﻝﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻷﻤـﻥ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺎﻴـﺔ" ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴــﺔ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ "ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ" ‪" ،‬ﺠﻠﺴﺎﺕ" ‪،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﻅﻠﻠﺔ"‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺨــــﺎل ﻋﻨﺎﺼــﺭ"ﺍﻝﺘﺸـــﺠﻴﺭ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﻅــــــﻼﺕ" ‪" ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻓـــﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴـــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺙ"‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻻﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫ـــ ﺍﻷﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻭﺍﺤــﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻝﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸــﻜﻴل ﻓﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴــــﻡ ﺃﺭﻀﻴـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴــــﺎﺭ ﻭﻤﻼﺌﻤـﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪26‬‬


‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺎﺭ ؛‬ ‫ـــ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺨــــﺎل‬

‫ﻨﻅــــــﻡ‬

‫"ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜـﻡ" ﻭ"ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ" ﻭ"ﺍﻹﺭﺸـــﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭﻴــﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴــﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫___________________________‬ ‫)( ﺃ‪ .‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤـــﻭﺩ ﻏﻴﺙ ‪" ،‬ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺸــﺒﻜﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـــﺎﻩ"‪ ،‬ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪.٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺸــﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ( ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ URBAN CRITERIA‬ﺍﻝﺸــﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ( ﻨﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺤـــﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ) ( ﻨﻤﻭﺯﺝ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ " ﺭﺍﺩﺒﺭﻥ "‪---‬ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻰ ‪٣١٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ ) ( ﻨﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸــــﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـــﻴﺔ‪---‬ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻰ‬ ‫‪٣١٣‬‬

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31442_تخطيط شبكة حركة المشاة  
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