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METHODs& PROcesses

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MET HOD 0 0 1

- kipling's check-list

MET HOD 002

- graffiti wall

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MET HOD 003

-Compartive Frequency Data Mapping

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Table of Contents

MET HOD 004

- rapid ethnography

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MET HOD 005

- interview

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MET HOD 006

- word clouds

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MET HOD 007

- questionnaire

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INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Have Have you you ever ever wondered wondered if if conducting conducting a d e s i g n m e t h o d w i l l w o r k a design method will work f fo or r y yo ou ur r research? research? There There are are tons tons of of options options you you can can use use for for your your research, research, in in this this book, book, II will will focus focus on on the the seven seven design design methods methods and and processes processes II did. did. F Fiir rst st o of f a al ll l,, t th hiis s b bo oo ok k w wiil ll l f fo oc cu us s o on n o xx pp ll aa in in ggee ac hhmm et oo d' ob bj jec e ct tiiv veely ly ee in in ac eh th ds s description, description, purpose, purpose, and and evaluation. evaluation. Then, Then, by by illustrating illustrating my my project project as as an an example, example, II am am going going to to show show you you why why II used used the the method, method, what what the the results results or or insights insights II gained, gained, how how II deployed deployed each each method, method, and and what what II learned. learned. I’ll I’ll kick kick off off with with defining defining what what a a method method is. is.

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WHAT IS kipling's CHeck-LIst ?

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K

ipling’s checklist is an objective diagnostic method that let you explore your problem or extend your ideas by challenge it with the questions, What and Where and When, How and Why and Who. Asking these questions can bolster engagement and understanding; they help you understand the process better , they encourage dialogue and ideas, and the answers get people thinking about how things can be improved. In addition, By asking these questions you always challenge your current perceptions and force yourself to ask new questions. It is also helpful when you need to see the problem from different perspectives or when you would like to generate ideas or in the process of selecting an ideas for further development.

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kipling's CHeck-LIst

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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"

I I keep six honest serving-men

(They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When, And How and Where and Who.

It is meant to give a deeper understanding. Simply asking Who?, What?, Why?, When?, Where?, and How? is incredibly useful tool for understanding of the process, as well as for encouraging development; they help you understand the process better, they encourage dialogue and ideas, and the answers get people thinking about how things can


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Ask a question The simple approach is to take one of the questions, either at random or with a more particular purpose in mind and ask it of the situation. What is happening? Where is it happening? When is it happening? Why is it happening? Who is it happening to? How is it happening?

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

2. Extend the questions You can also extend the use of the raw singleword questions into question phrases, for example:

Plus, when combined with the 5 Whys it would be an even more powerful technique, as it gives both depth and breadth to the problem-identifying and -solving stages.

How much? Why not? What time? Which place? Who can? Where else? When ?

5 Whys5 Whys is a very simple technique to help identify the root causes of a problem. Asking the question ‘Why?’ five times (more if necessary) encourages people to delve below the surface to the underlying reasons for a problem.

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4.Why you have used this method?

5. How was the method/process deployed?

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started with Kipling’s check-list because it is good way to diagnose my subject by asking Who?, What?, Why?, When?, Where?, and How? The process of Answering questions made me understand the situation, see the problem from different perspectives, and generate extended questions and notes as well. (e.g. What is the problem? How much? What time exactly? Which place? Who can? Where else? How can I overcome this problem? Who do I need to get involved? When will I know that I have solved the problem? etc.)

I deployed this method at the beginning of the project, answering each questions on handout. Through this method, I chose the group of people who are students study late at night in the library. I made sure that all the questions are answered in a concrete way and that the answers benefit the project.


6. What did you learn?

I learned that the question “Why?� is essential for better understanding. Do not hold back from asking it after any answer to the other questions (the other 4Ws and How). To sum up, the 5W1H method is an outstanding method to better understand and delineate a situation, provided it is controlled properly and used wisely. It is a method that provides effective solutions to problems encountered and helps to create a positive continuous improvement dynamic in the project.

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7. What were the results did you gain?

1. WHAT - Set a subject. Before the studio session, I collected three article on noise, graffiti and night shift. Of the three, I choose 'night shift' to subject, and through the Kipling's check-list I could see that the reason of'night shift' is already too clear and dangerous. So I changed the topic to "late night study�. Next, what I am going to do is 'graffiti wall' method. 2. WHO - Set a target group Goldsmiths college students who study late in the library. 3.WHERE - Choose where you think you can get the relevant answers to your questions through graffiti wall. I chose the Goldsmiths Library as the place for the graffiti wall. This is because the library is the only place that opens 24 hours around here and the place where students who study usually gather. Specifically, I chose walls near the restroom as graffiti walls in the library, because there are many entrances. 4. WHEN - Set a time zone where you can hear the best answers to your questions. There’s a definition that Night is from sunset to sunrise, so from 8:01 PM until 5:59 AM. So I decided to put up a graffiti wall at 8 p.m. and bring it back at 6 a.m. 6. HOW - Write a question about the answer what you want to get, and hang a pencil next to the paper. Why do you study at night?

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Why do you Study at night? 13


WHAT IS a Graffiti wall?

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raffiti walls are a method of crowd sourcing opinions, suggestions & other data, in which a sheet of paper and a pen are fixed to a wall allowing the public to add their ideas. Typically one question will be asked, which can be very general, “What would you like to see at RMIT ?” Or more specific, “do you prefer the blue or cream paint samples?” Graffiti walls are best suited to projects where it is difficult to speak to, or observe people, for ethical, cultural or convenience reasons. It is very cheap and time effective, and has the potential to gain wide, in-depth responses. Contributor : Alexander Brown, 2013

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Graffiti wall

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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What Graffiti walls aim to achieve is a participant's freely written or visual comments about an environment or system, directly in the context of use through an open canvas. In addition, these are a low-cost and time-efficient method with which to easily collect information from a range of participants, typically requiring no more materials than large-format paper and pens, and a camera for documenting results.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Determine one very clear prompt or question you want to ask. ex) Why do you study at night? 2. Choose your canvas. You could use a a large sheet of paper, whiteboard, flip chart paper, or poster board. 3. Write your question or prompt on the canvas. 4. Scout for locations where: a) your audience frequents and will feel comfortable lingering to participate. b) you can get permission to hang your graffiti wall. 5. Hang your graffiti wall in your chosen location. Be sure it is at a comfortable height for writing. 6. Provide supplies for participation. In some settings you should prepare markers on strings directly to your graffiti wall. 7. Check back on your graffiti wall. You may want to take pictures to capture the canvas daily or at phases of completion. You can also determine if you’re getting the kind of responses you need. If not, perhaps you can add additional instructions or clarify your prompt. 8. Collect your wall. These are meant to be temporary. You might hang it for a a day or up to a month, depending on the patterns and volume of traffic of the location or your project.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

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Limitations of the method are that there is little control over who participates in the method, and a lack of clear knowledge about who has contributed to the information collected.

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However, as an informal method triangulated with other means of exploratory research, graffiti walls are ideal for collecting baseline information and guiding design inspiration.

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4.Why you have used this method?

5. What were the results did you gain?

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I picked the Graffiti Wall method because it’s can be used almost anywhere from a range of participants. In addition, it’s an effective way can get anonymous comment casually in natural context with only large paper and a pen.

Here are the eight comments I received 1- It’s when I can actually think. 2- Library’s packed during the day sis :p. 3- I am an idiot sandwich and I leave everything last minute. 4- Because I sleep in the day. 5- It is the only time that I can concentrate. 6- When the sunsets the library becomes more bright and so do I. 7- I feel more able to focus and more creative at night. 8- More quite, more peace.


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6-1. How was the method/process deployed?

First of all, I stuck this paper on the yellow wall of the library, but I couldn't take a picture because there were a few students. I quickly put it on the wall at 8 p.m. and brought it at 6 a.m. the next day. And there’s only one remark !

2Thus,I wanted to get more comments, so I re-made the graffiti paper to induce more participation by making the graffiti paper stand out.

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6-2. How was the method/process deployed?

Then, I put it in four places. However, the yellow walls of the library were not allowed this time, I instead put them 1. on the entrance walls of the library, 2. between the restrooms on the first floor, 3. between the restrooms on the third floor, and 4. the restroom walls in the computer lab. Then I went upstairs again to make sure the pen didn't fall off, and in the meantime someone had already written his/her opinion! There was only one comment on the entrance wall of the library. And the graffiti wall on the first floor was lost by someone! There are five comments on third floor’s wall. Lastly, there is one opinion on the computer lab’s wall.

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7. What did you learn?

The good thing is that I could hear various opinions from the group that I want answers from, including personalities such as hand writing and emoticons. I can also develop ways to elicit opinions from others through this graffiti wall method. Because it's not easy to get answers from other people, I felt that all the information I received was really valuable. And I thought I should lead this valuable information in a good direction. The less places were exposed, the more answers were available. So next time, I would like to set up a graffiti wall in a more special place than where it's too exposed. And I wonder if I can get more specific answers from more advanced questions and get more participation through a simpler way of participation. Lastly, I have to figure out a way to prevent someone from removing my Graffiti Wall.

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WHAT IS Compartive Frequency Data Mapping?

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omparative Frequency Data Mapping is a Quantitative Approach method that can compare the number of your target group by visualization in 3D data. Choose a question at each location to ask your target group a question, visit at least three places, count the number of people who correspond to your question, and visualize the figure.

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Compartive Frequency Data Mapping

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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What compartive frequency data mapping method aim to achieve is to compare the number of your target group through visualization of 3D data.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Decide on a question relating to your focus group that can be answered with a number or value. 2. Decide on a local area at least three relating to your focus group that can be answered with a number or value. 3. Visit each area and record how many instances of the phenomena that you are counting occur in a five minutes with a hand tally counter. 4. Write down or take a picture for each location the amount. 5. Now create a map of the area where you were observing.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

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Comparative frequency data mapping provide a relatively cheap, quick and efficient way of obtaining quantitative information. It can be easily transformed into a visualized data.

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4.Why you have used this method?

I used this method to compare the number against my target group and I wanted to create my own visualized 3D data.

I counted the number of students studying during the day. My question was 'How many students study during the day time'. I counted the numbers for five minutes at each place with a ‘hand tally counter’ and took a picture.

5. How was the method/process deployed?

First of all, after setting the alarm for five minutes, counted the number of people who were studying at the RHB cafe. Then I went to the Mughead cafe and counted, and then went to the library and counted how many students were studying. Lastly, I went back to the design builing and counted the number. I came back to the studio and made a 3D map of the figures I collected with paper and post-it

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1 - RHB Cafe

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4 - DESIGN BUILDING

2 - MUGHEAD COFFEE

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3 - GOLDSMITHS LIBRARY

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6. What were the results did you gain?

7. What did you learn?

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As a result, the number of students studying in the library was overwhelming compared to other places

What I learned is that we can effectively collect and create our own data with simple tools. It would have been nice if I had counted the number of students studying at night, my target group, and made maps of opposition.


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WHAT IS Rapid ethnography?

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apid ethnography is a collection of field methods to provide designers with a reasonable understanding of users and their activities given a limited amount of time spent in the field gathering data. it is characterized by a short cycle of in-depth interviews and observation of key contextual times.

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S Rapid ethnography

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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The goal of Rapid ethnography is to gain a deeper understanding from a specific group of people and their activities given significant time pressures and limited time in the field.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Spend time with your group of people. Spend at least 30 minutes with your target group relevant to the design topic to observe their behaviours or specific activities. 2. Write it down. I wrote down what I witnessed from my group of people and drew one of them. 3.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

Interview them if possible.

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It would be difficult to gain access to individuals or certain environments.

may have richly detailed data. And +You it is relatively inexpensive to conduct.

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4.Why you have used this method?

I used rapid ethnography because it is a good way a deep firsthand understanding of habits, thoughts,and natural languages.

5. What were the results did you gain?

6. How was the method/process deployed?

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I headed for the library around 12:30 a.m to observe the students who study late at night. Some people were studying in a quiet atmosphere, and I sat near them and watched them over 30 minutes. Then, I interviewed three of them and recorded our conversations with their consent. You can listen their answer to my question here. https://ihavenoidea001.weebly.com/#


7. What did you learn?

I prepared questions in advance in the form of discussion scripts because I had interviews within an allotted time with totally strangers. It helped me to structure the discussion and cover the areas I need to. However, unstructured interviews would have the advantage of being conversational and more comfortable for participants. In additon, I mostly relied on the scripts, so I collected only answers I asked. Thus, next time I am going to have an unstructured interview.

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WHAT IS an interview ?

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nterview is possibly one of the most recognised methods of research not only within design, but within all research fields as a whole. The intention of an interview, within the field of design, is typically to gain qualitative data. Interviews can be structured and carried out in several ways. The most common form is usually a face to face meeting, with the interviewer asking the interviewee a series of questions and recording their responses. Contributor : Dustin Bailey, 2013

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interview

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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It is meant to gain qualitative information in person, including personal expression and body language.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Prepare discussion guide. This will help you structure the discussion and make sure you cover the areas you need to. 2. Recruit Participants. 3. Establish a Recording Method with consent. Interviews can be recorded in a number of ways. 4. Interview participants.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

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this method requires skill and may be difficult to summarize responses. In addition, it is relatively time consuming.

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you can get deep and free response.

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4.Why you have used this method?

I had an Interview because it is a good way to collect firsthand personal accounts of experience, and opinions by direct contact with participants. In addition, it can be conducted remotely by phone or using messaging app..

5. How was the method/process deployed?

I conducted three different interview methods. First, I had 'face to face interviews' with four sturdents, asking a series of questions and recording their responses. Next, I had an 'interview by using messaging app'. One of my friends in Korea sent me a message at dawn, so I interviewed her through the message app. Lastly, I conducted 'Directed storytelling'. It is a for collecting rich stories of lived experiences from a participant by asking who, what, when, where, and how.(e.g, When did this take place, and how long did the process take? Where did it occur?)

6. What were the results did you g a i n? W h a t d i d you learn?

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Though this method, I could get truly rcih informations. The conclusion I gained so far, 1. There is a certain body clock which not only decides your sleep-wake system, but also when and how active is your brain so that you concentrate better, 2. People in such an environment where they do not have the environment they can learn prefer to take time whenever possible. 3. A few people are nocturnal! What I thought is night time can be special to them. Thus, next time I decided to do 'Word clouds'.


Face to face interview

Interviews via messaging app.

Directed storytelling

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WHAT IS a word cloud?

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ord clouds are “colorful word collages� that show the m o s t f r e qu e n t l y u s e d w o r d s o r w o r d p a i r s i n j u s t a b o u t a n y t e x t - b a s e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t. W o r d c l o u d s w o r k i n a si m p l e w a y ; t h e m o r e a sp e c i f ic w o r d a p p e a r s i n a s o u r c e o f t e xtual data , the bigger and bolder it appears in the word cloud.

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word clouds

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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What word clouds aim to achieve is a visual representation of data. It tends to have an impact and generates interest amongst the audience. In addition, Word clouds can allow you to share back results from research in a way that doesn’t require an understanding of the technicalities.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Garther all the text-base source documents you have done so far. 2. Visit one of the websites below. wordart.com www.wordclouds.com/ www.jasondavies.com/wordcloud/ 3. Import texts into the word clouds generators. Users can simply import text (for example, a set of interviews) into a text box and the tool creates a graphical representation of the words. 4. Change the details. Most word cloud generators have features that allow users to change colors, font, and exclude common or similar words.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

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A variety of word cloud generators are freely available on the internet and the process for creating them is straightforward.

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4.Why you have used this method?

5. How was the method/process deployed?

6. What did you learn?

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I used word clouds for communicating the most salient points or themes in my text-based documents whch is interviews.

I visit (wordart.com) this website, and put all the textbased data I've collected so far, including interviews, questionnaire, and graffiti wall, into the word clouds generator.

When interview transcripts are segmented based on meaningful criteria, the word cloud that is subsequently generated can reveal potentially insightful and surprising themes. As with all text-based, qualitative research data, more rigorous content analysis should occur so as to avoid misrepresenting the underlying text-based data.


7. What were the results did you gain?

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WHAT IS a questionnaire?

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uestionnaire is an instrument for collecting data, and almost always involve asking a given subject to respond to a set of oral or written questions. Questionnaires can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be carried out face to face, by telephone, computer or post.

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questionnaire

1. What did the method aim to achieve?

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The aim is to acquire quantitative data. Basically, a questionnaire serves to record the performance of a selected group of people in a particular field or collect opinions or general feedback.


2.How to conduct the method?

1. Choose the group of people to take the questionnaire. 2. Ask yourself what data you require and how you will use it. Ideally, the questionnaire will be short. 3. Plan questions that will help you get the information you need. Begin with a broad span of questions. Keep questions and answers simple. 4. Design your questionnaire according to your delivery method. 5. Ask questions to your group of people.

3. What Is an evaluation of this method?

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Questionnaires provide a relatively cheap, quick and efficient way of obtaining large amounts of information from a large sample of people.

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However, a problem with questionnaire is that respondents may lie due to social desirability. This is because most people want to present a positive image of themselves.

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4.Why you have used this method?

I chose a face-to-face questionnaire rather than a computer or telephone questionnaire because I thought I could get a more valuable answer.

I planed both closed-ended questions and open-ended questions to gather specific answers and to communicate their specific experience. And my language exchange buddy gave me a grammatical hand on my questionnaire.

5. How was the method/process deployed?

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I went to the library on 6 December, around 1 a.m. Then, I printed I printed it out in the library. There were about 25 people in the library, even though it was quite late, and I searched every nook and cranny of the library to ask for surveys, and I collected 10 questionnaires. The next day, on 7 December, I went back to the library around 1:50 a.m, to get more answers to the questionnaire with chocolates. To ask someone to fill out a questionnaire, I carefully found someone who wouldn't think they were interrupted. As a result, I gathered 7 more questionnaires.


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6th December 2018

6. What were the results did you gain?

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As a result, most respondents said that studying late at night is their habit. And while most of them prefer private space, they often choose library to do more work or study effectively. Also, many students brought water, music, drinks, and crispy things to ward off sleepiness. Lastly, they answered that the most worrying thing about studying late at night was the next day's tiredness, lack of concentration in class.


7th December 2018

7. What did you learn?

What I learned is type of questions which can be used in survey. One is closed-ended questions and the other one is open-ended questions. Closed-ended questions have a specific range of options respondents can choose from. Closed-ended questions have only a few options respondents can use to answer. On the contrary, open-ended questions do not have a specific range of answers to choose from. Open-ended questions are a chance for respondents to communicate their specific experience or expectations.

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7 methods n processes book about late night study  
7 methods n processes book about late night study  
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