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DESIGNING FOR THE ELDERLY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - PHASE 1

GROUP 5 STUDYING THE ELDERLY

SELF INTERTAINMENT KEEPING THE MIND HEALTHY


Picture 1 - Old woman 1


Content

Page 4

Introduction

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User considerations

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Research

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Existing solutions

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Ebook reader

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Tablets Vs. Ebook readers

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Ebooks

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Field work

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FONA, Strøget

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Copenhagen Main Library

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Institute for the blind and Partially Sighted

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Analysis of existing solutions

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Technical possibilities

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Using a jack plug

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Limitations

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Picture 2 - Old woman 2

Paper mock-ups

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Further work

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References

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PROJECT DEFINITION This project focus on design for elderly and is developed in the course 42072, Design for Interac on, at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 2011. The goal of this study is to design an electronic device that allows elderly, who can not read ordinary books due to ageing related disabilies, to read Ebooks or other digitalized books. Our preliminary research shows that there is a need for such a device especially for elderly with impaired vision. The research also shows that none of the exis ng solu ons sa sfies this need. This first milestone report describes the process of the preliminary research and the further steps towards the final report.

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INTRODUCTION Picture 3 - Magnifier

Impaired vision is a widespread problem among elderly which limits their ability to read. Reading in general exercises the brain and can therefore help to improve memory and concentra on which can otherwise degrade when ge ng older. Furthermore reading can also be seen as enterPicture 5 - Man reading tainment for the elderly. It is therefore important that the elderly con nue to have the opportunity to read books despite reduced vision and lack of physical strength. Currently there have been two dierent approaches to solve this problem. The first is by enlarging the font in the books for easier reading (MagnaPrint) while the other is digitalizing the books for zoomed reading on an electronic display (Ebook readers or tablets). While both solu on solves the problem to some extent the books tends to become too heavy and are limited to one font size. On the other hand the electronic displays may become too advanced for elderly to control. In this project we will try to redesign an electronic display in order to make it intui ve, simple and user friendly for elderly. We believe that Ebook readers and tablets have great poten al in terms of designing a user friendly product for elderly while books with enlarged font is a short term solu on with limited possibili es when libraries lean towards digi sa on [1].

Picture 4 - Old woman 3

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USER CONSIDERATIONS It is always important to take cogni ve and physicals considera ons into account when designing interac ve systems. According to the lecture on Health Engineering by Steen Dawids, the ageing of the body induces certain disabili es. When designing for elderly it is therefore important to take these disabili es into considera on. Cogni ve and physical considera ons related to this project of designing an Ebook reader for the end users are listed in Table 1.

Table 1: CogniĆ&#x;ve and physical consideraĆ&#x;ons

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RESEARCH ExisƟng soluƟons

Tablets Vs. Ebook readers

Due to the technologies used, the already exis ng Ebook readers and tablets both have the potenal of sa sfying the need of a Ebook device for elderly. It is therefore relevant to look at these two types of devices and by comparison decide which of the technologies that are most a rac ve in rela on to designing for elderly. The research of the exis ng solu ons is performed by searching the web and by ge ng hand on experience with exis ng products.

Tablets are basically laptops where the keyboard and mouse inputs have been replaced by a touchscreen [6], see picture 7 “Tablet”. Tablets are much more powerful than Ebook readers as they are provided with more powerful CPUs and they use a colourful LCD display and are able to perform many tasks different from reading digital material. Because of this the ba ery life is significantly shorter. Tablets can display fonts in any size and are even able to read the text aloud to the user. Because of the many features the tablets are more expensive than Ebook readers.

Ebook reader An Ebook reader is an electronic device capable of displaying the pages of a digital book (pdf or other file) typically using electronic ink displays (e-Ink) [3], see picture 6 “Ebook reader”. Electronic ink is a display technology that imitate ordinary inked paper and displays the same light reflecons unlike ordinary back-lit displays. Another advantage of this technology is that it can display a text and hold it indefinitely without using power. The first Ebook reader was developed in 2004 by Sony to read digitalized books [4]. Since then a wide range of Ebook readers has been published by various brands [5]. An Ebook reader typically weighs from 150-400 g, and is thereby much lighter than most books, which can easily weigh up to a kilo.The display size range from 5 to 10.2 inches in order to sa sfy different user demands. The E-book readers are light and can display text in different font sizes.

Picture 7 - Tablet

Ebooks Ebooks are fairly new on the market, but while Tablets and Ebook readers has become more common, more and more Ebooks are available. Ebooks can be purchased in local book stores, on the Internet (e.g. Amazon) or can be borrowed from the libraries homepage [7]. At this point all the material you can find on the library are being digitalized and many libraries are going towards the use of tablets and Ebook readers. The libraries seeks to integrate digital media into the physical library and are already offering help and informaon about this development.

Picture 6 - Ebook reader

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Field work

Copenhagen Main Library

To understand the advantages and disadvantages of Ebook readers and tablets we did the preliminary field work by interviewing three different field experts:

ObservaƟons At the library we observed that there were no indica on of where and how Ebooks could be loaned. There were however a guidance to where MagnaPrint books are located as they are indicated by a dis nc ve flower logo. The fact that the library has an individual department with this type of books indicates that there is a user need for books with enlarged font size, see picture 9 “Magnaprint”. Furthermore we observed that some elderly users of the library have difficul es using the loaning machines because they are not used to selfservice. They are o en helped by younger users, who can easier adapt to the new technology.

1. Ebook reader and tablet salesman at FONA, Strøget 2. Head of Department of Knowledge at Copenhagen Main Library 3. Data Director at IBOS (Ins tute for the Blind and Par ally Sighted)

FONA, Strøget Interview with Salesman When a customer asks for an Ebook reader, the salesman always shows the different possibili es, which include tablets and especially the iPad. The Ebook readers generally do not sell very well which might be caused by the limited func onality. When they do sell, it is the Elonex reader that sells the most due to the lower price (799 DKK compared to 1599 for a Sony reader). The argument the salesman uses in favour of the Ebook readers compared to the tablets is weight and ba ery me. The lower price is not promoted, since it is consistent with the func onality; the iPad has greater func onality but for a significantly higher price (3699 DKK).

Picture 9 - Magnaprint

Interview with Piet Dahlstrøm-Nielsen, Head of Department of Knowledge at Copenhagen Main Library At the Main Library, they are going towards more and more digital media, Ebooks included. But the problem with digi sa on is, that digital medias does not take up any visual space in the library, it is more difficult to communicate that they exist. In about half a year the Main Library will arrange an area dedicated to make the digital media visible and in this way to expand the use. In November 7th-10th, there was focus on the digital media and at this occasion Piet talked to an elderly man who had problems reading books due to the small le ers. He was very interested in the tablets an Ebooks but had never touched this kind of technology, and was afraid to do so. Picture 8 - FONA store pictures

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Picture 11 - Birgit interview

Picture 10 - Copenhagen Main Libarary

InsƟtute for the Blind and ParƟally Sighted Interview with Birgit Christensen, Data Director Birgit Christensen works with people with impaired vision and how tablets and Ebook readers can be used to ease reading for these people. We regard Birgit as an user expert with first hand experience within this user group. Birgit made us aware of the fact that Ebook readers in general are not par cular user friendly. On the other hand, she claim that the iPad is very user friendly and can be customised to only show two icons. It also has many func ons which makes it possible to have instruc ons or books read aloud by a mechanical voiceover or to adjust the light, background colour etc. In addi on, iOS 5 (the new opera ng system for iPad and iPhone) includes some special features for disabled people, which e.g. can help with making the icons, text etc. larger. However these func ons take some me to learn, see picture 11 “Birgit interview”. Birgit claim that bu ons should be clearly visible. She said that designers o en make the physical bu ons too streamlined for people with im-

paired vision to see or feel where they are. Touch screens can make it possible to design very large bu ons – but since they are digitally displayed on the screen, they can not be felt. According to Birgit audio books are very o en used by elderly. Also reading and listening at the same me is a rac ve. Some audio books are made so the user can follow the wri en words, which are highlighted as they are spoken, see picture 12 “Audiobooks”. Finally Birgit told us that when using very big letters, it can be a problem that only a few words are displayed on each page. This means that the user will have to turn the pages very o en which can be annoying, if the user is reading fast.

Picture 12 - Audiobooks

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SummaĆ&#x;on of interviews From the three interviews we find that the Ebook reader market is being suppressed by the more advanced tablets. More features are added to the products to increase func onality with no product taking the opposite course to keep it simple. The libraries are going towards digi sa on but the informa on and help for elderly is somewhat lacking. From Piet and Birgit we hear that both the library and the elderly are interested in an easy digitalised way of reading books but the exis ng solu on may be too advanced for some users. Birgit also made it clear that many people with impaired vision already today enjoy the pleasure of being able to read Ebooks at existing Ebook readers and tablets. However she also pointed out that there s ll is room for improvement when it comes to user-friendliness of the exis ng devices.

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ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SOLUTIONS None of the exis ng Ebook readers are designed especially for elderly. The Ebook readers have many different bu ons and op ons, which makes them difficult to use, especially for elderly who are not used to this sort of technology. Most of the Ebook readers have very small bu ons, which are hard to see and feel, and this makes it hard for the elderly to use them, see picture 13+14 “Bu ons 1+2”. Even though the Ebook readers allows zooming in on the text, the menus on the Ebook reader only have one size of le ers, which makes it impossible to read if you have impaired vision. An alterna ve to Ebook readers are the tablets. The tablets on the market do not have bu ons (or only very few) and they give the op on of zooming in on the whole screen, which include buttons, menus and text. This gives the elderly the Picture 13 - Bu ons 1 possibility of using the tablet despite impaired vision. But the tablets have a lot of different opons, and this can be very confusing to elderly who are not used to this kind of technology. The ar cle Elderly User Evalua on of Mobile Touchscreen Interac ons, [Kobayashi, Atsushi Hiyama, Miura, Asakawa, Hirose and Ifukube 2011]” claims that elderly does not have a problem with touchscreens, and even prefers it over regular tac le bu ons (ie. on mobilephones). The study uses iOS-products (iPad and iPod) for their tests, which are regular LCD screens. In our case we are mainly considering the Ebook reader technology, Picture 14 - Bu ons 2 which uses e-ink screens, where the touch screen technology is of the older pressure controlled kind instead of capaci ve screens seen in newer tablets and smartphones which reacts on skin touch. The older technology causes the display to react slower and give less precise feedback. Therefore, it might be a problem for the elderly using a touch screen on a Ebook reader.

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Existing Ebook readers (a selection)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

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Amazon Kindle 2 6 inches 52

Sony PRS-600 6 inches 5 (Touchscreen)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Elonex 621 EB 6 inches 5-in-1

Sony PRS-T1 6 inches 5 (Touchscreen)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Barnes & Noble Nook Color 6 inches 0 (Touchscreen)


Existing Tablets (a selection)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Apple iPad 2 9.7 inches 5 (Touchscreen)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

No on Ink Adam 10 inches 3 (Touchscreen)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Asus eee Pad Transformer 10.1 inches 3 (Touchscreen)

Producer: Product: Size: # of bu ons:

Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1 10.1 inches 3 (Touchscreen)

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TECHNICAL POSSIBILITIES To get an overview of the various possibili es to the technical perspec ve of designing an Ebook reader for elderly, we have made a diagram of the op ons in rela on to the possible technologies:

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Using a jack plug

LimitaƟons

When using the concept of using the jack-connector to everything, like with the iPod shuffle, there is only the need for having one plug, which minimizes confusion. The jack plug (TRRS) has the same amount of phases as a USB plug (4 - ground, +5V, +data, -data), only the shape is different. Since it is round, it makes it much easier to connect, especially for people not used to using technical devices, since there is no need for correct orienta on. A regular 3.5 mm headphone jack plug might be a li le to small for elderly to use properly, but it is also possible to a ach a 6.35 mm jack plug instead, see picture 15 “Jack 6.35”. Alterna vely a handle can be molded/a ached to the 3.5 mm jack plug to make it easier to operate. And since the jack plug is not supposed to be permanently a ached, this would be a viable op on, even if it makes the plug bulky. The jack plug can be used to charge the device, listen to music or audiobooks, and possibly also to transfer books to the device. The op on of using the jack plug to transfer books depends on the design specifica on, on whether the book loading shall be wireless, via memory cards or through a cable connected to something. In any case the device needs to have a jack plug if it should be possible to listen to audiobooks through headphones. This already needed jack plug can then also be used for charging the device, rather than making an extra charging plug, which would only increase confusion.

There are of course an almost infinite amount of different ways of crea ng a device for the elderly which enables them to easily read books, and possibly listen to audio books. To set some boundaries and to keep the solu on space small enough to overcome we have set some limitaons for, amongst other things, the technical part of our solu on. For instance, since the device has to be for elderly, it has to be light enough for them to handle. This in turn means that the solu on is not allowed to require a big heavy ba ery. Also, since elderly people o en has poor eyesight, the device must be large enough to support big visible interac on areas, while s ll mee ng the requirement of not being too heavy. Another limita on we have made, is that the product must be possible to create with current, or very near future, technology. This in turn results in limita ons such as us not being able to use highly advance technology like mind-control, holographic screens, etc. In connec on to this is the considera on of how books are to supplied and loaded onto the device. We have decided to limit the loading and receiving of books to what is already, or in the nearest future, available. For instance there could be the op on of receiving books from Amazon (through the Internet) or maybe with help from the library (which is currently being developed by the danish libraries). However, it will not be possible, for our soluon, to rely on having the device shipped to e.g. Amazon or publishers and having them loading the device with books, since it is not an already exis ng op on.

Picture 15 - Jack 6.35

Picture 16 - Jack 3.5

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DESIGN SPECIFICATION To design an Ebook reader that complies with the described disabili es related to ageing demands, the design elements listed in Table 2 is carefully chosen on behalf of the performed research and expert interviews. By mee ng these requirements and criterias it becomes possible to design a device that allows the users to interact with it in the most intui ve and desirable way. Table 2: Design specificaĆ&#x;on

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PAPER MOCK-UPS As a result of the conducted research some paper mock-ups have been developed. These ideas are preliminary while we s ll need to perform interviews and observa ons with end users to define the final needs. The ideas are though based on the knowledge we already have on the user group and the informa on gained from the field experts.

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FURTHER WORK To complete our research phase we need to perform end user observa ons and workshops to get an overview of the users specific needs and become more aware of how we can fulfill these needs. We already have an appointment at Bonderupgård ac vity center for elderly who we are going to visit in the following week (week 46). At this visit we will present the elderly of different exis ng solu ons (two Ebook readers and two tablets) and in rela on to this let them perform some predefined tasks on these devices. Beside that, we want to make some mock-ups, in different shapes and sizes, to iden fy if there is a shape that are be er than the other. We also want to iden fy if there are any specific design they prefer e.g. if the reader should look like a book. By this we hopefully, among others, can determine the following about the final design: 1. The shape and size of the reader and the maximum allowed weight. 2. Whether it should have touchscreen, physical bu ons, both or neither. 3. Preferred size, placement, colour and type of feedback of the bu ons. 4. Levels of font type and size. 5. If the screen should be illuminated or not. 6. What the preferred way of charging the device is. 7. What symbols should illustrate ‘text size’, ‘home’ or ’library’, ’return’ bu on, battery level, speaker on/off etc. When this research is conducted we can con nue developing concepts and con nuous involve the users if needed in the ongoing process.

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REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

h h h h h h h

p://www.bibliotekogmedier.dk/publika oner/bibliotek-og-medier/bibliotek-og-medier-20104 p://www.aafp.org/afp/980315ap/espino.html p://www.eink.com/ p://www.mobilemag.com/2004/03/25/sony-librie-the-first-ever-e-ink-e-book-reader/ p://ereaderguide.info/ - see upcoming pages of Ebook readers and tablets p://searchmobilecompu ng.techtarget.com/defini on/tablet-PC p://elibrary.ebib.dk/Home/help/about.asp

Pictures Old woman 1: h p://adap veshops.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/shu erstock_20760388-elderly-reading.jpg Old Woman 2: h p://picture.pixmac.com/4/elderly-woman-passing-her- me-by-reading-a-book-pixmac-picture-36286631.jpg Man reading: h p://www.sciencephoto.com/image/265953/350wm/M3400167-Elderly_man_reading_a_book-SPL.jpg Old woman 3: h p://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/goodluz/goodluz1105/goodluz110500131/9480196-portrait-ofsenior-woman-reading-book-in-sofa.jpg Magnifier: h ps://www.odensebib.dk/images/40/4548-26026.jpg Main Library: h p://www.spacelab.dk/resources/internal/file_views/188/1_Kbh-Hovedbibliotek-(3.jpg FONA: h p://www.amagercentret.dk/files/bu kker/bolig/fona_2010.jpg

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Ebook Readers and Tablets Picture references: Sony PRS 600: h p://cdn.ubergizmo.com/photos/2009/8/sony-prs600.jpg Sony PRS-T1 h p://www.techdigest.tv/sony%20prs-t1.jpeg Amazon Kindle 2: h p://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Amazon-kindle-gen2.jpg Elonex 621 EB: h p://www.boxwave.com/images_bw/device/elonex_621eb.png Barnes & Noble Nook Color: h p://lh5.ggpht.com/_VCa_tPxI6v8/TMzVnP6s6dI/AAAAAAAAIEk/F7ej6ZxixWg/nook%20color_ thumb%5B3%5D.jpg Apple iPad 2: h p://ipad-2.dk/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/ipad2final-e1299098013162.jpg No on ink Adam: h p://technabob.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/no on_ink_adam.jpg Asus eee Pad Transformer: h p://laptoppics.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/ASUS-Eee-Pad-Transformer-32GB-Wi-Fi-from-above. png Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1 h p://elektronista.dk/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Samsung-Galaxy-Tab-10.1.Danmark.jpg

All other pictures in the report have been taken by the group members

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Project2