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prevention

intervention

transforming C O L L E G E

D R I N K I N G

a solutions guide

retention


transforming C O L L E G E

D R I N K I N G

a solutions guide Since 1999, our goal has been to provide evidence-based, cost effective online alcohol and drug prevention and intervention courses to colleges nationwide. Through our personalized and interactive interventions, 3rd Millennium Classrooms strives to impact both the lives of students and the college culture. Our passion is to help individuals clarify their thinking about alcohol and other drug use. We believe in affordability and great customer service, demonstrated by our 97% customer retention rate. We strive to be the customized solution that is best for your campus.

(888) 810-7990 3rdmilclassrooms.com

3rd Millennium Classrooms is partnered with


What’s happening with college drinking? College drinking is one of today’s most intractable public health problems. In 2005, 600,000 full-time college students were injured because of drinking, nearly 700,000 were hit or assaulted by another drinking student, and nearly 100,000 were victims of alcohol-related sexual assault.6 One study placed the annual societal cost of underage drinking at $61.9 billion—approximately $1 for every drink consumed by an underage drinker.15

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How much will alcohol cost you this year?

Explore the NIAAA’s website for college drinking prevention to download recent research and supplemental materials.

One study placed the annual societal cost of underage drinking at $61.9 billion —approximately $1 for every drink consumed by an underage drinker.15

collegedrinkingprevention.gov

Consult the U.S. Department of Education’s “Prevention 101” series for practical prevention efforts. higheredcenter.org

Some 159,000 of the nation’s current freshmen will drop out of school because of alcohol or drug use. 2

Involve yourself in The Network, a national organization to address college health. thenetwork.ws

Academic Impact:

31% of college students missed a class due to substance abuse, according to the CORE statistics, and

22% tanked an exam or essay. 2

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Individual colleges are often concerned about the effect of alcohol on student success and retention. High-risk drinkers are much more likely than non high-risk drinkers to miss class, to perform poorly on tests, and are less likely to graduate.14, 23 This potential loss of revenue from tuition, fees, housing rentals, and would-be alumni contributions creates an enormous financial cost to the college.

Not only do colleges lose potential revenue, but they also lose funds from the strain on medical and social services by student alcohol abusers. A 2010 study, researching the connection between high-cost emergency room visits and college student binge drinking reviewed a random sampling of emergency visits at 5 universities, found that 50% of the sample consisted of student drinkers who experienced alcohol induced blackouts. Those students were responsible for 60% of of emergency room visits in the sample. “To put this in perspective, on a campus-wide basis at a university of 40,000 students, with 25% of students experiencing black-outs, (and average medical visit costing $950), yearly emergency costs would range around $469,000 using national data.” 9 College drinking can also affect the reputation of the institution college. Academic reputation is second only to cost when potential applicants are selecting a college.1 An institution’s reputation as a “party school” can dissuade quality applicants, as well as faculty and staff, from considering that school. To address on-campus drinking, colleges have targeted incoming students with alcohol prevention programs that address these negative effects. 3rdm i l cl as s room s . com

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Intervention Planning Assessment Where and when is drinking more likely to occur on campus? How does the campus screen for at-risk drinking? How are at-risk drinkers referred for more intensive services? Which specific programs are currently in place to address high-risk drinking? What percent of services currently offered would be considered “evidence-based”? What specific content areas need to be developed? What specific target areas need to be developed? Who would participate in the planning and implementation of new programs? What resources will be needed to implement these new programs?

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How are colleges responding to drinking? In 2002, an expert panel20 identified a number of evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies. At the individual level, the panel recommended motivational feedback, expectancy challenge, and cognitive behavioral approaches. Research since that time has confirmed that strategies such as motivational interviewing and feedback can reduce drinking and related problems, even among “high-risk” or mandated students.11


Changing the culture of drinking takes a comprehensive response that includes individual and environmental interventions. Approaches focus on prevention (attitudes, education), those that change the environment (availability, marketing), and those that offer formal treatment (referral, counseling). Similarly, the target audience might vary from individuals, groups, the entire campus, or the community. A comprehensive response delivers a consistent message at multiple levels. At the institutional level, a decision matrix should include strategies that use environmental changes, programs that include evidence-based theories along with successful practical applications that include motivational/feedback-based approaches, cognitive-behavioral skills-based approaches, and the possibility of further referral.

Prevention & Education Strategies

comprehensive response environmental strategies

“Research shows there is a spike in alcohol-related consequences that occur in the first few weeks of the semester, especially with college freshmen,” said Michael J. Cleveland, research associate at the Prevention Research Center and the Methodology Center.

treatment options

“If you can buffer that and get beyond that point and safely navigate through that passage, you reduce the risk of later problems occurring.” 8

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Communicating a Vision to Campus Administration Staff who work directly with students sometimes

1. Present a Clear Case Gather specific information to demonstrate to university leadership that there is a need for evidence-based prevention approaches. Senior administrators may be well aware of the problems associated with high-risk drinking, but may be less familiar with evidence-based strategies and may be unwilling to commit funds until they can be assured of a return on their investment.

struggle with how best to communicate the needs of their campus to senior administration. 3rd Millennium Classrooms has compiled a set of steps and accompanying resources to help prevention advocates make the case to university leadership for funding specific prevention programs. For a more complete story, see our white paper, “Resources.” www.3rdmilclassrooms.com/website/ COLBuildingResources.aspx

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“I felt that the section about long-term effects of drug and alcohol use was very effective and informative. Overall, I found the course interesting and very well put together.” -Incoming College Student


2. Use real examples from your campus The need for prevention programs becomes more “real” when it is based on local data. Begin by gathering data on the alcohol and drug referrals of students on your campus, either using national surveys such as the CORE or NCHA surveys or by conducting your own local surveys. This allows a campus to identify specific areas of need, track changes over time, and compare their own rates to national survey results. This information will be helpful in making a case to senior leadership for investing in specific kinds of prevention programs.

“This course, Under the Influence, helps people understand how alcohol and other drugs affect the body in a negative way. It also helps by giving people ways to cope with stress and continue to have healthy lives.” -College Sophomore

“This class (Alcohol-Wise) was very straightforward and helped me understand a lot more aboutalcohol-related situations.” -College Freshman

3. Involve others in the effort An important strategy in “getting the ear” of senior administrators is to enlist the help of other campus members, such as Residence Life, Wellness Center, Counseling Center, and Judicial Affairs staff. Sometimes there is a need to connect all of the concerned departments. This demonstrates to senior leadership that the need for alcohol prevention results from an institutional priority, rather than a departmental “wish-list.”

4. Present a clear, realistic solution Some kinds of programs are more likely to be effective. In particular, motivational interviewing and online personalized feedback have been very effective with individual high-risk students. At the institutional and community level, effective strategies include increased enforcement of drinking laws, restrictions on alcohol outlet density, increased alcohol taxation, and campus-community coalitions.

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3rd Millennium Core Strengths To provide Comprehensive Prevention and Intervention Solutions, we rely on our core strengths: • Evidence-based Techniques in our Instructional Design • Strong Partnerships and Collaborations • Individualized Student and Campus Customization • Sustainable Cost Solutions Exclusive integration with eCHECKUP TO GO since 2003

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• Superior Customer Service • Our Consultative Approach

CORE STRENGTHS


Evidence-based Techniques Reducing resistance begins with instructional design. Research shows that students respond best to interventions that provide feedback, are nonjudgmental, emphasize personal responsibility, and give several options for changing their drinking or drug behavior. 3rd Millennium online courses feature all these common elements.

Evidence for Individual Treatment Approaches7

Our courses are made up of individual lesson modules that can be completed in about 15 minutes. The student may log in and out as needed. Each page is professionally narrated with succinct text, engaging infographics, and interactive exercises that pull in the student’s personalized feedback. At the conclusion of each lesson, the student must successfully complete a short quiz. The final post-test must be passed to receive credit.

Feedback ++++ Motivational Interventions +++ Alcohol Skills Training +++ Expectancy Challenge ++ Educational Programs +

The foundation of 3rd Millennium online courses is individualized intervention. The student begins our course by completing a confidential eCHECKUP TO GO personal assessment in Lesson 1. The student receives personalized feedback throughout the course based on his or her responses to the brief assessment.

++++ More than three quarters of studies showed significant changes over control.

+++ One half to three quarters of studies showed 3rd Millennium online courses utilize both behavioral intervention strategies and evidence-based instructional design techniques to reduce student resistance to the intervention and to connect personally with the student. We incorporate the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Tier 1 intervention strategies, which have strong empirical evidence support.

significant changes over control.

++ One quarter to one half of studies showed significant changes over control.

+ Less than one quarter of studies showed significant changes over control.

CORE STRENGTHS

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Our programs draw from research on mechanisms of change in college drinking. Mechanisms of change are factors that have been identified in research as strongly influencing college drinking, and are thus important components of evidence-based interventions. Programs that successfully address these areas have the strongest evidence base for reducing college drinking, and thus, they form the core of our programs.

Normative Perceptions

Risk Perception

Perceptions of the amount that others are drinking (descriptive norms) and the extent to which highrisk drinking is seen as “normal� (injunctive norms).

The extent to which drinking is seen as high-risk.

In general, the more that people believe that others drink, the more likely they are to drink themselves. Our programs include a mix of material to directly counter students’ perceptions of others drinking.

This includes perceptions of the severity and likelihood of experiencing negative consequences such as hangover, getting into fights, missing class, or becoming dependent on alcohol. In general, people who believe that consequences are less severe or less likely are more likely to drink heavily. Our programs incorporate personalized feedback about problems experienced by individual students, as well as estimated risk for future problems, including legal trouble.

Drinking Expectancies

Behavioral Strategies

Expectations about what will happen as a result of drinking.

In addition to the amount of alcohol consumed, the way in which people drink is an important predictor of risk.

Positive expectancies include things like being more social, finding it easier to talk to people, being more sexy, and feeling more relaxed. In general, people who hold more positive expectancies about alcohol are more likely to drink. Our programs include interactive exercises on the reality of the effects of alcohol for most people.

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CORE STRENGTHS

People who use strategies such as pacing drinks, mixing drinks more weakly, setting limits, and avoiding high risk situations are less likely to experience drinking-related problems. Our programs teach a range of protective behaviors such as BAC calculation, strategies to limit drinking, and drink refusal skills.


Results of the 3rd Millennium Approach Online alcohol prevention programs have become an increasingly popular alternative to more expensive approaches. One reason for their popularity is the evidence that they can reduce drinking as effectively as face-to-face approaches. A recent review of 35 research trials found that computer delivered programs reduced drinking significantly more than no-treatment groups, and that their average effect was comparable to face-to-face programs.3 One semester after participating in the programs, students in the Alcohol-Wise and face-to-face conditions were more likely to be enrolled in school than those in the control group. Students in the Alcohol-Wise group also maintained a GPA that was nearly a half-point higher than students in the control condition (Lane and Schmidt, 2007).

CORE STRENGTHS

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Strong Partnerships and Collaborations Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much. -Helen Keller

Alcohol-Wise = primary prevention + eCHECKUP TO GO Under the Influence = secondary prevention +

In 2003, 3rd Millennium Classrooms and eCHECKUP TO GO formed a partnership, and 3rd Millennium became the exclusive provider of the eCHECKUP TO GO brief intervention tool integrated into our courses.

All 3rd Millennium alcohol and marijuana online courses are fully integrated with the eCHECKUP TO GO brief intervention tool, and every student does the eCHECKUP within the course.

eCHECKUP TO GO • eCHECKUP TO GO is the most widely studied alcohol intervention program with 16 independent research trials at 6 universities. • High-risk freshman who received the program are 5 times more likely to report a 58% decrease in peak drinking compared to an 11% increase in drinking among students who did not receive the program.13

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CORE STRENGTHS


eCHECKUP TO GO

INTERVENTION

not simply education or assessment

Which Program is Best?

What is eCHECKUP TO GO?

A review of 35 research studies found that online programs reduced

drinking significantly over no-treatment control groups, and that their

Drawing on Motivational Interviewing (Miller and Rollnick, 2002) and Social Norms Theory (Perkins and Berkowitz, 1986), the eCHECKUP TO GO brief intervention is designed to motivate individuals to reduce their consumption using personalized feedback about their own drinking and risk factors. Created by counselors and psychologists at San Diego State University, this personalized, evidencebased intervention is designed to help college students examine their individual choices around alcohol and marijuana usage and receive personal feedback based on their answers.

eCHECKUP TO GO Taken to the Next Level

In 2007, this complete solution was proven to reduce high-risk behavior and to lead to significantly higher retention levels and significantly higher GPA’s for students who complete the integrated program (Lane and Schmidt, 2007; Salafsky, Moll and Glider, 2007). It was shown that alcohol knowledge alone is not enough, and self-reflection of alcohol perceptions alone is not enough. It is the combination of the two elements that creates a lasting change.

average effect was comparable to face-to-face programs.3 The vast majority of studies have tested single programs. A 2009 review did not find any studies directly comparing two commercially available programs.

In January 2011, NASPA organized a panel to present and compare research findings on six major online prevention programs. An independent evaluation—the first to directly test two commerciallyavailable programs—compared AlcoholEdu and eCHECKUP TO GO (a component of Alcohol-Wise).7 First year students were randomly assigned to one of the programs or to a control condition. At a one-month follow-up, the authors found that both AlcoholEdu and eCHECKUP TO GO reduced drinking over control, with no differences between the two groups on any measure. AlcoholEdu reduced alcohol-related problems, while eCHECKUP TO GO produced “marginally significant” reductions in alcohol-related problems. Again, there were no significant differences between the two programs on any of the seven alcohol or eight problem measures. CORE STRENGTHS

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Campus Customization Options To support campus and student adoption, we provide customization

Alcohol-Wise at no cost. “This course helped me realize that I was really drinking excessively and that because of alcohol my grades suffered and I am making an immediate change and am slowly but surely quitting alcohol.” -College student

for

Customization enables you to: • Include targeted institution-specific messaging, contact information, and helpful resources to students looking for further support from your campus. • Add additional survey questions to support vital data gathering. • Embed custom campus resources, norms, links, video, branding or any other information available for students. • Use your campus web portal to allow for single sign-on for students. • Add an electronic acknowledgement from students that they have read your policy.

Superior Customer Service 3rd Millennium enrollment, login, and course navigation is simple and intuitive— a primary reason our courses rate so highly in student focus groups.

Customer Support is available 7 days a week.

Sustainable Cost 3rd Millennium Classrooms has provided

cost-conscious, online solutions since our inception. Working with each campus’s needs and funds, we run a streamlined business plan allowing us to pass on greater savings and higher value to you. Our low-cost pricing is transparent, with no hidden costs or fees.

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We don’t use third party providers to handle student calls or emails. Our Support Team responds to college administration questions as well as all student requests for information, technical support, and guidance on how to enroll and login to the course. Because of our high standards and personalized customer service, we boast a 97% customer retention rate.

Consultative Approach Through our Higher Education Program Advisors, we seek to partner with you through the entire implementation, customization, and ongoing evaluation of the program; we’ll work together to make sure that your administration and your students are satisfied. We will sign a contract if you require one, but we do not require that you sign one. We want you to be happy with the value your campus gets from us and not simply be obligated to work with us.

CORE STRENGTHS


What do students say about 3rd Millennium? Most students are mandated to complete Part 1 of Alcohol-Wise before movein date. Many students start out thinking that taking an alcohol or marijuana course is a waste of their time

Alcohol-Wise

The Student Experience

91% of students agree that the content of the course was appropriate. 82% thought the interactions were interesting or helpful.

because they already know

75% thought the course

this information. However,

would help them avoid

from our student surveys, we

future problems with alcohol.

receive consistent feedback that students end up thinking it was relevant, helpful, and fast-paced enough to hold their attention.

CORE STRENGTHS

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What We Offer Each 3rd Millennium Course incorporates proven techniques that are intended to change high-risk behavior. Using personalized feedback and brief motivational interviewing techniques is essential to changing campus culture. Knowledge alone is not enough. We offer a range of courses for college campuses: • Alcohol-Wise • Under the Influence • MJ Basics • Marijuana 101 • Consent & Respect • Financial Literacy 101 • Greek-Wise • Personal Best for Athletes • Social Responsibility 16

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Alcohol-Wise

Under the Influence

MJ Basics

Marijuana 101

Prevention course for first-year students and other high-risk groups

Sanctions course for alcohol violations

Prevention course for first-year students and other high-risk groups

Sanctions course for drug violations

• Primary prevention for all incoming students

• Secondary prevention for referrals

• Primary prevention for all incoming students

• Secondary prevention for referrals

• 1 hour pre-matriculation course • 30-day follow-up • Includes eCHECKUP TO GO

• 2.5 hour course • 30 day follow-up • Includes eCHECKUP TO GO

• 30-minute course • Includes eCHECKUP TO GO

• 2.5 hour course • 30 day follow-up • Includes eCHECKUP TO GO

• Optional sexual assault module

• Benefits of not using marijuana, strategies to avoid high-risk situations, impact from persistent use, legal penalties associated with use, synthetic marijuana overview

• Optional Social Responsibility module

• State Law specific

• Optional Social Responsibility module

• Student Management System

• Optional sexual assault module

• Student Management System

• Outcome reports

• Optional Social Responsibility module

• Outcome reports

• Facilitator’s manual

• Student Management System

• Facilitator’s manual

• Full student technical support

• Outcome reports

• Full student technical support

• No contracts

• Facilitator’s manual

• No contracts

• Best Practices consultation

• Integrates with 3rd party judicial tracking tools

• Full student technical support

• Integrates with 3rd party judicial tracking tools

• Implementation guidance

• Best Practices consultation

• Integrates with 3rd party judicial tracking tools

• Optional Sexual Assault module • Optional Social Responsibility module • Customizable options • Custom survey • Student Management System • Outcome Reports • Facilitator’s manual • Parent access • No contracts • Full student technical support

• Expectancies, normative perceptions, risk perception, protective behaviors • State Law specific

• No contracts

• Best Practices consultation

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• Expectancies, normative perceptions, risk perception, protective behaviors • State Law specific • Optional sexual assault module

• Best Practices consultation


Greek-Wise Consent & Respect Prevention course for campus violence and sexual assault An effective approach to violence prevention is to engage bystanders through awareness and to encourage people to speak out when confronted with high-risk situations. Our “Student Voices� interviews give scenarios so students can think through how they can intervene, and they respond within the interactive portion of the course.

Evidence-based course for new Greek members Greek-Wise is designed to change perceptions, reduce risks, and positively impact the culture of both the Greek organization and the college campus. Greek-Wise uses a motivational interviewing style, integrating personalized feedback into the interactive portions of the course.

Personal Best Retention course for student athletes

Financial Literacy 101

Personal Best was developed for student athletes to ease the high school to college transition by addressing academic preparedness and strengthening emotional readiness for this major life change. Personal Best recognizes the importance of retention and is committed to improving academic success.

Education course on financial responsibility Financial Literacy 101 is designed to teach students about the financial challenges they may be faced with in college. With the assistance of personalized feedback, customizable content, and guided budget planning, the course provides students with the tools to make smart financial decisions.

Social Responsibility Add-on supplement for alcohol education courses The Social Responsibility module defines the basics of underage drinking and the consequences for providing alcohol to minors. Students will be able to apply what they have learned in the module, and, if they decide to drink, do so responsibly after the legal age limit is met.

Pricing Alcohol-Wise prevention Subscription Pricing: $12,000 unlimited use subscription $15,000 unlimited use subscription includes unlimited use of sanctions courses Per Student Pricing: $7 per student $10 per student includes unlimited use of sanctions courses MJ Basics prevention (standalone) Subscription Pricing: $2,000 unlimited use subscription Under the Influence | Marijuana 101 $35 student-pay option Prepay for sanctions courses: 1-49 students $35 100-299 students $20 50-99 students $25 300 + students $15 Monthly Billing $35 per enrollment MJ Basics, Consent & Respect, Financial Literacy 101, or Social Responsibility module add-on Alcohol-Wise add $1 per enrollment for Alcohol-Wise add $1,000 for Alcohol-Wise subscription Under the Influence add $1 per enrollment Greek-Wise or Personal Best 1-49 students $35 100-299 students $20 50-99 students $25 300 + students $15 3rdm i l cl as s room s . com

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transforming C O L L E G E

D R I N K I N G

a solutions guide

3rd Millennium Classrooms started providing online courses in 1999. Our goal is to provide research-based courses. Our passion is to help individuals clarify their thinking about alcohol and other drugs. We believe in great customer service and we strive to be the best online solution for colleges nationwide.

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References 1. Allen, E. N., PhD. (2007). An examination of the factors that influence students’ choice of college (Doctoral dissertation, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO). Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1404348151&Fmt=7&clientI d=79356&RQT=309&VName=PQD 2. Burrell, J. (2004, Dec. 4). youngadults.about.com. Retrieved from http://youngadults.about.com/od/healthandsafety/a/Alcohol.htm

14. Martinez, J. A., Sher, K. J., & Wood, P. K. (2008, August). Is Heavy Drinking Really Associated with Attrition from College? The Alcohol-Attrition Paradox. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(3), 450-456. 15. Miller, T. R., Levy, D. T., Spicer, R. S., & Taylor, D. M. (2006, July). Societal Costs of Underage Drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(4), 519-528.

3. Carey, K. B., Scott-Sheldon, L. A. J., Elliott, J. C., Bolles, J. R., & Carey, M. P. (2009, November). Computer-delivered interventions to reduce college student drinking: a metaanalysis. Addiction, 104(11), 1807-1819.

16. Mundt, M. P., & Zakletskaia, L. I. (2012). Prevention for college students who suffer alcohol-induced blackouts could deter high-cost emergency department visits. Health Affairs. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/early/2012/03/13/hlthaff.2010.1140. full.pdf html

4. DeJong, W., Schnieder, S. K., Towvim, L. G., Murphy, M., Doerr, E. E., Simonsen, N. R., . . . Scibner, R. A. (2009). A multisite randomized trial of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking: A replication failure. Substance Abuse, 30(2), 127-140.

17. Paschall, M. J., & Freisthler, B. (2003, July). Does heavy drinking affect academic performance in college? Findings from a prospective study of high achievers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 515-519.

5. Hingson, R. W., Zakocs, R. C., Heeren, T., Winter, M. R., Rosenbloom, D., & DeJong, W. (2005, April). Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability. Injury Prevention, 11(2), 84-90.

18. Salafsky, D., Moll, C., & Glider, P. (2007). Comparison of an In-class vs. Online alcohol diversion program to reduce alcohol consumption and negative consequences among college students: Findings from a 2-year study (Department of Education National Meeting on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention in Higher Education, Ed.). Omaha, NE.

6. Hingson, R. W., Zha, W., PhD., & Weitzman, E. R. (2009, July). Magnitude of and Trends in Alcohol-Related Mortality and Morbidity Among U.S. College Students Ages 18-24, 1998-2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 16, 12-20. 7. Hustad, J. T. P., Barnett, N. P., Borsari, B., & Jackson, K. M. (2010, March). Web-based alcohol prevention for incoming college students: A randomized controlled trial. Addictive Behaviors, 35(3), 183-189. 8. Indivero, V. M., & Messer, A. E. (2012). Early intervention may curb dangerous college drinking. Penn State News. Retrieved from http://news.psu.edu/story/152182/2012/02/01/ early-intervention-may-curb-dangerous-college-drinking 9. Jenkins, William. (2007, 07 11). collegedrinkingprevention.gov. Retrieved from http:// www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/statssummaries/4tier.aspx 10. Johnston, L. D. (Ed.). (2010). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008: Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. 11. Larimer, M. E., & Cronce, J. M. (2007, November). Identification, prevention, and treatment revisited: Individual-focused college drinking prevention strategies 1999-2006. Addictive Behaviors, 32(11), 2439-2468. 12. Malle, B. F., Knobe, J. M., O’Laughlin, M. J., Pearce, G. E., & Nelson, S. E. (2000, September). Conceptual structure and social functions of behavior explanations: Beyond person-situation attributions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79(3), 309-326.

19. Seo, D.-C., & Li, K. (2009). Effects of college climate on students’ binge drinking: Hierarchical generalized linear model. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(3), 262-268. 20. Task Force of the National Advisory Council of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2002). A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Retrieved from Department of Health and Human Services website: http://www. collegedrinkingprevention.gov 21. Terlecki, M. A., MA., Buckner, J. D., PhD., Larimer, M. E., PhD., & Copeland, A. L., PhD. (2011). The Role of Social Anxiety in a Brief Alcohol Intervention for Heavy-Drinking College Students. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 25(1). 22. Toomey, T. L., Lenk, K. M., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2007, March). Environmental policies to reduce college drinking: An update of research findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol & Drugs, 68(2), 208-219. 23. Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Kuo, M., & Lee, H. (2000, March). College Binge Drinking in the 1990s: A Continuing Problem. Journal of American College Health, 48(5), 199. 24. Wechsler, H., Nelson, T. F., Lee, J. E., Seibring, M., Lewis, C., & Keeling, R. P. (2003, July). Perception and reality: A national evaluation of social norms marketing interventions to reduce college students’ heavy alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(4), 484.

13. Malle, B. F., Knobe, J. M., & Nelson, S. E. (2007, October). Actor-observer asymmetries in explanations of behavior: New answers to an old question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(4), 491-514.

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transforming C O L L E G E

D R I N K I N G

a solutions guide

15900 La Cantera Parkway, Suite 20235 | San Antonio, Texas 78256 (888) 810-7990 | info@3rdmilclassrooms.com | 3rdmilclassrooms.com

Transforming College Drinking  

A Solutions Guide for College Campuses

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