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‫ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴـﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫)ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺤﻴﺩ(‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻤﻲ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‬


‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ‪ ،‬ﳓﻤﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻬﺪﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﺭ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻨﺎ ‪,‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻀﻠﻞ ﻓﻠﻦ ﲡﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﻴًﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﺷﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻋﺰ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﲎ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻔﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺧﻠﻴﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻧﺼﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺟﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺃﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ؛ ﻓﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﻬﻢ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ] ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[ 102 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹾ‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻦ‪ِ ‬ﺇﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﱠﺗ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍ َ‬

‫ﺲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﺚﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﱠﺗ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﹰﺎ ﴾ ] ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[ 1 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺗﺴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﷲ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸ‬

‫ﺢ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻄ ﹺﻊ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﱠﺗ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍ َ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺯﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﹰﺎ ﴾ ] ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[ 71 :‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ‪ ,‬ﻭﺧﲑ ﺍﳍﺪﻱ ﻫﺪﻱ ﳏﻤﺪ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﳏﺪﺛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﳏﺪﺛﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ( ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺄﻝ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻘﺒﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻮﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ  ) ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﻣﺮﺉ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻯ ( ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺟﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﺃﺗﻘﺮﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﰐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺣﻴﻠﱵ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮﺍﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ؛ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺭﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻋﻮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻔﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻻﺕ؛ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻧﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﺒﺪﺃ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﲟﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﳓﻦ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳓﺼﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ ﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ( ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺮ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺱ * ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺱ * ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﲟﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﷲ ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ(‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻗـﺪ ﻗﻴﺪﺕ‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻧﺼـﻮﺹ ﺍﻟـﻮﺣﻲ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ‬

‫ﻓـﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﻗـﺎﺋﻠــﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﻄﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻳـﺴﺘﻜﻤﻠـﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ‪) :‬ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﺪﺕ( ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻭﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪) ،‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ( ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻜﻤﻠﻬﺎ( ﺃﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ‪ -‬ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ( ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪1‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ )ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ )ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺺ‪ ‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ )ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ(‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﲣﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ -‬ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻛﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﰱ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ )ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻫﺎﻡ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲣﻠﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ -‬ﳍﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺒﻪ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺒﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﶈﺮﻡ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ (ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺮﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻴﹰﺎ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺄﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ‪:‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺻـ‪80‬‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻛﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ(‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻛﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ )ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺽ( ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻪ ﺁﰒ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﰒ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﳘﺎ ﺃﺧﺺ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﳍﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﻄﻞ ﻷﻱ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﻣﺒﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻳﻌﲏ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻳﺒﻄﻠﻪ‪..،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ )‪.(2‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﰲ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ -‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ـ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ـ ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺪﻩ( ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻳﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

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‫* ﺑﺄﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫* ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺺ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫* ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﻀﻊ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫* ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺒﲎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﻀﻊ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔ‪ ..‬ﺍﱁ ؛ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﲟﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﻭﻓﺮﺿﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻴﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻣﻪ؛ ﻛﺤﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ؛ ﻛﺒﻐﺾ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻞ ﳍﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻦ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ‪ -‬ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺅﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻛﺎﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺐ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[31 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ -‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻧﻘﻴﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻘﻴﻀﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃ ‪ /‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ( ﺻـ‪78‬‬

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‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ‪ -‬ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ]ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ[‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ( ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺜﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ( ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[27:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﺒ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ )ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ( ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ( ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﻠﻠﲔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﻠﺒﺴﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻪ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﳏﺮﻡ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻐﻔﻮﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺟﻬﻠﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﻌﺬﺭ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻻ ﳏﻠﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬


‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ)ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ(‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ؛ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀِ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬

‫]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[169/ 168:‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ﴾ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.93 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﹺﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣ ﱠﺬﺭ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸ ﱡﻄﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀﻫﻢ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[63:‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﺬ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠﻴ‪ ‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﺤﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ )ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺐ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﱘ ﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ )ﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ( ﻭﺑﲔ )ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ( ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‪) :‬ﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻝ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ﱠﺬﺏ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ)( ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺟـ‪ ،2‬ﺻـ‪ 476‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﳌﻠﺰﻡ ﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﺛﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ)( ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﺧﻪ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ‪) :‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﻼﻟﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻟﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺟﲎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻧﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ‬

‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )ﺇﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻟﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺟﲎ( ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﻼﻟﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜ ﱢﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﻜﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫)( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﺤﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳎﻤﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺮﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻛﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺤﺪ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﳉﺤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﳓﺬﺭ ﻭﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ )ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻬﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﳚﻬﻞ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ( ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺎﺭﻓﹰﺎ ﳌﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻃﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﳍﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﲔ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺇﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ..‬ﻓﻐﲑ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ ،2‬ﺻـ‪ .268 ،267‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.36‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻙ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ )ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻳﻘﲔ ﻭﺇﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ؛ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻴـﻘـﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﺧـﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻓﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻘﻚ ﺍﷲ ﳌـﺎ ﺃﺣﺒﻪ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻴﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ‪ -‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﻓﺎﺻﻎ ﲰﻌﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﻀﺮ ﻗﻠﺒﻚ ﻹﻣﻼﺀ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺰ ﺑﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ )ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ( ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻜﺬﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪ -‬ﺍﳊﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺒﻐﺾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﺡ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﺳﻮﺓ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﳒﻤﻊ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻀﻢ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﳒﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺣﺎﻃﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﻁ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺻـ‪.37‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺻـ‪80‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﺄﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺒﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‬ ‫)( ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﺸ‪‬ﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬﺭﹺﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﹺﺒﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑ‪ ‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸﻭﺗ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[213 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﹺﺈ ﹾﺫﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﳉﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﺟﻼﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﺬﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﺎ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺃﺳﻬﻠﻬﺎ ﲢﺼﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺴﺎ ًﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﻠﻴﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ )‪ ،(1‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ -‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻠﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺳﻌﻬﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[286 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺪﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﰱ ﻭﺳﻊ ﻭﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺑﺄﻋﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻓﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﺎﺏ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻭﰲ ﺃﻋﻨﺎﻗﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﲏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﺤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻨﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﻎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺇﻻ ﻫﺎﻟﻚ(( )‪.(2‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺻـ ‪ 448‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﺎﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫))ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﻮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﲞﻠﻘﻪ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ)( ﺑﺒﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺗﱰﻫﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﺻﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﲔ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻠﻒ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[59 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺎﻑ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺭﺩﻭﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺓ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺣﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘﺸ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﹶﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪7 :‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ ﴾ ﻓﻬﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﻭﻋﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ )ﺃﻱ ﺿﺪﻩ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺼﺮﻓﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺮ‪‬ﻓﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺿﻼﻝ ﻭﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺮﻓﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﻟﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺼﺮﻓﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻓﻼ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺻـ‪.34‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺟـ‪ ،2‬ﺻـ‪.506‬‬

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‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﺿﻼﻝ ﻷﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﺇﻳﻬﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﳍﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳛﺘﺠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺪﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻻ ﳍﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﳝﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺒﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﳑﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺯﻳﻎ ﻓﻴﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺀ ﳍﺪﺍﻫﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻓﻬﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗﻞﹾ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[57 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﺤﻤﻠﻪ ﺇﱄ ﺩﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻀﻄﺮﺏ؛ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺞ ﴾ ]ﻕ‪.[5 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻣﺮﹺﻳ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[22 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪ .[18 :‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[7 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﺮﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺃﺷﺮﺑﺘﻪ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺇﺿﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ  ))ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ((‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﲑ ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲪﻠﻬﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻻ ﲡﺪ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻋﹰﺎ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺪﻋﺘﻪ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﱰﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[26 :‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﱡﻞ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻣﺮﺩ ﳍﺎ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻀ ﱡﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ‪ ،.[31 :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺎﻕ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻈﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺯﺍﻍ ﲟﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺯﻳﻐﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﺗﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ )ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻊ‪ :‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺷ ﱠﺬ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ ﻓﺈﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ ‪) -‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ( ‪ -‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﺨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﻛ ﱞﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ [7 :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺄﻭﻝ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ( ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻨﺮﻯ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻜﲔ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻈﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻪ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[82:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘﻠﹶﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﹶ‬

‫ﻓﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ -‬ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﳑﻦ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻷﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺃﺓ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺟﻼﺀ ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻦ ﲪﻞ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺎﻣﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻓﻴﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ -‬ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻔﺎﻳﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺫﻣﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﻭﻗﺪ ﻟﻌﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺫ ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻜﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻈ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﳛﺮ‪‬ﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﺫﻛﱢﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[13:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪ 99‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻇﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﲔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺔ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪،‬ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻤﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻭﻟﻴﺼﻤﺪ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰒ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﳛﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﻧﺼﻮﺹ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﻠﻜﹰﺎ ﺫﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﳏﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻡ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹸﻈﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻓﺮ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔﻜﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺟﻨ‪ ‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ * ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﺮ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ﹴ‬ ‫ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﺳﺒﺄ‪.[46 :‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﻌﺬﺭﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺜﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﺜﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻓﺮﺿﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﹰﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﳏﻤﺪ‪.[19 :‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[86 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻼ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺑﻘﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻄﻘﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﻜ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫ﻂ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﹾ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[18 :‬‬

‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻮﹺﻱ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[9 :‬‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[28 :‬‬ ‫ﺨﺸ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘ ﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮﺑ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺔ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﺒﺲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﲡﻮﺯ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻻ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﲟﻀﻤﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺌﹸﻮﻟﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[36 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻔﺆ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﰲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺗﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻌﺖ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺳﺎﺋﻠﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﻭﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻰ ﺟـ‪1‬‬

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‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ))ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺃﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(( ﻭﰲ‬ ‫﴿ ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﻨﹺﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ ))ﺑﺌﺲ ﻣﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺃﹶ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﺜﹸﻮﺍ ﹸﻗ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻞ ‪‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹸﺜﻦ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪] .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﺑﻦ‪.[7 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ))ﺑﺌﺲ ﻣﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ(( ﺧﲑ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺄﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﻀﺘﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻻ؟ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ )ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ( ﻫﻲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﳌﻌﺎﱂ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﳌﺎ ﺩﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﳌﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻬﺪ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻜ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ *‬ ‫ﻂ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[19/18:‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ )‪ ،(1‬ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﺪﳍﺎ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﺄﺟﻞ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ )ﺷﻬﺪ( ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﻖ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﰲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﻋﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺒﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﻨﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺷﺮﻃﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﺘﻤﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﻢ ﻏﲑﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﳜﱪﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺑﻌﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﲟﻀﻤﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﹰﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ؛‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[86:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺷﻬﺪ(( ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﲢﺮﳝﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪ :-‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﹰﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ )ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ )ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ) ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ)ﺍﻟﺰﻋﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﶈ ‪‬ﺮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ‪‬ﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺪﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪) :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ(‪:‬ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ )ﻓﻨﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﻢ ﻭﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺛﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.(..‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﺍﻥ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‪ ..‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺤﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﺃﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ( ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﺬﻧﺒﻚ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ )( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[10 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘ ﹸﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻲ ﻭﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘ ﹸﻞ ﴾ ﻋﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳝﺰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ؛ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻨﺠﻮﻧﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺻـ ‪.38‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻳﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺟـ‪ ،1‬ﺻـ‪.193/192‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺻﺎﱀ ‪،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺧﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻘﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪)) :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺉ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁ ﹸﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻗ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪،‬ﱂ ﳝﻨﻌﻬﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻬﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ( ﺃﻱ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻟﻸﻛﺎﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﲝﻴﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﲢﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﱪ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻟﻪ ‪ -‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﲑ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪)) :‬ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ(( ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﲰﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪) :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ(‪.‬‬‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﺒﻨﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﳏﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ )ﺍﶈﺮﻡ( ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﱰﻳﻞ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪.262‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺻـ‪ 276‬ﺟـ‪.1‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪.152‬‬

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‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﲣﺬﻩ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﰲ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ(‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ( ﺟﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‪) :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﻣﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺒﲔ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﹰﺎ( )‪ (1‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻻ ﻳﱪﺭ ﺍﻹﰒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺷﻔﺎﺅﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ )‪:(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉـﻬﻞ ﺩﺍﺀ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻭﺷﻔﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴـﺐ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﱡﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻠﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪.[39 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﲜﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻈﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺗﺄﺑﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﰒ ﺗﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﻃﺖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﻓﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺍﺣﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﺨﺒﻄﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﺘﻠﺒﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻳﻨﻬﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﳛﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﻪ ﺻـ‪.248‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﺪ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺻـ‪ 387‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﴿ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﲢﺮﳝﻪ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ )ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ( ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﻼﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ؛‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪ ‬ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺳ ﹺﻞ ﴾‪.‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺌﻠﱠﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻟﻠﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﳝﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑ‪‬ﻴﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﲔ ﻵﺩﻡ ﻭﺫﺭﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻚ ﺟﻬﺪﻩ ﰲ ﲪﻞ ﺑﲏ ﺁﺩﻡ ﲪ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻼﻛﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﺄﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[169/168 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﴾ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﴾‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﷲ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ـ ﺃﻱ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻛﻢ ﻋﺪﻭﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ـ ﻭﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻭﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪21‬‬


‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﻄﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺴﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﲜﻬﻞ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺟﺮﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻛﻤﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻼﻣﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﺷﲑ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ(( ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻟﻚ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻘﺮﺃ ﻣﻌﻲ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴﺮﹺﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻄﻦ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ﴾ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﴿ َﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﴾‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪َ ﴿ :‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻏﻲ ﺑﻐﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﴿ َﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻐ‪‬ﻲ ﴾ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﲡﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﺛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﹺﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ؛ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﹺﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﺧﺒﺚ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻭﺃﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﺒﺜﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻳﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺰﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺗ‪ ‬‬

‫ﲢﺮﱘ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺎﻃﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻇﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺩﻕ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲡﻌﻞ ﷲ ﻋﺪ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫‪22‬‬


‫ﻭﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺧﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻧﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺧﱪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻮﹰﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﺕ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺟﺤﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺇﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[169 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺩﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺪﻗﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[18 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺗﻔﻜﻮﻩ ﰒ ﻳﻘﻄﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﹰﺓ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[80 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[169 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﴿ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻛﺬﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﻮﺍ ﻳﺮﺩﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪:‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ !! ﻭﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ !! ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺮﺍﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻌﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻬﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﺴﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﳌﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻴﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹸﺔ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻄﹸﻮ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺫ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[93 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﹺﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﹾﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺯﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻫﺎﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻜﱪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺟـ‪ ،1‬ﺻـ ‪.257 / 256‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻻ ﻳﱪﺭ ﺍﻹﰒ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺤﻮﺩﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺇﻻ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ )ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ(‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺲ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[71 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﱪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺟﻬﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻫﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺢ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻘﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻔﻜﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺳﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﺑﻼ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ؛ ﳑﺎ ﺳﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳛﻞ‬ ‫ﺼﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﻪ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﻮﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﲑ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﺋ ‪‬ﺬ ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﳍﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺯﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ‪‬ﺯﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[8:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[72 :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ُ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﱐ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻃﻤﺄﻧﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.[59 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳﻄﹾ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻗﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﻟ‪‬ﻴﺘﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﻐﻀﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﺄﺑﺎﻩ ﻭﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﳛﺮﻣﻪ ﻟ‪‬ﻴﺠﺘﻨﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫‪24‬‬


‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺸﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺪﻋﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﹰﺓ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[80:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻦ ﲤﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻨﺠﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﳜﻠﻒ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑـ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﴾ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲟﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﶈﻤﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﺮﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﺮﻡ ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ  ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹲﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﺮ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[118 :‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﺜﹾ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺂﻳﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺟﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﻋﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﻬﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻌﻘﺐ ﳊﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻑ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺻﺮﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻘﱠ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ َﺁ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‪.[27 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻠﻜﺖ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱪﻳﻦ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﲔ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﺒﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻀﻤﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﳍﻢ ﰒ ﺃﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳌﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻼﻛﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺳﺆﺍﳍﻢ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻈ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹸﻞ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﻭ‪‬ﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪َ ‬ﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻮﹺﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[59 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺑﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺠﺞ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﺖ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﺤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳌﻦ ﺃﻳﻘﻦ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺅﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﲰﻌﻪ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺼﺮﻩ ﻏﺸﺎﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻳﻬﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﳛﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻛﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﺠﹺﻴ ﹸﻞ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬

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‫ﺲ ﹶﻟﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[66/65 :‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺟﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ﴿ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ؟! ﻭﻛﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺼﺮﺍﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺯﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺪﻫﺮ؟! ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﳛﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﲢﺎ ‪‬ﺟﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﲢﺎﺟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺩﻳﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﺑﻌﺜﺘﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ )( ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻘﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳛﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﻭﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪26‬‬


‫ﻭﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻟﻶﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﱵ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺴﺒﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺯﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﻠﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺯﻟﹾﻔﻲ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪ [3 :‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺬﺏ ﳏﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺩﻭﻣﹰﺎ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﲰﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ )ﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ( )‪.(1‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ؛‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﹺﻨﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[69/68:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﹰﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﹺﻨﻲ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻘﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﴿ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﳑﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﳑﻠﻮﻙ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻟﻪ ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﴾‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻬﺘﺎﻥ ﴿ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺑﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﳑﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻠﺤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﱪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺩﱠﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪ ﺃﻛﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﶈﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺳﻊ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺍﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ؟!‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -7‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ  ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.[28/27 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﳍﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎﺛﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻭﺯﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻛﻔﺮ ﺷﻨﻴﻊ ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﳚﺪﻱ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﻠﻴﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ  ﻭﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺘﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺯﻋﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﻠﻪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[140 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[31:‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺯ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﻣﻠﹶﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﺮ‪.[9/8 :‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹸﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ * ﹺﺑﹶﺄﻱ‪ ‬ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺀُﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[58 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺑﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﹸﺄ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ ﹶﻇﻞﱠ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫ ‪‬ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻔﻬﹰﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﲟﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﺰﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﺃﺗﻔﻜﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠﹺﺒﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺜ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺀَ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ .[37 :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﷲ ﳑﺎ ﺫﺭﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺯﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫‪28‬‬


‫ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﻢ ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺃﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿:‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻬﻠﻜﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﴿ َ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠﹺﺒﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﳜﻠﻄﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻠﹺﺒﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑﻩ ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﻮﻩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺤﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻋﺪ ‪ -‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻳﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻀﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﺴﺒﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ )ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎﻥ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺼﻴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ‪ -‬ﻟﻸﺑﻨﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﻣﻊ ﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﻨﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ‪ -‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳ ‪‬ﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﺎﻗﺮﺃ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻨﺴﺒﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻔﻬﹰﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻚ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻀﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹰﺔ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹸ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[28 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻳﻄﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺮﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻧﻄﻮﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺗﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺗﻨﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻀﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺛﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﺒﺴﻮﻫﺎ ﻳﺘﺄﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﻋﺼﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻋﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺁﺑﺎﺀﻫﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺁﺑﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ‪،‬ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﲟﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﺴﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺟـ‪ 2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺻـ‪ 300‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠ ‪‬ﺬﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮﺻ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ *‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺫﹶﺍﻗﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[149/148:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﺚ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﻬﻢ ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﻣﻮﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﻩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻠﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳛﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ -‬ﲟﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﻭﺭﺿﺎﻩ ﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‬ ‫ﺿ ﹼﻞ‬ ‫ﺿ ﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺩﺍﺣﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺃﺫﺍﻗﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﺳﻪ ﻭﺩﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺫﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺃﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮﻭﻩ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻭﺗﺒﻴﻨﻮﻩ ﻭﺗﱪﺯﻭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮﺻ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﻴﺘﻤﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻭﺇﺿﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻞ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺮﺿﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺎﻙ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﷲ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﴾ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺮﺩﺩﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ‬ ‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻃﺒﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻬﺎﻝ ﻓﺎ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺩﺩﻩ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ  ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻟ َﺂﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪.[5/4:‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﳓﻦ ﻧﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ﴾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺒﺸﻴﻊ‬ ‫﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻭﻩ ﻭﺃﺗﻔﻜﻮﻩ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻟ َﺂﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‪ ﴿ .‬ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳌﻘﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻈﺎﻡ ﻹﻓﻜﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺅﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺸﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻚ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪﻭﻫﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻇﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﰲ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﳑﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﹰﺎ )‪ ،(1‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻇﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺩﱠﻟﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐ ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻝ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﻕ‪.[18 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺧﺮﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﲢﻤﻠﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲨﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪15‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹾ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻠﻘﱠ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﹾﻟ ِ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ((‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪)) :‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﺘﻖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﳒﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.548‬‬

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‫ﻭﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻨﻢ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﺤﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺪﻧﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺎﺀ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﱄ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻳﻠﻘﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ(( )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻏﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﺢ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺧﱪﻫﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻳﻘ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ  ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﺒ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻔ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷﻚ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[158/157 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺰﹺﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﻭﻏﻀﺒﻪ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺪﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺁﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﱪﺅ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﺮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺤﻴﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺼ ‪‬ﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﲔ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﹰﺍ ﰒ ﻳﻨﻔﺦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﹰﺍ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﲑﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺇﱄ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﻩ ﻭﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺃﺫﺍﻩ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻴﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺎﻛﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱄ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟ ًﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻳﻔﱳ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻛًﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻫﻞ ﻣﻠﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻐﻀﺐ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺇﱄ ﻧﺎﺋﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺎﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻒ ﺃﺫﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﺜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﱄ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﺛﲏ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻔﺮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺎﺻﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﺲ‬ ‫‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻜﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺒﻬﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﻓﻴﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﺘﺪﺏ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺼﻐﺮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻋﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺪﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺣﱴ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺖ ﺭﻭﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻘﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻓﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱢﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻲ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ‪ -‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻇﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬﻭﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺻﻠﺒﻮﻩ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﺠﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳉﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﻘﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻇﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻇ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺟﻠﺴﺖ ﲢﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻜﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﳌﺎ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺃﺟﻼﻩ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻇﻬﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﺒ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺒﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻨﻮﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻔ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷﻚ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ﴾ ‬ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺣﲑﺓ ﻭﺿﻼﻝ ﻭﺳﻌﺮ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻳﻘ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺘﻠﻮﻩ ﻣﺘﻴﻘﻨﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺷﺎﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﳘﲔ ﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺰﹺﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﻡ ﺟﻨﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻻﺫ ﺑﺒﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳜﻠﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻣﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻧﺒﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻓﺮﻕ‪:‬ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﺻﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ )ﺍﻟﻴﻌﻘﻮﺑﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ )ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻄﻮﺭﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻫﻢ )ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﺗﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻘﺘﻠﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺰﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻃﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ‬

‫)(‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﺔ؛ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬


‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺫ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﹸﻄ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ‬ ‫ﺫﹸ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓﺼ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪119/118:‬‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻠﲔ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﻕ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺫ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓﺼ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺿ ﹸﻄ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺎﺡ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﰎ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻭﺿﺤﻪ ﴿ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﳍﻢ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺪﺍﺋﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺮﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ( ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻞ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠ ‪‬ﺬﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺳﻔﻬﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻞ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﴿ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻳﻬﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺿﻼﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻜﻔﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -13‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲝﻜﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﲜﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻛﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[6 :‬‬

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‫ﻓﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﲝﻜﻤﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﻮ‪‬ﻢ )ﻣﺸﺮﻛﲔ(‪ ،‬ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲝﺎﳍﻢ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﲪﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺮﻳﺦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﻥ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻜﻔﺮﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﻣﻨﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺗﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻓﺠﺎﺯ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺯﻭﺍ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳚﻴﺰﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺒﻮﺍ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻣﺔ( ﻓﻠﲑﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ‪ -‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﱂ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲜﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻜﻔﺮﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫)( ﻭﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺻـ ‪.322 /321‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﳌ ﱠﱰﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[3 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﺎﻃﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺘﻔﻮﺍ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺍﻷﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺏ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻣﻠﻴﻜﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﲣﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺪﻟﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪ .‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﻛﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﳏﻜﻮﻣﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[155 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻳﺮ ﱢﻏﺐ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﺑﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﻛﺔ ﳌﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺣﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺘﲔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﳜﱪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻭﺭﲪﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ‪ -‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻐﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺿﻼﻝ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﰎ ﻭﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺋﻬﻢ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓﻀ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﻮ‪ ‬ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﻀ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺑ‪ ‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻠﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳﻌ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[20/16 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

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‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬


‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﺠﺠﹰﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻫﲔ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻠﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﲝﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﻀ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲢﺬﻳﺮ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﻚ ﻣﺴﻠﻜﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻬﻢ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻭﻋﻼ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺟﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺧﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺩﻣﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻫﻼﻛﹰﺎ‪ ﴿ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﴿ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ ﺍﻵﻣﺮ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻐﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ﴾‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨﻚ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﰲ ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺮﻓﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻐﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻨﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻏﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻠﺌﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻠﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻩ ﺯﹺﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﹰﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺃﺟﹺﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬

‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[89 /88 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﺎﻥﱢ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻏﻀﺒﹰﺎ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻠﺌﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﺧﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﲑ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻧﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺪﻭﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹺﺟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﴾‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ  ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳌﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺧﻮﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺃﺟﹺﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺟﻴﺒﺖ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺃﺟﹺﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻣﻀﻴﺎ ﻷﻣﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ  ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﺎﻥﱢ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪37‬‬


‫ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻛﻔﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻠﺌﻪ ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺠﺘﻨﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺤﺬﺭ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻠ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[14/13 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫))ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﻠﻮﺓ ﺧﻀﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﻔﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺗﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺑﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﻛﻔﺮ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﺎﱄ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻬﻞ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[14 :‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺄﹶ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[9 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻮﹺﻱ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﹲﺔ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ؟! ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻮﹺﻱ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﳑﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﷲ ﺃﻧﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻟﻴﻀﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ؟! ﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻟﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻓﺴﺮ )ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﷲ ﺃﻧﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺷﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﱠﻟﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺣﱠﺜﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﻞ ﳏﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻼ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﱠﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﺑﺈﺣﺒﺎﻁ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؟!‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ؟!‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﻓﺄﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﺎﹶﻟﺔ‪ ‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗﺮﹺﻳ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿:‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑﺔﹸ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ * ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[18/17 :‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﳑﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﲜﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻏﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺍﷲ )ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﱰﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻧﺐ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻓﺮﺃﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﺼﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﲟﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﲔ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ﹺﺮﻳ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻐﺮﻏﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻐﺮﻏﺮ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﺄﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪39‬‬


‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﱴ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻭﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺎﻕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺍﳊﻠﻘﻮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺮﻏﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺻﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﺻﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻭﻻﺕ ﺣﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺹ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﻮﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺎﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻃﺎﻟﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻔﺮﻩ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﻧﺪﻣﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺑﺘﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﲟﻠﺊ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ(( ﻗﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ))ﲣﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﺔ(( ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺫﻫﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﻛﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ )ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺌﹰﺎ ﺟﺴﻴﻤﺎ‪،‬ﱂ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻖ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻵﰒ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻘﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺻﻐﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺷﻴﺒﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﲨﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻵﰒ ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻊ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﱂ ﳚﺘﻨﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻵﰒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻝ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ  ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺔ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺴﺮﺕ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺯﺍ ‪‬ﻥ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫‪40‬‬


‫ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺇﳍﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﺭﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺧﻄﺮﻩ ﻭﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﲑ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻄﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[65 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ﰒ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﳊﻈﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻫﺒﺎ ًﺀ ﻣﻨﺜﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﻀﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﺒﺴﲔ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻧﺪﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻏﻔﺮ ﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻋﺬﺑﻪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳜﺮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻋﺼﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺷﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ))ﻭﺃﻥ ﲣﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﺔ(( ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﻛﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺴﻜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻮﻩ ﻭﻻﺯﻣﻮﻩ ﻭﺃﳒﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﳌﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﲣﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﻭﺍﳓﺮﺍﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻠﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[148 :‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻇﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬

‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﺎﻙ ﺃﺛﻴﻢ ﺯﻳﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻞ ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻌﻮﻩ ﺑﺴﺬﺍﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃﹾﻟﻘﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮﻱ‪ * ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻔﺎﻫﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻲ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[88 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻜﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺬﺍﺟﺔ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ ﻧﺒﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪ 29‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻓﺘ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪‬ﺋ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺫ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﻟ‪ ‬ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‪‬ﺋ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[54 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﲜﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ  ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺫﻟﱠ ﹲﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬

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‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[153/152 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺄﺑﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[48 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻯ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻡ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﺃﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﻭﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫)ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﻩ( )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺒﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺄﺑﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻘﺎﻗﺎﹰ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﴿ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ )‪ (17‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪) :‬ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﱰﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ (ﻷﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳏﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﳑﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻋﺎﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻋﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺼﺖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[18 :‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﺀ ﲜﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﲝﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪.[119 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺔ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺄﺑﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺟـ‪1‬ﺻـ‪.18‬‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﲜﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺐ ﻇﺎﳌﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﻻ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﱂ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺫﻧﺐ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ( ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﺄﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﳌﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ(( ﻭﻫﻮ ﳐﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﺮﻫﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻈ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪.[13 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ(‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﻩ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﳑﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻃﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛﺘﺮﺯﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ -‬ﻭﱂ ﳚﺘﻨﺒﻮﻩ ﻭﳚﺘﻨﺒﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻄﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻻﺑﺴﻮﻩ ﺃﺣﺒﻂ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪ .[65 :‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺄﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[48 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﺧﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻏﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺁﺧﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﻧﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳜﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰒ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﳛﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫)(‪)) :‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﺔ(( ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻧﺪﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻄ ﹺﺮﺧ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[37 :‬‬ ‫ﺼﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﺬﹸﻭﻗﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﷲ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﳚﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ * ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﴾ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﴿ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﹺﺒﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻄ ﹺﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓﺄﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹰﺎ * ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻌﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺘﻚ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻈﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺑﻨﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻄ ﹺﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓﺄﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ﺃﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )(‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ(‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫)( ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ( ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﻲﺀ ﺑـ )ﻻ( ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻟﻴﺠﺘﻨﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻓﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻠﱠﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱄ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺿﻠﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺿﺎﻝ ﻣﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺧﺺ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺺ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﴾ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﳑﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﻧﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﴿ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﴿ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻭﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻓﺴﺪﺕ ﺇﺭﺍﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﴿ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻫﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺻﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻭﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺭﻛﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬


‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﺩﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺘﻬﺎ )ﺃﻱ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ( ﻗﺪ ﺣﺴﻤﺖ ﻭﻗﻀﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺳﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ * ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﻌﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ )ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ( ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﻥ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ( ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﺘﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﻮﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ؛ ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺿﺎﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻇﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳐﺼﻮﺹ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ(‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺪﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﰲ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ‪)) :‬ﻟﺘﺮﻛﱭ ﺳﻨﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﺣﺬﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺬﺓ((‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻓﻤﻦ؟(( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻪ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪(4).‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻬﺎ( ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﳒﺪ ﺻـ‪ 491‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.31‬‬ ‫)‪ (4‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.34 :‬‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻤﻰ ﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺘﻨﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﻨﻪ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻓﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺧﱪﻩ ﻭﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺏ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﳏﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺒﻌﲔ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﳍﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺜﻮﺭ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻄﻤﺲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﻻ ﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﱄ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻫﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﺃﺿ‪‬ﺎﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﴾ ]ﻣﺮﱘ‪.[59 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹸﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭﺛﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[169 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﳝﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﳍﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺼ ‪‬ﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻄﻼﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺁﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺁﺛﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎﻭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ  ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷﺌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﹶﺄ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[167/175 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺐ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹾﻠ ﹺ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻨ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿ ﱠﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ﺟﻬﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﺴﻠﺦ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﻪ ﺻـ‪ .25‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ ‪.113‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻪ ﻭﳊﻘﻪ ﲝﻴﺚ ﳊﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺑﻌﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﻐﻲ( ﺃﺧﺺ ﺑﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪،‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﺃﺧﺺ ﺑﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻗﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻓﺂﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺿﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺫﻭﻗﻪ ﻭﻭﺟﺪﻩ ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻮﺍﻩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪) :‬ﺍﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺘﻨﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﻳﺼﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﺑﻐﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ؛‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍ ﹾﻛ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑﺮﹺﻱ ٌﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺍﳊﺸﺮ‪.‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺼﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪(1).‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﲎ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻩ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﱂ ﻓﺎﺟﺮ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻩـ )‪(2‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ( ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﳓﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﺤﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺯﺍﻍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻮﺻﻔﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪(3).‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ )ﺑﺮﺻﻴﺼﺎ( ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﹰﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﺪ ﺳﺘﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻩ ﻓﺄﻋﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺄﺟﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﺃﺧﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻹﺧﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺲ ﻓﻴﺪﺍﻭﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺪﺍﻭﺍﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻋﺠﺒﺘﻪ ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﺤﻤﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺘﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺇﺧﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻫﺐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺃﻋﻴﻴﺘﲏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻚ ﻓﺄﻃﻌﲏ ﺃﳒﻚ ﳑﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻚ ﻓﺎﺳﺠﺪ ﱄ ﺳﺠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺠﺪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﱐ ﺑﺮﻱﺀ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺇﱐ ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺇﺧﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﺐ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻣﻌﺔ ﻓﺠﺮ ﺑﺄﺧﺘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﻓﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻠﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ( ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪ 131‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﺟـ‪ ،1‬ﺻـ‪ .45‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ‪ :‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪،‬ﰒ ﺭﺍﺡ ﻳﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺋﻪ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﹰﺎ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻏ ﹾﻔ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ∪⊇∩‬ ‫ﺙ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ * ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴ ﹰﺔ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.[3/1:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﲡﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﲡﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺭﺣﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻼ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﳌﻦ ﲡﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺩﻗﹰﺎ ﻟﻺﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﻭﻣﺘﻤﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ؛ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻝ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺒﺪ ﷲ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺪﻻﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﳑﻦ ﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻝ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻨﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﺮﹺﻳﻘﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓﺮﹺﻳﻘﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎﹶﻟ ﹸﺔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[30 :‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ :-‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻓﲑﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺿﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﺴﺐ ﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺩ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻱ ﻓﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﺑﲔ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬

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‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺣﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ( ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺗﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﳑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻨ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ﹰﺔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹸﺬ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄﺑﹺﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[74 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺎﺋﻬﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﻠﻜﻮﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻚ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻜﲔ ﻣﺴﻠﻜﻚ ﴿ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﰲ ﺣﲑﺓ ﻭﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺑﲔ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺫﻱ ﻋﻘﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻓﺴﺮ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻼﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ  ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺳﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﹺﺒ ﹾﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ‪20/18 :‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ  ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﺫﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﲔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﻟﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻰ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﺫﻧﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ‪.[14 :‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪)) :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻟﻴﺸﻔﻊ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﰊ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻏﻀﺒﹰﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻐﻀﺐ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻐﻀﺐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱐ ﻗﺘﻠﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﱂ ﺃﻭﻣﺮ ﺑﻘﺘﻠﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ )((( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(1‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪.[11 :‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺭ‪‬ﻭﻧﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻻ ﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻋﻤﻰ‪ ﴿ .‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻰ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﻋﻤﻰ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺮﺃﻭﻩ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺁﺑﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺻﻠﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﳛﺮﻙ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﳌﺎ ﻭﻗﺮ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﻭﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼﺤﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺯﻳﻐﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﻏﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‪.[5 :‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻝ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ‪.[18 :‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻟﻔ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﲔ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺮﻯ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻳﻌﲏ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻠﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[52 :‬‬ ‫ﻀﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺸﺬ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻪ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺼﻒ )ﻋﻠﻤﻪ( ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﳏﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺱ ﻭﺗﱰﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻕ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﱰﻩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ -‬ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺱ ـ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﺬﻣﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺰﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.[2/1 :‬‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﻢ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﻯ * ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪ ‬‬

‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻀﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺼﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪51‬‬


‫ﻓﱰﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻛﺘﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﲞﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺿﺪ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻫﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﻯ؛‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ﹺﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[26 :‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻲ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻴﺲ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺻﺮﺍﺣﺘﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺯﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﺼﻔﻮﺍ ﻻﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﲔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺿﺎﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻰ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ؛ ﻳﺪﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[116 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﲟﻨﻄﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺿﻼ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻧﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻠﻚ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿ ﱠﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻚ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﺗﺘﻪ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﺿﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺿﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺟﻬﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ‪ -‬ﲝﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ )ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﻀﻮﻧﻪ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪52‬‬


‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻵﰒ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺌﹸﻮﻟﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[36 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻔﺆ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻇﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﻭﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳋﻄﺐ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻭﺃﺷﺪ؛ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﲝﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﺻﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻔﺎﺻﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮ ﺃﻣﲑﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺧﺎﺻﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ‪ ..‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )(‪)):‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﺻﺮﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺣﺼﻦ ﻓﺄﺭﺍﺩﻭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻌﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﲡﻌﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺫﻣﺘﻚ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻜﻢ ﺇﻥ ﲣﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺫﳑﻜﻢ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﺻﺮﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺣﺼﻦ ﻓﺄﺭﺍﺩﻭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﱰﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺗﱰﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻧﺰﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻤﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟((‪.‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﻮﺷﻪ ﻭﺳﺮﺍﻳﺎﻩ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺭﺷﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺧﻄﺮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﻖ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺧﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻋﻬﺪ‬ ‫‪53‬‬


‫ﺍﷲ )‪ .(1‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺧﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ؛ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺧﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺿﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻵﰒ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ؛‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﺃﻓﺪﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱄ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﺔ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﹰﺎ ﲤﺴﻜﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﻇﻨﻪ ﺍﻵﰒ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺒﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺧﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺴﺎ ﹴﻭ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺔ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[39 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﻩ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ﳛﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺳﻔﻬﹰﺎ ﴿ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻨﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﺘﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻠﻨﺎ ﻇﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﹰﺍ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﱂ ﲢﺎﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺬﻟﻮﹾﺍ ﺃﻱ ﺟﻬﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻇﺎﳌﲔ ﻣﻜﺬﺑﲔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺯﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟﺎﺅﻭﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﺬﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪.[85/83 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻄﻘﹸﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﱪًﹶﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﲔ ﺑﺂﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺴﺄﳍﻢ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺨﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺼﻐﲑﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﻗﺮﻥ ﴿ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﳑﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻘﲑﺍ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﺑﺂﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺯﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﺯﻉ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺃﻭﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺎﻗﻮﻥ‪ ﴿ .‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟﺎﺅﻭﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺻـ‪.468‬‬

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‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﺴﺄﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ * ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﻰ ﴾ ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌ ‪‬ﺬ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻳﻌﺘﺬﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻄﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ *‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ﹶﺫ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻄﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫‪‬ﺘﻮﺍ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﲣﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ )ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻞ ﲡﺪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ )ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﻩ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻧﻌﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﱘ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﻜﺬﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺭﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳋﻮﻻﱐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺃﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺘﻪ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎﺗﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﲢﲕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﲤﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﶈﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺑﲔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻳﺮﺳﻮ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﻃﺊ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﻬﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ ‪.87‬‬

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‫ﻼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺫﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺈﺫﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺫﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﳌﺨﱪﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ؟!‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺼ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻇ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﻦ ﻛﹶ ﹶﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻇﻠﹶ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶ ﹶﺬﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻭﱄ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[169/168:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀِ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻭﺗﺰﻳﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .4‬ﺻـ‪ .426‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﰲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪.[1:‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﱵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻄﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﳝﻀﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﺠﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﹺﺒﻲ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪.[2 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻂ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺾ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﳊﺒﻮﻁ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻫﻢ ﻭﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﺃﺫﻭﺍﻗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؟! ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺒﻄﹰﺎ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁَ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[62 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﺮ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﻊ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻣﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳍﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲪﻠﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ ‪ -‬ﳎﺮﺩ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﳏﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[63 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﺬ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﺤ ﹶﺬ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎﺟﻪ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ(( ﺃﻱ ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺬﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺨﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ ‪.49‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﺠﺒﺖ ﻟﻘﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺻﺤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‪.‬ﺃﺗﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﺬ ﹺﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﹶﺃ ُ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﹶﻓﻠﹾ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ؟ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﻓﻴﻬﻠﻚ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺗﻀﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺎﻗﺾ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻼﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﳘﻮﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻋﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﻀﻠﻮﻥ(( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻡ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﻌﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﻕ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻡ ﻳﻘﻴﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﳛﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ((‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪)) :‬ﳛﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﳛﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ(( ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﲢﺮﳝﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﺱ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ‪) .‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﺱ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺃﺿﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ(( ﻗﻴﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻏﺮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺃﻋﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﻠﺘﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻠﺘﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻴﻮﺍ ﺣﲔ ﺳﺌﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺭﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﱂ ﲤﺾ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻘﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺅﻛﻢ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﻘﻴﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲡﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺸﻌﺒﺖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﻭﺣﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﺸﻌﺒﺖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﻭﺣﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻟﻠﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺿﺎﻟﲔ ﻣﻀﻠﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﳑﻦ ﺳﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﻡ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺪﺣﺾ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻴﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪ .72‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﺴﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺑﻄﻼﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﲕ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪(1) .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳋﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﺱ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻞ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﺃﳊﻖ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺿﺎﻫﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺣﻀﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺭﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲣﻄﺌﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﳚﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﺎ ﺳﺒﻴﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻟﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﻳﻨﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺷﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻮ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳉﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﱡﻠﻖ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻪ ﳍﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﻮﺍ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻧﻌﻮﺕ ﺟﻼﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﺑﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﳔﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﻓﻤﻠﺌﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺳﻮﺍﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺷﻜﻮﻛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻓﺴﺎﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺧﺮﺍﺑﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ( ﺇﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﻼﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺴﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻢ ﻧ‪‬ﻔﻲ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﺒﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﻴﺘﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﻲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﻼﻟﺔ؟! ﻭﻛﻢ ﻫﺪﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ؟!‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻭﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﺄﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺤﻴﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﲰﻊ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘ ﹸﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[10 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﻏﲑﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﰉ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﻫﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺳﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻣﻪ ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﳓﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻼﻗﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﲟﻀﻤﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺿﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻝ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[30:‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﺛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﹺﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﹺﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮﺗﻪ ﻟﺴﺤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[61/60:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.62/61‬‬

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‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻟﻜﻢ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺬﺑﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻬﻠﻜﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻼﻛﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﹺﻨﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[69/68 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ *‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ﹸﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ‬ ‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ )ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ( ﻓﻬﻲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻓﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ( ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ( ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺴﻮﻕ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫*ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﹺﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[104/103 :‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻡ ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻭﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻗﺮﺑﺔ ﻳﺘﻘﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲝﺎﺻﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺑﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ .‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪62‬‬


‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ ﺁﺑﺎﺀﻧﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺟﻬﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺿﻞ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫*ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩ ﱠﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻱ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻭﺷﺎﻳﻌﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲝﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁ‪‬ﺑﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﴾ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺛﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﲝﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻕ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)( :‬ﺇﱐ ﻷﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ(( ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)):‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳊﻲ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺑﲏ‬ ‫ﻛﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﳚﺮ ﻗﺼﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺗﺆﺫﻱ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﱐ ﻷﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﲝﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺋﺮ(( ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﻣﺪﰿ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻧﺎﻗﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﺠﺪﻉ ﺁﺫﺍ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﺃﻟﺒﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺷﺮﺏ ﺃﻟﺒﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻳﻌﻀﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺄﻓﻮﺍﻫﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻳﻄﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﺄﺧﻔﺎﻓﻬﻤﺎ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﳊﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻤﻌﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺭﺅﺳﺎﺀ ﺧﺰﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺟﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﺄﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﺏ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﴾ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧﻞ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪.[103‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﻇﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[138 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺬﹾ ﹸﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﺭﺿﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪63‬‬


‫*ﻭﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻋﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﻘﺮﺑﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻇﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍﻧﹰﺎ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ﴿:‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺯﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[140 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻼﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺮﻱﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﺎﻗﺮﺃ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﴿ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﺳﻢ )ﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻫﻮ )ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺃﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺘﻴﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﺷﺮﺑﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻜﺮ ﻫﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﺰﻱ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺔ ﲦﺎﻧﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ )ﻋﻠﻲ(  ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪ ﻗﺬﻑ ﺍﶈﺼﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﲦﺎﻧﲔ ﺟﻠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻣﻔﺘﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[48 :‬‬

‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ ‪.169‬‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[116 :‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺘﲔ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻀﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻙ ﺭﺣﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﻐﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲜﻬﻞ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[48 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[116 :‬‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ( ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ( )ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺑﲔ( )ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻳﻦ( ﻫﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟!‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﳏﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻧﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻠﻘﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻛﻢ ﺑﺄﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ(( ﰒ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻼﻗﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫)ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻄﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﰲ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻟﺪﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[69/68 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪،‬ﲰﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﻮﻥ(‬ ‫ﻭ)ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻭﻥ( ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻫﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪65‬‬


‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﻛﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻊ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﲨﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[86 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻧﻘﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺑﺘﻐﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻭﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻕ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﳌﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻜﻢ )(‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻬ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.[31 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺒﺲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﻈﻠﲏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻱ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺗﻘﻠﲏ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﻰ ﴾ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ ﴿:‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻬ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻵﺏ؟ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﻤﺮﻙ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳍﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

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‫))ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﻠﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ(( ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺷﺎﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺴﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻬﻢ؟‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ  ‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﻘﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ(( ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺒﻮﺃ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ(( ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ  ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻬ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﺏ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﻈﻠﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻱ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺗﻘﻠﲏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﻌﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬

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‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[5 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﺸ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹺ‬

‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺧﺼﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺀ ‪ /‬ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ ‪ /‬ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺣﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻉ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻬﻞ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﲣﻄﺌﺘﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﻄﻖ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳛﻴﻂ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫)ﺗﻜﻠﻒ( ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﲢﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ(( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(4‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.435‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺻـ‪.137‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.55‬‬ ‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ ‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺻـ ‪ 498‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫•‬

‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ )ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ( ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺬﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺕ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻡ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺣﺠﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻃﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬

‫)(‪:‬‬

‫))ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﺃﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻬﻢ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻃﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺘﻐﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﻞ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﳑﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻐﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺭﻛﹰﺎ ﻷﻣﺮﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ  ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﺷﻐ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻓﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌﺘﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﰒ ﳚﺘﻬﺪ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺸﺘﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺬﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬

‫) ‪) (3‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ؟!(‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻮﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﺎﻣﺘﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻨﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻭﻫﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﻋﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻋﺴﺮ ﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ )‪(3‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻋﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻐ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻐﻞ ﲞﻮﺍﻃﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺣﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺳﻠﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺣﺠﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺑﺂﺭﺍﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﻠﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻬﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻴﺜﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻚ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﺎﲪﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻜﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[86 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ  ‪ ﴿:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺰﺩﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻻﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻇﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻒ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻔﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻠﻔﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ‪ -‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﺨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﻛ ﱞﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ [7 :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.524‬‬

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‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻠﻒ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻟﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﳉﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻄﺎﻕ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ )ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻔﲔ( ﳌﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ‬ ‫ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﳌﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ )ﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﻌﻮﻥ( )‪ .(3‬ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﳌﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻴﺲ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻤﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟! ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻻﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻷﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻓﱳ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﰉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﲑﺕ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺻﺎﺋﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﻫﻠﻪ؟ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺔ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( )ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ()ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻘﺔ ﲝﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺪﺍﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺒﻄﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ )ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ(‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ( ﻭ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ( ﻭ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻒ( ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﲑﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻬﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﳚﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻫﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻀﺢ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ -‬ﺑﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﲟﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻳﺮﺩﺩ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﲟﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﰲ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﲟﺪﻯ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ -‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪ :-‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺘﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳎﻤﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﺴﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﺖ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺪ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﻮﻍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.445/444‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻷﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻗﻠﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲤﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺔ )ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )‪ (1‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﻝﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[170:‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹴﺮ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻰ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ َﺁﺛﹶﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ * ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺟ ﹾﺌ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[24/23 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[104 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻳﺬﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﻨﻊ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺁﺑﺎﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻠﻮﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﳍﻢ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺄﹶﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﱢ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺫﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻣﻪ ﻭﲢﺮﳝﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺧﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ)‪ ،(2‬ﻓﻘﻠﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺄﺟﻮﺭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺯﻭﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻎ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺫﻣﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﲨﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﺧﺒﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﺎ ﳜﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻇﲏ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻇﲏ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ )ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ( ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[36 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[3 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ‪ -‬ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[59 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﻌﻨﺎ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹰﺔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[16 :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ﹺﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪ ‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﻟﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻄﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻭﻟﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺠﺔ! ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻠﱠ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺿﻠﱡﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺒﹺﻴﻠﹶﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[66 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺺ ﰲ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺫﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺿﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻩ؟ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻬﺘﺪﻳﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻬﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﲟﻘﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ )ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺿﺎﻝ( ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻯ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻩ؟ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻩ ﺿﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ!!‬

‫‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫ ‪‬ﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﺔ؛‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 2‬ﺻـ‪ 432‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻼ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻃﺐ ﻟﻴﻞ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺣﻄﺐ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻓﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺪﻏﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻷﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﺪ ﺩﻳﻨﻚ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﺨﺬ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳐﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺘﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﰒ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﳐﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﺪﱐ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﺪ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺪ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ؟! ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﻭﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ -‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ‪) :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ(‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺰﻳﻔﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﱡﻠﻮﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻌﻮﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹴﺮ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ َﺁﺛﹶﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[24/23 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ * ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺟ ﹾﺌ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﺂﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ  ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻄﱠ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﹶﺃ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[167 /166:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛﺮ‪ ‬ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓﻨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺀُﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺻـ ‪.447‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﱂ ﳝﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ‪ /‬ﻭﻗﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻭﺇﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻠﺪ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻗﻠﺪ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺄﺫﻧﺐ ‪ /‬ﻭﻗﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓﺄﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺟﻬﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻠﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻞﱠ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﲔ ﳍﻢ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻋﺠﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘﻨﺒﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺻﺮﳛﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺄﺑﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺛﻘﹶﻰ ﻟﹶﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻔﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻗﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺑﺎﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[25 :‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻭﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻈ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪.[13 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨﻲ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[48 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﺮﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻄﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹾ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[65 :‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺯﻟﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺇﺑﻄﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺯﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺒﻴﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲟﻌﺼﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﱰﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻣﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﱂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﻮﻩ ﻭﺫﻣﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺑﻼﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻓﺘﻨﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺯﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺑﺪ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺪﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻻﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺻـ ‪.439‬‬

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‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﺃﺷﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﲣﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﱵ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‪ :‬ﺯﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ﺃﻋﻨﺎﻗﻜﻢ(( ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﱂ ﳜﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﱠﻟﺔ ﱂ ﳚﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺄ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﻟﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻠﺲ ﳎﻠﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﳚﻠﺲ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﺴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺎﺑﻮﻥ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺣﺬﺭﻛﻢ ﺯﻳﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﳌﻌﺎﺫ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻳﲏ ﺭﲪﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ؟ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﻨﻴﻚ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰﻌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻧﻮﺭﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻞ ﻟﻸﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺜﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻓﻴﺪﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲑﻱ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻜﻢ ﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻜﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻢ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻠﻴﺠﻠﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﻥ ؟ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﻥ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻟﻮ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ )ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ( ﻟﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﺸﻬﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﺎﱂ ﺭﺑﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺞ ﺭﻋﺎﻉ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺎﻋﻖ‪ ،‬ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻀﻴﺌﻮﺍ ﺑﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻠﺠﺌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻭﺛﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺁﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺪﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﲪﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺻﺒﺖ ﻟﻘﻨﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﲝﺠﺞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻌﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﻖ ﻻ ﺑﺼﲑﺓ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻘﺪﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻦ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺻـ‪ 441‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻑ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻓﱳ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺀ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺯﻝ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀﻫﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻨﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪:-‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺭﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﺍﻫﲔ‬ ‫ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﺔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[23 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﹾﻞ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﲔ ﻧﺒﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[24 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺟ ﹾﺌ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸ‬

‫ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻃﺮﺍﺣﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﺓ ﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺰﻋﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ )ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻧﻔﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺭﻣﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻮﻫﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﺭﻗﲔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ )ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ( ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﻧﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻖ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻤﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺨﺬﻭﻧﻪ ﺩﻳﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻔﱵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ‪ -‬ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻘﺘﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﳛﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ )(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﲔ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.443‬‬

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‫‪ -4‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﻧﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﲝﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻈﻨﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺬ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻓﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ -‬ﰒ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻮﺍ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻭﻻ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺍ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺄﻣﻠﻮﺍ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﲢﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﻓﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻠﻜﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﺮﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ )( ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺴﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﺴﻚ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻧﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﺪ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﻢ ﻷﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﺿﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﻢ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﺒﻠﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻀﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺘﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﳍﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪ 534‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ ‪ -‬ﻓﻌﻜﺴﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻳﻔﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺮﺿﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺪﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺬﻋﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺪﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺎﻝ ﻓﻀﻼﺋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﳑﻜﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﳌﺬﺍﻫﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﻪ ﳘﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﺮﺿﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﻲ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺧﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺫﻣﻪ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﳒﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻓﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻮﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﻀﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺿﹰﺎ ﳎﺤﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻱ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻠﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﻣﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺷﱴ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﻋﻢ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺿﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﺪﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ؟(‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﹰﺎ ﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﻤﻢ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﺲ ﳘﻢ ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼﺪ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺷﻮﺍﺫ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﳘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.467/466‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.468‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.82‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳍﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺪﻥ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ )( ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﳍﻮﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻚ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ‬ ‫ﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺘﺼﺪﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﲰﻲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺑﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ‪ -‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﻻ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟﻌ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[19/18 :‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.417‬‬

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‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺣﻼﻟﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺧﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺩﻣﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻫﻼﻛﹰﺎ ﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﴿ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺟﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﲤﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﳊﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﱏ ﳍﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺵ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﺳﺒﺄ‪.[52 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻭﳏﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺒﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺁﺗﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻭﺭﺯﻗﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺁﺗﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻫﻮﺍﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻇﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰒ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺃﻭﻗﻌﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﻗﻌﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰒ ﺣﺎﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺘﲔ ﰲ ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ )‪(16‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻓﻀ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﻮ‪ ‬ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﻀ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪ ‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ َﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻠﻔﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[17/16 :‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪ ‬ﹶﺬ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[23 :‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻏﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﲤﺮ ‪‬ﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻗﺒﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻬﻮﻯ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪81‬‬


‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻏﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﺓ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻲ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻀﻲﺀ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠﹺﻴﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[50 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻻ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻓﻬﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ﹺﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺧﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻔ ﹰﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[26 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺴﻢ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ )(‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟﻌ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ﻓﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.[19/18:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺣﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﻯ(‪:‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﻼﻝ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ﹺﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺧﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻔ ﹰﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[26 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻻ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﳎﺮﺩﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛ ﹺﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪.[28 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ﹶﻔ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾ‬

‫ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[50 :‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻠﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺿﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺰﻟﺰﻟﺖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺖ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.45‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺻـ‪.37‬‬

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‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻭﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺬﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[105:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲟﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻭﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳏﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺐ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺳﻨﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﱏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳝﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﴰﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﱢ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻴﺨﱪﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳏﻤﺪ )( ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺘﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺷﻴﺔ‪ [17 :‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺘﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈﹺﺑ ﹺﻞ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﱪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺘﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺍﻃﻤﺄﻧﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﹼﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻯ ﺃﺣﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ؟ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻹﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﻠﻪ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )(‪)):‬ﺇﱐ ﻷﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻗﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮﻻ ﺃﱐ ﺃﺧﺸﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻷﻛﻠﺘﻬﺎ(( ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ -‬ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻳﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ؛ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺘﺨﱪﻩ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺃﺭﺿﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺃﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻃﻤﺄﻧﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ )‪ (1‬ﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﺭﺃﺗﻪ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺤﻮﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ )ﺍﳍﻮﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺗﺸﺘﻬﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺗﺘﺼﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮﻝ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﺒﻬﺎﺕ( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.394‬‬

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‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﻻﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ‪ -‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧَﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻼﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﺪ ‪ -‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[8 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺿﺎ ﹰﻻ ؟!‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[3 :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺳﻮﺍ ًﺀ ﺑﺴﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﶈﻤﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﺟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[56 :‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺿﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺧ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[5 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻀ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﺑﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﳎﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺃﳕﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻙ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ﱡﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ ﹾﻟﹺﺒﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[5 /4 :‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹶﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻀ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﴿ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﴾‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﺣﺪﻭﻥ ﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺠﺘﻪ ﻭﺑﺮﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﴿ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﱡﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺣﻼ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺣﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﻟﲑﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻀ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻴﺪﺣﺾ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻖ ﺑﺮﺋﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺫﻣﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )((( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃ ﹰ‬

‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪،‬‬‫ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﴾ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪7 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺗﻼ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳚﺎﺩﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﲎ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺎﺣﺬﺭﻭﻫﻢ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺑﻼ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﻠﻮ ﳎﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪ ‪ -‬ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ؛ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﱪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺫﻟﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻓﻘﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ‪ ﴿:‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﲢﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﱪ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﺒﺎ‪‬ﻟﻐ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﺬ ﹺﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[56 :‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﺑﻼ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ﴿.‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻐ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺻﺪﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻛﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﳌﻦ ﺟﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻣﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﲝﺎﺻﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﻗﺼﺪﻫﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺟﻬﻞ‪،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﻬﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﳍﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[4/3 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻀﱡﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﻓﹶﹶﺄﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ )‪ (3‬ﹸﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻩ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﳉﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺿﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﲔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﳌﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻫﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻀﱡﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﴿ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻭﻗﻠﺪﻩ ﴿ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﴿ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﲑ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻊ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺎﻃﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﳉﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺭﺅﺳﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﱠ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ * ﺛﹶﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻈﻠﱠﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺒﹺﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[10/8 :‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﺪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮﹺﻳ ﹺﻖ * ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻩ ‪ ﴿ -‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪.‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺛﹶﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﻗﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻳﺜﲏ‬ ‫ﺤﺮﹺﻳ ﹺﻖ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻞﱠ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﴿ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﱰﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﳚﺪﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺻﺪﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫‪86‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﹰﺎ ﺧﺒﻴﺜﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﺍﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺭﺛﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﳎﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩﻭﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ * ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪.[21/20:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬

‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻃﻌﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﳎﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﺄﺛﻮﺭ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﲔ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﴿ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻣﲔ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻇﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﺘﺠﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻒ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻌ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻟﻴﺪﺣﺾ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﳏﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻝ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ﹴ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﺼﺮ ﻟﻠﻀﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺭﻭﺛﺎﺕ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺔ؛ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻼﻻﺕ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻴﺎﺕ؟! ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺠﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﲔ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﺎﺫﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻴﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳋﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﺃﺩﻫﻰ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﻔﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃﻮ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﻧﻮﺡ‪.[14/13:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ * ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‪ ‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[67 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺽ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[83:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻠﹶﺎﻗﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻼﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻫﻢ ﴿ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻠﹶﺎﻗﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﻣﺂﳍﻢ ﻭﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻜ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ * ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ‪.[45/42 :‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻏﻮﻯ ﻏﺎﻭﻱ ﻏﻮﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[68 :‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫‪88‬‬


‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ‪ ﴿ .‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻟﺴﺘﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻟﺴﺘﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳎﻠﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳜﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻬﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻟﺴﺘﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺿﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﳜﻮﺿﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻛﹶﺎﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻗﻮ‪ ‬ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[69 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﳊﻘﻬﻢ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﻯ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻣﻮﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺃﻭﻻﺩﹰﺍ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮ ﻭﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﴾ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒﻮﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﲨﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻷﻥ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ‬ ‫)ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻕ؛‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﳘﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺮ ﻭﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ )ﺍﳋﻮﺽ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺻﻨﻔﲔ‪ :‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﻮﻯ ﻓﺘﻨﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻋﺠﺒﺘﻪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺘﻨﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻀﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ )ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ( ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ )ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳛﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪89‬‬


‫ﺨﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﴾ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳚﺘﻤﻌﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ( ﻓﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﲡﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻭﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﲞﻼﻗﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﲞﻼﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻮﺽ ﻛﺨﻮﺿﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﳏﻜﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﲟﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺬﻭﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟!‬ ‫ﲔ﴾‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﲡﻴﺐ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻜ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ )‪(69‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻋﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ً ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺁﲦﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﻦ‪.[4 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔﺎﻫﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﺂﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ ﻛﺒﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.113/112‬‬

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‫ﺠﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺒ‪‬ﺎ  ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓ َﺂ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ  ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶﻄﻄﹰﺎ  ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ  ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪ ‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﳉﻦ‪.[5/1 :‬‬ ‫ﺠﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬ ‫ﹶﻇ‪‬ﻨﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬

‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﳉﻦ‪ :‬ﺗﱰﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺟﻞ ﺟﻼﻟﻪ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺳﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻭﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ‪ ﴿ .‬ﺷ ﹶﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺷ ﹶﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻇﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﷲ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻟﺪﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺳﻔ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺯﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻃ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﺴﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﳉﻦ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ‪‬ﻨﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﲰﻌﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳓﻄﺎﻁ ﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[142 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻐ‪ ‬ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪.‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﻳﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ‪ -‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﺭﺗﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﻎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﲣﺒﻴﻂ ﻭﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻠ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ؟ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻮ‪‬ﻟﱡﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﷲ ﴿ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱡﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﺜﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻭ ﴿ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻬﻨﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﺟﻬﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻭﺧﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻬﻨﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻫﺪﺍﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻠﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﹾ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪91‬‬


‫ﺱ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[13 :‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﺎ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻛﺈﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻃﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺟﺮ ﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ‪ -‬ﻟﻌﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺼﲑ ﳓﻦ ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺳﻔﻬﺎﺀ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﲨﻊ ﺳﻔﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺎﺀ ﲨﻊ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﲨﻊ ﺣﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﲟﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺟﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ﻓﺄﻛﺪ ﻭﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﲝﺎﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺭﺩﻯ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[58 :‬‬ ‫ﺨﻄﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﻤ‪ ‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﺪﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳋﻮﻳﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﺣﺮﻗﻮﺹ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻭﺣﲔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻏﻨﺎﺋﻢ )ﺣﻨﲔ( ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺒﺖ ﻭﺧﺴﺮﺕ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺃﻛﻦ ﺃﻋﺪﻝ(( ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻣﻘﻔﻴﹰﺎ‪)) :‬ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺌﻀﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻡ ﳛﻘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﳝﺮﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺘﻤﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﺎﻗﺘﻠﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﺷﺮ ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﲢﺖ ﺃﺩﱘ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ(( ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺗﻪ ))ﲣﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﺮﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻴﺔ(( )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﺟﻬﻠﺔ ﺳﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﺺ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻘﻬﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﲜﻬﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺿﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ ﺑﺸﺮﻙ ﻟﻜﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺬﺭ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳜﺮﺝ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.347‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﻣﻲ؟ ﻷﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﺻﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻬﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ‪ -‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ -‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ – ﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﻼ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﲔ ﺑﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ً ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﳍﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻠﺒﺴﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﻥ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ )ﳝﺮﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ( ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﳍﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺍﻵﲦﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﲔ )‪ (2‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻋﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪)) :‬ﺃﻋﺎﺫﻙ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ(( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺪﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﻢ ﺑﻜﺬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﻣﲏ ﻭﻟﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺪﻗﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻣﲏ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ(( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻋﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻬﻢ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﻫﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﺎﳌﺎ ً ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺌﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ(( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺿﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺗﺄﻭﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻵﻓﺔ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﳎﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺻـ‪.418‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪.‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻀ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤﻦ‪ ‬ﺯﻳ‪ ‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[8 :‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻴﻘﲔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲰﺎﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﲏ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ)‪.(1‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ  ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.[28/27 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﳍﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎﺛﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻭﺯﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻛﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻴﻊ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺃﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[36 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻇﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﲏ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﲟﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﻭﺙ ﺑﺎﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﳏﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﹰﺍ –‬

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‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬ﺑﲔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻇﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﲣﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲎ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ﴿.‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺠﺎﺯﻳﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﰎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ  ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮﺻ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎ َﺀ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[66 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺿﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻇﻨﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﲣﺮﺻﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺇﻓﻜﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺹ ﴾ ]ﻫﻮﺩ‪.[109 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱡﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﻮ ﹴ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﴾ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﺿﻼﻝ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻞ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺑﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺠﺰﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﰎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘ ﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮﺑ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺿﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬

‫)(‬

‫ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﻔﻬﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﺇﻳﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺣﻀﺎﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻘﻠﻪ ﻭﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﺒﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺿﺮﺏ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻻ ﳚﺤﺪﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻛﺰﺭﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺷﻄﺌﻪ ﻓﺂﺯﺭﻩ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻐﻠﻆ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﻟﺒﻪ ﻭﲦﺮﺗﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ ﻟﻼﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ‪:‬‬

‫‪. 1‬ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ‪،‬ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﱴ‪ ،‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ؛ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﱠ ‪‬ﻤ َﺂ ﹸﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹺﺑﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪ ‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹴﺮ ﹸﻟﺠ‪‬ﻲ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ  ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹸﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺾ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹸﻇ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﺭ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[40/39:‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﻼﻥ ﺿﺮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺿﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﺜﻠﲔ ﻧﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺿﺮﺏ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻘﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻧﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻏﲎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﲔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ )‪ ،(1‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.123‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺻـ ‪.190‬‬

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‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﲝﺮ ﻃﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻌﺔ( ﲨﻊ ﻗﺎﻉ ﻛﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺟﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻉ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﲑﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﺴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﳛﺴﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺼﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﱂ ﳚﺪﻩ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﳛﺴﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺍﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻗﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﺜﹸﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﴾‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ﴾‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﺬﻭﻱ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﺎﻃﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻠﻮﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹴﺮ ﹸﻟﺠ‪‬ﻲ‪ ﴾ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹸﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﺾ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹸﻇ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓﻮ‪ ‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻫﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﺈﱃ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﰲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺿﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻏﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﺓ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﴾ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼﻣﻪ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻇ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻇﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺮﺟﻪ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﲑﻩ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﺭ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻫﺎﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﴿ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﳝﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﴰﺎﺋﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻛﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺣﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺟﲔ ﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‪:‬‬‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﺔ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻴ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺭ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ﹶﻓﺴ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻜ ﹸ‬ ‫‪‬ﺟﻔﹶﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻝ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻳﺴﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻳﺴﻊ ﻣﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻛﻮﺍﺩ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻳﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻤﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﳎﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺜﺎﺀ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ ﳑﺎ ﳝﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻄﻔﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺯﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﳝﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲢﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﺜﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺒﺘﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﺜﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﻘﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﲕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺜﺎﺀ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻔﺎﺀ ﳚﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻔﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﺎﺣﺘﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻓﺄﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﳐﺎﻟﻄﺘﻪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺯﺑﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﻳﻄﻔﻮ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﰲ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﺜﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺟﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﺸﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻮﻥ ﻭﳝﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬

‫)(‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺜﲏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﻏﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﺃﺭﺿﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﺘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻸ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺟﺎﺩﺏ ﺃﻣﺴﻜﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﻋﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲤﺴﻚ ﻣﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺒﺖ ﻛﻸ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻧﻔﻌﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺜﲏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ‪ -‬ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ‪ -‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺯﻛﺖ ﻓﻘﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻸ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻛﺖ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﻛﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻭﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ )( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﹸﻭﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ ﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ]ﺹ‪.[45 :‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﺫ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻓﻔﺠﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺃ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻨﻮﺯﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺯﻗﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺌﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻜﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﺒﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﺆﺗﻴﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ(ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻸ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺒﺘﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳘﻬﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻛﻨﻮﺯﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﲡﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺬﺭﻭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺭﺩﻭﻫﺎ ﻛﻞ ﲝﺴﺒﻪ ﴿ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ﹸﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ .[60:‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﻧﻀﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻣﺮﺉ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﱵ ﻓﻮﻋﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲰﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺏ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻘﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺏ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ(( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺣﱪ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﲨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ)(ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻮﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻸ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﺷﻘﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ -‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﻢ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪44‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺷﻘﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪ ﴿:‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻀﻴﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺇﻥ ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻄﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﺮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﺖ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳘﻪ ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ ﻟﺒﺎﺳﻪ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﺖ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﺄﻫﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺭﻛﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﻴﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺭﻛﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻀﺎﺀﻭﺍ ﺑﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪ .67‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻮﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ * ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ * ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱢ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑ * ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻮﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[22/19 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷﻋﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻭﺑﻮﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜﻠﹰﺎ ﴾‬ ‫ﲑ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻊ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﹺ‬ ‫ﺻﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ﴿:‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺮﹺﻳ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﻛﹶﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﺨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹴ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﲑ ﲰﻴﻊ ﰲ ﻧﻮﺭ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ ﻭﺃﺻﻢ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻻ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻏﻴﻪ ﻭﺿﻼﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﻀﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﻇﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻤﻮﻡ ﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻬﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹴﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺻﲑﻭﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻛﻔﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻍ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻳﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﲝﺠﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[72 :‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺗﻪ ﴿ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺿﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻨﻜﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹰﺔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛﺮﹺﻱ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻘﹶﻰ * ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻩ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ َﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨﺴِﻴ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﲑ‪‬ﺍ * ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗﻨﹺﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ * ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ ﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[126/123:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫*ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑ ﺃﻓﻼ ﺗﺘﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪50:‬‬ ‫*ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻤﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲝﺠﺞ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺗﻪ( ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[257 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﳜﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺨﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﻦ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺮﺟﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﳛﻴﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻭﺣﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﻭﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻚ ﴿ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﺟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﻘﺮﺑﻪ ﻭﳎﺎﻭﺭﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﲰﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺨﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻗﺪ‪ ‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎ ﹺﻡ‬ ‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺑﹺ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪16/15 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹺﺑﹺﺈ ﹾﺫﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)(‬

‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ))ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻄﻤﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﺓ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺫﻫﺐ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺒﻀﻪ ﺑﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻓﺴﺌﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ‪ ((.‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺗﻰ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺣﺠﺠﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛﺬﹶ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﺨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹴ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[122 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﺣﺎﺋﺮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻭﻓﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺱ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﰲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺕ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﴿ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻔﺬ ﻭﻻ ﳐﻠﺺ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﺨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﴿ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺵ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﺪﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻩ ﺿﻞ(( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠ ‪‬ﺬﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﲔ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﴾ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺯﻳ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛﺬﹶ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻮﻥ ﻟﻨﺪﺍﺀ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[36 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹸﺜ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﺪﻋﺎﺋﻚ ﻳﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﻳﻌﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹸﺜ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻮﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹸﺜ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻜﻢ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﱠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ *‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻠﹶﺎﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.[53/52 :‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺪﺍﺛﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪﹺﺑﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺩﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺿﻼﻟﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫‪102‬‬


‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﹺﻻ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﹺﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺧﺎﺿﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹸﺜ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠﹺﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺷﺒﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺿﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ َﺁﺫﹶﺍ ﹲﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹸﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪ ‬‬

‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻛﹶﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄﻧ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[179 :‬‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺫﹶﺍ ﹲﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻌﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ )ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﺍﻳﺔ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪.[26 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺰﺋﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺻﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ .[18:‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬‬ ‫ﺻﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[171:‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺻﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻷ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[46 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬

‫ﺾ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ *‬ ‫ﺶ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺣ‪ ‬ﻤ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[37/36:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﻚ ﻛﹶﺎﻷ ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﺼﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﻊ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻲ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[171:‬‬ ‫ﺻﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﹺﻻ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧﺪ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﻋﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﺭﺍﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺮﺍﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺲ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ؛ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻄﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﺴﺨﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﻮﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﺎﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬

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‫ﻚ ﻛﹶﺎﻷ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﺃﰎ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﻠﺔ ﳑﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﺞ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[44 :‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺧﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺏ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ *‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪.[23/22 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﲰﻌﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺷﺮ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻴﻘﺔ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺏ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ﴾ ‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ﴿ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺑﺔ ﳑﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻄﻴﻌﺔ ﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻜﻔﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻓﻬﻢ ﳍﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﺼﺪ ﳍﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻷﻓﻬﻤﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ )ﻭ( ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺧﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻬﻢ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﴿‬ ‫َﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻬﻤﻬﻢ ﴿ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺑﻼ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻈﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﲔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻐﻦ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺳﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﺞ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻃﻤﺄﻧﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲣﺬ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﳍﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺿﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠﺔ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﳊﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﲔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻭﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻗﻀﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻳﺸﺘﻖ ﳌﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﳎﺎﺯﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺯﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫‪104‬‬


‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﺭﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺔ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻛﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌ ﱠﱰﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻓﻌﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺒﻬﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫)(‪)) :‬ﻟﺘﺘﺒﻌﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻻ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﻢ ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﲑﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧﺪ‪‬ﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[171 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻘﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﺑﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻷﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﺷﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺑﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﻋﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﻫﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﲰﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻟﻮ ﺻﺎﺩﻑ ﺁﺫﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻔﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﻋﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻗﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﺼﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻓﺄﻃﻔﺄﺕ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻜﻨﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﺷﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺴﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻜﺮﺕ ﺑﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺼﻎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻋﻈﺖ ﲟﻮﺍﻋﻆ ﺃﻧﻜﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲝﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺮ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳉﺮﺡ ﲟﻴﺖ ﺇﻳﻼﻡ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫‪ -6‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲟﻦ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻣﻜﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻥ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[22 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﻮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪ .65‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻣﻜﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﳝﺸﻲ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺎﺋﻪ ﺣﺎﺋﺮ ﺿﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻫﺪﻯ ﺃﻣﻦ ﳝﺸﻲ ﺳﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﴿ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﳛﺸﺮ ﺳﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻔﺾ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳛﺸﺮ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳛﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫))ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣﺸﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺟﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺸﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ؟(( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳐﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﳍﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺿﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺒﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﲟﻦ ﳝﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﲔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺳﺮﺓ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﲝﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺿﺎﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﻬﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻛﻨ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ َﺁﺫﹶﺍﻧﹺﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴﹺﻨﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﻓﺼﻠﺖ‪.[5 :‬ﻭﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﲡﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﻔﻮﺍ ﻟﺴﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ‪.[27 :‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﳏﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻧﺰ‪‬ﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻃﹶﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[7 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺻﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺜﻘﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺛﻘﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﻮﺍﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲟﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻠﻬﻮﻯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮ ﳐﺘﺮﻋﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻘﺖ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻊ ﻻ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﻨﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺯﻋﻤﻪ ‪ -‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﲝﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻤﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.89‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪.[25 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻞﱠ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻗﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻤﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﲤﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[82 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘﻠﹶﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﹶ‬

‫ﻓﻼ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻟﻦ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺃﻱ ﳎﻬﻮﺩ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻮﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ‪‬ﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺮﺑﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﲢﺴﻦ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻌﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬ‪‬ﻮﻟﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[72 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻟﻠﻈﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻇﻠﹸﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑﺓ ﻟﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪) :‬ﻭﻛﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺀ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﺸﻬﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻄﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻠﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ )‪.(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.443‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.475‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺧﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﲤﻴﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﻓﻴﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ )‪.(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺜﲏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﺃﺭﺿﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻸ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺎﺩﺏ ﺃﻣﺴﻜﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﻋﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲤﺴﻚ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻸ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﻌﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺜﲏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﹼﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺯﻛﺖ ﻓﻘﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻸ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻛﺖ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﻛﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳘﻬﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻛﻨﻮﺯﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﺷﻘﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺷﻘﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[44 :‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻀﻴﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻄﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﺮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﺖ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳘﻪ ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ ﻟﺒﺎﺳﻪ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﺖ ﳘﺘﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻱ ﺣﻖ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﰲ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪)):‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻞ ﲡﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ؟‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)):‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻧﻔﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻞ ﺭﲪﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺑﺄﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﻪ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﱄ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬‫ﻓﺄﺟﺮﳘﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﳜﺒﻂ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﷲ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺑﺄﺧﺒﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﱄ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺯﺭﳘﺎ‬‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ(( ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻣﱰﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺄﺧﺒﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻙ ﺿﺮﺍﻭﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟! ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﺘﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ )ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺑﺄﺧﺒﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ(‪ .‬ﺑﻞ ﺻﺮﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺴﻮﺀ ﻣﺂﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ‪.‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪)):‬ﺛﻜﻠﺘﻚ ﺃﻣﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺧﺮﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪:‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺛﻜﻠﺘﻚ ﺃﻣﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺧﺮﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ(( ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲝﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺰﺭﻉ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ ‪ .67‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳛﺼﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺭﻉ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺯﺭﻉ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ ﺷﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﺪ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺄﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫـ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳜﻠﻮ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻬﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻫﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻫﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻴﻌﻠﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻌﺬﺭﻩ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﳚﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪)) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺼﻤﺖ((ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻳﺰﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ((‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪:‬‬‫))ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﺧﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ((‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﻬﻮﻯ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺤﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺪﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺎﺀ((‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻳﻠﻘﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﱪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻭﺑﻘﺖ ﺁﺧﺮﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ‪)) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ(( ﻭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ))ﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ(( ﻭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ))ﻻ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹰﻻ(( ﻭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ))ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ((‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﱪ ﰲ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ )ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[149 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻠﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﷲ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺭﺩ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪15 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻠﻘﱠ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﹾﻟ ِ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻷﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺣﻖ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺇﲦَﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺷﺮﻛﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[72 :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ُ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻈ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪.[13 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ﳑﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﺴﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ ﻳﻌﻈﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻩ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻧﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻈﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﻐﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﺃﺣﺒﻂ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭﺑﻘﺖ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﳛﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻏﻀﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ )ﻏﻀﺐ ﷲ( ﰒ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻏﻀﺒﻪ ﷲ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣﺒﻂ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ )ﻏﻀﺐ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ( ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﺟﻬﻠﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻘﻬﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﻡ ﻛﻔﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﰲ ﺣﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[7 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃﻫﻢ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﲔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬

‫)(‬

‫ﻏﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺎﺟﺆﻩ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻮﻳﺼﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺧﺎﺻﺮﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺪﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺒﺖ ﻭﺧﺴﺮﺕ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺃﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﺄﻣﻨﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﻣﻨﻮﱐ(( ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻔﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﰲ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺩﻋﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺌﻀﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮﻡ ﳛﻘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬ﳝﺮﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺘﻤﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﺎﻗﺘﻠﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﺟﺮﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ(( ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺸﻌﺒﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﻗﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﳓﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﺒﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﳉﻬﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﻭﻕ )( ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪)) :‬ﻭﺳﺘﻔﺘﺮﻕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﰊ(ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺰﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺜﺮﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺄﻭﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ(( ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﻮﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻌﺬﺭﻫﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻭﺃﺓ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﲪﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻳﻨﺜﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﻧﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻞ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺿﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[40:‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ )ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﻤﻪ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ‪)) :‬ﻓﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ ﰲ ﺟﺴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﻣﻠﻜﺎﻥ ﳚﻠﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻻﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻚ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻻﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﻚ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻘﻮﻻﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺚ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺮﺷﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺤﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﲰﻮﻣﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﱪﻩ ﺣﱴ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺿﻼﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﱳ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻮﺀﻙ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺖ؟ ﻓﻮﺟﻬﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﺒﻴﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﲜﻬﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﱳ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺸﺮﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﻮﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻐﺮﻭﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﳘﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻐﲏ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻝ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ‪.[89 :‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﻨﻮﻥ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ﹶﻘ ﹾﻠ ﹴ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻳﻌﲏ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﰒ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺧﺒﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻰ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰱ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﻔﺎﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺤﺪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻔﺮ‬

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‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﻗﺘﻠﻮﻩ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺗﺪﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺉ( ﻛﺎﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ )ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺉ( ﺃﻏﻠﻆ ﳌﺎ ﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ) ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ( ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺳﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ  ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﺃﺑﻴﺢ ﺩﻣﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻘﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺫﻭﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺤﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫)ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﳏﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴﺮﹺﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[169/168 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰱ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺔ ﲢﺮﳝﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ :‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺄﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﲡﺪﻭﻥ ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺮﺿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺘﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻠﻎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻗﺘﻠﻮﻩ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ؟((‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺘﲔ ﻛﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺘﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

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‫)ﻗﺘﻠﻮﻩ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ( ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺃﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺼﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺫﻝ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﺣﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﲑﺓ ﻷﻫﻠﻪ ﳝﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺒﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ؛ ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺫﻝ ﰲ ﺭﻗﺎﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﲑ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺗﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺿﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻀﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺿﻼﻝ ﻳﺴﲑ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳜﺴﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﺸﻔﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺫﻫﺐ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺒﻀﻪ ﺑﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻓﺴﺌﻠﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ(( )‪.(3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻭﻯ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺿﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻗﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺃﻧﺎﻩ ﻧﺴﺎﺀﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫)(‪)) :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﳒﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ؟(( ﻓﺴﺌﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻷﺧﱪﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺸﻮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪) .471‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ .146‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲦﺮﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺔ ﳋﺸﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺑﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺟﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﻭﶈﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﺮﺳﺦ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻔﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪)) :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺎﻟﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻳﺼﻠﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻬﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﻻ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﺑﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰒ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﷲ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﲡﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﳊﺰﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ))ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ(( ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﲜﺮﺍﺋﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﳍﺮﺝ ﻭﻓﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻀﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ )ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ( ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻀﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﳍﺮﺝ(( ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﳝﺎ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ(( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻷﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳍﺮﺝ(( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﺸﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺨﻤﺴﲔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ((‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻔﺎﺅﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺤﻮﺩ ﳌﺎ ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻜ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪.[29 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻗ ﹺﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫)(‬

‫ﻭﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺛﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﻬﻢ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ )ﺑﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ( ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﺎﺽ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻈﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﻭﺟﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﺭﻓﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﻣﻮﺩﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﺻﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺃﻭﺻﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺶ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻓﺴﲑﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﳏﺪﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ(( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺭﲪﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻳﻌﺶ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻓﺴﲑﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ((‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.330‬‬

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‫ﳌﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻀﻊ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺴﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺎﺅﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﳜﺺ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ )ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ(؛ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻬﻢ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ( ﻭ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﻞ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺒﺲ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻹﺫﻋﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺛﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺎﺅﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﺃﺿﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪(2) :‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﶈﻤﺪﻳﺔ )ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻲ(‪.‬‬

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‫ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺸﺨﺺ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻭﴰﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺠﺰﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬‫ﺃﺧﱪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻻﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺍﻫﻢ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺳﲑﺩ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ( ‪،‬ﻛﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ))ﺃﻻ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﻚ ﲪﻰ(( )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﳝﺪﺡ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ( ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﺗﻔﺮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺮﻕ ﺃﻣﱴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪)) :‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺮﻕ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻣﻠﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(( ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﰊ(( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ )(‪)) :‬ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ(( ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺎﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻳﻘﻊ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫* ﰒ ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‪) :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ(ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ )ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪.‬‬

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‫)ﺍﻋﻠﻢ( ﻳﺎ ﺃﺧﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﲏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ )ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺿﻴﻪ ﻷﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﲰﺎﻭﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻫﻮ )ﻗﻮﻝ( ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ )ﻭﻋﻤﻞ( ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[23 :‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[75 :‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧﺮﹺﻱ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻠﻜﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪.[15 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻜﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[167 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺎﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻛﲔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄﻓﹾﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ‪.[1 :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺫﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺄﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ ﺗﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺫﺑﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﴿ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﻭﳐﺎﺩﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ )ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ(‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻠﻮﺍﺯﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[46 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪] ﴾ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[53 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ‪.[15 :‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[86 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ )(‪)) :‬ﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﱐ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ(( ﻭﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺐ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺑﻌﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[52 :‬‬ ‫ﺸﻲ‪ ‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺍ ﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪.[20/19 :‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰ‪‬ﻯ * ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺉ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻯ(( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﻣﻌﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻪ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ))ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻏﲎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ؛ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪)) :‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺌﺖ ﺑﻪ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )(‪.‬‬ ‫‪120‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻛﺘﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺒﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﻰ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺴﻄﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻬﻤﺖ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻣﻌﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺿﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﺍﻗﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-1‬ﻛﻔﺮ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬ﻛﻔﺮ ﺟﺤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻛﻔﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻛﻔﺮ ﻧﻔﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ ﰲ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻓﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ )ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ /‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ‪ /‬ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ‪ /‬ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ(‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ٌﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[7/6 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻏﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹲﺓ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻊ )ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭﹺﻳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[39 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪.[84 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﻗﻪ ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﺤﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﻤﺎﻥ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪.[14 :‬‬ ‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻇ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹸﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪[89 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ )ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔ‪ (..‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ )‪ (1‬ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ﻧﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫)ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ‪ -‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻚ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍ ﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[20/8 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬

‫ﻫـ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﻔﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻜﻔﺮ ﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ ﻭﻛﻔﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺷﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺣﻖ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺣﻴﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﳏﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﻣﻀﻐﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻠﺤﺖ ﺻﻠﺢ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ(( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻳﻨﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﱂ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺃﳕﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ( ﻭ)ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ( ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻌﺔ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻀﻰ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[68 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭ ﴿ ﹶﻟﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻓﺄﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﻀﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﲝﻜﻤﻪ ﻭ ﴿ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻘﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ؛ ﻻ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻓﻬﻲ )ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺭ( ﻓﻤﻦ ﺳﺎﻭﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﻤﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺩﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﲟﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪(3).‬‬

‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺫﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﲡﺪ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪ 11‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪ .227‬ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ )ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺻـ‪ .23‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‬

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‫ﻓﻬﻜﺬﺍ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﺴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺯﻳﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻠﻮﺍﺯﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺘﲔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻬﻤﺎ( ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ )ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ( ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺗﺎﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[86 :‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺖ ﻷﻥ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺑﺎﰊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ /‬ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﳌﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﳎﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﻧﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻼ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﺪﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺟﺤﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻝ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺘﺎ )ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ )ﺑﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﱠﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[39 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶ‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪.[84 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟﺎﺅﻭﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛﺬﱠ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮ )ﻭﺍﻟﻌﱠﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺳﻠﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﺄﺛﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﻩ( )‪ .(1‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﲝﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻗﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻮﻗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻌﺮﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ )ﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﲝﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺿﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺣﺔ ﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻞ( ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪.2‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪).127‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﻧﻘﺼﺎﻧﻪ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ( ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ(‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﱰﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻧﺐ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﻓﺮﺃﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﲟﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﺣﲔ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ )‪(1‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.17‬‬

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‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺗﻪ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻴﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹺﺮ ﹺ‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﱘ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﻄﺎﺭ‪.[6 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﳘﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﴿ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹺﺮ ﹺﱘ ﴾ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻏ ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﻛﺮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻏﺮﻙ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺑﺮﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ( ﺣﱴ ﺃﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪)) :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻏﺮﻙ ﰊ؟ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺃﺟﺒﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ؟(( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹺﺮ ﹺﱘ ﴾ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻏﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺟﻬﻠﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﻭﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﲤﺮﺩﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﺮﻓﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻗﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ * ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ًﺀ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﻦ ﹶﺃﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ َﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪.[40/39 :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬

‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻋﻮﻛﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ )ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ( ﻭﺇﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳛﺒﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾‪ .‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﲔ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻖ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻨﹺﻴﻔﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻓ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱄ‪  :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ  ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪ ، (30):‬ﺃﻱ ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺸﺮﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺯﻗﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪ ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[74/73:‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻄ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (73‬ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹺﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﲡﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻫﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﲜﻬﻠﻜﻢ ﺗﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪126‬‬


‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻝ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ * ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄ ﹾﻛ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹾ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰﹺﻳ ﹺﺰ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﱠﺎ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[42/41:‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺄ ﹾﻛ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﻼ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰﹺﻳ ﹺﺰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﱠﺎ ﹺﺭ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﺎ؛ ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺒﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫]ﳏﻤﺪ‪ .[19 :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺄﹶﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﱢ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﹺﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[14 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹸﻗ ﹾ‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ )(ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪):‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻳﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ(‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻻﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ؛ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﺬﺍﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﻘﺮﺑﻪ ﻭﳎﺎﻭﺭﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﲰﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺨﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻗﺪ‪ ‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻈ ﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎ ﹺﻡ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[16/15 :‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ﹺﺑﹺﺈ ﹾﺫﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻰ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺫﻫﺐ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﺎﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬

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‫ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺰﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺒﻀﻪ ﺑﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺌﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻓﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ(( )‪ (1‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻻ ﲣﻔﻰ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹺﺈﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺒﺎﺡ ﲝﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﲢﺖ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻣﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻄﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[169/168:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﱴ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﹰﺎ ﻷﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﺃﻓﱴ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻬﺪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ؟ ﻓﺎﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﳐﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ )ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻓﻪ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﹲﺓ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[60:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺃﻇﻠﻢ ﳑﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ )ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ( ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ )‪ ،(2‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺫﻑ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺫﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﳌﺨﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻠﹶﺎ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[117/116:‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻇﹾ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌﻚ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﻫﻮﺩ‪.[18 :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻟﹶﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻛﺎﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﲜﻬﻞ )ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩ ﻟﻪ( ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻜﺘﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﳏﻘﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﺎﺏ )ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ( ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ )ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﻲ(‬ ‫ﻭ )ﺍﻷﻣﺮ( ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ( ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ )ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻏﻠﺐ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ )ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ(‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﻸﻋﺮﺍﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬ﻭﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ ﻟﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ؛ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﺴﺪﺗﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ؛ ﻓﻤﻔﺴﺪﺗﻪ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ؛ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ )ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ( ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .4‬ﺻـ‪.426 ،425‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .3‬ﺻـ‪.111‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﳐﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ )ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ( ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ )ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ( ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ؛ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻫﻮ )ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ( ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ )ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻷﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻛﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻛﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﳌﺬﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﱰﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺟﻞ ﻭﻋﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﰒ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﳛ ‪‬ﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻭﻳﺼﲑ ﳏﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣ ﱠﱰﻫﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺒﻴﺢ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﻮﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺣﻖ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺒﻴﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﻭﻟﻌﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﺫﻧﻪ ﲝﺮﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﺮﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﻮﻍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳛﻤﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﻭﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺿﺮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ ﺳﻔﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻊ ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﳛﺮﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻙ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺭ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ُ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.248‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪.1‬ﺻـ‪.157‬‬

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‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻈ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[68 :‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﰒ ﻳﺴﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺃﻳﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺳﻔﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳏﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ‪ -‬ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﳝﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﲪﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻏﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻳﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺟﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺟﻨﺪﻩ ﺿﺪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺣﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺴﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ؟‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺣﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺭﺗﻊ ﺣﻮﻝ ﲪﺎﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﳝﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﲪﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻏﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻳﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺀ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪.103 ،102‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻏﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﺄﰉ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﺣﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻠﲔ ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ؛ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲨﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ‪ -‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﺘﻤﻊ؛‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ )ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ ‪ -‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺩ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺠﺪ ﰲ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﳝﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ )( ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ )ﳐﺘﺼﺮﹰﺍ( ﺻـ‪ .495‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺿﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﳌﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﷲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ )ﻣﺎﻧﻊ( ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﻗﻂ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﲝﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺴﺒﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﲑﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ )ﺇﰒ ﻛﺒﲑ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪) :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻻ ﻳﱪﺭ ﺍﻹﰒ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺒﲔ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺟﺮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﹰﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ )ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ( ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺸﺄﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ )ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ( ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ )ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻻ ﳛﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻠﻒ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻞ ﻻ ﲢﻞ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰒ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.248‬‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳛﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﰒ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ -‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ‪ -‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﳌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮﻩ ﻻ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺽ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﲑ ﺍﻹﻳﻐﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫)ﺫﺍﺗﻪ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻳﻐﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻮﻏﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺩ ﱠﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﻏﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻳﻀﻴﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻓﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﻏﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻬﺠﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺮﺡ ﲟﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎﺓ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻏﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻇﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.[7:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺇﺗﻘﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﻏﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﲢﺼﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﺆﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺬﺍﻕ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻏﺎﻓﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻐﻔﻞ ﻻ ﺫﻫﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻔﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﺨﱪﻙ ﺑﻮﺯﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.64‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺻـ‪.23‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﻏﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺰﺋﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ * ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ‬ ‫ﻕ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻓ ﹺﺮﺣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭ‪ ‬ﺳ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[85/83 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﻫﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺘﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺯﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﳓﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺣﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲜﻬﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﴿ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺬﺭﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺃ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻛﺄﺻﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻃﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ * ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻟ َﺂﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺼﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻛ ‪‬ﺬﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪.[5/4:‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﹸﺄ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ َﺂ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺓ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.[28/27:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬‬ ‫* ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻋﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺰﺩﺟﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﳝﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﰒ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﺈﺳﻼﻡ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﺒﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﺘﺬﺭﻋﲔ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺑﻜﻔﺮ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﰉ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺯ ﹾﻟﻔﹶﻰ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[3 :‬‬ ‫ﺷ ﹶﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[18 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺆﻟﹶﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻓﺮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺘﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﺌ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ﹲﺓ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﺮ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪.[43 :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﳏﺾ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻟﺰﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲤﺖ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻄ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪.[24 :‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺣﲔ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﻟﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬

‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪.[29 :‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﲡﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻜﻢ ﻛﺤﻜﻤﻬﻢ‪ ..‬ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﺾ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺩﻣ‪ ‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺽ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲑﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎﹸﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﳏﻤﺪ‪ .[10:‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﻭﺯﻳﺮﻩ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻻ ﳛﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺁﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﳌﺬﺭﻱ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐ ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﱰﻫﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[82:‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ َﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘﻠﹶﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﹶ‬

‫ﺟـ ‪ -‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ‪.[38 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ﹴ‬

‫ﻭﺷﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻛﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ؛ ﻛﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﻭﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺛﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺿﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ؟!‬ ‫ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪.[23 :‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪.110 ،109‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺆﺗﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻫﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﻴﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺷﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺈﳘﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻀﻴﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺴﺪ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺧﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳑﻦ ﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻬﺎﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﺣﻮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱃ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻕ ﻭﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[105 :‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻗﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻠﻔﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﰲ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺘﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﳋﺴﺮﺍﻥ ﻟﻴﺠﺘﻨﺐ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[55 :‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺼ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .2‬ﺻـ‪ .487‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ .‬ﺟـ‪ .1‬ﺻـ‪ .107‬ﻁ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺑﲔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ( ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ )ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ( ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﳌﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺒﺎﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺃﻧﻔﻌﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﺤﻬﻢ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﻻﺀ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺸﺄﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺟﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﻭﻇﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﲔ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﺿﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺯﺩﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻭﳏﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﻐﻀﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻀﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺿﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺒﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫)ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ( ﺑﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﻴﻠﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻋﺮﻯ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻓﻤﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ )ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ( ﻭﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻦ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻬﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻓﺮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻴﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺑﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﺃﺣﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﻔﻬﻤﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺑﻄﻼﻧﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ‪ -‬ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﳎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺜﲑ ﳑﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﲎ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﳎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻔﺼﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻛﺘﺒﻬﻢ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻟﺘﺠﺘﻨﺐ ﻭﺗﺒﻐﺾ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀﻩ ﻟﺘﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.141‬‬

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‫ﲔ﴾‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺼ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﺐ ﻛﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻧﻔﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺳﻔﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﱐ ﻟﻶﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻏﺒﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻭﰱ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﺪ ﻏﺒﺸﹰﺎ ﻭﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﰱ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻠﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ..‬ﻭﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺮﻣﲔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻻ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﳑﻦ ﺣﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺠﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺠﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻼﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻧﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻠﺘﺒﺲ ﺍﳌﻼﻣﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )( ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ..‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻳﺘﱰﻝ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ‪ -‬ﻟﺘﺴﺘﺒﲔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ!‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺛﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﺴﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ..‬ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ..‬ﻻ ﳚﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺲ!‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ..‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻃﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ ‪‬ﺠﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻨﻪ ﺍﲰﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﻜﺮ ﳌﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻇﻨﺖ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺇﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﹰﺍ! ﻓﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ..‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﻟﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﻭﳜﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﳊﻜﻤﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻥ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ..‬ﻭﺃﳝﺎ ﻓﺮﺩ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﻟﻘﺒﻪ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﳝﺎ ﺃﺭﺽ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﱂ ﺗﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ‪..‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻃﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰱ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ‪ ..‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﺪﻳﻦ ﷲ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ‪..‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺷﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ!‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺣﺎﻁ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﲟﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ!‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﻜﻔﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﲤﻴﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﺎ ﻭﲣﻠﻴﻄﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ!‪ ..‬ﻤﺔ ﺗﻜﻔﲑ )ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ(!!!‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(!‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺟﻴﻞ!‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪ ..‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺪﺍﻫﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺧﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﺗﻘﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺤﺔ ﺻﺎﺋﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ! ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻜﻔﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ!‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﻋﻮﻥ! ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ...‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ‪ -‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﻘﲔ‪ ..‬ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ‪..‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺼ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘﺎﺯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﻫﺎ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻏﺒﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻳﻘﲔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻢ )ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ( ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻔﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﻢ ﻭﻳﺼﺪﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻳﺼﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫)ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﻮﻥ(‪..‬‬

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‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻦ ﳛﺘﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻨﻮﺍ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻛﻔﺮ ﻭﺇﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺼ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﲟﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻪ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻰ )‪:(1‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﺪﺡ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻭﻳﺜﺎﺏ ‪،‬ﻛﻮﺟﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻛﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﳌﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺏ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﺘﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﻨﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ – ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﲝﻴﺚ ﳝﺪﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻳﺜﺎﺏ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫•‬

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‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺃﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺎﺕ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻣﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﺜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ – ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺄﺟﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺁﲦﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺻﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺗﺄﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻔﺴﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ‪):‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ(‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺜﲑ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﳊﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳏﺮﻡ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺂﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰱ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﺻـ‪ 29‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻠﻒ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﳊﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ‪ -‬ﻛﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻤﻮﺭ ‪ -‬ﺑﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﺗﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﲢﺮﳝﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺼﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﺼﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺒﻪ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍﺀ ﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳊﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﰒ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ – ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ‪:‬ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )(‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ )(‪)) :‬ﺃﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻠﻮﻣﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﳝﺪﺡ ﻭﻳﺜﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ – ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﲔ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻣﺪﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺫﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ )ﺍﳊﻼﻝ(‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻌﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻈﻮﺭ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻗﻮ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[67 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹺﺮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺗﱰﻳﻪ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ ﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﲢﺮﱘ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺗﺸﺎ‪‬ﹰﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺼﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺗﺒﻪ ﻟﻴﺠﺪ ﰲ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﲔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ – ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺮﻡ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫•‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐ ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺮﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﶈﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﲣﻠﻔﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰒ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﰒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﰱ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺬﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺨﻠﻔﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﰒ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲣﻠﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺍﺧﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺮﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺗﺄﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ )( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺲ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺆﺍﺧﺬ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐ ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﰒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ؟‬ ‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺡ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﻮﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻬﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺜﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ )ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ )ﳏﺮﻡ( ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ – ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﲣﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺍﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ‪:‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ  ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻬﻞ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[27 :‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺏ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻴﻮﺗﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺑﻴﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺄﻧﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺫﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫‪145‬‬


‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺣﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﱂ ﺃﲰﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺋﺬﻧﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﻠﺒﻮﻩ ﻓﻮﺟﺪﻭﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺟﻌﻚ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱐ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺖ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﱄ ﻭﺇﱐ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﺼﺮﻑ((‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﺄﺗﻴﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺃﻭﺟﻌﺘﻚ ﺿﺮﺑﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻸ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺻﻐﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﳍﺎﱐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[58 :‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺫ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪:‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺫ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﴿ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ َﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻰ ﴾ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬

‫ ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ‪‬ﻢ ‪،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ  ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ )(‪) :‬ﺇﻻ ﲝﻖ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ( ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﰱ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲣﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺁﺣﺎﺩﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ ﲣﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺧﻔﻲ ﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻼﻥ؟ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﳘﺎ‬ ‫)ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ( ﻭ )ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﱪﺃ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻘﻄﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﺄﰒ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﻭﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(17‬‬

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‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻛﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻨﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻋﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ‬

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‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻼ )ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﰒ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ؛ ﻛﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﰒ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪:‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺼﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ )‪:(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﲏ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﺰﺋﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ ﻛﺘﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻺﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﻳﺚ ﻭﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻛﹶﺎﻓﱠ ﹰﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻃﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻔ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔﻘﱠﻬ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[122 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻻ ﳚﺰﺋﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺗﱪﺃ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ﺟـ‪1‬‬

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‫ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ )ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ( ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺿﺎﻋﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﲏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺷﻄﻄﹰﺎ ﻭﲪﻞ ﻭﺯﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ ﳑﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻝ ‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪.[2 :‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻴﻨﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻓﱴ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )( ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﳏﺪﺙ ﺇﻻ ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺧﺎﻩ ﻛﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺖ )ﻣﻔﱴ( ﺇﻻ ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺧﺎﻩ ﻛﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﱴ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﻠﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺤﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ﺃﻗﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲪﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ )( ﻭﻗﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻘﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[33 :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ )( ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺿﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻠﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻜﻠﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ((‪.‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪) :‬ﻭﺃﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺒﺪﻱ( ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪35‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺟـ‪ 1‬ﺻـ‪43‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺟﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﳕﺸﻲ ﻓﻠﺤﻘﻨﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻧﻌﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﻨﻚ ﻓﺪﻟﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪﱐ ﺃﺗﺮﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺔ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻱ!!‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﺎﺳﺄﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺑﺮ ﻗﺒ‪‬ﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻯ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹸﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﴾ )‪ (1‬ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺍﷲ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﺻﻞ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﻀﻪ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﲏ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﲞﺎﻟﻘﻪ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺭﺑﻮﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[191 :‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﻠﻘﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺯﺍﻍ ﺍﷲ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺃﺿﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ ‪ -‬ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺠﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺚ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﻠﺢ ﺑﻮﻋﻲ ﺃﺻﻮﱄ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ( ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻨﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺟـ‪ 2‬ﺻـ‪.435‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺩﺩﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺎ؛ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ -‬ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻴﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻟﺪﻯ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ )ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ )ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ( ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ( ﻭ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ( ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ )ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ( ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﲜﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲰﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻴﺌﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ )ﻛﺄﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺣﺪﹰﺍ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻴﺌﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ )ﻛﺄﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻴﺌﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ )ﻛﺎﳊﻴﺾ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﻴﺔ )ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ( ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﲜﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪(1).‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ )‪ (2‬ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻄﻼﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺮﻭﻃﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﺣﺎﺋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻷﺑﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ؛ ﻓﺎﻷﺏ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍﻧﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﺰﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﺏ )ﻗﺎﺗﻞ( ﱂ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩﻉ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﺏ ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﻘﺔ ﻟﻸﺑﻨﺎﺀ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺠﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ))ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺑﻮﻟﺪﻩ((‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺐ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﺅﻩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.26‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ‪ .‬ﺻـ‪.36‬‬

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‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﳌﻮﺭﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺐ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﲑﺍﺙ ‪ -‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺭﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﰉ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻻﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻺﺭﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻧﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺙ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﳊﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺑﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﻳﻦ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ( ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ )‪:(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ )ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ( ﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ)ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ )ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ؛ ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻟﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ‪ - 1 :‬ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ‪ -2‬ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺁﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ )ﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ( ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺫﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ )ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ( ﺇﺫ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ )ﺫﻣﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺍﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺇﺫ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﹰﺍ ﻣﺴﻘﻄﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﲜﻨﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻮﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﻼ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ )ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ( ﲞﻼﻑ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ )ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ( ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻗ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺁﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﺃﻫﻼ ﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﻪ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺘﻪ )ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﺎﺓ )ﺑﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪ :‬ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﲰﺎﻭﻳﺔ ‪ /‬ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ؛ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ؛ ﻛﺎﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﺰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺮﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫* ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻛﺴﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺼﲑﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ؟!ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺒﻪ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺗﻘﺼﲑﻩ ﻭﺇﻋﺮﺍﺿﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ؛ ﻛﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿ ﱠﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[17 :‬‬ ‫ﺼﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﱪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺟﻬﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ َﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫﴿ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻫﺎﻧﹰﺎ؛ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ‪.[117 :‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻘﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﺋﺘﻔﻜﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺳﻼﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻼ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﲑ ﴾ ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﳑﻦ ﺳ ‪‬ﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﻨﻪ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﻮﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳛﻞ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺃ‪.‬ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳊﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫‪-1‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻲ ﲢﺮﳝﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪ ﺃﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ‪..‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺷﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺗﺐ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪152‬‬


‫‪ -2‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻏﲑﻩ )ﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻠﻔﻪ؟!‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲜﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺗﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺰﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ((‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ(( ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﳏﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪15 :‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺲ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻠﻘﱠ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻟ ِ‬

‫ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﺍ ﻣﺴﻘﻄﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ‪،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﻘﻄﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻋﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺮﺡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 4‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﻬﹰﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﲣﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﻷﺣﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻮﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻼﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺬﺭ ‪ -‬ﻛﻌﺎﺭﺽ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ )ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺯﱏ ﺑﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮﻩ( ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﲢﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ( ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻻﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ( ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﰱ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻋﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ )ﺍﳋﻄﺄ( ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲡﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻔﻆ )ﺍﳉﻬﻞ( ﻟﻐﺔ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺴﻤﺖ )ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[50 :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻠﻴ‪ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒﻐ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺻﻐﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪.[89 :‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹸﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫﴿ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻴ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬