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An Introduction To Stem Cells Presented By the Stem Cell Center of Thailand P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2, www.stemcellthailand.org Bangkok Thailand 10110

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An Introducing Stem Cells

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Overview This presentation about stem cells is intended as a tool for educators, scientists, science communicators. Not all the slides will be useful for any one occasion. Choose the ones most suitable for your audience, mix them with your own slides, or just use the diagrams.

Contents ďƒ˜Stem cell biology basics: For school students aged 16+, or adult public with little or no scientific knowledge ďƒ˜Cloning: For adult public with little or no scientific knowledge; initial slides also suitable for students aged 16+ ďƒ˜Stem cell biology in more detail: For informed non-specialist audiences, e.g. clinicians, scientists working in fields other than stem cell biology and regenerative medicine

Presentation notes Each slide in the Basics and Cloning sections includes notes that give a simple, jargonfree explanation of the key points. The slides in the last section have less notes and assume some knowledge of stem cell science. Please visit the site for more details including stem cell conference schedules, clinical trials and medical journals.

Further information and resources Have a question or a comment? Please check out the Interactive Stem Cell Glossary or Contact us at http://stemcellthailand.org/contact/ P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Basics of Stem Cell Biology

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A life story‌

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What Is A Stem Cell? stem cell

SELF-RENEWAL (copying)

stem cell

DIFFERENTIATION (specializing)

specialized cell e.g. muscle cell, nerve cell P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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What Is A Stem Cell? Stem cell

Stem cell

DIFFERENTIATION (specializing)

SELF-RENEWAL (copying)

Identical stem cells

Specialized cells P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Why Self-renew AND Differentiate? 1 stem cell

1 stem cell Self renewal - maintains the stem cell pool

4 specialized cells Differentiation - replaces dead or damaged cells throughout your life P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Where Are Stem Cells Found?

embryonic stem cells blastocyst - a very early embryo

Adult stem cells fetus, baby and throughout life

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Types of Stem Cell: 1) Embryonic stem cells “Esc”

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Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Where we find them blastocyst cells inside = ‘inner cell mass’

fluid with nutrients

culture in the lab to grow more cells

embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass outer layer of cells = ‘trophectoderm’ P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Embryonic stem (ES) cells: What they can do

differentiation embryonic stem cells

PLURIPOTENT

all possible types of specialized cells P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges skin

neurons embryonic stem cells blood

liver P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Types of stem cell: 2) Tissue or “Adult” Stem Cells

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Adult stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye

skin

testicles

brain

breast

Adipose Tissue (Fat) bone marrow

muscles

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Adult stem cells: What they can do

blood stem cell differentiation found in bone marrow

MULTIPOTENT

only specialized types of blood cell: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

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Other Types of stem cell: 3)Induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells

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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) ‘genetic reprogramming’ = add certain genes to the cell cell from the body

induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell

differentiation culture iPS cells in the lab

Advantage: no need for embryos!

all possible types of specialized cells

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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) genetic reprogramming pluripotent stem cell (iPS)

cell from the body (skin)

differentiation

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Stem Cell Glossary/Terms Potency: A measure of how many types of specialized cell a stem cell can make

Pluripotent: Can make all types of specialized cells in the body Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent

Multipotent Can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all types Tissue stem cells are multipotent

OTHERS: Totipotent Stem Cells and Oligopotent Cell Lines and Unitpotent

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Cell Cloning

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Cloning There are two VERY different types of cloning: Reproductive cloning

Molecular cloning gene 1 gene 2

Use to make two identical individuals

Use to study what a gene does

Very difficult to do

Routine in the biology labs

Illegal to do on humans

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Reproductive cloning

cell from the body

egg remove nucleus and take the rest of the cell

take the nucleus (containing DNA)

Clone identical to the individual that gave the nucleus

Dolly the sheep P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

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Molecular cloning: Principles 1) Take DNA out of the nucleus gene 1 cell 1

gene 2 cell 2

2) Make a new piece of DNA gene 1

gene 1 gene 2

gene 2

3) Put new DNA into a test cell and grow copies gene 1

Daughter cells contain same DNA:

gene 2

insert new DNA

cell divides P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

Genes 1 and 2 have been cloned

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Molecular cloning: Applications Loss of function

Reporter gene

Lineage tracing

remove a gene to see if anything works differently

add a gene that shows us when another gene is working

mark a group of cells to see where their daughter cells end up

gene is active in blue areas only

gene is passed on to cells all over the body

eye

Normal mouse embryo

gene A missing

gene is involved in giving the eye its colour

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Stem Cell Biology in Detail

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Tissue Stem cell Types And Hierarchies

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Tissue stem cells: Principles of renewing tissues

Stem cell

stem cell: - self renew - divide rarely - high potency - rare

committed progenitors: - “transient amplifying cells� - multipotent - divide rapidly - no self-renewal P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

specialized cells: - work - no division

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Tissue stem cells: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) NK cell T cell B cell dendritic cell

megakaryocyte

HSC

platelets erythrocytes macrophage neutrophil

bone marrow

eosinophil basophil

committed progenitors P: 347.450.8424 TH: +66.808.069.391 808/8 Thararom 2, Sukhumvit 55 FL 2 Klongton-Nue,Bangkok 10110 Thailand

specialized cells

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Tissue stem cells: Neural stem cells (NSCs) Neurons

Interneurons Oligodendrocytes

NSC Type 2 Astrocytes Type 1 Astrocytes

Brain Injuries

committed progenitors

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specialized cells

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Tissue stem cells: Adipose stem cells (ASCs) Paneth cells

Goblet cells

GSC Endocrine cells Columnar cells Small intestine or Fat

committed progenitors

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specialized cells

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Tissue stem cells: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) Bone (osteoblasts)

Cartilage (chondrocytes)

MSC

bone marrow Fat (adipocytes) committed progenitors

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specialized cells

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The Stem Cell Niche

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Stem cell niches Niche

stem cell

Microenvironment around stem cells that provides support and signals regulating self-renewal and differentiation

Direct contact

niche

Soluble factors

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Intermediate cell

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Thank You For Viewing!

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There are several sources of stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells can be isolated from human embryos that are a few days old. Cells from these...

Most Requested Questions And Answers about Regenerative Medicine  

There are several sources of stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells can be isolated from human embryos that are a few days old. Cells from these...

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