Page 1


Part E: Conclusion After collecting data, you should make a conclusion about the relationship between the pupae and the Nasonia.

Analysis 1. Q:Was your original hypothesis correct or incorrect? Your teacher may have made a class list of hypotheses from each team. If so, have you truly disproven any of the hypotheses that differ from yours? A:Incorrect 2. Q:Parasitism is defined as follows:One organism (the host) receives no benefits and is often injured while supplying nutrients and/or shelter for the organism (the parasite). Based on what you observed throughout this activity, explain why Nasonia are called parasites. A:Because the Nasonia attempted to lay eggs inside the pupae so that the eggs would be sheltered 3. Q:The pupae in this activity are from the organism known as Sarcophaga. What do you think the Sarcophaga do after they emerge as adults? A:Attempt to eat anything they could find including other Sarcophaga pupae. 4. Q:Before the Sarcophaga formed a pupae, it was a worm like creature called a larvae. You probably call them maggots. Can you think of another insect that has a life cycle like the Sarcophaga? A:Moths. 5. How do you think that the young Nasonia got into the Sarcophaga pupae? A:Through the airholes on the ends of the pupae. 6. Reflecting on this activity, you should now be familiar with the steps that scientists take when performing research. What are the steps of the scientific method that you performed in this activity? Hypothesize, experiment, observe, and conclude. 7. Throughout this activity, you were able to observe Nasonia at varying developmental stages. Describe the Nasonia life cycle. A:Egg to larvae to pupae to adult.


I Title: Diffusion Lab II Purpose: To determine the extent and rate of diffusion into three difference sized agar cubes. III Materials: -1 3 cm x 3 cm x 6 cm phenolphthalein agar block -1 Plastic knife -1 Plastic cup -diffusion medium IV Procedure: 1. Obtain a 3 cm x 3 cm x 6 cm agar block from your teacher. Using a plastic knife, trim this piece to a cube 3 cm続. Repeat this procedure to make a 2cm続 cube and a 1cm続 cube 2. Place the three cubes carefully into a plastic cup. Add diffusion medium until the cup is approximately half full. Be sure the cubes are completely submerged. Using a plastic spoon, keep the cubes submerged for 10 minutes, turning them occasionally. Be careful not to scratch any surface of the cubes 3. As the cubes soak, calculate the surface area, volume, and surface area to volume ratio for each cube. Record these values in Data Table 1. Use the following formulas: -surface area = length x width x number of sides -volume = length x width 4. After 10 minutes, use a spoon to remove the agar cubes and carefully blot them dry on a paper towel. Then, cut the cubes in half. Not the color change from red or pink to clear that indicates the diffusion of diffusion medium into the cube. 5. Using a metric ruler, measure the distance in centimeters that the diffusion medium diffused into each cube. Record the data in Data Table 2. Next, record the total time of diffusion. Finally, calculate and record the rate of diffusion for each cube as centimeters per minute. 6. Examine the extent of diffusion for reach cube. Visually estimate the percentage of diffusion into the cube. Record your estimate in Data Table 3 7. Calculate the volume of the portion of each cube that has not changed color. Record your results in Data table 3. 8. Calculate the extent of actual diffusion into each cube as a percent of the total volume.


V Data: Agar cubes: Cube size ( cm3)

Surface area

Cm3 (volume)

Surface area/ volume (smallest #)

3 cm3

54

24

2:1

2 cm3

24

8

3:1

1 cm3

6

1

6:1

Cube size ( cm3)

Depth of diffusion (cm)

Time (minutes)

Rate of diffusion cm/min

3 cm3

0.5

10

0.05

2 cm3

0.5

10

0.05

1 cm3

1

10

0.1

Rate of diffusion:

Extent of diffusion: Cube size ( cm3) Total volume of the cube ( cm3)

Estimated percentage of the cube which has changed color.

Volume of the cube which has not changed color. (cm3)

Percentage of the cube which has not changed color. (extent of diffusion)

3 cm3

27

17%

22.41

17%

3 cm3

8

25%

6

25%

2 cm3

1

100%

0

100%

VI Analysis & Conclusion: 1. Q:The agar you used to make your cubes contained phenolphthalein and had a pH of greater than 9. Explain how the use of a pH indicator allowed you to visualize the extent of diffusion into the cubes. A:The acidic diffusion medium caused the pH indicator to change from a pinkish color to almost completely clear. 2. Q:According to Data Table 2, into which cube did the diffusion medium diffused


the deepest? A:The 1 cm cube. 3. Q:Into which cube did the diffusion medium diffuse the most by volume? A:The 1 cm cube. 4. Q:Examine your data in Data Table 2 for a relationship between cube size and the rate of diffusion into the cube. Make a generalized statement about the relationship between cell size and the rate of diffusion. A:The smaller the object, the faster the rate of diffusion. 5. Q:Examine your data in Data Table 1. Describe what happens to the surface area, the volume, and the ratio between the two values as a cell grows larger. A:Surface area and volume increase but the ratio decreases. 6. Q:If each cube represented a living cell and the diffusion medium a substance needed within the cell, what problem might exist for the largest cell? A:Much of the cell would not be affected by diffusion. 7. Q:According to the results of your investigation, describe the characteristics of cell size, surface area, and surface area to volume ratio which best meet the diffusion needs of living cells. A:For the most efficient diffusion, cells need a large surface area but a relatively small volume. 8. Q:The size of some human cells is 0.01 mm. Using the formulas in this activity, calculate the surface area to volume ratio of such a cell (assume the cell is a 0.01 mm cube). Describe the extent and rate of diffusion into this living cell as compared to the smallest agar cube. A:The ratio of surface area:volume is 0.0006:0.00001 mm, 600/1, the rate of diffusion would be faster in the agar cube, but the extent of diffusion would be much faster in the cells.


9. Q:Is diffusion the only method in which substances enter and exit the cell? If not, what factors are not accounted for in the simulation? A:No, it did not account for any type of active transport or some types of passive transport. 10. Q:Osmosis is a specialized form of diffusion. Research osmosis and create a Venn diagram comparing osmosis and diffusion. A:


|_____________________________| |_____ |RY |Ry |rY |ry | |RY |RRYY|RRYy |RrYY |RrYy | |Ry |RRYy |RRyy |RrYy |Rryy | |rY |RrYY |RrYy |rrYY |rrYy | |ry |RrYy |Rryy |rrYy |rryy | |_____________________________|

Phenotypes:Round Yellow, Round Green, Wrinkled Yellow, Wrinkled Green.


Assessment 1. Define the following terms: Anticodon-a 3 base sequence on tRNA that complements a 3 base sequence on mRNA. Codon-a 3 base sequence on mRNA that determines which amino acid will appear during protein synthesis. Nucleotide-the basic buliding block of DNA and RNA composed of a sugar (Ribose/Deoxyribose), a Nitrogen base (Adenine, Thymine, Cytocine, Guanine, and Uracil), and a phosphate group. Ribosome-an orgenelle found in the cytosol of a cell that binds to mRNA and faciliates the making of a protein. Transcription-the process in which mRNA is construced from a DNA template. Translation-the process in which mRNA attaches to a ribosome and synthesizes a protein. 2.


5. How can a protein be synthesized in the cytoplasm of a cell when DNA is contained in the nucleus? The DNA is transcribed into mRNA which leaves the nucleus and is transcribed into a protein. 6. Complete the following chart:

Nucleic acid

Actual Name

Shape

Location in Cell

Function during protein synthesis

DNA

Deoxyribonuclei c acid

Double helix

Nucleus

Contains blueprint

mRNA

Messenger Ribonucleic acid

Single strand

Nucleus/ Cytosol

Contains code from DNA and is transported into the


cytosol tRNA

Transfer Ribonucleic acid

clover

Cytosol

Brings together the mRNA codon sequence and amino acids

7. Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast codons to anticodons. Similarities and differences can relate to structure, components, and/or function.


Codon

Anticodon

8. Read the following statements and write if each one is true or false. If you belive the statement is false, explain the reason why below it. ‘Uracil is always paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA’ –F ‘Thymine is always paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA’. ‘The process in which a ribosome controlles protein synthesis is called transcription’ –F ‘The process in which a ribosome controlles protein synthesis is called translation’. ‘Adenine and Guanine are purines; cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines’ –T. ‘Protein synthesis occurs within the nucleus of a cell’ –F ‘Protein synthesis occurs within the cytosol of a cell’. ‘Nucleotides contain sugar, an organic nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.’ –T. 9. Research an example of an SNP and explain the effects it may have. Example SNPs are rs6311 and rs6313 in the HTR2A gene. A SNP in the F5 gene causes a hypercoagulability disorder with the variant Factor V Leiden. An example of a triallelic SNP is rs3091244. 10.


Classification Archaebacteria • Cells without a nucleus. • Makes own food from chemicals. • Body form: single cells; rod-shaped, spherical, or irregular in shape. • Found only in extreme environments: extremely hot temperatures, extremely salty water, or environments without oxygen. • Reproduces only by asexual means. № 54 Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Group: Thermophile Archaebacteria Cells irregular in shape; found only in extremely hot sulfur-rich water; makes its own food from chemicals № 26 Methanococcus voltaei Group: Methanogen Archaebacteria Cells spherical in shape: makes methane gas as a waste product. •

Eubacteria Cell(s) without a nucleus


• • • •

Motile or non-motile Makes its own food or feeds on others Body form: single cells, cells in chains, groups, or slender threads. Reproduces only by asexual means.

№ 45 Rizobium leguminosarum Class: Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as either: single cells or sometimes in chains or small groups. Cannon make its own food or make its own food from chemicals. Makes nitrogen compounds. № 52 Borrelia burgdorferi Class: Spirochaete Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as either: single cells or sometimes in chains or small groups. Cannon make its own food or make its own food from chemicals. Spiral shaped, parasitic. № 20 Lactobacillus acidophilus Class: Fermentation Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as either: single cells or sometimes in chains or small groups. Cannon make its own food or make its own food from chemicals. Makes energy molecules by fermentation № 17 Bacillus subtilis Class: Spore-Forming Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as either: single cells or sometimes in chains or small groups. Cannon make its own food or make its own food from chemicals. Makes protective spores. № 25 Microcystis aeruginosa Class: Sphere Cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as long hair like threads or in groups called “colonies”. Cells have blue green color. Cells make their own food through photosynthesis. Cells arranged in groups called “colonies”. № 50 Anabaena varia bilis Class: Thread Cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as long hair like threads or in groups called “colonies”. Cells have blue green color. Cells make their own food through photosynthesis. Rectangular or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a “thread”. № 43 Glopocapsa minuta Class: Sphere Cynobacteria Phylum: Cynobacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as long hair like threads or in groups called “colonies”. Cells have blue green color. Cells make their own food through photosynthesis. Cells arranged in groups called “colonies”.


№ 16 Oscillatoria chalybea Class: Thread Cynobacteria Phylum: Cynobacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as long hair like threads or in groups called “colonies”. Cells have blue green color. Cells make their own food through photosynthesis. Rectangular or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a “thread”. № 13 Spirulina Platensis Class: Thread Cynobacteria Phylum: Cynobacteria Cells without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope appearing as long hair like threads or in groups called “colonies”. Cells have blue green color. Cells make their own food through photosynthesis. Rectangular or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a “thread”. • • • • •

Protista Cells with a nucleus. Motile or Non-motile Makes its own food or feeds on others― many switch from one feeding method to the other. Great variety in body form: single cells, groups of like cells; thread-like chain of cells. Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

№ 55 Trypaosoma brucei Phylum: Flagellates Cells do not move about; have glass shells with distinct and delicate patterns. № 34 Dileptus anser Phylum: Ciliates Cells move using short hair-like structures called “cilia”. № 40 Euglena viridis Phylum: Flagellates Cells move using long hair-like structures called “flagella”. №7 Amoeba proteus Phylum: Amoebas Cells move about using finger-like projections or “pseudopods”; some may have shells. № 30 Spirogyra communis Phylum: Thread Protists Cells arranged end-to-end in a thread. № 51 Volvox globator Phylum: Colony Protists Cells not arranged in a thread, but together in a group or “colony”. № 47 Difflugia oblongo Phylum: Amoebas Cells move about using finger-like projections or “pseudopods”; some may have shells. № 33 Navicula capitata Phylum: Diatoms Cells do not move about; have glass shells with distinct and delicate patterns. № 60


Paramecium caudatum Phylum: Ciliates Cells move using short hair-like structures called “cilia”. • • • • •

Fungi Body made up of many cells, each having a nucleus Non-motile. Gets food from others by absorbing nutrients found outside its cells. Body made up of a system of thread-like structures called “hypae”. Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

№ 11 Aspergillus niger Phylum: Molds Spore cases looks like “lollipops” or “brooms”. № 4 Coprinus comatus Phylum: Mushrooms Fungus appears spherical (ball-shaped), shelf-like, or “mushroom”-shaped. № 48 Penicillium chrysosogenum Phylum: Molds Spore cases looks like “lollipops” or “brooms”. № 24 Lycoperdon gemmatum Phylum: Mushrooms Fungus appears spherical (ball-shaped), shelf-like, or “mushroom-shaped”. № 44 Rhytisma acerinum Phylum: Sac Fungi Spore cases are sac-like fingers, with inside spores arranged like “peas in a pod”. № 49 Ganoderma tsugae Phylum: Mushrooms Fungus appears spherical (ball-shaped), shelf-like, or “mushroom-shaped”. № 58 Rhizopus stolonifer Phylum: Molds Spore cases looks like “lollipops” or “brooms”. • • • • • •

Plantae Body structure made up of many cells, each having a nucleus. Most with fluid-transporting tissues Organs present ―roots, stems, and leaves. Non-motile Makes its own food from the energy in sunlight (photosynthesis) Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

№ 59 Thalassia testudinom Class: Monocot Phylum: Angiosperms Plant with broad-shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present. Plant has leaves with parallel veins; plant embryo has single “seed leaf”. № 57 Anthoceros punctatus Phylum: Hornworts Flat body with spore cases shaped like horns sticking up from the plant № 37


Polytrichum longisetum Phylum: Mosses Plant body leafy and upright. № 53 Zea mays Class: Monocot Phylum: Angiosperms Plant with broad-shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present. № 19 Lycopodium obscurum Phylum: Mosses Plant body leafy and upright. Plant has leaves with parallel veins; plant embryo has single “seed leaf”. № 10 Polypodium virginianum Phylum: Ferns Plant has broad, triangular leaves; round spore cases containg spores found on the underside of leaves; root-like stems called “rhizomes” present. № 15 Quercus alba Class: Dicot Phylum: Angiosperms Plant with broad-shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present. Plant has leaves with net-like veins; plant embryo has two “seed leaves”. № 23 Picea pungens Phylum: Conifers Plant with needle-shaped leaves; seeds produced in cones; no fruits or flowers present. №2 Helianthus anuus Class: Dicot Phylum: Angiosperms Plant with broad-shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present. Plant has leaves with net-like veins; plant embryo has two “seed leaves”. • • • • •

Animaliae Body structure made up of many cells, each having a nucleus Most with tissues and organs Most are motile Cannot make its own food ― all feed on others Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

№ 36 Euarctos americanus Class: Mammals Phylum: Chordates Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four well-developed types; young born alive and feed on milk produced by the female parent. № 14 Lumbricus terrestris Phylum: Annelids Body divided into many similar sections; no joint appendages. Body has a soft outer covering; worm-like in appearance. № 18


Scolopendra polymorpha Class: Centipides Phylum: Arthropods Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering. Flattened body; one pair of legs per body part. № 28 Daphnia magna Class: Branchipods Phylum: Arthropods Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering. Very small in size; one of the 2 pairs of antennae very small. № 22 Onchorhynchus mykiss Class: Bony Fish Phylum: Chordates Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; bondy covered with flattened scales; breathes through covered gills; with paired fins № 27 Lycosa carolinensis Class: Spiders Phylum: Arthropod Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering. Lives on land; simple eyes; breathes through tiny tubes № 56 Astertas vulgars Class: Sea Stars Phylum: Echinoderms Body covered with projecting spines is projecting arms joined at the base; moves about by tube feet. Star shaped; usually with five broad arms joined at the bases. № 39 Argonanta pacifica Class: Octopi and Squid Phylum: Molluscs Body with either an internal or external shell; some with tentacles Internal shell; tentacles on head. №6 Spongilla lacustris Phylum: Sponges Body without organized form; no tissues or organs № 38 Alligator mississippians Class: Reptiles Phylum: Chordate Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; bone covered with dry, scaly skin; breathers through internal sacs or lungs; two pairs of limbs; leather-shelled eggs №8 Rana pipens Class: Amphibian Phylum: Chordate Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered in smooth skin; breaths through both skin and lungs; eggs laid in clusters; most with two pairs of limbs №9


Alces alces Class: Mammal Phylum: Chordates Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four well-developed types; young born alive and feed on milk produced by the female parent. № 12 Romalea guttata Class: Insects Phylum: Arthropods Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering. Three pairs of legs on the middle body part; one or two pairs of wings № 31 Philodina roseola Phylum: Rotifers Body with characteristic “wheel organ” made up of two discs of rotating cilia in the head; either with or without a shell. Smallest of animals. № 46 Hydra fusca Class: Octopi/Squid Phylum: Cnidarians Body with stinging tentacles at one end. Internal shell; tentacles on head № 41 Pantera leo Class: Mammal Phylum: Vertebrate Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four well-developed types; young born alive and feed on milk produced by the female parent. № 42 Helix Pomacea Class: Snails and Slugs Phylum: Molluscs Body with either an internal or external shell; some with tentacles.Shell, if present, coiled; head distinct. №3 Heterorhabits marelatus Class: Phylum: Roundworms Body worm-like, not segmented; transparent with tapered ends; some are parasites. №5 Cyclops bicuspidatus Class: Copepods Phylum: Arthropods Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering. Very small in size; one pair of long out-stretched antennae; bowling pin body shape. № 32 Petromyzon marinus Phylum: Chordate Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gills sometime during life; most with paired appendages. № 12 Romalea guttata Class: Insect Phylum: Arthropods Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer


covering. Three pairs of legs on the middle body part; one or two pairs of wings. â„– 35 Falco Peregrinus Class: Birds Phylum: Chordates Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometimes during life; most with paired appendages. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with feathers; no teeth; forelimbs modified as wings; hard shelled eggs. â„– 29 Dugesia tigrina Class: Turbellarians Phylum: Flatworms Body wormlike in appearance; flat Not a parasite; no parts or segments â„– 21 Homarus ameria anus Class: Decapods Phylum: Arthropods-Crustaceans Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering.Large in size; has 10 legs


I. Title: Natural Selection II. Purpose: To determine how natural selection acts on the color and size of a moth. III. Materials: 1. An environmental tray with a dark interior; 2. an environmental tray with a light interior; 3. 1 (one) set of moths with 9 (nine) varying intensities; 4. 1 (one) set of squares with different sizes. IV. Steps: 1. Randomly select 5 (five) moths from dark colored box and record the color of each. [Repeat 2x] 2. Randomly select 5 (five) squares from light colored box and record the size of each. [Repeat 2x] V. Data: The selection of varying intensities of moths. Color White .. ... .... Grey ...... ....... ........ Black Number of moths selected

2

6

3

1

0

0

1

1

1

Total class count

25

59

16

14

26

9

7

27

24

The selection of different sized squares Size ½” ¾” 1” Number of each square selected Total class count

1 ¼”

1 ½”

1 ¾”

2”

2

0

6

0

0

4

3

32

1

100

1

2

53

40

VI. Analyze and conclude: 1. If the respective rows of colored moths or different sized squares are arranged in a single file from white to black or small to large, is there an equal number of objects on either side of the middle? No. 2. Looking at the class data for which colored moths were selected, did the class select out more lighter-colored moths or darker colored moths? More lighter colored moths. 3. How would you explain the class results? The lighter colored moths stood out against the darker color of the box. 4. looking at the class data for which different sized squares were selected, did the class select more out more smaller-sized squares or larger-sized squares? More smaller squares. 5. How would you explain the class results? The smaller squares were easier to pick up. 6. Imagine that most of the trees in a forest of over 100 years ago had bark that was light in color. In addition, some of the birds in this fores fed on moths. What kind of moth would be eaten by birds more frequently? Explain why. The darker colored moths. Because they would stand out more. 7. If uneaten moths mated, what color offspring would they tend to have a few more of? They would produce lighter colored offspring over time. 8. Further imagine that after a number of years, the nearby city became more and more industialized. Smoke poured out of the chimneys and settled on the tree trunks. What would


happen to the color of the tree trunks as time progressed? They would get darker. 9. What kind of moth would be eaten now by the birds more frequently? Explain why. The lighter colored moths. They would stand out more. 10. If uneaten moths mated, what color offspring would they tend to have a few more of? Darker colored moths. 11. As the years continued, the trees became darker and darker. If the surviving moths of each generation were to continue to mate, what do you think in time would happen to the entire population? They would all become dark colored. 12. You might say that moths evolved from one color to another. What caused the change to take place? The change in the environment. 13. To summarize, you have learned that individuals differ. Because of these differences, some will have a better chance of surviving. What difference will give some individuals a better chance of survival? Any phenotype that is favorable to the organism will allow it to survive. 14. It should be pointed out that there may be many differences that help an organism survive. A more favorable structure is not the only reason. Those who survive live to give birth to young that are more similar to the parents. This idea was observed, studied, and proposed by Charles Darwin. He called it “The Theory of Natural Selection� some people also call it survival of the fittest. According to Darwin, what is nature selecting? The favorable traits. 15. The giraffe survives by eating leaves off of trees. The giraffe did not get its long neck by streching its neck to reach taller and taller leaves (as proposed by Lamarck). Using Darwin's theory, how would you explain how the giraffe got its long neck. The giraffes with shorter necks died off because they were not able to eat as much as the long necked giraffes. 16. In summary, according to Darwin, what kind of an individual survives? The fittest. 17. In the case of the peppered moth an example of microevolution or Macroevolution? Explain. How could this example be used to illustrate Macroevolution? Microevolution. Only one trait was changed. If these steps can occur on a small scale then why cant they occur on a much larger scale.


Michael Klein & Christopher Williams Mr. Snyder Biology 9 02/04/09

The Earthworm Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Class: Oligochaeta Genus: Lumbricus Species: terrestris


8. Purpose: The purpose is to examine the earthworm internally and externally by dissection. 9. Materials: 1. Dissection Tray 2. Earthworm 3. Scalpel 4. Dissecting Needle 5. Scissors 6. Forceps 7. Dissecting Probe 8. Pins


2. Methods: A. External: The dissector first observed that the earthworm was approximately 12 (twelve) inches long with approximately 180 (one hundred eighty) segments, with 2 (two) pairs of hook-like setae on the ventral side of each segment. One third of the way down the anterior end of the earthworm was a yellowish lump called the clitellum, which serves for reproduction. The dissector observed that the posterior end of the earthworm was slightly less rounded than the anterior end and had a small pinhole-sized anus. The dissector observer that the posterior end was also slightly lighter in color. The dissector observed that the anterior end was darker, rounder, and thicker than the posterior end. The dissector observed that on the anterior end there was a stiff rubber-like aperture with a flap-like upper-lip which was the mouth. The dissector observed that the ventral side of the earthworm was the lightest of all and that the dorsal blood vessel was barely visible through the skin on the posterior end. The dissector observed that there were 2 (two) sperm ducts, which were very small and looked like scars from being pierced, on the ventral side of the clitellum. The dissector then used the dissecting needle to scrape away the cuticle which was a thin, transparent, plastic-wrap-like skin.

B. Internal: To prepare for the internal observations, the dissector first pinned down the worm with three pins: one stuck in between the third and fourth segments from each end and the third one stuck one centimeter from the posterior end of the clitellum. The dissector then slit the the skin of the earthworm anterior to the third pin with the scalpel and inserted one blade of the scissors into the incision made with the scalpel. The dissector then used the scissors to cut through the clitellum and the skin all the way to the mouth. The dissector then held the skin open with the forceps while he used the dissecting probe to cut through the septa which were the white dividing walls of the bamboo-like compartments that make up the earthworm. The dissector, still holding open the skin with the forceps, pinned the skin down with the pins, 4 (four) for each flap of skin. Having completed the rudimentary preparations for the internal observations, the dissector first observed that the pharynx looked like a set of baffles and had a spongy consistency. The dissector then observed that the esophagus was a thin brown tube that connected the mouth to the crop. The dissector observed that there were 8 (eight) seminal vesicles (two small and two slightly larger on each side) which looked like small puffball mushrooms that hid the hearts. The dissector observed that the aortic arches were hidden by the seminal vesicles so he proceeded to remove them using the forceps. Once he removed the seminal vesicles the dissector observed that the 5 (five) aortic arches, also known as hearts, were thin lumpy brown rings of tissue which were wrapped around the esophagus. The dissector observed that the crop was a brownish lump of tissue posterior to the aortic arches and seminal vesicles which contained dirt being stored for digestion. The dissector observed that the gizzard was another brownish lump posterior to the crop which was filled with dirt mixed with what appeared to be sand. The dissector observed that the stomach was posterior to the gizzard and besides being filled with partially digested dirt, had small white spots on its inner walls. The dissector does not know the function or purpose of the spots. The dissector then cut through the intestine to expose the dorsal nerve cord which was a thin blue thread which lined the dorsal side of the entire intestine of the earthworm along with the dorsal blood vessel. The dissector then observed the protonephridia which were a bundle of light colored threads in a tangled clump within each segment. The dissector observed the already severed, wrinkled, long,


rubbery, tube filled with partially digested dirt which spanned the entire length of the earthworm which was the intestine of the earthworm. The dissector observed that on the anterior end of the earthworm there was a clump of nervous tissue called the cerebral ganglia which were a pair of white lumps near the interior of the mouth which was connected to the dorsal nerve cord. The dissector had then observed all that he could find within the earthworm and therefore disposed of it properly.


IV. Observations: A. External anatomy of an earthworm:


B. Internal anatomy of an earthworm:


V. Conclusions: 1. List the characteristics shared by all annelids. All annelids have a segmented body, well 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

developed cephalization, an elongated body, and a closed circulatory system with hemoglobin and amebocytes. What is the function of setae? The function of the setae is to provide traction for locomotion. What is another name for the body segments of an earthworm? Another name for the body segments of an earthworm is metameres. What is the function of the clitellum? The function of the clitellum is to produce mucus for copulation and also to secrete the cocoon into which the eggs are deposited. How many hearts does an earthworm have? Earthworms have 5 (five) hearts, also known as aortic arches. Describe the process of digestion in an earthworm. The process of digestion in an earthworm begins when food enters the mouth and travels through the pharynx and the crop. The dirt is then mixed with sand and ground up in the gizzard and nutrients are extracted in the intestine. Undigested material then exits the earthworm through the anus. What is the function of the typhlosole? The function of the typhosole is to enlarge the surface area of the intestine which increases the efficiency in absorbing food.

8. What is the term given for the slowing down of the earthworm's body functions? The term given for the slowing down of the earthworm's body functions is diapause. 9. Distinguish between the different families of Oligochaeta. Aeolosomatidae are microscopic oligochaetes which live in fresh water, feed on algae; they reproduce asexually. Tubificidae live in fresh water and eat detritus; they live in clumps. Enchytraeidae has both aquatic and terrestrial species, they are up to 25mm long and are whitish in color. 10. Summarize your dissection experience. (in one paragraph) I was surprised how many organs could fit into a simple worm and how complicated the organs were. I had a freakishly long worm (12in) and it was in a better condition then the clam from the previous dissection. I was also surprised to learn that the earthworm's organs are not spread out as presupposed. The skin was thicker and the organs were bigger then I expected. I was also surprised to find that almost everything in the earthworm was a shade of brown. The setae were smoother and there were more segments than I expected.


Michael Klein & Christopher Williams Mr. Snyder Biology 9 12/02/09

The Crayfish Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphyla: Crustacea Order: Decapoda Genus: Cambarus Species: SP.


10.Purpose: The purpose is to examine the Crayfish internally and externally by dissection. 11.Materials: 1. Dissection Tray 2. Crayfish 3. Dissecting Needle 4. Scissors 5. Forceps 6. Dissecting Probe


3. Methods: A. External: When the dissector first received the crayfish, he observed that it was almost entirely reddish brown except for the cheliped which was mostly a slightly darker reddish brown. The dissector measured the crayfish from the tip of the rostrum, which is the part of the exoskeleton where it comes to a point in between the eyes, to the end of the tail and recorded that it measured approximately 4 (four) inches. The dissector then followed up on his measurements by observing that the claw, including the arm that attaches the cheliped to the cephalothorax, was approximately 1 他 (one and three quarters) inches long. The dissector noticed the stalk eyes which had a hollow, black, round, tip. The dissector observed that the exoskeleton was bumpy and covered with little black sensory hairs. The dissector then concluded that the crayfish was male because the first pair of swimmerets were long and tucked in. The dissector observed that there were 5 (five) pairs of swimmerets including the 1st pair which were modified for reproduction. The dissector observed that the 1st pair of swimmerets had a white end with three tips, one large tip and and two other tips branching out from the sides. The dissector observed that the anus was a small hole on the ventral side of the telson. The dissector observed that the crayfish was stiff and falling apart and when tugged, the appendages either fell off with minimal effort they came off and were attached to white stringy muscles. The dissector also observed that the joints had a single axis and were held together by a thin translucent layer and on the inside were connected by white muscles. The dissector observed that the claws, also known as chelipeds, were covered in spikes and had a yellow tinted edge where they closed. The dissector observed that the claws had 5 (five), including the claw joint, and 4 (four) joints in each of the 10 (ten) walking legs. The dissector observed that the cervical groove was a thin groove on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax. The dissector observed that under the carapace, the crayfish had a series of translucent and feather-like gills which were attached to the walking legs. The dissector observed that the abdomen was composed of 7 (seven) segments and ended with the telson and 2 (two) pairs of spread feathery-ended uropods. The dissector observed that the abdomen had less spikes and was overlapped by the cephalothorax. The dissector observed that there were 4 (four) antennules, which were short and bumpy, and 2 (two) antennae which were like the antennules, but longer and more curved. The dissector observed that in between the eyes of the crayfish was a sharp part of the exoskeleton called the rostrum. The dissector removed the first pair of maxillipeds which resembled small walking legs and were very hairy, maxilla with gills attached, and 2 (two) more pairs of maxillipeds. The dissector removed the mandibles which were white with a yellow flattened tip ringed with darker colored spikes which surrounded a little black dot in the middle. The dissector observed that the mandibles were attached to long thin white muscles.

B. Internal: Having finished with the external observations, the dissector prepared for the internal observations. The dissector proceeded by first making a window cut down the entire dorsal side of the crayfish. The dissector observed that there were many muscles attached to the exoskeleton and that the tail was completely lined with white muscles. The dissector removed the phyloric stomach with the forceps and observed that it was translucent, bulb-shaped, and connected the the posterior end of the esophagus and the anterior end of the intestine. The dissector observed that the circumesophageal nerve was a narrow net-like structure that surrounded the esophagus. The dissector observed that was a ring of bright yellow fat that surrounded some of the organs at the anterior end. The dissector observed that there was a pair


tinted organs, that turned out to be the green glands, on the ventral side of the anterior end. The dissector observed that there was a pair of relatively long white gonads at the posterior end of the cephalothorax, towards the dorsal side. The dissector probed a sample of the crayfish's white muscle, that he had removed with the forceps, with the dissecting probe and concluded that it was composed of many fibers. The dissector observed that the heart was semi-translucent, flatsided, and had 2 (two) pinholes on the crayfish's dorsal side. The dissector had then observed all of the easily noticeable parts of the crayfish and thus disposed of it properly.


V. Observations: A. External anatomy of a Crayfish:


B. Internal anatomy of a Crayfish:


V. Conclusions: 11. Identify at least 4 animals that belong to subphylum Crustacea: Crayfish, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp. 12. Identify at least 3 distinguishing characteristics of subphylum Crustacea: They have an exoskeleton strengthened by calcium, salts, gills, two pairs of antennae, and a pair of maxillae and mandibles. 13. What characteristics do Annelids share with Arthropods?: Both are metameric; the brain is located cranially and dorsally, but is followed by a ganglionic swelling in each segment; primitive arthropods have paired appendages for each segment which can be compared with the paired parapodia or setae on each metamere in Annelids. 14. What distinguishing characteristics do Annelids share with Arthropods?: Arthropods have many specialized muscles whereas Annelids have only longitudinal and radial muscles; the circulatory system changed from a closed system to an open system; Arthropods also have aortic arches specialized into an effective heart. 15. Identify and describe all the functions of all the mouth parts found in a crayfish: mandible is used for grinding food, maxillae are used to manipulate food, maxillipeds are used for touch, taste, and respiration, the mouth is used to ingest food. 16. Identify 5 major arteries found in a crayfish. What organs are supplied by these arteries?: Opthalmic supplies the head and thorax; Antennary supplies the stomach, green glands, antennae, and lateral portions of the head; Dorsal abdominal supplies the intestine and tail muscles; Hepatic supplies the hepatopancreas; Sternal artery supplies the leg muscles and tail muscles. 17. Identify the habits of a Crayfish: Crayfish live on the bottoms of freshwater ponds, lakes, and streams all over the world. They eat snails, tadpoles, insects, aquatic and terrestrial plants, and decaying organic material. It eats just after dark and just before sunrise. They live in burrows that they make themselves. 18. Identify th 4 genera of crayfish: Procambus, Orconectes, Astacus, and Cambarus. 19. What do crayfish eat?: Snails, tadpoles, insects, aquatic and terrestrial plants, and decaying organic material. 20. Describe your dissection experience (in one paragraph): I was surprised how much the crayfish resembled a lobster. I was disappointed that the crayfish was falling apart, but I was relieved that it had little to no smell. I was surprised that the crayfish was more complicated on the outside than on the inside. It amazed me how much detail was contained in the mandibles. I was surprised how thick and tough the exoskeleton was and how hard it was to cut through. There was more overall detail than I expected.


Michael Klein & Christopher Williams Mr. Snyder Biology 9 02/22/09

The Starfish Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Asteroidea Genus: Asterias Species: Sp.


I. Purpose: The purpose is to examine the starfish internally and externally by dissection. II. Materials: 1. Dissection Tray 2. Starfish 3. Dissecting Needle 4. Scissors 5. Forceps 6. Dissecting Probe

IV. Observations:


A. External and internal anatomy of a starfish:


V. Conclusions: 1. In what way are starfish unique to other invertebrates that you have studied so far? They have deuterostome development. 2. What are the major differences between protostome and deuterostome development? Protostomes undergo spiral cleavage, which is determinate, and schizocoely while deuterostome undergo radial cleavage and, which is indeterminate, and enterocoely. 3. Where do all echinoderms live? They all live in a marine environment. 4. Identify 5 classes of echinoderms; give an example of an animal that belongs to each class. Crinoidea: sea lilies and feather stars; Ophiuroidea:basket stars and brittle stars; Echinoidea: sea urchins and sand dollars; Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers; Asteroidea: sea stars. 5. How many species of starfish are there? 1700. 6. Identify at least 4 external features of a starfish. The madreporite, opening to the water vascular system; two to four rows of tube feet used in movement, feeding, and excretion; the mouth is on the oral side and is the beginning of the digestive tract; the eye spot is used for sensing the environment. 7. Describe the process of water movement through a starfish's water vascular system. Water enters through the madreporite, it proceeds to through the stone canal and then the ring canal. The water than goes along the five radial canals to the ampullae which use the water to expand and contract the tube feet. 8. Identify and describe the digestive organs of a starfish. The cardiac stomach is a jelly-like organ which can be forced through the mouth into the bivalve to begin the digestion process. The food then proceeds to the pyloric stomach where further digestion occurs. Food then passes to the digestive glands where food is further digested, nutrients are absorbed, and wastes are removed. 9. Describe the skeleton of a starfish. The skeleton is strong and flexible and is composed of ossicles. It has a central line along the radial canal from which smaller bones extend from. 10. Summarize your dissection experience. The dissector first observed that the skin was covered in small spikes which came off easily. The dissector could not find the eye spot but observed the many rubbery tube feet. The dissector made a large window cut but could not see most of the organs until the yellow digestive glands were removed. The dissector then found the madreporite that was externally invisible and the water vascular system. The dissector then observed the cardiac and pyloric stomaches and removed them. The dissector observed and removed the gonads and observed under a microscope that the starfish was female.


Analysis 1. At some stage of their lives all vertebrates have: a notochord, dorsal nerve chord, pharyngeal pouches, postanal tail, vertebrae, cranium, and a endoskeleton composed of bone or cartilage. 2. Chondrichthyes have a endoskeleton made of cartilage while Osteichthyes have a skeleton made of bone. 3. The adaptations that led to the divergence of mammals included: hair, endothermy, nursing their young, more specialized teeth, and a completely divided heart. 4. The most recent common ancestor is shared by birds and reptiles.


Science Portfolio Q3 V2  

My 2nd revision of my 3rd quarter science portfolio.

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