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Quarter 1


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 08/23/09

I. Title: Intensive & Extensive II. Purpose: Compare intensive and extensive properties of water. III. Materials: 1) Beaker, 2) Water, 3) Thermometer, 4) Hot Plate, 5) Graduated Cylinder. IV. Procedure: 1. Use graduated cylinder to measure 100ml of water into the smaller beaker and 400ml into the larger beaker. 2. Used hot plate to heat the water in the smaller beaker while timing and using Thermometer to measure temperature. 3. Observed and recorded time and temperature once boiling. 4. Waited for the hot plate to cool. 5. Repeated steps 2-4 with the beaker filled with 400ml of water. V. Data: 100ml of water 400ml of water Boiling point (C째)

98째

Time it takes to boil (sec) 5:30

98째 10:37

VI. Conclusion Questions: 1. Is temperature an intensive or extensive property of matter? Explain: Extensive. Both hot and cold water are water. 2. Is the amount of energy absorbed (determined by the time it takes for water to boil) an intensive or extensive property of matter? Explain: Intensive. The water must always reach 100째 C to boil. 3. Identify 2 additional intensive properties of matter: Conductivity and Hardness. 4. Identify 2 additional extensive properties of matter: Volume and Length. 5. Density=Mass/Volume. Conduct an experiment to show whether density is an intensive or extensive property of matter: a. Two beakers were weighed and their weights noted. b. One beaker was filled with 300 mL of water and the other with 500 mL of water and were weighed accordingly. c. The mass of the first beaker was subtracted from the total weight of the beaker filled with 300 mL of water and divided by 300 mL to get a density of 0.99 g/mL. d. The mass of the first beaker was subtracted from the total weight of the beaker filled with 500 mL of water and divided by 500 mL to get a density equal to the first one thus proving that density is an intensive property of matter.


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 10/13/09

I. Title: Separating Mixtures II. Purpose: To separate out a mixture of the following pure substances: Iron, Sulfur, and Salt. III. Materials: 1) Paper Plate, 2) Plastic Dish, 3) Mixture Sample, 4) Magnet, 5) Water, 6) Beaker, 7) Funnel, 8) Filter Paper, 9) Flask, 10) Hot Plate IV. Procedure: 1. Spread out mixture sample on paper plate and used magnet to remove Iron filings. 2. Scraped Iron filings off magnet and dissolved Sulfur and Salt in 2 mL of water. 3. Poured Sulfur and Salt through filter paper and funnel into flask to isolate the sulfur which did not pass through the filter paper. 4. Boiled Salt water in flask using Hot Plate to remove the water and isolate the salt. V. Data: Separation is a process used to transform a mixture into multiple distinct elements using a physical or chemical transformation. One method is distillation which consists of removing the liquid from a mixture, usually by boiling off the liquid. Another method of separation is filtering out one or more substances which are unable to pass through a filter. An alternative method is to employ an unique property of a substance such as magnetism to isolate an element. Separation is a procedure that simplifies a mixture into its different parts. VI. Analysis & Conclusion Questions: 1. What were the components of the mixture?: Salt, Sulfur, and Iron. 2. What kind of mixture was this (heterogeneous/homogenous)?: Heterogeneous. 3. Did you know the percent composition of this mixture?: No. 4. How do you think this information would be helpful in ensuring complete separation?: By using the percentages you could weigh the mixture and weigh the individual components and compare the ratios to ensure complete separation.


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 10/13/09

I. Title: Constructing a Model II. Purpose: To understand how scientists make inferences about atoms without touching or seeing them. III. Materials: 1) Closed container, 2) Various objects (in the closed container), 3) Balance, 4) Table IV. Procedure: 1. The analysis was started by weighing all of the closed containers and recording the masses in grams. 2. The analysis was continued by shaking and turning the closed containers to estimate the number and kinds of objects which was recorded. 3. The various containers were then opened to feel the number and kinds of objects. 4. After feeling an unidentified liquid and cutting a hand on a can, the results of these new observations were recorded. 5. The final steps of the analysis were began when the different containers were opened and the contents in a pile on the table. 6. The number and kinds of objects were confirmed or denied and the results were recorded thus concluding the experiment. V. Data: A: Closed Container Group Number of Objects Mass of Objects (g) Kinds of Objects 1

n/a

n/a

n/a

2

10

227

Pen/Coins/Legos

3

21

225.5

Beads/Coins/Block

4

9

228

Wire/Paper/Legos

5

6

176

Phone/Coins/Shell

B: Open Container (no-looking) Group Number of Objects Mass of Objects (g) Kinds of Objects 1

n/a

n/a

n/a

2

10

227

Shell/Toys

3

30

225.5

Blocks/Toys/Bottle cap

4

5

228

Pen/Broken-Fork/Rubber-


Band/Pencil Sharpener/Unknown Liquid 5

8

176

Phone/Shell/Rubber-Band/Coin

C: Open Container

Group Number of Objects Mass of Objects (g) Kinds of Objects 1

n/a

n/a

n/a

2

12

227

Shells/Toys/Dog tag

3

17

225.5

Blocks/Toys/Bottle cap/Polly Pocket/Block

4

6

228

Screwdriver/Broken-Fork/Rubber-Band/Pencil Sharpener/Cap/String/Advil (liquid)

5

8

176

Phone/Shell/Rubber-Band/Coin/Cap/Pin/Match

VI. Analysis & Conclusion Questions: 1. Were you able to gather any data from the closed container? Explain: Yes. By listening to the sound made by the objects inside when turning or shaking the container. 2. How did the amount of data you collected change throughout this experiment? Why?: As the amount of ways that the objects in the container could be observed increased, so did the amount of information that could be gathered at a specific point. 3. How is this experiment illustrative of the way scientists gather data about atoms?: The closed containers are like atoms, you know they are there and there is something in them but you are unsure of what it is. As the number of ways you could observe the contents in the container, so did the number of ways you could observe the atom. Just as the container was opened and the contents were spilled on the table for all to see, the contents of the atom were eventually seen using electron microscopes.


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 10/13/09

I. Title: Comparing & Calculating Density II. Purpose: To use the physical property of density to identify unknown substances. III. Materials: 1) Density Blocks, 2) Beaker, 3) Water, 4) Balance IV. Procedure: 1. The experiment was begun by filling the beaker 他 of the way with water. 2. Then one by one the Density Blocks were individually dropped into the beaker and whether it sank or float was recorded. 3. Next, each block was measured, weighed, the volume was calculated, and the results were recorded. 4. Finally the densities of the Density Blocks were compared to chart of the densities of the known objects and the findings were recorded. V. Data: A: Density Blocks Prediction (sink or float)

Observation (sink or float)

1

float

float

2

float

float

3

sink

sink

4

float

sink

5

sink

sink

6

sink

sink

7

float

float

8

sink

sink

9

sink

sink

B: Density Block

Mass (g)

Length Width Height Volume Density (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm3) (g/cm3)

Substance

1

15(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

0.9

Oak

2

8(.0)*

2.5

2.5

2.5

16

0.5

Pine

3

128(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

8(.0)*

Steel


4

20(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

1.3

Acrylic

5

44.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

16

2.8

Aluminum

6

144(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

9(.0)*

Copper

7

13(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

0.8

Polypropylene

8

136(.0)* 2.5

2.5

2.5

16

8.5

Brass

9 23(.0)* 2.5 2.5 2.5 16 1.4 PVC *The ()'s should be ignored. They were necessary because of problems with Auto-correct. VI. Analysis & Conclusion Questions: 1. If the density of water is 1.0 g/cm3, which substances were less dense than water? More dense?: Density 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Block Less/More Less Less More More More More Less More More Dense than Water 2. Since the volume was the same for each block, state the relationship between mass and density: Density=Mass/16 cm3 3. How did you use density to identify each unknown substance?: By comparing the densities of the unknown objects to the densities of the known substances on the chart. 4. Did the density you calculated for each block match the known density for each substance on the chart? If not account for any differences: No. Because of the inaccuracy of the instruments used and therefore the need for estimation and few significant figures there was a degree of inaccuracy.


Quarter 2


'A' Orbital


'P' Orbital


'D' Orbital


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 12/9/09 I Title: The Mole II Purpose: To identify four unknown elements each of which have one mole of atoms. III Materials: 1) Mole samples 'A' through 'D'; 2) balance IV Procedure: 1. Observed size and color of each block and recorded. 2. Weighed each and recorded. 3. Calculated molar mass and actual mass then recorded. 4. Compared molar mass to atomic weight on periodic table and recorded matches. V Data: Sample Description Mass (g) Molar Mass Actual mass of Atomic Symbol (g/mol) one atom (g) A B C

Silvery

65.5

Like Aluminum 27.25 Dull sheen

55.75

65.5 27.25 55.75

1.088x10-22

Zn

-23

Al

-23

Fe

4.525x10 9.258x10

D Copper-like 63.5 63.5 1.054x10-22 Cu VI Analysis and Conclusion: 1. Why do elements with one mole of atoms have different masses?: Because of different densities. 2. What would be the mass of each element if it had two moles of atoms?: 2x the mass of one mole of atoms. 3. Just looking at the samples, which element has atoms with the largest volume?: Al. 4. How many moles would each have if its mass was exactly ½?: ½ mol. Because ½Mass/Molar mass of element=½Moles. 5. How many atoms does each element have if it had three moles?: 1.807x1024 atoms=3xAvogadro's Number=3x6.022x1023


A: Because an electron can either be in one energy level or the other, never in between. This means that an energy level is a definite stable energy that an atom can have. B: Wavelength=Speed/Frequency C: Blue, it has a higher frequency. D: Energy is neither created nor destroyed. E:


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 12/6/09 I. Title: Designing your own periodic table. II. Purpose: To design your own periodic table using info similar to that available to Mendeleev. III. Materials: 1) Periodic Table, 2) Index Cards. IV. Procedure: 1. Write out information available for each element on separate index cards. The following information is appropriate: a letter of the alphabet (A, B, C, etc.) to identify each element; atomic mass; state; density; melting point; boiling point; and other readily observable physical properties. Do not write the name of the element on the index card, but keep a separate list indicating the letters you have assigned to each element. 2. Organize the cards for the elements in a logical pattern as you think Mendeleev might have done. V. Data: How the cards were organized: 1. The student tried to organize the elements according to various factors including atomic mass, state of matter, and density but, found that there wasn't enough of a pattern to put the elements in order. The student then added the noble gas notation of each element to all the index cards. The student was then able to effectively organize the elements according to electron configuration in the 2nd attempt. 2. Vertically: according to which Noble Gas was present in the Noble Gas Configuration; Horizontally: according to the number of outer-shell electrons. 3. [S-Block] 1s1...1s2 . . . 5s1...5s2

[D-Block] 3d1...3d10

[F-Block] 4f1...4f14 5f1...5f14 The Key to Cards: a=Li b=Ti c=Fe d=Ni e=Cu f=Zn g=Ag h=Pt

[P-Block] 4p1...4p6 5p1...5p6


i=Ir j=Au k=W l=U m=O n=N o=Cl p=H q=He r=Ne s=Ar t=Kr Cards:


VI. Discussion Questions: 1. Keeping in mind that the information you have is similar to that available to Mendeleev in 1869, answer the following questions. a. Why are atomic masses given instead of atomic numbers?: Because atomic numbers were not available at the time and are not “readily available�. b. Can you identify each element by name?: No, because on the index cards, the element's actual name is not given. 2. How many groups of elements, or families are in your periodic table? How many periods, or series, are in the table?: 3. Predict the characteristics of any missing elements. When you have finished, check your work using your separate list of elements and a periodic table: a. Location: between 'a' and 'n' in same period. [o*]Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p1-2 [o*]Atomic Mass: ~8-14 [o*]State: Solid b. Location: after 'q', 'r', 's', and 't' in same group. [o*]Electron Configuration: [Kr-Xe]2s22p1-2


[o*]Atomic Mass: ~8-14 [o*]State: Gas c. Location: after 'i', 'h', and 'j' in same period. [o*]Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f145d106s2 [x*]Atomic Mass: ~198 [x*]State: Solid *o=hypothesis was correct; x=hypothesis was incorrect


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 11/19/09 I. Title: Observing Chemical Elements II. Purpose: To compare and contrast various elements on the periodic table through observation. III. Materials: 1) Various Chemical Elements, 2) Periodic Table, 3) Wikipedia.org IV. Procedure: The student performing the lab began by acquiring several of the various chemical elements and simply writing down their basic characteristics. The student then proceeded by returning the acquired elements and getting different ones and recording their characteristics. After repeating this procedure seven (7) to eight (8) times the student realized that he had recorded the basic visible characteristics of all of the available elements. The student proceeded to look up each element on the periodic table and record the chemical symbol, group number, group period name, atomic mass, atomic number, and electron configuration. The student then proceeded to use the group number to find which block contained each element and recorded the data. The student then found and recorded the general reactivity and weather each element was a metal, non-metal, or metalloid. After unsuccessfully attempting to find uses of the different elements in the element handbook found in the textbook, the student looked up the general uses of each element in Wikipedia.org and recorded the results. Finding the amount of information recorded to be sufficient, the student was completed with the lab. V. Data: Assigned Element Number Name

Symbol Group Group Period Block Atomic Atomic Electron Configuration Number Name Mass Number

1

Calcium

Ca

2

Alkaline S Earth Metals

40.08

20

[Ar]4S1

2

Lithium

Li

1

Alkali Metals S

6.94

3

[He]2S1

3

Barium

Ba

2

Alkaline S Earth Metals

137.33 56

[Xe]6S2

4

Lead

Pb

14

Other Metals P

207.2

82

[Xe]4F145D106S26P2

5

Nickel

Ni

10

Transition Metals

D

58.69

28

[Ar]3D84S2

6

Zinc

Zn

12

Transition Metals

D

65.39

30

[Ar]3D104S2

7

Mercury

Hg

12

Transition Metals

D

200.59 80

[Xe]4F145D106S2

8

Cadmium

Cd

12

Transition Metals

D

112.41 48

[Kr]4D105S2

9

Magnesium Mg

2

Alkaline S Earth Metals

24.31

12

[Ne]3S2

10

Bromine

17

Halogens

79.90.

35

[Ar]3D104S24P5

Br

P


9

Transition Metals

D

58.93

27

[Ar]3D7

Aluminum Al

13

Other Metals P

26.98

13

[Ne]3S23P1

13

Copper

Cu

11

Transition Metals

63.55

29

[Ar]3D104S1

14

Bismuth

Bi

15

Other Metals P

208.98 83

[Xe]4F145D106S26P3

15

Silver

Ag

11

Transition Metals

D

107.87 47

[Kr]4D105S1

16

Carbon

C

14

Non-Metals

P

12.01

[He]2S22P2

17

Antimony

Sb

15

Metalloid

P

121.76 51

[Kr]4D105S25P3

18

Tungsten

W

6

Transition Metals

D

183.84 74

[Xe]4F145D46S2

19

Sulfur

S

16

Non-Metals

P

32.07

16

[Ne]3S23P4

20

Chromium Cr

6

Transition Metals

D

51.99

24

[Ar]3D54S1

21

Silicon

Si

14

Metalloid

P

28.09

14

[Ne]3S2

22

Iron

Fe

8

Transition Metals

D

55.85

26

[Ar]3D64S2

23

Tin

Sn

14

Other Metals P

11

Cobalt

12

Co

D

6

118.71 50

[Kr]4D105S25P2

Assigned Characteristics Reactivity Uses Number

Metal/NonMetal/Metalloid

1

Chalky

Reactive

Cement, Cheese, Alloying Agent, Deoxidizer

Metal

2

Dull, Silvery

Reactive

Batteries

Metal

3

Silvery, Reactive Graphite-Like

Rubber, Radio-contrast Agent, Rat Poison, Metal Fireworks

4

Dull, Silvery, Dense

Ceramic, Glass, Batteries, PVC

Metal

5

Copper Color, Not Very Metallic, Reactive Dense

Stainless Steel, Magnets, Rechargeable Batteries, Glass, Alloying Agent

Metal

6

Whitish, Rock-Like

Anti-corrosion Agent, Pigment, Fire Retardant, Rubber

Metal

7

Silvery, Not Very Dense, Liquid Reactive

Medicine, Thermometers, Fluorescent Lamps, Switches

Metal

8

Silvery, Soft, Flakes

Not Very Reactive

Batteries, Pigments, Plastic, Alloying Agent, Electroplating, PVC

Metal

9

Silvery,

Reactive

Alloying Agent, Fireworks

Metal

Not Very Reactive

Not Very Reactive


Dense, Soft 10

Dense, Clear, Liquid

11

Reactive

Flame Retardant, Gasoline Additive, Pesticide, Dyes, Disinfectants

Non-Metal

Bubble-Like Not Very Crystalline Reactive Structure, Copper Color, Dull Sheen

Alloying Agent, Batteries, Pigment

Metal

12

Light, Silvery Not Very Reactive

Construction, Heat Sinks, Paint, Thermite

Metal

13

Brown, Shiny, Not Very Dust Reactive

Pipes, Wire, Solder, Vacuum Tubes, Coins Metal

14

Hard, Silvery, Not Very Crystalline Reactive

Solar Cells, Alloying Agent, Magnets, Solder

Metal

15

Shiny, Dust

Currency, Photography, Medicine

Metal

16

Black Powder Not Very Reactive

Pencils, Pigment, Batteries

Non-Metal

17

Dense, Crystalline, Silvery

Not Very Reactive

Batteries, Alloying Agent, Matches, Solder Metalloid

18

Dark, Shiny, Dust

Not Very Reactive

Light Bulbs, Alloying Agent, Plastic

Metal

19

Chalky, Yellow, Dust

Not Very Reactive

Rubber, Gunpowder, Acne Treatment

Metal

20

Slate-Like, Layered, Metallic

Not Very Reactive

Electroplating, Dye, Alloying Agent

Metal

21

Silvery, Flakes Not Very Reactive

Alloying Agent, Silicones, Microchips

Metalloid

22

Brown, Chips Not Very Reactive

Alloying Agent, Paint, Construction

Metal

23

Light, Silvery Not Very Reactive

Alloying Agent, Solder, Glass

Metal

Not Very Reactive

VI. Conclusion: This lab effectively taught me about twenty-three elements. One of the first things I noticed when observing the general characteristics of the elements was that almost all of them were metallic, hard, opaque, and more dense than water. I also learned that there isn't much that you can learn about an element simply by basic visual observation, many of the elements had very similar aspects. I also effectively memorized the parts of the Periodic table which I viewed frequentely. After rediscovering the patterns visible in the periodic table while noting some of the chemical characteristics, I began to learn about the element's more obscure uses and properties of many elements. For example, I learned


that certain common objects such as batteries, glass, solder, and common day metals are not composed of just one or two different elements but many completely different elements, each with a distinct property. Together these elements make up many things which we take for granted as being simple and not worth knowing more about them besides the fact that they exist. After finishing this lab I can definitely say that it greatly supplemented my general and specific knowledge concerning the elements.


Michael Klein Chemistry 10 Mr. Snyder 12/10/09 Lewis Structures I Br: .. .. : I-Br: .. .. CH3 Br: H | .. H-C-Br: | .. H Si Cl4: .. :Cl: .. | .. :Cl-Si-Cl: .. | .. :Cl: .. F2 O: .. .. .. :F:F:O .. .. .. H2 O: .. H:O:H .. C H4: H | H-C-H | H


C H4 O: H | .. H-C-O-H | .. H H Cl: .. H-Cl: .. C F4: .. :F: .. | .. :F-C-F: .. | .. :F: .. N I3: .. :I: . | .. :N-I-I: .. C2 H Cl: .. H:C::::Cl: .. O2: .. .. O::O .. .. C2 H4: H H | | H-C=C-H C2 H2: H:C:::C:H C O: :C:::O:


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