AIR YING CHEN 2014
ABOUT ME I am Ying CHEN, a third-year architecture major at University of Melbourne. I come from the largest and rapidly developing country in the world- China. I grow up in the background that urbanization seems like be completed as if blink. The architecture in China has evolved dramatically in these years, which raises my interest.
Through the study of virtual environment, earth studio as well as water studio, I gain the technology to use the software, such as rhino, sketch up and Auto CAD, to complete my design in digital way.
CONTENTS PART A
A.1 Design Future A.2 Design Computation A.3 Composition/Generation A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning Outcomes A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketchess
B.1 Research Field B.2 Case Study 1.0 B.3 Case Study 2.0 B.4 Technique: Development B.5 Technique: Prototypes B.6 Technique: Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes
C.1 Design Concept C.2 Tectonic Elements C.3 Final Model C.4 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements C.5 Learning Objectives and Outcomes
1 7 13 19 20 21
23 24 30 32 36 38 42
45 54 58 62 73
A.1 DESIGN FUTURE
Our world is currently expe-
rienced a damage which would impact the future of the planet and the life on it, including climate change, ecological systems.1 Facing this situation, the design of how future would be is vital. The future is depended on either an unexpected cataclysmic event or the way we choose to live.2 As for the design, it refers that the action to shape the form, operation, appearance and perceptions of the material world we occupy
by designer and designed objects, images, systems and things.3 Since we have created so much ecological damages, design is the way to extend the future of our world. Furthermore, the one of the key issues about the relation between creation and destruction is focused on the renewable resource.4 While the media currently concerned about the damage, such as change of the temperature, melting of polar ice shelves and weather pattern, the actual
damages, including its impact to biodiversity, human settlement pattern, agriculture and son on, are ignored.5 As the agenda of LAGI, many architects pay attention on advancing the successful implementation of sustainable design solutions by integrating art and interdisciplinary creative processes into the conception of renewable energy within architecture discourse.6
A.1.1 Precedent Project
Yijie Dang, Tom Tang New York City, USA
The past competition entry of
Tree define the agenda of Fresh Kill Park program is that restoring the nature by manmade interention with the inspiration of three as a symbol of renewal and the interconnectedness of all things. It not sucessfully expand the future possibility towards sustainability but also response to the site, including its current situation, historical elements and demand of inhabitants.
Considering the current soil
situation of the site is not deep enough to support large roots of the trees with a wide canopy, they creat an articfical tree with recycled industral balloons and PVC pipes, whose canopy can be increased by the sun, to satisfy the need of shadowing that the inhabitants expected and refer to the history of the site as landfill cap.
FIGURE.1 Diagram of Principle of Tree 2
Tree brings a brand new ap-
proach to future. The electricty energy will be collected while the balloon sway and the PVCs branch bending with kinetic generators, piezoelectric generators and LEDs. At night, the balloon reduce its size and glow as a sculptual. In this way, it expands the a new method to achieve energy efficiency in term of both practical and experienced factors.
FIGURE.2 Day Perspective of Tree
FIGURE.3 Day Perspective of Tree 3
A.1.1 Precendent Projects
RMIT DESIGN HUB -- Photovoltaics Sean Godsell RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, 2012
FIGURE.5 Elevation of RMIT Design Hub
It is hard to miss the building that located at the
corner of Melbourne city as its impressed faĂ§ade. This new RMIT design hub is designed to provide accommodation various design research and postgraduate education within the warehouse structure. This building adopts warehouse structure to allow more flexibility and possibility to the space usage according to different situation need. This means its future function areas division does not tie with the current design plan. The design hub has lots of environmentally sustainable design features and has achieved a 5-star Green Star Education Rating in environmentally sustainable design. It involves in strategies of water, waste and recycling management. Nevertheless, the focal point is the outer skin of the
building, which adopt the automated shading that includes photovoltaic cell, evaporative cooling and fresh air. Especially, the photovoltaic effect can turn the soloar radiation energy into current electricty. This technology enhances the performance of this hub in designing future. This means in this way, the internal air quality and the energy running cost is reduced, which is meet the requirement of future design â€“ sustainability. Furthermore, the photovoltaic cells of this hub is designed with the capacity to be upgraded solar energy evolves by replacing photovoltaic panel as research, in order to achieve the aim that generate enough electricity to run the whole building. Although, its conversion effieciency is still limited by technology today, but the design has the potential to apply further advanced technologies to improve the efficiency in the future.
FIGURE.5 Design Details of Design Hub (Photovoltaics)
Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16.
Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16.
Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 – 10. 3
Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16.
Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16.
Review: Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012
IMAGE FIGURE.1-3: TREE, Yijie Dang, Tom Tang, New York City, USA, Retrive from http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/YJBLLJSL/. FIGURE.4 & 5: RMIT DESIGN HUB,Sean Godsell, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, 2012, retrive from http://www.designhub.rmit.edu.au.
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION
Computation is always con-
fused with computerization, which means using the computers to enter, process, or store entities or processes that are already conceptualized in designersâ€™ mind in a computer system the architecture.1 In these days, it has become a dominant mode of utilizing computers in architecture. For example, many architects adopt virtual drafting board in computer as it is easier to edit, copy and increase the
precision of drawings. However, computation acts more like a tool to determine some properties by mathematical or logical methods with calculating process.2 As the notions of design methods in architecture would be changed with advanced technology of its age, in this Information Age, the trendy that design process is not detached from computation has become irreversible. This is because that computation is not
only involves the digitization of entities or processes that already defined in architectâ€™s mind, but also provide more possibilities and opportunities to extend the designersâ€™ abilities to deal with highly complex situations during the computational process, as the nature of computer is good at dealing with analysis of complexity unambiguously, which is a exploration of indeterminate, vague, unclear, and often ill-defined processes.3
A.2 Precendent Projects
ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart Stuttgart, Germany, 2011
FIGURE.1 Perspective of ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion
This is a project designed by
Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE), together with students at the University of 8
Stuttgart to integrate the biological principles of the sea urchinâ€™s plate skeleton morphology into architecture through various methods of computation. Hence, the possibility of effectively
extending the recognized bionic principles and related performance to a range of different geometries is maximized, due to the process of computation.
As the focus of this project is the geometric arrangement of sand dollarâ€™s plates and their joining system, the computational design process is around this theme. The characters of sand dollar morphology force the design of pavilion meet the fundamental properties, such as Heterogeneity, Anisotropy and Hierarchy. A closed, digital information loop between the projectâ€™s model, finite element simulations and computer numeric machine control is a basic requirement for designing, developing and realizing of the complex morphology. As form finding and structural design are closely interlinked, it becomes an approach to turn the complex geometry into a finite element program for analyzing and modifying the critical points of the model via the optimized data exchange scheme. On the other hand,
the designers used the computation to test glued and bolted joints experimentally and included the results in the structural calculations at the same time. The production of the plates and finger joints of each cell were operated universityâ€™s robotic fabrication system. The architects set custom program to provide the basis for the automatic generation of the machine code (NCCode) for controlling an industrial seven-axis robot in the computer model. This means through this technology, economical production of thousands of geometrically different components and finger joints freely arranged in space can be made. Then the participants can combine these prefabricated module cells, which were joined together following the robotic production, into the final construction work.
FIGURE.2 Perspective of Pavilion
FIGURE.3 Utilization Diagram
FIGURE.4 Fabrication Data Model
FIGURE.5 Geometric Constraints of Toolpath Generation 9
A.2 Precendent Project
As Autumn Leaves
Laboratory for Computational Design (LCD) Beijing, China, 2013
FIGURE.6 Detail of the Facade
“ s Autumn Leaves” is a spatial installation located in a historic Hutong in Beijing, which is designed and built by students of the Laboratory for Computational Design. This project reflects the ephemerality of nature through investigating the leaves falling in autumn. In order to achieve this agenda to show the pattern and geometries of leaves falling, the designers adopt the computational process to explore the variation and adaptability within the system of geometric growth patterns and geometries related to natural logics and materials. The students of LCD used parametric design tool not only for 10
defining systemic and formal languages but also cataloging and locating components for ease of assembly. They adopted laser cutting technology to fabricate individual acrylic components digitally, pre-assembled them into ‘families’, and then aggregated the pieces on site. As the structural integrity can be solidified via tensioning of the acrylic ‘Leaves’, which refers to bending the components inherent to the material, the LCD set up a modeling program based physics to generate and evaluate wind and gravitational forces in the installations. By hybridizing material and spatial research with advanced structural calculations AAL float above, around,
and through existing spaces. Tensioning of the acrylic ‘Leaves’ through bending, inherent to the material, solidified structural integrity. Designers used physics based modeling programs to generate and evaluate wind and gravitational forces in their installations. Through the computational design process, the designers float above, around, and through existing spaces as they hybridized material and researched spatial with advanced structural calculations.
FIGURE.7 Perspective of As Autumn Leaves FIGURE.9 Component Logic
Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10. 1
Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25. 2
Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25.Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16. 3
ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion , ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 2011. Retrived from http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553. As Autumn Leaves, Laboratory for Computational Design (LCD), Beijing, China, 2013. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/451572/lcd-exhibits-as-autumn-leaves-at-beijing-s-2013-design-week/.
IMAGE FIGURE. 1-5: ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion , ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 2011. Retrived from http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553. FIGURE. 6- 9: As Autumn Leaves, Laboratory for Computational Design (LCD), Beijing, China, 2013. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/451572/lcd-exhibits-as-autumn-leaves-at-beijing-s-2013-designweek/.
A.3 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION
An algorithm refers to an unambiguous, precise, list of simple operations applied mechanically and systematically to a set of tokens or objects.1 This means the designers can set a parametric system to input the initial data state and then gain the final state as output through the computational operation. Based on this theory, algorithmic thinking means using the algorithm method to explore a design for better understanding and description, more modified options, as well as further design potentials.2 As a result, the Architecture is
currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs.3 The parametric modeling technologies allow designers to explore designs and simulate performance, in term of both physical and experiential.4 This means the ability of architects to construct complex models of buildings and gain performance feedback about these models is enhanced with the algorithm and parametric. However, this computational method not only contributes to the complexity of building a project, but also multitude of param-
eters instrument of a buildingâ€™s formation.5 Nevertheless, there is a shortcoming that the scripting of the design would degenerate to an isolated craft instead of integration, if advantaged computational skills are allowed to obscure and diverts from the real design objectives.6 Furthermore, although the computation can simulate the performance of the design, usually the real practical performance of the design is involve the uncertain elements, like the movement of the people and the structure among them.
A.3.1 Precendent Projects
Architectural Association (AA) DLAB London / Hooke Park, England, 2013
FIGURE.1 Perspective of Light Forest
As Peters mentioned only if architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts and admit the digital is not an alien within architectural discourse, the computation can become a true method of design for architecture. In order to achieve this aim, AA DLAB Visiting School had a prototype that involve computation process, such as integration of algorithmic and generative design methodologies and digital fabrication tools, in AA London and Hooke Park. DLAB first set up the agenda that creating a Light Forest grows and illuminates its surroundings, which has communication between itself and the people around it, on the ground or on the wall. With this agenda, the designers investigated natural growth processes of the light in relation to innovative concepts of architectural tectonics and fabrication. Then, the generated de-
sign idea is carrying through the whole design process, as there is a tied interaction among the concepts of emergence, differentiation as well as complexity. In this way, it provides an opportunity to consider the design as full-scale working prototypes. For example, the designers discovered means of how to integrate the diffusion of light with other architectural parameters that are essential in generating diverse spatial qualities through the design process. The designers also applied the algorithmic thinking to the design. They explored the design by setting up the algorithmic computational system, which reflected the characteristics of self-organization within a range of scales in nature. In the context of DLABâ€™s design task, diffusion elements have become the lower level components inscribed with information relating to their physical constraints, form,
reaction to external stimuli, and interaction with one another. Students have observed the behavior of the generative systems with the manipulation of input parameters and the performance of the resulting simulations. The computational toolset of the workshop has been Processing, Grasshopper and Arduino. Since the designers aimed to transform static built models to animated kinetic prototypes for showing a more hierarchical design arrangement, they have done the prototype test in a digital way. There is no doubt that it enhances the capacity to test more possibilities and more complex prototypes. However, as this project, the mode of the light involves not only direct interaction of the people around it and the physical structural, but also the indirect interaction among these people through the physical structure.
A.3.2 Precendent Projects
Zaha Hadid Architects Venice Biennale, 2012
FIGURE.2 Photo of Arum
Arum is a project that Zaha
Hadid Architects designed for the Venice Biennale 2012 to respond to its theme “ Common Ground” which means the current architectural culture is relied on a rich historical continuity of diverse ideas instead of some singular talents. As for Arum, it is designed to pay the respect to the Frei Otto, who made a great contribution in paving the way for material-structural form-finding processes. The designers applied computation to this project with algometric thinking, parametric modeling as well scripting culture. The architects realized once they 16
put more design research and work evolved on the basis of the algorithmic form generation, the more appreciation for the previous contribution of architectural pioneers like Frei Otto they gain. Hence, they expanded scripting culture of Frei Otto’s method via include its environmental as well as structural logics unambiguously and precisely. In this way, they moved Frei’s theory from material to computational simulations. Then the designers can gain further understanding about richness, organic coherence and fluidity of the forms and spaces that they desire could emerge rationally from an intricate balance of forces that are handled by computation.
Furthermore, the designers adopted the algorithmic thinking to achieve the shift from composition to generation, as they explored shell structure and tensile structures with the idea that generating intensive and extensive qualities and establishing intricate relationships within architectural systems and subsystems in order to form complex and coherent spatial arrangements. In addition, the designers applied a lot of technologies about Parametric Semiology and Parametricism to analysis and model the complex design. This makes it possible to build such complex prototype design in real.
FIGURE.3 Render of Arum
FIGURE.4 Photo of Arum
REFERENCE (A.3) Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 1
Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2
Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15. 3
Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 4
Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 5
Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 6
LIGHT FOREST, Architectural Association (AA) DLAB, London / Hooke Park, England, 2013. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/442546/aa-dlab-2013-light-forest/. Arum, Zaha Hadid Architects, Venice Biennale, 2012. Retrived from http://www.zaha-hadid. com/2012/08/16/venice-architecture-biennale-common-ground/.
IMAGE FIGURE. 1: LIGHT FOREST, Architectural Association (AA) DLAB, London / Hooke Park, England, 2013. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/442546/aa-dlab-2013-light-forest/. FIGURE. 2- 4: Arum, Zaha Hadid Architects, Venice Biennale, 2012. Retrived from http://www.zaha-hadid.com/2012/08/16/venice-architecture-biennale-common-ground/.
As the sustainability has a great impact on the future of our world, renewable energy has become important issue within architectural discourse with advanced technologies during the design and construction process.
through parametric design process. It involves the exploration of indeterminate, vague, unclear, and often ill-defined processes, rather than only digitalization the design that preformed in designersâ€™ mind.
Computation as a method to produce the much more complex design and provide more opportunity to solve the design problem
However, there is a shortcoming that the scripting of the design would degenerate to an isolated craft instead of integration, if ad-
vantaged computational skills are allowed to obscure and diverts from the real design objectives. In addition, although the algometric design can simulate the performance of the design both experiential and practical, there are still some uncertain factors would influenced the design performance result.
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
Through last few weeks study, I learnt that parametric design is important in the architectural designing for better future. Based on the principle and the nature of the computation, more basic researches we do and algorithm in to computational system as
input, more outputs, which refer to the possibilities about the solution of the complex problems and accuracy about the performance evaluation, we would gain. Hence, in the further study, we should extend the initial data with this thinking. Moreover, I
also gain a few basic technologies to do the parametric design in rhino with grasshopper tool, which would be necessary for the later designing process.
A.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
These weeks algorithmic tasks give me the basic knowlege to algorthmic some spatial form and offer me opportunity to practice these skill. Through thses algorthim, the design can be clear descripted. 21
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD GEOMETRY
Taichung Metropolitan Opera Toyo Ito & Associates Taichung City, Taiwan
Geometry is the material system that our group chosen as the area for further design and development process. This is because the geometry method, including minimal surface, generating form finding and relaxed surface can provide more possibilities for exploring LAGI, while we adopt the solar energy as the main energy system, which require large scale surface and accurate angle for direct sunlight radiant. The geometry technique can help us to find a proper structure to achieve a durable, aesthetic and
efficient design. As the Taichung Metropolitan Opera, it adopts the computation to digitize the membrane structure model before optimizing the design with functional requirement. Similarly, the German Pavilion also used string to create spatial variations within a space. These variations can be considered for generating the new design idea.
FIG.1 TAICHUNG METROPOLITAN OPERA
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 GREEN LAVA VOID
ak Max; Peter Murphy; TOKO Sydney, Australia; Stuttgart, Germany, 2008
FIG.2 GREEN LAVA VOID
FIG.3 GREEN LAVA VOID This project uses the lycra fabric as the material to create a installation that the membrane can be suspended over 20 meter high void in the a heritage Customs House. This requires the digital fabrication and engineering techniques to approach the
FIG.4 GREEN LAVA VOID accuracy of generating the pieces for forming the membrane. Therefore, we take this project as the precendent to explode the fabrication for further solar panel installation of our design.
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 MATRIX
A. Exoskeleton Component Through exoskeleton component, there are a lot of form variations due to the indexes about process of mesh forming based on the initial curves are alternative.
C. Stretch Ends of Orginal Form Stretching the ends of the original form to explore the relationship between different components. The variations of the outcome forms are limited, as lack of constraint, although the appearances of forms are quite dynamic.
As our design would focus on creating minimal surface structure, we take the Green Lava Void as the case to explore the formal variations and nature of such structure. In this case, the designers adopt
Kangaroo plug-in and exoskeleton, which is can interactive simulate, optimize, as well as find form of the structure, to control the stiffness, pulling and contracting of tensile strength.
C. KANGAROO Variation of this project though kangaroo plugin is not so successful, since some are points while others are the whole curve in the membrane. Therefore, we take create our own form to explore with the Kangaroo. Through these experimentations, we have a better understanding of the relationship between referenced data and the forms, which help a lot in the further design process.
B. 3 CASE STUDY 2.0
ALLIANZ ARENA Herzog & de Meuron Munich, Germany,2005
This project has a curve structure surface with façade that divided up into diamond-shaped cushionsBehind, which is similar with our design desire that smooth curve surface attached with pieces of solar panels. Therefore, we take this project as a case study. There are different load-bearing systems- Cantilevered steel lattice girders from the primary structure of the roof, while the sec-
FIG.5 ALLIANZ ARENA ondary support structure for the roof and vertical facades, structurally separate from the primary frame, is a rhomboid grid of steel girders, with field diagonals varying from 2×7 meters to 5×17 meters. This can be a reference for our further design. And the most important thing, we want to gain our own design idea from exploring the geometry of the Allianz Arena.
Here is the algorithm diagram of this project and how we vary its outcomes in grasshopper. According to theses algorithm components, there are many variations, which can create new design idea.
FIG.6 ALLIANZ ARENA
B.4 Technique: Development CASE STUDY 2.0 Matrix
B.5 Technique: Prototypes Physical Prototype for Solar Panel Installation
As we adopt the solar energy as the theme of our LAGI project, the solar panels that are used to collect the energy should be attached to the structure surface. Considering the durability and stability, we choose the most
stable triangle frame to do the physical prototype for the solar panel insulation. As shown in picture, the white triangle paper indicates the solar panel, which is attached to the steel frame. And the rest the frame would
be covered by glass for nature lighting during daytime. The small triangle units can adapt to every accurate angle based on the structure surface for maximize the solar energy collected, as a panel system.
Prototype 1 We apply the triangle solar panel pattern to a curve surface to see how the unit panels fit the surface angle. This aims to test the performance that the small solar panel fixed on large-scale surface for the further design. And the digital outcome proves the practicality and aesthetic about the solar panel installation.
Prototype 2 We gain the inspiration of the RMIT Design Hub to explore other possibilities for the LAGI project with solar panel system, in term of both pattern and geometry structure. In this prototype, we used the square solar panel patterns to increase solar panel surface are applied. And the turbo shape pattern for natural light transmission are adopted to save energy use for the project it self. However, as its geometry shape would cause some part of solar panel can not receive direct solar radiation, although the surface of solar panel increased, the efficiency of energy collect doesnâ€™t not improve distinctively.
Prototype 3 In this prototype, we tried to approach to new possibilities of finding the form. We explored the geometry form and gain this result form.
B.6 Technique: Proposal Site Analysis LANDMARK
FIG.7 context map
As shown in the figure above, the site is the waiting area for water taxi, opposite to the La Petite Sirene sculpture across river, and in a warehouse block. This means the site is located at a landmark, which is a cultural, historical and transport central point. Therefore, we want to development the LAGI design based on its cultural, functional and environmental situations. As it is in a warehouse block, the energy efficiency become necessary to achieve demonstration effect for the neighborhoods. Considering the site has the potential of solar energy, due its large discrepancy in daylight across the year, we adopt the solar energy collecting system as the energy resource of the project. FIG.8 site plan
FIG.11 DIGITAL MODEL
FIG.9 Porsche Pavilion
FIG.10 PEOPLE FLOW
The Porsche Pavilion takes inspiration from its namesake, the Porsche automobile, resembling the hood of the car. It has an organic shape with smooth curves forming a dynamic shape. As we decide the solar energy as the energy resource of the project, we believe that large smooth surfaces would be most beneficial and efficient in collecting the power. Hence we take the Porsche Pavilion as a precedent. One of the main aims of this project is to collect the solar energy. According to the sunlight radiant data of this site, if adopt efficient solar energy collection sys-
FIG.12 PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE
tem, it would not only can afford the lighting usage of itself (100 LED tube lights cost 6424kwh per year), but also can offer the energy for others purposes. And the efficiency of solar panel setting depends on the surfaces area and the angle for direct sunlight radiant. Therefore, we use the kangaroo pulg in, exoskeleton and other components in grasshopper like the designers did in the Green Lava Void project to explore a maximized and smooth surface for solar installation. As for the connection, the pieces of solar panel would be fixed triangle grid steel frame, which is the most durable structure. And
we do this proposal both in digital and physical model. Beside the energy collection, we also want to achieve other functions of this site. One of the features that our design approached is to lead people flow to the water taxi waiting area, which is next to the site. For example, there are projections to indicate passengers to that area. Also, the pavilion will play a role as a public leisure space for visitors. For instance, the solar paneled roof will also provide a shaded area for users to spend leisure time, creating a public friendly space.
FIG.13 PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE
The shape of the pavilion is based on the organic shape of a wave. And we put this into computation design process to explore the possibilities of the form finding. And then we tried to gain the variations via applying geometry method in grasshopper and rhino. Furthermore, we analysis these outcomes to select the most smooth roof surface structure that we want to create for maximize the area of the solar panel installations. However, we donâ€™t want to applied the solar
panel on the whole roof, rather than leave some space covered by glass for natural lighting to save the energy usage of itself. On the other hand, considering the sunlight radiant in this site, the surface curve angles are adapt to the maximize the possible for most solar panel receive direct sunlight radiant. As for the functions of this design, we vary the spatial depended on
functional need with the whole space. It is a public open space for urban people to enjoy, a waiting area for water taxi passengers, as well as an educational and recreational spaces within the design, due to a smaller curved tunnel structure is placed on the northern side as the solar power storage, but also as a educational center about energy collection and sustainability.
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES
hrough this part study, I have a better understanding of computation design and more familiar with the algorithm definition as
well as gain the variation via different component functions, such as kangaroo, exoskeleton and so on. Furthermore, I learnt that the
design idea can be produced during the vary the issue definition. It is more clear about to develop the design in the further process.
REFERENCE (PART B) 1. ALLIANZ ARENA, Herzog & de Meuron, Munich, Germany,2005. Retrived from http://www.arup. com/_assets/_download/download502.pdf 2. Green Lava Void, ak Max; Peter Murphy; TOKO , Sydney, Australia; Stuttgart, Germany, 2008. Retrived from http://www.designboom.com/architecture/toyo-ito-taichung-metropolitan-opera/ 3. Porsche Pavilion, Henn Architekten, â€¨ Wolfsburg, Germany, 2012. Retrived from http://www.archdaily. com/265034/porsche-pavilion-at-the-autostadt-in-wolfsburg-henn-architekten/ 4. Taichung Metropolitan Opera, Toyo Ito & Associates, Taichung City, Taiwan. Retrived from http://www. arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/taichung-metropolitan-opera-house/
IMAGE FIGURE. 5-6: ALLIANZ ARENA, Herzog & de Meuron, Munich, Germany,2005. Retrived from http:// www.arup.com/_assets/_download/download502.pdf FIGURE. 2- 4: Green Lava Void, ak Max; Peter Murphy; TOKO , Sydney, Australia; Stuttgart, Germany, 2008. Retrived from http://www.designboom.com/architecture/toyo-ito-taichung-metropolitan-opera/ FIGURE. 9: Porsche Pavilion, Henn Architekten, â€¨ Wolfsburg, Germany, 2012. Retrived from http://www. archdaily.com/265034/porsche-pavilion-at-the-autostadt-in-wolfsburg-henn-architekten/ FIGURE. 1: Taichung Metropolitan Opera, Toyo Ito & Associates, Taichung City, Taiwan. Retrived from http://www.arcspace.com/features/toyo-ito--associates/taichung-metropolitan-opera-house/
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT
The site is an artificial island,
which remains functions, including water taxi zone, as well as boat access, as a part of Copenhagen harbor in its southern, western and northern side. However, as this site has completed the transformation from the industrial harbor into a public
recreational, cultural area, which gains the entrepreneurships, craft facilities, flea market, warehouse and cultural Venus, the agenda of our design is to create a space responding to the background of the site and achieving the zero greenhouse gas emission via green energy generator.
Considering reducing the impact of the green energy generators one the surrounding residents and the large discrepancy in daylight of this site across the year, we adopted the solar energy as the green energy resource of our design.
We gain the inspiration from the wave to represent the situation of the site while maximizing the surface for solar panel installation. The repeating process of wave that wrinkles from the sea and smashes down on the beach can responds the background of the site, where buried its glori-
Wave Inspiration Diagram
ous history as a busy industrial harbor and repositions its new meanings. This waveform also meets the requirements of solar panels installation, which has the maximize sun facing surface. On the other hand, due to view of this site, the visitors prefer the
southern part of this site rather than the northern side. Therefore, the form of our design wants to adapt this preference and lead the circulation to the water taxi terminal and the viewpoint at the west point efficiently via the curved entrance setting.
Perspective for Protorype 1
We use the grasshopper tools to form the structure that based on the waveform shape for further solar panels installation. This structure provides the flat surface
Structural Diagram for Protorype 1
for paneling. The solar panels can be installed on the grid. However, its heavy lattice increases the dead load of the structure, which may lead to collapse. Moreover,
the ball joints will increase the cost of construction, as each individual joints need to customized to fit the pipes. Therefore, we abandoned this prototype.
Panelling for Protorype 1
Then we tried another prototype with grasshopper. This prototype also remains the characters of last prototype, which has the flat surface paneling. In addition, comparing with the last heavy lattice structure, it reduces the
Perspective for Protorype 2
dead load of the structure. This improves its stability and save the construction cost. Furthermore, this smooth form enhances its aesthetic sensibility. Moreover, we tried to install solar panels on the whole roof surface of
the construction to maximize the green energy that can gain. Nevertheless, this will increase the construction cost and block the nature light, which will need extra energy for lighting.
Perspective for Protorype 3
Panelling for Protorype 3
Perspective for Protorype 3
To keep the characters of last prototype, such as flat surface paneling and aesthetic sensibility, we keep the form as last prototype. But in order to avoid the natural light blocking issue, we replaced some solar panels into glass randomly. This means the roof will no longer covered by the solar panels, due to high cost and the natural light blocking. It is more transparent than previous a prototype, which allows more nature sunlight to light the interior during the daytime. This is more green efficiency as it save the energy cost on lighting, although it reduces the energy generation due to fewer solar panels. However, this prototype adapts the complex curved framing ,which will lead to the hardness to manufacture and increase the cost.
Simulated Thermal Map of Pavilion
Location of perforations
Based on the crit from interim presentation, the solar panels are more integrated into design. We reconsider the placement and quantity of the solar panel to improve the efficiency of them. In the previous prototypes, we abandoned the original idea that to place all the polycrystalline solar panels on the roof surface, as low efficiency of energy generation, and decide to adopt the more efficient transparent solar panels
Rendering for Panelling
randomly for natural lighting during daytime. In the final proposal, we emphasis the placement of solar panels and further decreased the quantity of green sun energy glass solar panel and polycrystalline solar panels to achieve the most efficiency of the solar energy generation. We analyzed the simulated thermal map of the pavilion and place the solar panels on the area that receive most solar radiation, where is showed
as the warm color area on the thermal map. And the cold color area indicated the less radiation area, where is less solar energy can be generated. Therefore, we leave it empty on the blue area of the thermal map of the pavilion, to save the construction cost on installation of the solar paneling and the energy cost for lighting. This will be further explained in the C.2 Tectonic elements.
Rendering for Columns
On the other hand, to reflect the feedback that lack of consideration of structure span and the manufacturing issue, we modified the design. There are several additional tree-shape columns underneath the roof to support the pavilion structure for better stability. The tree-shape columns are generated to reach the nodes of the roof frame with same algorithmn, which forms the perfect supporting system. And we also abandoned the idea about tunnel structure for educational center in the Part B design for more flexible interior space. Hence, the pavilion provides the whole alternative public space with the supporting columns, only indicated the circulation path via curved entrances setting. For easier manufacturing, we changed the curved grid into square grid structure via modify the algorithic definition. In this way, the structure frame components can be easily manufactured and installed. And the size of the solar is fix, which is much cheaper than customized to fit the curve grid as previous prototypes.
C.2 Tectonic Elements
SOLAR PANEL (POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR PANEL/ GREEN SUN ENERGY TINTED GLASS PLATE PANEL)
PHOTO OF DETAIL MODEL
As showed in the detail model, the upper ETFE roof layer is sited on the steel frame. The whole pavilion is composed by square grid components and supported by the columns. The load will be transferred to the ground via the arch structure and the interior columns. The solar panels, including the polycrystalline solar
panels and the green sun energy tinted glass solar panels, are inlayed into the square grid frame. As for the artificial lighting system will be install underneath the solar panel, which is direct connected to the solar panel system. In this way, the solar energy can apply to the LED lights.
EFTE Panel The EFTE panel is a lightweight membrane material that can provide a shelter over the solar panels and whole structure without affecting solar radiation on the solar panels dramatically. As its character of lightweight, it reduce the dead load of the structure,
which means save the construction cost for supporting system as well as improve the stability of the structure.
Structure Frame We adopted the hollow steel beam as the material of the structure frame. This is because the hollow steel beam is lightweight and has the good capability of bearing tension, which can form the structure for panelling installation.
Green Sun Energy Tinted Glass Plate Panel This solar glass panels are cheap, as there is less silicon in its composition. The glass is coated with nanoparticles and dyes to diffuse light to the outer edges of the plate where the silicon will be to absorb the energy and turn it into electricity. In this way, the solar glass panel become much more efficient as it can absorb light from dif-
ferent color spectrums due to its different dyes. It also enhances the aesthetic function of the paneling. In addition, it also allows the natural light come into the interior, due to its high transparency. Therefore, we adopted this glass panel as the major solar panel of the pavilion. However, as it limited size, the Polycrystalline solar
Polycrystalline Solar Panel The polycrystalline solar panel
is cheaper than monocrystalline counterpart solar panel, as it uses silicon semiconductors in a wafer form. Also, it is more efficient solar panels available. Furthermore, it is easy to install on site,
as it comes in squares, which can be easily slotted into the pavilionâ€™s framing system. Hence, this kind of solar panel is applied to the active thermal area of the pavilion roof surface for achieving the most efficiency of energy generation.
panel is another type solar panel that we applied to the pavilion for easier installation.
LED Tube Light The artificial lighting system of the pavilion adopts the LED tube lighting. This is because comparing with the Compact Fluorescent and Incandescent/ Halogen, the LED light has longer life span and provide more luminance. This meets requirement of the pavilion about the low energy emission. Furthermore, as the large scale flexible interior space, the high luminance of each single light is necessary.
Therefore, the LED is the most efficient choice for lighting system.
LED Life span = 40,000 hours
Compact Fluorescent (CFL) Life span = 15,384 hours
Incandescent / Halogen Life span = 3,007 hours
C.3 Final Model
Dividsion Diagram (Top View) Flow Chart of Fabrication Process
Fab Lab File for Part 1
Dividsion Diagram (Perspective View)
Fabrication Process At first, we decided to use the 1:200 scale to do final model for more clear expression of our design. The final model will be around 1.3 meter long, 0.8 meter wide. Then we modified the digital model in rhino. The whole frame structure was divided into 4 parts, as the material size in Fab Lab is limited. Then use the Boolean Difference tool in Rhino to trim out the vertical beams on the each horizontal beam. In this way, we gained the horizontal beams with hollow to let the vertical beams fit in, like the waffle structure. Then, unroll
these beams label them and put in the file with the Fab Lab formal for laser cutting. Once the got the laser cut piece, we insert the vertical pieces into the horizontal ones and form the roof frame structure. Then put some color polystyrene sheet into the square grid based on the thermal map and cover a clear layer over the frame structure to indicate the EFTE membrane. After set up the columns on the site model, the whole roof system including paneling was placed on them. Fab Lab File for Part 3
Fab Lab File for Part 2
Fab Lab File for Part 4
Photo of Final Model
Photo of Final Model (Top View)
Photo of Detail
Photo of Detail
Photo of Final Model (Persepctive)
Photo of Final Model (Western Elevation)
C.4 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements Design Description
The Wave Pavilion is a large scaled steel frame structure with 155-meter width and 262-meter length, which almost covers the entire the Copenhagen LAGI site, as we want to reposition the function of the site. All aspects, such as the site background, natural surrounding, as well as the renewable energy source, are take in account during the design process. As the LAGI site has a panoramic shore view and features the famous tourist attraction, The Little Mermaid sculpture. Therefore, it has the great opportunity to transform from the industrial commercial harbor into a public recreational, cultural area. Incorporating and inspired by the themes of the ocean and the historical background of the site, the Wave Pavilion adopted an organic wave shape to response to the site and indicate the impact of the design on site and the surroundings resembling the undulating ocean waves surrounding the site. The wave pavilion deisgn sprawls across the site and directs visitors to the oceanfront towards the sea view and the mermaid sculpture. It also directs circulation to the water taxi terminal at the Southern part of the LAGI site.
As the site itself is a flat piece of land located next to an industrial area and other low-rise buildings, creating a general overall openness to the site. This means the solar radiation of the site is plenty, since there is few surrounding construction create the shade area within this site, which is satisfy the criteria of solar energy generation. On the other hand, considering the impact on the neighborhood, the solar energy generation is much quieter and clearer than other renewable energy generation. Hence, the solar energy is renewable energy that the wave pavilion generates. In order to achieve maximized efficiency of the solar energy generation, the form of the pavilion has a rather flat façade to allow for maximum exposure to sunlight. This is also the reason the pavilion has the large scale that covering the whole site. And the square grid frame structure is for easier solar panels installation to save the construction cost. Furthermore, there are two types of solar panels, which are transparent tinted glass solar panels and polycrystalline panels, are applied on the roof of the wave pavilion. The solar panels are placed on the active solar radiation area of the pavilion roof
based on the simulated thermal map of pavilion. The majority of solar panels will be covering the southern side of the pavilion, which receives the most sun and generate most solar energy. On the other hand, tinted glass solar panels have the transparency for natural lighting interior to reduce the energy emission and also enhance the aesthetic functions via casting colorful light. Whilst the rest negative solar radiation area would be leave empty, allowing sunlight to penetrate the structure creating a dappled effect for natural lighting. For stability, the tree-shape columns and the lightweight material are designed in this pavilion. The columns support the whole structure, without any load bearing interior wall in the pavilion. In this way, the large –scale interior space has the flexibility to carry the different activities, such as entrepreneurships, craft facilities, flea market and so on, for further achieve the position transformation of the site, which is a piece of ‘Land Art’, a public space to allow for any visitors to congregation and socialize. And the lightweight material, including EFTE paneling membrane and hollow steel beams, reduces the dead load of the structure.
Site Perspective Rendering
Interior of Wave Pavilion
Western Elevation of Wave Pavilion
Curved Enterance of Wave Pavilion
Interior of Wave Pavilion
Interior of Wave Pavilion
Technology As the solar energy is adopts as the renewable resource that the pavilion generated, the solar panels installation become main factor that be considered during the design process. The total roof surface is 23410m2 . The solar panels cover almost half of total area, which is approx. 11705 m2. The placement of solar panels based on the simulated thermal map of the pavilion to maximize the efficiency of the solar energy generation. According to the thermal map, the solar panels are installed on the active solar radiation area, while the area that receive less solar radiation leave it empty. In this way, the empty panelings save the construction cost on installation of the solar paneling and the energy cost for lighting as the natural sunlight can penetrate into the interior. There is a combination of two types of solar panels, green sun energy tinted glass solar panel and Polycrystalline solar panel, applied on the pavilion. The green sun energy tinted glass solar panels are cheap, as there is less silicon in its composition. It use the new method that coat the glass with nanoparticles and dyes to diffuse light to the outer edges of the plate where the silicon will be to absorb the energy and turn it into electricity. In this
way, the solar glass panel become much more efficient as it can absorb light from different color spectrums due to its different dyes. It also enhances the aesthetic function of the paneling, as it can create colorful paneling for outer appearance and colorful light for interior via penetrating different color spectrums. In addition, it also allows the natural light come into the interior, due to its high transparency. Therefore, we adopted this glass panel as the major solar panel of the pavilion. However, as it is limited in size, the installation cost will be increase. Hence, Polycrystalline solar panel is another cheap and efficient solar panels are design as supplementary solar panel, due to its easier installation. The polycrystalline solar panel is cheaper than monocrystalline counterpart solar panel, as it uses silicon semiconductors in a wafer form. Also, it is more efficient solar panels available. Furthermore, it is easy to install on site, as it comes in squares with proper size, which can be easily slotted into the pavilionâ€™s framing system. Hence, this kind of solar panel is applied to the active thermal area of the pavilion roof surface as supplementary solar panel for achieving the most efficiency of energy generation and reducing the construction cost.
The site itself does not have any high-rise buildings around it, reducing shade, making it an ideal site for harvesting solar energy. The energy collected from the solar panels is directed towards the battery room via wires. The pavilion is lit on the interior with LEDs and sunlight that penetrates through the ETFE and solar glass panels during the day. ETFE was chosen as the pavilion faĂ§ade, though expensive, allows light to stream though, which significantly reduces cost in lighting. It also features the lightweight, which can save the cost on the supporting structure. LED tube lights were chosen, as it suits commercial or large scaled structures. It is a low maintenance lighting option, saving cost on cleaning and changing in the long run. LEDs uses energy much more efficiently, reducing the amount of energy lost to heat. LEDs are also cost saving in the long run. LEDs have an efficacy of 60-140Lm/W, and a lifespan of approximately 40,000 hours, which is 2.6 times longer than a compact fluorescent (CFLs), and 13.3 times more than an incandescent or halogen bulbs.
Estimate of annual solar energy generated The approximate surface area of the roof of the design is 23410 sqm, of which half are transparent ETFE panels or angled North. Leaving 11705 sqm to be fitted with solar panels. If the entire available surface were to be fitted with approximately 1000x1000mm polycrystalline panels with an efficiency of 14%,
in Denmarkâ€™s average insolation and air quality condition. The approximate amount of energy generated would be 1076166 kWh. The generated energy is more than enough to power the LED tube lights operating at 8 hours per day, 7 days a week, which with around 100 lights would use
approximately 6426kWh. The additional excess can be directed to the grid. The calculation is a very rough estimate and it also substitutes the more efficient GreenSun Energy solar panels for polycrystalline panels, as performance data for the GreenSun Energy panels were not available.
23,410 sqm Total Roof Surface
Total Roof Surface
1/2 Total Surface = 11,705sqm Polycrystalline Solar Panels = 1076166 kWh Generated energy per year
Solar Panels Area
x100= 6426 kWh Cost on LED Lighting per year LED Light 1069740 kWh Excess Energy = 100 x
Materials List Faรงade: 23410sqm of ETFE panels Columns: Steel Concrete Frame: 400x600mm Hollow steel beams 11705sqm of Solar Panels: Polycrystalline Solar panels Green Sun Energy Tinted glass solar panels
Interior of Wave Pavilion
Site Perspective Rendering
Environmental Impact The Wave Pavilion was designed to respond to the surrounding of the site. The organic waveform integrates easily with the shore view and water path surroundings. It will also provide an interesting addition to the shoreline of the site. The color glass solar panels and dynamic shape bring
vitality to the site. In addition, the pavilion harvests solar energy, which is primarily used to power LED tube lights, whilst the excess will be directed towards the grid. This gives the city a source of renewable energy, and the scale of the structure means it can create a substantial amount of free energy for the city. The
pavilion will control the waste generation at minimal as it plays as public open space with high flexibility, without any extra emission.
C.5 Learning Objectives and Outcomes After the project presentation, considering the feedback, we modify the model to an exhibition standard and emphasis the light effect that color glass solar panels create on the rendering. This will help to further express the different interior spatial experience due to the different color lights are filtered through different color casting glass solar panel, while the original rendering ignored the color lighting effect. Furthermore, since we spend a lot of time on exploration how to establish the frame for easier solar panels installation, the final proposal model were do in rush. Also, the materials we asked for Fab Lab Laser Cutting were run out and there is no same thickness replaced materials. This affects stability of the model, as the thinner beams can not fit into the
hollow that leave on the horizontal beams for waffle structure. Through the course study, the computational design process opened my eye to what architecture can be in this highly developed technical time. There is no doubt that the computation makes a difference on the design process. It can easily explore a series of experimentations with algorithmic definition. For example, we tried a lot of experimentations to solve the manufacting issue. Finally, gained the square grid frame system to install the solar panels and the tree-shape columns that touched nodes of the roof frame perfectly to support the whole structure through the algorithm in grasshopper. In addition, the fabrication paneling of the Wave Pavilion is also
explored via algorithm like Green Void and Allianz Arena. This technique helps the to achieve the paneling in such a large scale and complexity, which can no be approached in the traditional design method.
REFERENCE (PART C) 1. Thin Film vs. Mono/Polycrystalline Panels 2012, Energy Matters, viewed 20 April 2014, <http://www. energymatters.com.au/renewable-energy/solar-power/thin-film-monocrystalline.php> 2. Copenhagerâ€™s energy consumption 2012, City of Copenhagen,Retrived 27 April 2014, <http://subsite. kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx>
3. Panasonic HIT Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record 2014, Solar Love,retrived 27 April 2014, <http:// solarlove.org/panasonic-hit-solar-cell-sets-world-efficiency-record/> 4. LED Watt Conversion Table & Light Replacement Guide 2014, Stateline eco Electric, viewed 27 April 2014, < http://www.statelineeco.com/resources-eco-education/lighting-basics/led-watt-conversion-tablelight-types-guide.html>
5. Savings Calculator 2014, Spectrum Lighting, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://spectrumlighting.com.au/savings_calculator.php> 6. Solar Power Calculator 2014, MatthewB, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.matthewb.id.au/media/Solar_Power_Calculator.html> 7. Energy Efficient Lighting 2012, Earth Easy, viewed April 30 2014, < http://eartheasy.com/live_energyeff_ lighting.htm>