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LOGBOOK Andrea MA2 / september 2016


Rewilding the abandoned thoughts on master thesis1 Estonian cityscapes are being developed as fast as left behind. After many different changes in administrative laws during the 20th century there is now over 102 totally abandoned villages in Estonia. People are moving to the bigger cities, Tallinn is growing continously. But even in the middle of Tallinn one can find abandoned spaces here and there. By spaces I mean not only buildings but parks, streets, rooms, playgrounds, furniture etc. I wouldn’t dig into the question why they are left unused or how to keep spaces useful but the processes happening after the abandonment. I think that ruining processes keep the city alive, they shouldn’t be stopped. What is the meaning of spatial abandonment? Does it mean, that the man-made boxes aren’t taken care of anymore or does it mean that they are being used differently. Why are buildings used by homeless people abandoned even though someone can now call them a home? Does it mean that a space that starts making its own rules, it is useless? What about spaces full of municipal waste? Are they living or are they dead? The same question arises when looking at deserted and overgrown man-made spaces. The spaces that are overgrown by nature and left for free usage, start to lose their initial built borders. The windows break, the walls become ruins, the plants grow indoors, the exterior-interior definition becomes questionable. A new life grows in, abandonment becomes questionable. Our sense of space has developed in wilderness without borders. Losing artificial borders encourages freedom of spatial interpretation and imagination. Jaan Kaplinski: „Inimese instinktid sündisid suures osas metsikus maailmas – ebamäärasuses, kus igal hommikul ärgates tuli teha otsuseid vastavalt end ümbritsevale keskkonnale. Nüüd on meil kadunud selline vajadus, me oleme ise loonud endale süsteemi, teame igal hommikul ärgates, mis meid ees ootab ning teame isegi seda, kuidas veedame oma vanaduspõlve. Aga tegelikult me vajame sellist ebamäärast keskkonda, inimene on olend, kes tahab otsida ja avastada, aga tal pole enam aega või paikagi kus seda teha.“ Architect Marco Casagrande has said: «Nature is the only reality» and I belive that design should not replace reality but step into a dialouge with nature. I would like to invesigate how create a changing mixture of a ruin and a construction site in alliance with wilderness. How to connect unpredictable nature and regulated artificial worlds in a place, that no longer serves its initial purpose? What would a systemized way of thinking, or even a modular „first-aid kit“ look like? I would like to find „an Estonian way“ of dealing with abandoned spaces. What for me is essential creatng a estonian space is nature but besides that, an ambition to develop the infrastructure and become a real Scandinavian country. Here I belive we could be one step ahead (even though our cities now are at least one step behind of every scandinavian city) - we could bring nature back to the city before we destroy it totally. Besides green thinking, 0-energy building, reusing, reducing, recycling... rewilding the cities is becoming a new trend. Although „rewlding“ is generally used to refer to big-scale conservation efforts to protect, restore, and connect wilderness areas, rewilding is equally applicable to cities and surrounding natural areas. The notion can also be applied to nature uncontrollable overgrowing artificial spaces, in my field of intrest – spaces that are claimed to be useless.


rewilding the abandoned Natural space Raw

living FREE

Artificial space built

used space what ?

DEAD LIMITED

abandoned space / unused space

if it is unused (the way it was built for), is it useless?

abandoned characteristics

city, street, time, money, building, estate, unnecstreet, park, essary element, etc

the initial value and purpose is gone. the borders start to blur, the space starts to merge with the surrounding when there is no human care. the space is named useless for society, but useful for the repelled.

processes

rewilding restoration vandalism: isolation: recycling: nature taking random / concious or People taking over, breaking intentional unconcious over ( hooliborders, overgans, homeless growing people). new breaking down articial elements, waste, space garbage etc new spatial situations, is dead new life Still useless, dead, limited?


THE POSSIBILITIES the similarities between wilderness and abandoned space

no-one is taking “care� of the space the borders are unclear no supervision own policy ...

rewilding the abandoned what? why?

inside-out

the nature grows in the abandoned space anyway rewilding abandoned buildings would make blend into the sorrounding. Urban wilderness A natural city with a forrest typology. giving a new quality. simple and affordable ways to liven up dead spaces in man-built environment.

the exterior (nature) breaks in the interior and vise versa. how would a space look like when turned inside out? how does it affect the surrounding? how to create a natural interior?

first aid kit what could be a standardized approach for abandoned buildings to make the most use of them again? What should a minimal input with a maximum outcome be? What elements should be added, kept or removed?


rewilding the abandoned RESEARCH MORE...

urban wilderness - old building, new nature balance between natural and artificial space in tallinn citycenter WHY are the buildings abandoned? the ovnership and laws the profile of abandoned houses how nature raises the quality of abandoned space?

PROJECTS AND POSSIBILITIES

should the solution be temporary (mid-solution) or permanent? how temporary can wilderness be? do we need urban wilderness? should the solution be site specific? can one solution be applied to dif spaces?

big questions who is the user? why rewild abandoned buildings? can wilderness be planned?


RESEARCH MORE... built space

ABANONED SPACES

“lifetime� of abandoned building temorary - meaning ghost buildings space boundaries natural boundaries

buildings interiors (in non-abandoned buildings) parks streets

wild space rewilding process and timeframe plants growing in tallinn animals living in tallinn when should the nature be limited in a city space? nature usually demolished a building even more. is it good? how wild is too wild? how much can nature be controlled and still be natural? what is a purpose of a human (designer, architect)? what could a practical outcome be? can a temporary solution be used with nature?


- “The juxtaposition of new growth against old structure creates a nice tension, and the dead leaves and stems on the wrought iron step create a nice bridge.” Chris McGee, Lam Art Director https://landscapearchitecturemagazine.org/2015/09/08/in-the-weeds/ - Marco Casagrande: „Design should not replace reality.“ His method: Invesigating, creating a constantly changing mixture of a ruin and a construction site. http://www.casagrandelaboratory.com/portfolio/ruin-academy/ - Do we need urban wilderness? We have studies showing that people tend to be healthier and happier, and can enjoy longer lives, in areas where they have access to nature, including green urban spaces. Outdoor spaces are some of the least expensive to create and can pay some of the highest returns on investment—in terms of community life, health and wellness, and the generation of economic activity in surrounding areas. As more people—from young professionals to retirees—move back into cities, green public spaces and vibrant streetscapes are often cited as key factors for attracting residents and businesses. Despite this, we do not give outdoor spaces the same value and financial support that we give to buildings and interiors. We calculate the square-foot dollar value of buildings and interiors but don’t do the same for a square foot outdoors. We have not made a strong business case for designed outdoor spaces—we can and should be making this case. I also believe that design and innovation in public and privately owned outdoor space is lagging. - What happenes with abandoned buildiing? When a building is abandoned, it is no longer sealed in a way to keep environmental elements out. Even if the building is well sealed, simply having the temperature drop to levels that would normally be controlled by human comfort standards, will create an environment that will be more likely to promote organic growth, which leads to mould and decay. Humans will naturally protect their home without even realizing it.


Näiteid hüljatud hoonete ja linnaruumi ajutistest kasutustest Tallinnas Kaija-Luisa Kurik “Väita, et linnas on liiga palju ruumi tundub lihtsustav, kuid Tallinnat on pikalt iseloomustanud omapärane laialivalguvus ning linnasisese tiheduse puudumine. Hõredusse on pikitud mõned keerulised kuid põnevad hüljatud maamärgid, funktsiooni kaotanud tähenduslikud hooned, problemaatilised elamualad. Südalinna areng ning äärelinnade mitemekesistumine on kindlasti olulised teemad Tallinna tänases ja tuleviku arengus. Ajutised kasutused on kõikjal ja mitmekesised, kuid urbanistile on just huvitav küsimus, millistel tühjade ruumide ajutistel kasutustel võiks olla kestev linna arengut suunav ja soodustav mõju ning kuidas seda erinevate osapoolte koostöös rõhutada.” Kuidas saaksid uued kasutusstrateegiad hõlmata ühe paiga varasemat identiteeti? (Helios kino) Kuidas mõjutab tühjade kohtade ajutine kasutus linna kvaliteeti pikas perspektiivis? (EKA parkla) Kuidas mõjutab kestev kultuuripärandi staatus ajutise kasutuse tingimusi? (Linnahall) https://www.goethe.de/ins/ee/et/kul/mag/20690662.html - Book: “Vacant city” - Master thesis: TEMPORARY CITY Critical Approach to Temporary Urbanism, Temporary Use and the Idea of Temporary in a City Four Case Studies From Tallinn Kaija Kurik - Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, 1974

ghts thouLoodus – näide piiridest, mis pole küsitavad Loodus on inimestele kõige ühiseltmõistetavam keskkond, sest meie ruumitaju ja instinktid on välja arenenud metsikus looduses, kus pole piire. Tehislike piiride kaotamine annab võimalusi tõlgendamiseks, vabadustundeks. Tõlgendusvabadus laseb igal indiviidil luua ühisesse ehitatud keskkonda oma maailm. Loodus hägustab (linna) piire füüsiliselt, kaotab meie loodud geomeetriad, looduslik keskkond jätab meile ruumitunnetusliku tõlgendusvabaduse. Looduse toomine linna tagasi aitab meid viia tagasi oma ideaalruumi, mida me saame sõnastada enda tahtmise järgi, annaks inimesele näiliselt rohkem vabandust kujundada ise maailm enda ümber.


LOGBOOK Andrea MA2 / october 2016


EIK: “Do you want to restrain (and make use of) an abanoned space or rewild (let it grow) an abandoned space ?” Andrea: “...REWILD”

A RFFERENCE FELING OF THE DAY 12.10.2016: “An animal was taken to WILDerness to CALM down” WILD / CALM RESTRAIN / REWILD


THE WILDERNESS CITY: An Essay on METAPHORICAL EXPERIENCE by Arnold Berleant http://www.eki.ee/km/place/pdf/KP1_04berleant.pdf - “Thc city is a fact in nature, like a cave, a run of mackerel or an ant-heap. But it is also a conscious work of art, and it holds within its communal framework many simpler and more personal forms of art. Mind takes form in the city; and in turn, urban forms condition mind.” Mumford 1938, Introduction - “Just as language has no longer anything in common with the thing it names, so the movements of most of the people who live in cities have lost their connexion with the earth; they hang, as it were, in the air, hover in all directions, and find no place where they can settle.” Rainer Maria Rilke, Worpswede (1903) - W. R. Burnett, The Asphalt Jungle, 1949; “The city is not a concrete jungle, it is a human zoo.” - THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT The ‘garden city’ conveys a fusion of nature and culture, a cultivated nature in which control takes a quietly benevolent course in promoting the flowering of people’s lives in an Edenic urban setting (Howard 1945, Stein 1957). This idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_city_movement - Finnish forest communities. Munkkiniemi,Tapiola. Tapiola’s planners aimed at demonstrating a new direction for Finnish town planning and housing. The aim of the Housing Foundation was to create a garden city which would be a microcosm of Finnish society: all social classes would live there and there would be different types of buildings, ranging from detached houses to terraced and multi-storey blocks https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapiola


quotes from author Arnold Berleant: - Over the past hundred years, ‘wilderness’ is becoming a place to be valued and protected, a source of values and of human connections with the rest of the natural world (Rolston 1989: 118–143). - “wilderness” as a methapor: Thinking of the city as wilderness leads us in unusual directions. We may, at times consider the city overwhelming and hostile, not a place for preserving and promoting human values. Its unfamiliarity makes the city appear confusing, threatening in its very strangeness. - Constant concern over making a misstep influences our passage through both city and wilderness, while the background apprehension of danger from motor vehicles and muggers parallels the constant threat, real or imagined, from the deadly creatures thought to inhabit a wilderness. In both city and wilderness, feeling out of place is a vivid component of the experience. With familiarity, the wilderness city may change into something different, such as a park or jungle. The last of these finds common ground between tribal warfare and the urban dangers of gang wars. As a metaphor, wilderness preserves its darkness. - When traffic becomes a torrent and urban crime is endemic, the city is described as a jungle, the reference being to the threatening features of wild nature. - We have noted how the idea of wilderness is historically conditioned, changing in the eighteenth century from a wild place by darkness, danger, and desolation, to one where we can encounter, admire, and enjoy nature. This transformation in meaning is part of a process that still continues, as we reconfigure nature from a threat into a resource, from a source of wealth into a haven of respite from the pressures of urban life, from a playground into a domain demanding respect for its own inherent values. - Wilderness as a natural environment exists more in history and imagination than in fact. Withthe disappearance of most of the primeval forests we have left only what are called, oxymoronically, wilderness parks. These are usually secondary ‘wildernesses,’ land grown over after the original logging and farming activities have been abandoned. Even these wildernesses are cultivated in the sense of being protected, often managed, always surrounded and impinged upon by human activities. - Perhaps, in a similar fashion, the primeval wilderness has been overgrown in human experience by the city. The metaphor suggests that the city has become the new wilderness, evoking, on the one hand, feelings of intimidation and awe, a sense of the infinite, and the experience of absolute dependency; and on the other, danger and the wild behavioral traits of hostility, aggression, and violence. - When we speak of a garden city, we are not merely using a figurative expression. We are extolling the garden as a model for urban life and a qualitative goal of urban design. The wilderness city has not, to my knowledge, been taken as such a model. It stands not as a goal but as a graphic expression of anguish at what urban experience has become for many less fortunate inhabitants of the modern city.

“city” and “wilderness” as methapores


the patterns: artificial VS natural


the lines: artificial VS natural


CHARACTERISTICS OF ABANDONED SPACES

CONDITION

PROCESSES HAPPENING

further POSSIBILITIES

ARTIFICIAL MATERIALS

NATURAL elements

rotting

renovating

stone

rusting

demolition

wood

plants: ephemeral / perennials

overgrowing

redesigning

steel

grass

degrading

...

concrete

insects

ceramics

small animals

glass

...

...

...


examples in different scales and background

patarei volta tehas

linnahall

helios kino

tatari pärnu mnt

eka parkla

NSVL armee


HELIOS KINO

an interesting deserted place with a cultural value in the middle of dense artifial area slowly overgroving from the outside indoor area is yet untouched by the nature


VOLTA TEHAS LINNAHALL patarei

vast abandoned spaces that are already becoming known for their wild beauty. historical buildings still to be renovated


UNKNOWN SPACE, PĂ„RNU MNT

a ghost building partially demolished no cultural value overgroving by ephemeral / perennial plants


parking lots

demolished but underused space maintainance - forces of nature are still ruling


field of interest

vacant built space

nature overgrowing the built

demolished space


abandoned building OLD

+

overgrowing nature NEW

slow natural demolition + ANOTHER natural layer

?

happening without human intervention

added

a new situation


rewilding the abandoned research and action plan Can wilderness vitalize the vacant cityscape? .... is the research question ?

what?

....are the core questions I would like to answer? ...do I want to achive?

- What are the alternative solutions for abandoned spaces? - What qualities could nature add to the vacant cityscape? - How to build a city / create an interior in collaboration with nature? - When nature starts breaking the artificial borders how does it change the meaning of space? - How does an overgrown building change in time (grow further, react to seasonality, weather, human activity etc)? - How would an Estonian wild urban space look like? I want to - explore the aesthetics of decay - give and abandoned space a new quality. - rewild not to restrain the abandoned space. - rethink the meaning of urban green areas not build new parks - create a direct connection between landscape and interior architecture - create a wild interior space. - break the artificial borders that do not represent the meaning of the space as we perceive them. - learn from nature, work with not against it


rewilding the abandoned research and action plan

why?

....did I choose the topic? ....why is the topic relevant?

I started with questioning the way we artificially and verbally build borders around us. I am intrigued by man-built spaces but I am also intrigued by the freedom of boarderless wilderness. I believe that every person has a need for wilderness. Green lifestyle and development of parks is becoming more and more popular and needed around the world. But superorganised parks are far from wilderness aesthetics.

- The amount of vacant buildings on high-cost sites in Tallinn centre is quite big. Many of the buildings are in ruins and cannot be renovated and are already overgrown by nature - Rethinking the green areas might be a solution for the vacant spaces in dense cities, bringing natural freedom to the cityscape. - Although vast majority of Estonia is still covered natural forrest and not much consideration is given to nature while developing cities, Tallinn is becoming landscape more and more artificial. Here we could be one step ahead and contribute rewilding the unused vacant spaces rather than pushing the nature out.

case study city: Tallinn


rewilding the abandoned research and action plan

Gathering and mapping the ideas and directions Start if research, documentation. Researching - case study projects around the world (interior and urban architecture, biology) - reading esseys, thesis works on the topic of vacant spaces, wilderness and city Conclusions

HOW?

...am I planning to approach the research and work?

SEPTEMBER

october

Mapping - the abandoned, overgrown spaces in Tallinn centre. the owners, the reasons of abandonment etc - the ruderal plants of Tallinn, the growth conditions. Describing (based on case studies) - decay of a building - ruderal plants overgroving - how the interior/exterior relations change Conclusions

NOVEMBER

Hands on - small-scale urban interventions in Tallinn - sketching (the abandoned buildings before, now, after) - modelling (the qualities and character of abandoned spaces) Conclusions

DECEMBER


rewilding the abandoned research and action plan

HOW?

...am I planning to approach the research and work?

Field trip and work in a different (natura) environment Mapping the gathered information - compare - conclude. Sum up all the information

january

Focus - on the new qualities - the possiblities - learn - gather new ideas

FEBRUARY

Framing - the final thesis topic - the final thesis project Start of intensive thesis writing + interventions (if necessary)

MARCH

Writing and work on project continues + interventions (if necessary)

APRIL

Finishing up

MAY


rewilding the abandoned / hĂźljatud ruumi metsistamine

why?

to give a new quality for useless artificial space

how? creating A straight conncection interior and landscape (breaking the artificial borders)


nature

building

urban wilderness

It’s more about the border-breaking process of overgroving / rewilding, not the final outcome


PLANTS AND TREES OF TALLINN http://www.eestiloodus.ee/artikkel1182_1178.html - Tallinna piirest on leitud suuremat osa Eesti looduslikke liike. /.../ Inimene avab elupaiku, kus saavad kasvama hakata ja koduneda kaupadega toodud võõramaa taimed. Peaaegu kõiki Eesti tulnukliike on leitud ka pealinnast. Looduslikud liigid on omased eelkõige linna äärealadele, mida pole jõutud täis ehitada. - Rannataimed – looduslikud liigid keset linna. Palju tulnukliike, millest paljud Eesti niiskes kliimas ka enamasti ei valmi, sest lähevad enne hallitama - Tallinna süda paikneb paelaval. Looalade taimi on säilinud Lasnamäe servas ja Kadaka küla juures. Lasnamäe klindineemik on ainus alpi kadakkaera elupaik Eestis. Lootaimed (nt Lasnamäe loopealsetel aladel) ei karda üldiselt linna, neid lämmatab vaid prügi laotamine või ehitustegevus. - Salumetsade taimed peaksid ennast linnas kõige paremini tundma. Metsaalused varjutaimed ei armasta peale tallamise ka niitmist. Seetõttu on ka salutaimi rohkem linna ääres.

tõelised linnatänava taimed - suur teeleht, aasnurmikas ja murunurmikas, vesihein

Linnamüüri pragudes:

põisjalg, müürilill (pärit Kesk-Euroopa kaljudelt)

Linnas levivad salutaimed:

salukõdrik, kõrvenõges, naat,

looalade taimed - alpi

kadakkera, aasnelk, püstkivirik, alpi nurmik, rannamõisa tuhkpuu (ainult Lasnamäel)

-Rabade muutused linnas on sarnased liivaste metsade omadega: inimene oma tahtliku tegevusega, samuti õhusaaste ning koduloomad ja inimkaaslevad linnud on muutnud keskkonna toitainerikkamaks kui tavalises laguneva turbaga raba-kõdusoos. - Linnadesse loovad liigirikkust ka tulnuktaimed. Suurtesse linnadesse jõuavad nad enamasti ikka – siin on kaupade laadimist ja põllumajandustoorme töötlemist. Need on peamised inimkaaslevate taimede levitajad. Tulnuktaimedel on linnas hea püsima jääda selle tõttu, et siin on palju rikutud elupaiku, vaba pinda, kus seemned saavad konkurentsitult idaneda. Ka linna soojem kliima soodustab lõunamaalaste ellujäämist. Suurem osa tulnuktaimedest ongi pärit lõuna poolt. - Tulnuktaimedel on linnas hea püsima jääda selle tõttu, et siin on palju rikutud elupaiku, vaba pinda, kus seemned saavad konkurentsitult idaneda. Ka linna - Tallinna linnalikel aladel on kõige sagedasemad tallatava õue taimed – needsamad, kes ka porile tallataval esivanemate taluõuelgi valitsesid. soojem kliima soodustab lõunamaalaste ellujäämist. Suurem osa tulnuktaimedest ongi pärit lõuna poolt.

linnapuud: pihlakas, vaher, pärn,

tamm, mänd, kuusk, tuhkpuu, viirpuu, lodjapuu, kuslapuu, ...

liivastel aladel:

liiv- ja kink-aruhein, vesihaljast haguhein, liivtarn, kännas-kipslill, nõmmnelk


FRAGMENTS of URBAN WILDERNESS tallinn september 2016

interesting note: a building starts overgrowing from the ground and the roof


WHAT An URBAN PLANT NEEDS?

How can plants grow out of concrete or abandoned buildings? - Air etc. dispersed seeds of certain plants would land in the cracks and crevices of buildings and establish there. These range from ephemeral (ühe-aastane) types to perennials (mitme-aastane). - Water: intermittent rainfalls, episodes of dew or leaking plumbing/drainage. Some plants survive through prolonged intermittent droughts. - Soil: A lot of plants need sheltered conditions but not much soil to start growing in. Plant roots are really really thin they can easily extend through the bottom of the crack in concrete into the soil below. http://greenplantsforgreenbuildings.org/resources/benefits-of-green-plants/

Ruderaaltaimed on kiirekasvulised ja tõhusa seemnelise uuenemisega taimed, mis kiiresti asustavad taimkattest vabanenud kasvukohti. Ruderaaltaimedeks võidakse nimetada ka umbrohutaimi. Ruderaaltaimede asustatud ala nim. ruderaalpaigaks.


RUDERAL PLANTS in TALLINN ruderal - a plant growing in waste places, along roadsides or in rubbish.

1st to grow

Moss (sammal)

Japanese knotweed (Sahhalini konnatatar)

Moss grows naturally in areas that are shady, acidic, moist, sheltered, It spreads like fire, and will take and free from other plant compe- over gardens and parks, illegal in tition. The urban landscape is a some contries natural fit for moss.. The soils are typically compacted and deficient. Moss likes hard, compact soil. Moss will not survive a pH higher than 6.5.

Dandellion (võilill) Spreads quickly, strong roots, can grow almost everywhere

Naat, Teeleht, Jasmiin (tugevad juured), Luuderohi (annab värvi), metsviinamari

Pihlakas, Vaher, Pärn


BIO-DAMAGES

Kahjustusprotsessid grupeeritakse: - füüsikalised kahjustused tekivad materjalide niiskusesisalduse muutumisel kaasnevate mahumuutuste ning soojus- ja valgusenergia põhjustatud mõõtmete ja molekulaarstruktuuri muutuste tõttu. Talvised külmumis- ja sulamistsüklid, Kivimaterjalide soolakahjustused, valguskiirgus. - keemilised kahjustused mitmesugused reaktsioonid (hüdrolüüs, oksüdatsioon, korrosioon jpt), mis on esile kutsutud nii materjalide endi keemiliste koostisainete reageerimisest kui ka väliskeskkonnast materjalidesse sattuvate ainete toimest. Väävedioksiid jm saasteained, korrosioon, karboniseerumine. - mehaanilised KAHJUSTUSED põhjustatud mehaaniliste jõudude toimest (deformatsioon, purunemine, rebenemine, kulumine, abrasioon) ja pinna määrdumisest. Tegemist on sageli esinevate, küllaltki suurte ja väga mitmepalgeliste kahjustusprotsessidega, mis osaliselt kattuvad ka teiste kahjustusprotsessidega. Tuul, erosioon, sadenevad soolad, - bioloogilised KAHJUSTUSED Bioloogilised kahjustusprotsessid tekivad mitmesuguste organismide (bakterid, aktinomütseedid, mikroseened, putukad, närilised jne) elutegevusest, enamasti on tegemist olemuselt keemiliste või mehaaniliste kahjustustega, mis on tekitatud organismide poolt.

BIOKAHJUSTUS: H. J. Huecki (2001) pakutud klassikalise defi nitsiooni kohaselt on biokahjustus igasugune ebasoovitav muutus materjalide omadustes, mis on esile kutsutud organismide elutegevusega. Biokahjustusprotsessid saavad toimuda ainult siis, kui keskkonnatingimused on sobivad neid põhjustavate organismide kasvuks ja arenguks. Igasuguse biokahjustuse korral on olulisteks osalisteks selles protsessis (joonis 3): - materjal, mida kahjustatakse; - organismid, kes kahjustavad (biokahjustajad) - keskkond, mis mõjutab nii organisme kui ka materjale. Organisme mõjutavatest keskkonnateguritest on olulisimad: - niiskus - temperatuur - hapnik - valgus.


BIO-DAMAGES

Peamised materjale kahjustavad organismirĂźhmad


REFERENCE BOOKS

what happens to your house? animation http://www.worldwithoutus.com/TWWUHouseAnimation.html

- “THE EARTH WITHOUT US” by Alan Weisman “in the day after humans disappear, nature takes over and immediately begins cleaning house - our houses.” http://www.worldwithoutus.com/did_you_know.html

- “LAGUNEMISE LÜHIKURSUS” by CIoran “Peale maailma Loomise ja Hävitamise on kõik ettevõtmised ühtviisi mõttetud.” (lk 104) mahajäetud kohad maailmas https://www.facebook.com/mahaj22tudkohad/?fref=ts https://www.tumblr.com/tagged/overgrown-buildings mahajätud linnad http://reisijuht.delfi.ee/news/news/14-kummituslikku-linna-kus-tanaval-enam-kohalikke-ei-kohta?id=75808137


wasteland STAGE 1 1-2 years, annual plants

STAGE 2 prennial plants, several bushes

STAGE 3 a lot of bushes, several trees

STAGE 4 forrest

Jäätmaade puhul eristatakse nelja suktsessioonijärkjärku (üksteisele järgnevat protsessi): 1. avatud kooslus arvukate üheaastaste pioneertaimedega. 1-2 aastat 2. avatud kooslus mitmeaastaste rohttaimede ja üksikute põõsastega 3. poolavatud kooslus arvukate põõsaste ja üksikute puudega. 4. Vanimad jäätmad on peaaegu täielikult kaetud metsaga Jäätmaa on ala, mida inimene on varem kasutanud, mis aga seejärel on olnud inimtegevusest vähemalt aasta puutumata. Sellised alad on tühjad krundid, laoterritooriumid, tagahoovid jne. Jäätmaadel kujuneb välja iseloomulik taimestik, kus valitsevad mitmeaastased suured rohttaimed. Jäätmaade mullad on enamasti toitaine- ja mullaelustikuvaesed, kuivad, hüdrofoobsed (halvasti vett imavad) ja oma koostise, kuivuse ning segipööratud struktuuri tõttu keskmisest soojemad. Sageli on jäätmaa muld kas kokku pressitud, kaetud hoonete ja asfaldiga, kooritud, asendatud või segunenud mujalt toodud kasvupinnasega. See mõjutab mulla omadusi, mis omakorda tingib iseloomuliku taimestiku. Näiteks killustiku- ja betoonirikkas pinnases võib leida kasvamas keskmisest rohkem lubjalembeseid taimi. TaimeSTIK. Eesti taimkattetüüpide klassifikatsiooni järgi on jäätmaade taimkate arvatud ruderaaltaimkonda (pärismaised taimeliigid + tulnuktaimed, 1- ja mitmeaastased). Jäätmaad ilmestavad väidet, et loodus ei salli tühja kohta. Aja jooksul muutuvad nad aina lopsakamaks, võsastuvad ja metsastuvad. Elurikkamad jäätmaad väärivad suisa kaitse alla võtmist, ülejäänud tasub kujundada paljuotstarbeliseks rohe- ja virgestusalaks. http://www.eestiloodus.ee/arhiiv/Eesti_Loodus04_2014.pdf

STAGE 1


LIFESPAN OF BUILING MATERIALS (IN YEARS)

Siding Aluminum: 20-50 Steel: 50+ Vinyl: 50 Wood: 10-100 (depending on maintenance) Brick: 100+

Roofing Asphalt composition shingles: 15-30 Asphalt overlag: 25-35 Asphalt built-up: 12-25 Clay tile: 50 (varies with local climate) Coal & tar built-up: 12-30 Slate: 50-100 (varies with roof grade) Sheet metal: 25-50

Windows Vinyl and aluminum casement: 20-30 Screens: 15-20 Window glazing glass: 20 Wood casement: 20-50

Shutters Aluminum, interior: 35-50 Aluminum, exterior: 3-5 Vinyl, exterior: 7-8 Wood, exterior: 5

Interior Finishes Ceramic tile: lifetime of house Drywall: 30-70 Wall paint: 5-10 (varies with quality, type paint) Trim paint: 5-10 Wallpaper: 7

Flooring Marble: lifetime of house Oak or pine: lifetime of house Terrazzo: lifetime of house Vinyl sheet/tile: 20-30 Carpeting: 7-12 (varies with type, quality) Hardscaping Asphalt driveway: 10 Patio, brick or concrete: 24 Gravel walkway: 4 Swimming pool, inground: 18 Sprinkler system: 12 Fence, wood: 12 Deck, wood: 15

+ plumbing, furniture etc .. http://www.onlinetips.org/lifespan-building-materials/


TIME FRAME of A VACANT BUILING 0 1,5 years

5 years

10 years

15 years 20 years

building in use abandoned

25 years

30 years

50 years

exterior staircase will be covered in greenery

100 years

roof covered IN moss WALLS, ROOF START LEAKING

300 years

asphalt is visually gone ROOF COLLAPSES around 3/4 of building (city) is covered IN plants intErior materials break (WOODEN FLOORS, WALLS) FOUNDARION, WINDOWS BREAK

1,5 years

50 years

wasteland WOODEN CONSTRUCTION COLLAPSES Steel constructions decay

http://www.worldwithoutus.com/TWWUHouseAnimation.html


VACANT BUILDING TYPO

type WOODEN HOMES

building density of the area

natural vs built environment in the area

military base

Soviet legacy

mansion

RANDOM


VACANT BUILDING TYPO

scale

condition building in use

abandoned for 1 year

abandoned for 10 years

abandoned for 25 years

material wood

brick, stone (+stucco)

steel

concrete

abandoned for 50 years

wasteland


WOODEN APPARTMENT BUILDINGS

Lennuki 26,28

Luise 25,27

Luise 17 Poska 41

- usually habited by homeless people - natural forces are not so visible yet - in densely built, popular neighborhoods (Kalamaja, Uus Maailm, Kadriorg, Kassisaba) - warm, wooden - waiting for restauration - quiet small streets - closed gardens inbetween

Narva mnt 80


WOOD AS BUILDING MATERIAL

KUIDAS HINNAA PUITMAJA TERVIST? Kalle Pilt (puidu biokahjustuste ekspert) Puithoonet mõjutavad enim: - Niiskus - seened - putukad - biokihid - taimed - närilised, loomad - puidu deformatsioonid http://maaleht.delfi.ee/news/maaleht/tarbija/kuidas-hinnata-oma-puitmaja-tervist?id=33366697 http://maaleht.delfi.ee/news/maaleht/tarbija/puitmaja-kahjustavad-koigerohkem-seened-ja-mardikad?id=34157529 http://www.kallepilt.ee/moned-head-artiklid-ja-kirjutised/

Kuidas kaardistada puitmajade seisukorda? 1. VÄLJAST - Määrake ilmakaared ning hoone paiknemine nende suhtes. - Vaadake, kuhu valgub maja ümber olev pinnavesi: kas maja poole või majast eemale. - Vaadelge, kuidas paikneb hoone ümbruses olev haljastus (puud, põõsad, ronitaimed jne) ning kus puutuvad need kokku hooneosadega. - Vaadake üle hoone katus. Kontrollida tuleks katusekatte terviklikkust ning kinnitust, pragusid ja lõhesid katusekattes. - Sadevee äravoolusüsteemi toimimise juures vaadake, kas rennid on kenasti kaldu äravoolukohtade suunas - kas torud on terved ning lõpevad maapinna lähedal. - Vaadake, kus puutub pinnas kokku vundamendiga ning ehk isegi seina alaosaga ning kui suur osa jääb pinnase vastu. - Kui vundamendis on tuulutus­avad, tuleks kõik läbi käia ning kontrollida, kas avad on puhtad ning kas õhk nendes liigub. - Vaadake üle seinakattematerjal. Krohvi puhul tuleks otsida pragusid ning lahtiseid osasid. Laudise juures on tähtis laudade ühtlus ning kindlasti laudisejoon – kas see on kogu hoone ulatuses sirge või on kusagil kõrgemaid või madalamaid kohti. - Eraldi tuleks vaadelda igasuguseid väljaehitisi ning juurdeehitisi: kas ühendus põhihoonega on kogu piirde ulatuses tihe. Kuidas kaardistada puitmajade seisukorda? 2. SEEST - Esik. välisuks: kas see sulgub tihedalt ning kas lävepakk on vastu ukse alumist äärt. Siis kindlasti põrandakattematerjal ning selle korrashoid, sest esikus on jalgadega sisse toodav vee kogus suur. - Uurige, kas kusagil on puitpõrand vajunud või õõtsub ning kas kivipõrandal on tekkinud pragusid või lohkusid. - Esiku seintel ning laes võiks otsida hallitust ning niiskusekahjustusi (laigud, vöödid seintel, värvierinevused). Samuti sõltuvalt seinakattematerjalist selle korrasolekut – praod krohvis ning lahti tulnud või mädanenud laudis. ... - kelder - niisked ruumid - eluruumid - pööning


Soviet legacy

- historical - outdated (purpose, style etc) - industrial, rough - factories, concert halls, prison, kolkhoz centres etc - extra big in scale - In old manufactoring districts of Tallinn (Kalamaja, Kopli..); smaller towns, forgotten parts of Estonia. - expensive to restaurate


MILITARY BASES

Tondi kasarmud

Oriküla (Kiitsi)

Pirita-Kose

Škuna (Läti)

- unoccupied since the independence - initial purpose is unnessasary for society - usually isolated from the cities - 25 years since abandonment - signs of overgrowing - different scale, style


MANORS

- historical - different styles - big scale - expensive to restaurate There are more than a thousand manors in Estonia and many of them are totally abandoned. Rich history, beautiful architecture and eerie atmosphere combine in the manors. http://www.abandonednordic.com/mois/


DIFFERENT LOCATIONS IN CENTRAL TALLINN


CONCLUSION: FIELD OF INTEREST

1,5 years

50 years

densly built, lack of nature


CONCLUSION: FIELDS OF INTEREST vacant city houses

old military buildings

dense areas, lack of greenery small buildings, in the middle of the artificial city

useless buildings, 25 years of abandonment, dark vibe, contrasting nature


MODERN VERTICAL GARDENS A MANIPULATIVE WAY TO GROW GREENERY IN ARTIFICIAL SPACE

Green walls can be often categorized into two types: green facades and living walls. Green facades are a type of green wall system in which climbing plants or cascading ground covers are trained to cover specially designed supporting structures. Rooted at the base of these structures, in the ground, in intermediate planters or even on rooftops, the plants typically take 3-5 years before achieving full coverage. Green facade can be anchored to exiting walls or built as free standing structures, such as fences or columns. Factors for a successful green wall - How the system will be secured to the wall surface - Calculation of loading capacity, waterproofing and substrate layer. - Source of irrigation and mineral nutrients for plants - Appropriate plant selection with consideration of plant spacing, desired coverage, light exposure, hardiness and amenity context. - Plant maintenance plan to secure the health of these living systems - Water recycling and drainage - Light sources Living walls are artificial systems, composed of pre-vegetated panels, often vertical modules or planted blankets that are fixed vertically to a structural wall. Plants are usually rooted directly in the structure / growth medium and they often require irrigation system to addition of mineral nutrients. Any plant species, even moss can be grown on a living wall system. Indoor walls are usually planted with tropical species due to the constant mild temperature and the lack of light while outdoor walls are more restricted to rustic plants. The common systems in this category are felt pocket system & mat media system.


BIOGRADABLE GROWING BUILDING MATERIAL A MANIPULATIVE WAY TO GROW GREENERY IN ARTIFICIAL SPACE

WILLIAM LEE Surface design BIOGRADABLE SEEDED CONCRETE William studied Textiles and Surface Design at Bucks New University. He has a strong interest in material development which allows him to work with individuals both within and outside his chose field. “In collaboration with a materials scientist and Shire Green Roof Substrates Ltd, I have developed a biodegradable ‘seeded’ concrete, which further combines architectural design with nature. Creating specially developed concrete material, with seeds embedded within it, provides a unique opportunity to welcome nature within architectural design. As well as provide a solution to lost habitats of native wildlife and flower species, together with getting people to reconnect with nature in an otherwise ‘baron’ landscape for plants. With a similar consistency of ‘regular’ concrete, seeds start to germinate once water is added to the material. Plant growth through the substance slowly breaking down the material, which decomposes into soil. Becoming completely biodegradable.” http://wtl21.blogspot.com.ee/2013/07/william-lee-seeded-concrete.html https://www.pinterest.com/WLSurfaceDesign/william-lee-surface-design/


books to read - book “Material Senescence” by Benjamin Busch Borrowing a term from biology, the author uses senescence to describe the ecological aging of architectural fabric in Material Senescence. Text and photographs draw from instances of failing architecture in Berlin to speculate upon the unpredictable breaking down of materials in the built environment. Foreword by Mark Minkjan titled “Transience: the Nature of Architecture”. http://benbusch.info/portfolio/material-senescence/

- book “The Aesthetics of Decay: Nothingness, Nostalgia, and the Absence of Reason” by Dylan Trigg In The Aesthetics of Decay, Dylan Trigg confronts the remnants from the fallout of post-industrialism and postmodernism. Through a considered analysis of memory, place, and nostalgia, Trigg argues that the decline of reason enables a critique of progress to emerge. In this ambitious work, Trigg aims to reassess the direction of progress by situating it in a spatial context. In doing so, he applies his critique of rationality to modern ruins. The derelict factory, abandoned asylum, and urban alleyway all become allies in Trigg’s attack on a fixed image of temporality and progress. The Aesthetics of Decay offers a model of post-rational aesthetics in which spatial order is challenged by an affirmative ethics of ruin. - book “Industrial Ruins: Space, Aesthetics and Materiality” by Tim Edensor Standing in contrast to these aesthetically and socially regulated spaces are the neglected sites of industrial ruins, places on the margin which accommodate transgressive and playful activities. Providing a different aesthetic to the over-designed spaces of the city, ruins evoke an aesthetics of disorder, surprise and sensuality, offering ghostly glimpses into the past and a tactile encounter with space and materiality. Tim Edensor highlights the danger of destroying such evocative sites in order to build new developments. It is precisely their fragmentary nature and lack of fixed meaning that render ruins deeply meaningful. They blur boundaries between rural and urban, past and present and are intimately tied to memory, desire and a sense of place. Stunningly illustrated throughout, this book celebrates industrial ruins and reveals what they can tell us about ourselves and our past. http://www.sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk/industrial_ruins/ http://www.sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk/british_industrial_ruins/


Transience: the Nature of Architecture book “Material Senescence” by Benjamin Busch In contemporary society, people have come to see the relationship between city and nature as a dichotomy. In our naivety, we are led to believe that the two exist in mutual exclusivity. Since cities are human products, this belief is an overestimation of our own abilities and endurance. Richard Sennett wrote in Conscience of the Eye that cities are man’s attempt at mastery over nature. Indeed it is an attempt. Once a city is created, man’s superiority is never entirely in place and remains utopian, because urbanization is a continuous battle with ecological processes. The attempt at mastery is a sign of modernity. But as Marshall Berman explains in the classic All That is Solid Melts Into Air, the fact that destruction is always inherent to ‘the new’ is often overlooked. The tragedy of the modern hero in Faust comes “precisely from his desire to eliminate tragedy”. The same goes for architecture, which by nature promises progress, but in its creation already carries destruction. Not only of the structures and landscapes that existed before—it also holds the seed of its own destruction, either by socio-economic processes or by ecological forces. http://www.failedarchitecture.com/material-senescence/

Chinese ghost city http://www.failedarchitecture.com/ photo-essay-jing-jin-city/


nature in ruins by Tim Edensor (British Industrial Ruins)

USE OF ruins by Tim Edensor (British Industrial Ruins)

Walking through a ruin is to experience the collapse of boundaries in which the outside and the inside merge, and nature mingles with culture. The urban-rural dichotomy is violated by the invasion of flora and fauna into the previously ordered space of urban industrialism. In the city, nature is usually confined to the controlled spaces of parks and gardens and can only flourish in the cracks and unpoliced spaces. Factories are places in which raw nature, extracted from its environment, is then transformed into something else, but in the ruin, nature appears in less adulterated form. And plants and animals poisoned and persecuted by farmers are able to seek temporary refuge from an often equally intensively policed countryside.

Despite their position in the margins of the city, ruins are spaces where people can carry out activities without the surveillance of police or the increasingly ever-present CCTV cameras. Although we are warned to keep out because of unspecified danger, ruins accommodate a wealth of activities and are used as unofficial resources by city-dwellers.

As things fall apart, out of their remains emerge new forms of growth. Plenty of birds build their nests amongst the debris and in the formerly prohibited insides of buildings. Bats, rats and mice, as well as smaller insects and arachnids, colonise nooks and crannies, and butterflies and dragonflies flutter amongst the quick-growing shrubs such as buddlea, which settle rapidly on wasteground. Other invasive plants include rosebay willowherb, giant hogweed, rhodedendron, Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam, not to mention small birch and ash saplings. Mosses, lichens and fungus infest the damp interior spaces. Ruins thus provide opportunities for urban wildlife to prosper, creating oases of protection within the city.

... / description of opprtunities / ... The expanses of overgrown surroundings, previously well-pruned gardens and verges of factories, serve as realms in which plants can be grown, ranging from vegetables to cannabis. Outside the usual routes designated for pedestrians, there is also the chance to walk amongst un-manicured space, with dogs and other companions, whilst unregulated space can also be utilised for grazing horses and parking cars. Ruins are also places that because they are unused and slated for demolition, provide opportunities for pleasurable destruction and spectacular acts of vandalism (often called ‘mindless’). Moreover, ruins act as a storehouse for all sorts of useful materials that is free. Very often, shortly after buildings are abandoned, the informal lead merchants, scrap iron freelancers and stonemasons move in to rescue valuable stuff which can be sold on.

http://www.sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk/british_industrial_ruins/nature.asp http://www.sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk/british_industrial_ruins/uses.asp


Liina Liis Pihu Tühjade aknaaukudega majad Kasutuseta hooneid on Eestis üsna palju ning see peegeldab ja põhjustab probleeme paljudes valdkondades. Mahajäetud hoonest saab tihti kodutute, narkomaanide või tegevuseta noorte kogunemispaik. Tühjade aknaaukudega majad mõjuvad moraalselt rusuvalt, majanduslikus mõttes väljendub see piirkonna kinnisvara hinna languses. Omavalitsusel või eraomanikul tuleb kulutada hulk raha trahvide maksmiseks, hoone sulgemiseks või konserveerimiseks, turvateenuse eest ja lõpuks energiakulukaks lammutamiseks. Kasutuseta hooned on mitmeti ohtlikud: varisemised, põlengud, mürgised hallitusseened jms. Inimeste püstitatud ning seejärel hüljatud objektid reostavad loodusmaastikku visuaalselt, aga ka füüsiliselt võimalike toksiliste ainete tõttu, mis olid kasutusel hoone ehitamise või selle kasutamise ajal. Peamiste kitsaskohtadena tuuakse välja kompetentse tööjõu puudumine olukorra kaardistamiseks ja juhtumite menetlemiseks, aga pole ka piisavalt raha, et hooned korrastada ja avad sulgeda või need lammutada. Riigikontroll soovitab kohalikel omavalitsustel esiteks kaardistada 2016. aasta jooksul nende territooriumil kasutuseta seisvad ohtlikud ehitised ning seejärel planeerida konkreetne tegevus ohu ennetamiseks, hindamiseks ja likvideerimiseks. Ohtlike hoonete järelevalve on suunatud tagajärgedele, mitte probleemi ennetamisele. Kasutuseta hooned ei pea kõik olema tingimata ohtlikud, kuid suur osa ohtlikest hoonetest on seda just seetõttu, et on jäänud tühjaks ja heaperemeheliku hooleta. Ennekõike tuleks vältida hoonete kasutusest väljalangemist. Üks võimalus hoida hooned kasutuses on vahekasutus: neile leitakse ajutine funktsioon kahe pikemaajalise (sihtotstarbelise) kasutuse vahepeal. Eestis vahekasutust uuriv ja propageeriv mittetulundusühing Ruumiringlus4 on püstitanud endale ülesande viia kokku tühi ruum, kasutajad ja tegevus. Riigikontrolli aruande järgi on paljuski puudujääke tühjade hoonete kaardistamises. Seega puudub teave, mille alusel saaks vahekasutust kavandada, ei ole tõest ülevaadet kasutuseta ruumidest, mida ettevõtlikele inimestele mingi funktsiooni täitmiseks pakkuda. Vahekasutus pole planeeritud teadliku tegevusena Eestis veel levinud nähtus, puuduvad tugistruktuur ning positiivsed näited. Raskusi ruumide ajutise kasutamise korral on ka juriidilistes küsimustes, näiteks puudub üürilepinguga sarnase ajutise kasutuse lepingu vorm jms. http://kultuur.err.ee/v/kunst/Arhitektuur/65ace91f-a41e-4f48-9e9a-de4175130428/liina-liis-pihu-kelle-asi-on-ohtlikud-hooned


ESSAY mid.presentation 13.10

REWILDING THE ABANDONED I would like to find „an Estonian way“ of dealing with abandoned spaces and work with local flora, maybe even fauna. For me nature is essential when creatng an „estonian space“. Here I beileve we could be one step ahead from the biggest megacities - we could bring nature back to the city before we destroy it totally. Besides green thinking, 0-energy building, reusing, reducing, recycling... rewilding the cities is becoming a new trend. Although „rewlding“ is generally used to refer to big-scale conservation efforts to protect, restore, and connect wilderness areas, rewilding is equally applicable to cities and surrounding natural areas. The notion can also be applied to nature uncontrollable overgrowing artificial spaces, in my field of intrest – spaces that are claimed to be useless. ABANDONMENT Estonian cityscapes are being developed as fast as left behind. After many different changes in administrative laws during the 20th century there is now over 102 totally abandoned villages in Estonia. People are moving to the bigger cities, Tallinn is growing continously. But even in the middle of Tallinn one can find abandoned spaces between restaurated or new buildings. There are numerous vacant houses in the centre of Tallinn that have been empty or will be staying empty for at least 5 more years, for example the ghost houses of Old Town, factory buildings in Rotermanni or Vineeri district and many other individual houses here and there. Ofcourse, at one point they will be renovated, but until that time these buildings represent just an unused emptiness in a valuable area. I wouldn't dig into the question why they are left unused processes happening after the abandonment, rather give the spaces a new (temporary) quality. WILDERNESS Either we see wilderness as a get-away from pressures of our fast-paced, industrialized society, a space where we can seek relief from the noise, haste, and crowds that too often confine us or is it a personal connection, every human being has a need for wilderness. Jaan Kaplinski: „Inimese instinktid sündisid suures osas metsikus maailmas – ebamäärasuses, kus igal hommikul ärgates tuli teha otsuseid vastavalt end ümbritsevale keskkonnale. Nüüd on meil kadunud selline vajadus, me oleme ise loonud endale süsteemi, teame igal hommikul ärgates, mis meid ees ootab ning teame isegi seda, kuidas veedame oma vanaduspõlve. Aga tegelikult me vajame sellist ebamäärast keskkonda, inimene on olend, kes tahab otsida ja avastada, aga tal pole enam aega või paikagi kus seda teha.“ Green cities and creating balanced combination between artificial and natural space is something that represents an ideal modern living environment. Building parks is a nice step towards that ideal but for me parks do not represent the typology of wild nature and are therefore fake nature. They are stricktly planned and trimmed and are just as artificial as the buildings around us. With my work I would like to rethink and create an alternative for the typology of an urban park.


THE COMBINATION Nature starts breaking the artificial space as soon as it is not maintained anymore. The spaces that are overgrown by nature and left for free usage, start to lose their initial built borders. The windows break, the walls become ruins, the plants grow indoors, the exterior-interior definition becomes questionable. A new life grows in, the notation abandonment becomes questionable. There is a certain beauty in decay. Nature intruding into a building creates a straight connection between landscape and interior architecture, therefore questiones the borders of these fields. Our sense of space has developed in wilderness without borders. Losing artificial borders encourages freedom of spatial interpretation and imagination. Building green areas is not in the field of interest of any real estate developers, because you can’t but a price tag to a square-meter of wilderness but you can sell a property with a high profit in the downtown area. Thatswhy I would like to connect the idea of urban wilderness and the unused buildings in densly built areas and temporary rewild the vacant houses until they will be restored for buisnesses and luxury appartments. The closed vacant spaces in densely built cityscape have the potential to improve our living environment if they would only be used differently – opened up to the public. And, for example, conrasting the artificial street fronts, filled with fast-growing ruderal plants, becoming temorary urban wilderness parks. I am also intrigued by learning from the nature and not working against it, building a artificial space that would initially become „wild“ itself by experimenting with biogradable and growing materials. I think that ruining processes keep the city alive. They shouldn’t be stopped, on the contrary - maybe even forced?


CONCLUSION 30. oct 2016 thesis topic: rewilding the abandoned subtopics: - turning vacant buildings in Tallinn centre into temporary parks - creating extra green spaces in densly built cities - making use of vacant buildings research further: - plants of Tallinn - abandoned houses in Tallinn - how to grow plant seeds in artificial material? - how to build a temporary building that will be overaken by plants in the end? big questions: - what is a temporary park? - what is my input? - what is the benefit for the owner? - How will the vacant building be used? - How to force the growth of plants? - What happens during the seasons? - How plants impact the artificial materials (in 5 years)? - What happens to plants after the building is restored?


LOGBOOK Andrea MA2 / november 2016


to do (in november): Mapping - The abandoned, overgrown spaces in Tallinn centre. the owners, the reasons of abandonment etc. find a case study. - The ruderal plants of Tallinn, the growth conditions. Describing (based on case studies) - decay of a building - ruderal plants overgroving - how the interior/exterior relations change + material tests: - growing moss - clay + straws + seeds - 3D printed soil + seeds FIELD TRIPS - Helsiki, Casagrande - Lab ? URBAN INTERVENTIONS contact: biologists, landscape architects


1. material research, tests, conclusions 2. interventions 3. field trip 4. mapping


material ... that visually fixes the whole in artificial material, but then starts breaking and growing at the same time

broken border

fixed border

mixed border


material decay / growth 2 in 1

water dissolving the clay

simple structure skeleton straws seeds clay

ony the skeleton remains, plant with its roots greates a new grid


material

how to create a material that decomposes and composes at the same time?

“When rust sets in on a razor blade, when moss grows in a corner of a room . . . we should be glad because . . . life is moving into the house.� (Hundertwasser 1997, 48 in Kraftl 2005, 137)


material BIO building materials

SAVI Kuidas valmistada ise savikrohvi? - Kaeva savipinnast (sobib ka vähese taimse ollusega savipinnas) - Pane saadud savikamad leotamiseks suuremasse nõusse või kuivata plaadil - Sõelu vedel savimass või kuivatatud savipulber - Lisa liiva ca 1-5 osa sõltuvalt liivast,savist ja otstarbest. Liiva tera 0-5mm olenevalt kihist - Lisa kiudainet, pikkus oleneb krohvist ca 1-5cm (linaluu, põhk, hundinui, linakiud, vanapaber) - Niiskuskindlama ja hooldusvabama pinna jaoks kasuta rammusat segu (näiteks võid proovida liiv:savi:kiud, 2:1:1 või 1:1:1,5) - Huvitava pinna saad kasutades näiteks pikka põhukiudu ja rammusat segu - Segu tugevdamiseks võid lisada veidi munavalget, linaõli, virtsa, sõnnikut Söögisoodast on võimalik teha voolimissavi, kui segada see ühe ja veerandi tassitäie vee ning ühe tassitäie maisitärklisega.

soil press. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KdZdS_Su_U0


material examples: 3D printing soil + seeds - 3D printer prints felt in the shape you choose. - Seed-dispenser attached to 3D printer releases seeds into felt. Takeuchi’s approach hinges on a method called hydroponics where you grow plants with mineral nutrient material in place of soil. This is how some of vertical gardens are grown http://www.businessinsider.com.au/3d-print-plantsfor-city-green-spaces-2014-10 http://tinylab.me/publications/chi16pg.pdf

3D printed Cella Planters Each Cella is shaped roughly like a roundedged cube — a sort of cell — and punctured with holes of varying sizes depending upon the overall size of an individual cell. Inside of each Cella is a soil or root ball from which sprout moss and plants. http://inhabitat.com/cella-adorable-modular-planterpods-perfect-for-the-urba-plant-lover/

2D CNC printing soil+grass seeds+water It’s a CNC machine (which means it’s entirely computer controlled) that prints using a mixture of grass seeds, soil and water.

http://www.demilked.com/green-print er-soil-grass-garden-pringreen-university-maribor-slovenia/


material how to grow moss ? Grow your own moss recipe 1: - Several handfuls of native moss (separated as much as possible from the soil) - 1 large container of plain yogurt (maitsestamata jogurt) - Buttermilk (pett) Mix the moss and yogurt in a blender, slowly add buttermilk until the mixture becomes a runny paste. Use a brush to paint the mixture onto the desired surface. Spray your new moss garden daily with water as it grows - moss thrives when moist. Grow your own moss recipe 2: - Several handfuls of native moss (separated as much as possible from the soil) - 12 oz. can of beer - 1 teaspoon granulated sugar Combine all of the ingredients in a blender until the mixture liquefies. Use a brush to paint the mixture onto the desired surface. Spray your new moss garden daily with water as it grows - moss thrives when moist. https://thepatioshop.wordpress.com/2015/02/11/how-to-grow-moss-on-concrete/ https://thepatioshop.wordpress.com/2015/02/11/how-to-grow-moss-on-concrete/


material: test1 my moss lab 2.11.2016

keefir, maitsestamata jogurt kivisammal (kaitsealune) / puusammal

5.11 moss of mold?


Material: test2 clay + straws + seeds

Savi: http://www.uninaks.ee/index.php?route=product%2Fproduct&product_id=113 http://loovuspood.ee/?savid%2C23

Hydrogeel: http://www.imelineteadus.ee/uudised/2011/12/27/hudrogeel-aitab-taimedel-startida Edasimüüjad eestis: http://www.systemseparation.ee/?p=568, http://www.metsatooriist.ee/home/110-hudrogeelkastmisgeel-stockosorb-660-1kg.html mujal: http://hydrogel.info/contact/


Material: test3 3d printer + clay & hyrogel+ seeds

with water the clay structure starts to decay, the plants start to grow

thicker parts last for longer, soil and nutrients last longer

plant overgrows the strcture totally. the plants lives until there is enough nutrients


MID-PRESENATION: URBAN INTERVENTIONS 10.11.2016

work tools: material tests: decay and growth 2 in 1 urban observation: plants, seasonaliy and weather conditions in vacant buildings urban intervention: what quality would wilderness add to a vacant space?


observation: ruins and seasonality


observation snow / raifalls in vacant buildings case study: CCCR military building location: pirita-kose, TALLINN typology: abandoned for 20 yearsW material: concrte condition: no windows, no doors, solid roof, interior walls broken, exterior walls solid

snow level day1 5.11.2016 day4 8.11.2016


day 1 5.11.2016

day 4 8.11.2016


interventiion OUTSIDE IN


interventiion outside in

BEFORE

AFTER


abstract borders

where does landscape end?

is it an interior?


new quality ?

+


possible outcomes: - Midsolutions for vacant builings

Indoor city “parks� - (temporary) green spaces in vacant buildings

- Builing spaces in collaboration with nature: Growing an artificial space / A growing artficial space

- Guerilla interventions involving residents:

Creating a rulebook / a platform for the problematic vacant spaces.

10.11.2016


big questions

10.11.2016

- Can wilderness be planned? - Is developing temporary parks ethical?

Small questions: - What is the new quality? - Who is the user? - What happens during the different seasons? - What is designers position? - What happens to plants when the building is restaurated?


15.11 Meeting with Marco Casagrande - overgrowng happens in all scales. “Nature works in all scales” - pay attention to situations where human control is opened up and nature can step in - beak outs from industrial control. Nature is constantly breaking the city. - 1st gen city depends on nature, 2nd is industrial, 3rd generation city starts to grow out from a (indusrial) crack. return to nature, 1st gen. 3rd gen ruins are designed ruins (water+soil+sun) - sun + water + top soil = it is apossibility of life already. not much is needed for plants. - 3rd generation city / building that has ovrgrown by nature + human comes back = what happens then? what is the new life arrangement like? - insect architecture. when I am n a ruin, I am like an insect. Learn from an insect - nature is the co-architect. - be as lazy as possible, do as little as possible - the way of survival, be like urban nomad. - a ruin is like urban compost, is ugly and useless, but in the center there is the core / the essence: when the ruin is manipulated, turned a bit, the core comes out, the ruin gains a new quality. TAIWAN: - Sugar factory (South Taiwan) - closed atm for 1,5 years for the plants to grow - TaiPei is full of community gardens, illegal farms. - Bamboo growth relly fast (1m in 2 weeks) - granny architecture on gardens on empty lots, kids bring them water. “neighborhood watch”. Chi - life providing enery is brought back to lots.. - Taipei - 3rd gen city. people are ruining the city, collective concious

TO DO: - ruin map of Tallinn (reading the original, 1st gen soil, how are ruins connected, how would a city react?) - Map different scales (crack, house, town) - Map different layers (parks, cracks in street, plants on house etc) - look for the accidents (cracks, abandoned buildings etc) - for who? (tourism, homeless, students) - academic squatting - read: Juhani Pallasmaa “Animal architecture”. “The eye of the skin” POSSIBLE OUTCOMES: - tourism - academic squatting, housing etc NB! balance between comfort (survival) and beauty! - enhancing installation (for ex a chair to sit and watch a plant growing from a crack in asphalt) - ...


Casagrande laboratory - 3. gen city, paracity From Urban Acupuncture to the Third Generation City Marco Casagrande (2015) Published in “La ville rebelle. Démocratiser le projet urbain”, 2015 Gallimard ISBN : 9782072619564

The First generation city were the human settlements in straight connection with nature and dependent on nature. The fertile and rich Taipei Basin provided a fruitful environment for such a settlement. The rivers were full of fish and good for transportation, with the mountains protecting the farmed plains from the straightest hits of the frequent typhoons. The second generation city is the industrial city. Industrialism granted the citizens independence from nature - a mechanical environment could provide everything humans needed. Nature was seen as something unnecessary or as something hostile - it was walled away from the mechanical reality. The Third Generation City is the organic ruin of the industrial city, an open form, organic machine tied with Local Knowledge and self-organized community actions. The community gardens of Taipei are fragments of third generation urbanism when they exist together with the industrial surroundings. The Third Generation City is a city of cracks. The thin mechanical surface of the industrial city is shattered, and from these cracks emerge the new biourban growth which will ruin the second generation city. Human-industrial control is opened up in order for nature to step in. A ruin is when manmade has become part of nature. In the Third Generation City we aim in designing ruins. Third Generation City is true when the city recognizes its local knowledge* and allows itself to be part of nature.

Paracity is a biourban organism that is growing on the principles of Open Form: individual designbuilt actions generating spontaneous communicative reactions on the surrounding built human environment. This organic constructivist dialog leads to self-organized community structures, sustainable development and knowledge building. Open Form is close to the original Taiwanese ways of developing the self-organized and often “illegal” communities. These micro-urban settlements containe a high volume of Local Knowledge, which we believe will start composting in. Paracity, once the development of the community is in the hands of the citizens. The pilot project of the Paracity grows on an urban farming island of Danshui River, Taipei City. The island is located between the Zhongxing and Zhonxiao bridges and is around 1000 meters long and 300 meters wide. Paracity Taipei celebrates the original first generation Taipei urbanism with a high 12-level of “illegal” architecture, self-organized communities, urban farms, community gardens, urban nomads and constructive anarchy.

MY IDEA: In case of overgrowing the abandoned *Local Knowledge `= Genius Loci (of the precise place) means that the urban lanscape starts following the natural landscape that existed before the artificial space. For example: in a vacant building only the (ruderal) plants that were growing in this area before. When the abandoned spacehas overgrown toally, or decayed totally the pre-existing landscape is achived. The plants follow the logic of Genus Loci.


third generation city MORE RUINS - Phyllis Richardson Grandmothers, Academic Squatting, Urban Acupuncture-these are some of the ideas behind the Ruin Academy (see previous blog) in Taipei. Founded by Finnish architect Marco Casagrandeand a group of fellow researchers, as well as designers, journalists, academics to help guide Taipei through its journey to become a ‘Third Generation City’, the Ruin Academy is growing, as are its ambitions. When first generation cities refer to the development closest to the original nature of a site (‘dependent on nature’ or the natural terrain, one supposes), those that reflect rather than suppress or overcome the natural setting, Second Generation is where most cities are now, according to the Ruin Academy manifesto, overbuilt and largely disconnected from the inhabitants, as well as from the natural order of things. The Ruin Academy is a harbinger of Taipei’s status as a Third Generation city, one that is returning to its roots, so to speak. While some of the Academy’s positions might seem a bit radical, the idea that we need a new way of considering human beings and the built environment is certainly timely. As Casagrande points out, ‘Taipei has the highest number of 7-11 convenience stores in the world.’ That statistic alone, if accurate, should be enough to bring about a pause in the development frenzy. http://archetcetera.blogspot.fi/2011/02/more-ruins.html What are Third Generation cities? - Lee-Michael J. Pronko Third Generation cities are those that have grown from the ruin of industrial society but lie beyond its fordist structure of social and economic organization. Elements of Third Generation cities include:Anarchist Gardening (the spontaneous and nomadic construction of community gardens and urban farms that operate outside official urban development), Urban Acupuncture (the design of architecture that is placed in positions throughout the city in order to act as “needles” for producing and increasing the urban Qi), and River Urbanism (a form of landscape urbanism). Principally, Third Generation cities can be conceived of as rhizomatic in nature and ultimately, bound up with pre-existing and future conditions of human construction. Extracted from the website, “modernism is lost and the industrial machine will become organic. This happens in Taipei and this is what we study. Ruin Academy is an organic machine.” It would seem that it is the atrophy of the city that illumines the naature of the city and defines our age—what will we do with all of the buildings already built, considering by 2050 70% of the world’s population will be living in urban areas and “space” continues to become limited? In the end, it may not only be a matter of design or perspective in terms of how we look at the city, but what actions we take alongside the natural processes that unfold and transform the spaces we have inhabited, do inhabit, and will come to inhabit. It would seem that the collective space Ruin Academy has created may be just the right start for building, dwelling and thinking. http://thirdgenerationcity.blogspot.com.ee/

Zero City, Marco Casagrande


URBAN ACUPUNCTURE Urban Acupuncture is an urban environmentalism theory of Finnish architect Professor Marco Casagrande which combines urban design with traditional Chinese medical theory of acupuncture.[1] He developed his theory in Taipei after attending the Urban Flashes symposium before being invited back by the Taipei City Government to study the human/ organic layer of the city and how to react to it by means of urban planning. The focus was an illegal settlement, an urban farming community enclave inside the modern city named Treasure Hill. Marco Casagrande noticed this area was full of human energy that was being destroyed by the government. He states that the energy had been turned negative and had to be redirected positively towards construction, “like turning over the compost that has been the smelly part of the farm just to become the most fertile top soil. I was careful to manipulate these hidden energy flows and the small elements that I introduced to Treasure Hill can be compared to the needles in acupuncture.”[2] “Urban acupuncture is an architectural manipulation of the collective sensory intelligence. The city is a multi-dimensional organism with sensitive energies, a living natural environment whose points of contact - the energy flows beneath the visual city – are sought out by urban acupuncture. Both architecture and environmental art are in a position to produce the needles. A weed which plants its roots in the smallest crack in the asphalt can eventually ruin the city. Urban acupuncture is the weed and the acupuncture point is the crack. The ruin, a man-made process, returns to being part of nature.”

Illegal community gardens and urban farms performing biourban acupuncture on industrial Taipei. Image: Ruin Academy, 2010. [1] Urban Acupuncture [online] 23rd November 2010, http://www.nationmaster.com/ encyclopedia/Urban-acupuncture [2] Casagrande, M. Urban Acupuncture [online] 23rd November 2010, http://thirdgenerationcity.pbworks.com/f/urban%20acupuncture.pdf

OTHER THINKERS: http://ethnologist.info/section/urban-acupuncture/

http://casagrandetext.blogspot.com.ee/2013/10/third-generation-city.html

https://khaeraniadenan.wordpress.com/2014/01/12/introduction-to-urban-acupuncture-towards-a-better-bandung-city/comment-page-1/

http://www.artisopensource.net/2013/11/20/third-infoscape-de-certeau-clementcasagrande-smart-cities/ In Paracity – Casagrande Laboratory Center of Urban Research www.paracity.fi


Case study: taiwan, taipei

urban farming, guerilla gardening, neighbourgood watch - empty lost turned into gardens wild, fast growing nature, good climate, mindset of the government


Case study: taiwan, taipei The busy and modern city of Taipei is home to a unique type of urban agriculture, not just for the purpose of producing and supplying agricultural products, but also for recreational, educational, social and environmental functions. Taipei, May 7 (CNA) New Taipei, Taiwan’s most populous city, is promoting urban farming amid its dense collection of residential buildings in a bid to encourage citizens to transform idle spaces on rooftops and in public areas into vegetable gardens. Keywords: - Third Generation City - Urban Acupuncture, local knowledge - Biourbanism - Anarchist Gardening, granny gardeners - Urban Nomad, instant Taipei, pop-up city - Compost building - Academic squatting - collective Chi

Casagrande projects in Taiwan: Treasure hill Paracity (2009 - ...), Zero City - Chiayi Taiwan (2006), T-factory Taiwan ( 2007), Cicada (nagu Bug Dome) (2011), Oystermen - Kinmen Taiwan (2013), Ruin Academy (2010), Ultra-ruin (2013), Taitung Ruin Academy (2014) Possible Taipei / Taiwan contacts: - Tamkang University Department of Architecture - Nikita Wu (Taiwanese writer and arts manager) in Finland - WEAK! Architects - Hsieh Ying-chun, Roan Ching-yueh, Wang Shu - Taiwanese architect and academic Ti-Nan Chi Events: IASTEM - Conference on civil and archtectural engineering (ICENS), Taipei ASTEM - Conference on environment and natural science (ICENS), Taipei http://iastem.org/Conference2017/Taiwan/1/ICENS/

Conference on Evolving Trends in Academic and Practical Research https://www.conferencealert.com/event_details.php?ev_id=47371

Taipei art biennale http://www.epifanio.eu/nr14/eng/ruin_academy.html

http://u-in-u.com/fileadmin/user_upload/Biennials/Taipei/2016/20160908_Taipei_Biennial_2016_Press_Release.pdf

Green Library Taiwan’s first “green” library. Located in the lush green environment of Beitou Park http://www.broketourist.net/green-library-taipei-public-library-beitou-branch/

Tamkang University, departmnt of Architecture http://163.13.140.2/english/school/index.htm


TAIPEI Land use and buildings

GREEN MINDSET OF TAIPEI CITY

Taipei City ranks above average in the land use and buildings category. The city’s population density of 9,800 people per square kilometre is above the Index average of 8,200 people per square kilometre.Given the limited availability of land, the conflict between land conservation and development is ongoing in Taipei City. But still the city manages to maintain more green spaces than the Index average, at 50 square metres per person. This is one of the highest rates in the Index, compared to the average of 39 square metres. City officials are conscious of the need for green spaces, and receive good marks in the Index for protecting them. Regarding eco-building standards, Taipei City has improved from the lax regulations during its early development in the 1960s and 1970s. The city now has strong policies on green standards for public buildings, incentives for households and businesses to lower energy use, and is promoting awareness of the value of energy efficiency in buildings. In addition, the authorities are encouraging neighborhoods to improve their local environment by providing engineers free of charge to create roof gardens and improve landscaping. Urban organic farming takes root in Taipei City (2013) http://www.taiwantoday.tw/ct.asp?xItem=205482&CtNode=428

New Taipei promotes urban ‘community farms’ (2014) Taipei, May 7 (CNA) New Taipei, Taiwan’s most populous city, is promoting urban farming amid its dense collection of residential buildings in a bid to encourage citizens to transform idle spaces on rooftops and in public areas into vegetable gardens.

Mayor on Farm City Initiative: Roofs to Go Green Next Year Mayor Ko Wen-je reiterated that promoting Farm City is an essential part of his administration. Answering media questions on his objective of the Farm City initiative, Ko pointed out that the priority will be to promote “green roof” across schools, public institutions, and private buildings. He invited residents to visit the green roof booth at an expo slated to be held at Taipei Expo Park for more information at the end of the year. http://english.gov.taipei/ct.asp?xItem=239620200&ctNode=8472&mp=100002


Secret City: Illegal Architectural Interventions in Tawian “Beyond the ‘official city’ of Taipei, where modernization and beautification efforts are glossing over the city’s natural and historical origins, there is Instant City. Using Taipei’s conventional modern architecture as a platform and energy source, this network of illegal architecture attaches itself ‘like a parasite’ to create unsanctioned urban farms, night markets and other social gathering places.“ Marco Casagrande (2010) http://weburbanist.com/2012/03/06/secret-city-the-illegal-architecture-of-tawian/

The Community Gardens of Taipei The community gardens and urban farms of Taipei are astonishing. They pop up like mushrooms on the degenerated, neglected or sleeping areas of the city, which could be referred to as urban composts. These areas are operating outside the official urban control or the economic standard mechanisms. They are voids in the urban structure that suck in ad-hoc community actions and present a platform for anarchy through gardening. For the vitality of Taipei, the networks of the anarchist gardens seem to provide a positive social disorder; positive terrorism. They are tuning the industrial city towards the organic, towards accident and in this sense they are ruining the modern urbanism. They are punctual organic revolutions and the seeds of the Third Generation City, the organic ruin of the industrial city. https://blog.p2pfoundation.net/the-community-gardens-of-taipei/2010/12/04


24.10.2016 MA seminar

Logbook 2016  

Collected research information and ideas for Master thesis "Rewilding the abandoned" Magistritöö "Hüljatud ruumi metsistamine" taustinfo ja...

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