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Principles of Flight Lesson 2 – Stability and Control Stalling


Principles of Flight Stability and Control


3 aircraft axes


Why do we want stability?


Longitudinal Stability • Response to bumps • Response to aircraft not being trimmed correctly


Lateral Stability • Response to bumps that lift one wing only


Lateral Stability


Lateral Stability


Directional Stability • Response to side forces – e.g crosswinds


Pilot Controls • Easiest way to show you is…..

FLIGHT SIM!


How can we make it easier for the pilot? • Constantly having to adjust the controls is tiring • The balance of the plane is always changing due to the weather, weight changes and power settings • To make life easier for the pilots, the thoughtful designers add Trim Tabs


Trim Tabs


Trim Tabs


Other control surfaces • Flaps - revision


Flaps • Flaps can extend to different positions – 0, 30, 60, 90 typical

• Flaps greatly increase lift with not much drag penalty up to around 60° • From 60° to 90° the drag shoots up • To maintain speed, the pilot lowers the nose – giving a better view of the runway


Flaps


Flaps


Slats


Flaps and Slats working together


Principles of Flight Stalling


Stalling • What is a stall? • Why does a stall occur? • What affects the speed at which the stall occurs


What we learnt last week • Increase in AoA increase lift


What we learnt last week • Lift increase with AofA until it stalls


Things that affect the stall - weight


Things that affect the stall – ‘g’


Things that affect the stall – angle of bank


This is what happens!


Things that affect the stall – power


Things that affect the stall – flaps


Things that affect the stall – other things! • Ice – build up changes the shape of the wing and can greatly increase the stall speed • Wing damage – damage can disrupt airflow and increase stalling speed


Principles of flight lesson 2