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Joså Saramago ENSAIO SOBRE A LUCIDEZ Copyright © 2004 by Joså Saramago & Editorial Caminho, by arrangement with Literarische Agentur Mertin Inh. Nicole Witt e.K., Germany

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П ƒ ƟƾǀǂǃƳưƻƸƸ, ƽư ǀƾƴƸƽƵ ƖƾƷƵ ơưǀưƼưƳƾ, ƲNjDžƾƴư ǀƾƼưƽư «[Ɵǀƾ]ƷǀƵƽƸƵ» ƶƴưƻƸ ǁ ƾƳǀƾƼƽNjƼ ƽƵǂƵǀƿƵƽƸƵƼ, LJǂƾƱNj ƽƵ ǁƺưƷưǂnj, ǁ ƶưƴƽƾǁǂnjǎ. ƖƴưƻƸ ƽƵ ǂƾƳƾ ǁưƼƾƳƾ «[Ɵǀƾ]ƷǀƵƽƸǏ», ƺưƺ ƽƾƲƾƹ ƲǁǂǀƵLJƸ ǁ ƿǀƾƷǀƵƲLjƸƼƸ ƳƵǀƾǏƼƸ «ơƻƵƿƾǂNj» Ƹ ƾƱƵljưƽƽƾƳƾ ưƲǂƾǀƾƼ ǁƺưƽƴưƻư. ƠƾƼưƽ ƽƵƿǀƵƼƵƽƽƾ ƲNjƷƾƲƵǂ ƳƾǀǏLJǃǎ ƿƾƻƵƼƸƺǃ, — ƷưƲƵǀƸƻ ơưǀưƼưƳƾ. — ƕǁƻƸ, ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, ƽưLjƵ ƾƱljƵǁǂƲƾ Ʒưǁƽǃƻƾ ƽƵ ǁƻƸLjƺƾƼ ƺǀƵƿƺƾ. ƘƷƴưǂƵƻnjǁǂƲư ǂƾƶƵ ƲƽƵǁƻƸ ǁƲƾǎ ƻƵƿǂǃ — ƽưƿǃǁǂƸƻƸ ǁƾƱƻưƷƽƸǂƵƻnjƽƾƳƾ ǂǃƼưƽǃ, Ƹ Ʋƾǂ — ƺƽƸƳư ƲNjLjƻư… Ƹ ƲǁƺƾǀƵ ǀưƷƴưƻƸǁnj ƾƱƵǁƺǃǀưƶƵƽƽNjƵ, LJǂƾƱNj ƽƵ ǁƺưƷưǂnj, ƾƱƸƶƵƽƽNjƵ Ƴƾƻƾǁư ƺǀƸǂƸƺƾƲ. ơƺưƽƴưƻư ƽƵ ƿǀƾƸƷƾLjƻƾ. ƒǁƵ, ƺƾƼǃ ƽƵ ƻƵƽnj, ǁǀưƲƽƸƲưƻƸ «[Ɵǀƾ]ƷǀƵƽƸƵ» ǁƾ «ơƻƵƿƾǂƾƹ» Ƹ ƿƵƽǏƻƸ ưƲǂƾǀǃ ƽư ǁǎƶƵǂ — ƼƾƳ ƱNjǂnj Ƹ ƿƾƶƸƲƵƵ, ƽư ƸƽǂƾƽưdžƸǎ — LJƵǀƵǁLJǃǀ ƸǀƾƽƸLJƽư, Ƹ ƴưƶƵ ƽư ƲNjƱƾǀ ưǃƴƸǂƾǀƸƸ — ǁƻƸLjƺƾƼ ƽƵưƺǂƸƲƽư Ƹ ƿƾƻƸǂƸLJƵǁƺƸ ƽƵƳǀưƼƾǂƽư. Ƙ ƲƷƴNjDžưƻƸ — ƽƵǂ, Ǎǂƾ ƲưƼ ƽƵ «ơƻƵƿƾǂư». Ɛ Ƴƾƴ ǁƿǃǁǂǏ Ʋ ǁǂǀưƽƵ ƿǀƾLjƻƸ ƲNjƱƾǀNj Ʋ ƿưǀƻưƼƵƽǂ. Ƙ ƾ ƺƽƸƳƵ ǁƽƾƲư ƷưƳƾƲƾǀƸƻƸ — ǂƵƿƵǀnj ǁ ƸƷǃƼƻƵƽƸƵƼ. ƠƾƼưƽ ǁǂưƻƸ ƿƵǀƵLJƸǂNjƲưǂnj Ʋ ƿƾƿNjǂƺƵ ƿƾƽǏǂnj, ƿǀƵƴƲƸƴƵƻ ƖƾƷƵ ơưǀưƼưƳƾ ǂưƺƾƵ ǀưƷƲƸǂƸƵ ǁƾƱNjǂƸƹ ƸƻƸ ƶƵ ǁưƼ ƿƾƴǁƺưƷưƻ ƵƳƾ ƿƾǀǂǃƳưƻnjdžưƼ? Ƙ ƲƴǀǃƳ ǃƲƸƴƵƻƸ: ǂƾ, LJǂƾ ƺưƷưƻƾǁnj ƽƵƴƾǁǂưǂƺưƼƸ ƺƽƸƳƸ, Ǎǂƾ, ƿƾ ǁǃǂƸ, ƵƵ ƴƾǁǂƾƸƽǁǂƲư. «[Ɵǀƾ]ƷǀƵƽƸƵ», ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, ƽƵ «ơƻƵƿƾǂư», ƽƾ ƽƵƸƷƱƵƶƽƾƵ ƵƵ ǁƻƵƴǁǂƲƸƵ (ǁƻƵƴǁǂƲƸƵ ƲƵƴƵǂǁǏ Ƹ Ʋ ǁưƼƾƼ ǀƾƼưƽƵ — ƺưƺ ǀưƷ Ʋ ƾǂƽƾLjƵƽƸƸ ƳƵǀƾƵƲ «ơƻƵƿƾǂNj»). Ƙ ƽƵƺƾǂƾǀưǏ ƽƵǁƿƵLjƽƾǁǂnj ǁǎƶƵǂư ƺƾƼ-


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ƿƵƽǁƸǀǃƵǂǁǏ ƽƵƲƵǀƾǏǂƽƾƹ, ƱƵǁƿƾljưƴƽƾƹ Ǐǁƽƾǁǂnjǎ ƲƷƳƻǏƴư, ƺưƺ Ʊǃƴǂƾ ƲƵǁnj ƼƸǀ ƿƾƼƵǁǂƸƻǁǏ ƽư ƿǀƵƴƼƵǂƽƾƼ ǁǂƾƻƵ Ƹ ưƲǂƾǀ ƾǂǁǂǀưƽƵƽƽƾ Ƹ ƽƵƼƽƾƳƾ ƽưǁƼƵLjƻƸƲƾ ƽưƱƻǎƴưƵǂ ƵƳƾ Ʋ ƼƸƺǀƾǁƺƾƿ. ơ ǂƵDž ƿƾǀ ƽƵ ƿǀƾƸƷƾLjƻƾ ƽƸ ƵƴƸƽƾƳƾ ƿƾƻƸǂƸLJƵǁƺƾƳƾ ǁƾƱNjǂƸǏ, ƺƾǂƾǀƾƵ ƱNj ƽƵ ƱNjƻƾ ƿƾƻƽƾǁǂnjǎ ƸƻƸ LJưǁǂƸLJƽƾ ƾƿƸǁưƽƾ Ʋ «[Ɵǀƾ]ƷǀƵƽƸƸ». Ƙ Ǐ ƳƾƲƾǀǎ ƽƵ ƾ ƟƾǀǂǃƳưƻƸƸ… ƔƾǁǂưǂƾLJƽƾ ƽưLJưǂnj LJƸǂưǂnj ƺƽƸƳǃ, LJǂƾƱNj ǃƲƸƴƵǂnj — ƾƽư Ƹ ƿǀƾ ƽưǁ ǂƾƶƵ. Ɛ

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Ɣư ǃƶ, ƿƾƳƾƴƺư, ǁƾƲǁƵƼ ƽƵ ƴƻǏ ƲNjƱƾǀƾƲ ƿƾƳƾƴƺư, ƿƾǁƵǂƾƲưƻ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ǃLJưǁǂƺƾƲƾƹ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽƾƹ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ ƽƾƼƵǀ LJƵǂNjǀƽưƴdžưǂnj Ƹ, ǁ ǂǀƵǁƺƾƼ ƷưƺǀNjƲ ƼƾƺǀNjƹ ƷƾƽǂƸƺ, ǁƺƸƽǃƻ ƿƻưlj, Ƽưƻƾ LJƵƼ ƿƾƼƾƳLjƸƹ ƵƼǃ, ƲƿǀƾLJƵƼ, ƽư ǁƾǀƾƺư ƾƴNjLjƻƸƲƾƹ ǀNjǁdžƾƹ ƾƴƾƻƵƽƽNjDž ƼƵǂǀưDž ƾǂ ƼưLjƸƽNj ƴƾ ƴƲƵǀƵƹ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽƾƳƾ ǃLJưǁǂƺư, ƺǃƴư ƼƸƽǃǂǃ ƽưƷưƴ ƾƽ Ƹ ƲƾLjƵƻ, ƾǂƴǃƲưǏǁnj. ƝưƴƵǎǁnj, Ǐ ƽƵ ƿƾǁƻƵƴƽƸƹ, ǁƿǀƾǁƸƻ ƾƽ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀǏ. ƝƵǂ, ǃǁƿƾƺƾƸƻ ǂƾǂ, ƿƾƿǏǂƸƲLjƸǁnj ƾǂ ƽưǂƵƺLjƸDž ƻǃƶ, ƽƵ DžƲưǂưƵǂ ƵljƵ ƲưLjƵƳƾ ƷưƼư, ƽƾ ƼNj ƿƾƺư ƸƴƵƼ ƿƾ ƳǀưDŽƸƺǃ. ƚƾƳƴư ǂưƺ ƻnjƵǂ-ƿƾƻƸƲưƵǂ, Ƹ ƽƾǁ-ǂƾ ƽư ǃƻƸdžǃ ƲNjǁǃƽǃǂnj ǃƶƵ Ƶǁǂnj ƿƾƴƲƸƳ ƱƵǁƿǀƸƼƵǀƽNjƹ, ƷưƼƵǂƸƻ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ƿƾǁƿƵLjưǏ Ʋ ǂưƺ ƽưƷNjƲưƵƼƾƵ ƿƾƼƵljƵƽƸƵ ƴƻǏ ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưƽƸǏ. ƞƽ ƿƾƷƴƾǀƾƲưƻǁǏ ǁƽưLJưƻư ǁ LJƻƵƽưƼƸ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƼ ƿǀƵƴǁǂƾǏƻƾ ƲNjǁǂǃƿƸǂnj Ʋ ǀƾƻƸ ǁLJƵǂLJƸƺƾƲ, ƿƾǂƾƼ — ǁ ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻǏƼƸ ƾǂ ƿưǀǂƸƹ, ư ƿƾǂƾƼ — ǁƾ ǁƲƾƸƼƸ ƿƾƼƾljƽƸƺưƼƸ, ƿǀƸLJƵƼ ƾǁƾƱƾ ƿƾǁǂưǀưƻǁǏ ƺƾ ƲǁƵƼ ƾƱǀưǂƸǂnj ƾƴƸƽưƺƾƲNjƵ ǁƻƾƲư Ƹ ƽƸ Ʋ ƺƾƵƼ ǁƻǃLJưƵ ƽƵ ƴƾƿǃǁǂƸǂnj, LJǂƾƱNj ƿƾ ƲNjǀưƶƵƽƸǎ ƻƸdžư ƸƻƸ ƿƾ Ƴƾƻƾǁǃ Ƽƾƶƽƾ ƱNjƻƾ ƱNj ǁƾǁǂưƲƸǂnj ƲƿƵLJưǂƻƵƽƸƵ ƾ ƵƳƾ ǁƾƱǁǂƲƵƽƽNjDž ƿƾƻƸǂƸLJƵǁƺƸDž ƲƷƳƻǏƴưDž Ƹ ƸƴƵƾƻƾƳƸLJƵǁƺƸDž ǃǁǂǀƵƼƻƵƽƸǏDž. ƟƵǀƲƾƿǀƸǁǃǂǁǂƲǃǎljƸƹ — ƺưƺƾƹ ƽƸ ƽư Ƶǁǂnj, ƿǃǁǂnj Džƾǂnj Ƹ Ʋ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽƾƹ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ — ƾƱǏƷưƽ Ʋƾ ƲǁƵDž ǁƸǂǃưdžƸǏDž ƾǁǂưƲưǂnjǁǏ ǁƾƲƵǀLjƵƽƽƾ ƽƵƷưƲƸǁƸƼNjƼ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj, ƸƽưLJƵ ƲNjǀưƶưǏǁnj, ǁƾƱƻǎƴưǂnj ƿǀƸƻƸLJƸǏ. ƒ ƺƾƼƽưǂƵ, ƾƱƾƸƼƸ ǁƲƾƸƼƸ ǃƷƺƸƼƸ ƾƺƽưƼƸ ƳƻǏƴǏljƵƹ Ʋ ǁǃƼǀưLJƽNjƹ ƲƽǃǂǀƵƽƽƸƹ ƴƲƾǀ, Ʋƿƾǀǃ ƱNjƻƾ, Ʋ ǁƾƾǂƲƵǂǁǂƲƸƸ


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ǁ ƸƷƲƵǁǂƽNjƼ ƲNjǀưƶƵƽƸƵƼ, ǂƾƿƾǀ ƲƵLjưǂnj — Ƹ ƽƵ ǁǂƾƻnjƺƾ ƾǂ ǁNjǀƾƹ ƴǃDžƾǂNj, ƽƵƸƷƼƵƽƽƾƹ ƴưƶƵ Ʋ ǁƾƻƽƵLJƽNjƵ ƴƽƸ, ǁƺƾƻnjƺƾ ƾǂ ƳƽƵǂǃljƵƹ ưǂƼƾǁDŽƵǀNj ǂǀƵƲƾƶƽƾƳƾ ƾƶƸƴưƽƸǏ. ƭDž, ǁƺưƷưƻ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƿưǀǂƸƸ džƵƽǂǀư (ƟƦ), ƿƾ-DžƾǀƾLjƵƼǃ ƱNj ƿƵǀƵƽƵǁǂƸ, ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, ƽưƴƾ ƱNjƻƾ, ƲƵƴnj ǁƾ ƲLJƵǀưLjƽƵƳƾ ƴƽǏ DžƻƵljƵǂ ƱƵƷ ƿƵǀƵƴNjLjƺƸ, ƿƾƽǏǂƽƾ ƲƵƴnj, ǂưƺƾƹ ƿƾǂƾƿ ƽƵ ǂƾƻnjƺƾ ƿƾƴƼƾƵǂ, ƴư ƾƱǀǃLjƸǂ, ƴư ƷưƻnjƵǂ, ư Ƹ ǏƲƺǃ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƵƹ ƽưƼ ǁƽƸƷƸǂ. ƟǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƿưǀǂƸƸ ƿǀưƲNjDž (ƟƟ) ǁƿƵǀƲư ƾƳǀưƽƸLJƸƻǁǏ ƱNjƻƾ ǁƾƳƻưǁƽNjƼ ǁƺƻƾƽƵƽƸƵƼ ƳƾƻƾƲNj, ƽƾ ƿƾǂƾƼ ǁLJƵƻ, LJǂƾ ǃLJưǁǂƸƵ Ʋ ƴƸưƻƾƳƵ ǁƻƵƴǃƵǂ ƲǁƵ ƶƵ ƾƱƻƵLJnj Ʋ DŽƾǀƼǃ ƾǁǂƾǀƾƶƽƾƳƾ ƲƾƷǀưƶƵƽƸǏ, Ƹ ƴƾƱưƲƸƻ: ƝƵ ƿƾƴǃƼưƹǂƵ, Ʊǃƴǂƾ Ǐ ǁƺƻƾƽƵƽ ƺ ƽƵƴƾƾdžƵƽƺƵ Ǎǂƾƹ ƾƿưǁƽƾǁǂƸ, ƽƾ ƾƴƽưƺƾ ƶƵ ƿƾƻưƳưǎ, LJǂƾ ƴǃDž ƲNjǁƾƺƾƹ ƳǀưƶƴưƽǁǂƲƵƽƽƾǁǂƸ, ƿǀƸƼƵǀNj ƺƾƵƹ ǃƶƵ ƽƵ ǀưƷ ƿƾƴưƲưƻƸ ƽưLjƸ ǁƾƾǂƵLJƵǁǂƲƵƽƽƸƺƸ, ƿǀƾǏƲƸǂǁǏ, ƱǃƴƵƼ ƽưƴƵǏǂnjǁǏ, Ƹ ƽNjƽƵ, ƸƱƾ ƾƽƸ, ǁƾƾǂƵLJƵǁǂƲƵƽƽƸƺƸ ƽưLjƸ, ǁƾƷƽưǎǂ, ƴư-ƴư, ǁƾƷƽưǎǂ ǁƾ ƲǁƵƹ ƽƵƿǀƵƻƾƶƽƾǁǂnjǎ, ǁƺƾƻnj ƲƵƻƸƺư, ǁƺƾƻnj ǁǃƴnjƱƾƽƾǁƽư ǀƾƻnj ǍǂƸDž ƲNjƱƾǀƾƲ ƴƻǏ ƱǃƴǃljƵƳƾ ƽưLjƵƹ ǁǂƾƻƸdžNj. ƟƾƴưƲ ǁƲƾƸ ǀƵƿƻƸƺƸ, ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻƸ ƟƦ Ƹ ƟƟ ǁ ƲƸƴƾƼ ƾǂLJưǁǂƸ ǁƺƵƿǂƸLJƵǁƺƸƼ, ư ƾǂLJưǁǂƸ — ƸǀƾƽƸLJƵǁƺƸƼ, ƿƾƲƵǀƽǃƻƸǁnj ƺ ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻǎ ƾǂ ƿưǀǂƸƸ ƻƵƲNjDž (Ɵƛ), ǏƲƽƾ ƻǎƱƾƿNjǂǁǂƲǃǏ Ʒƽưǂnj, ƺưƺƾƳƾ ǀƾƴư ǁǃƶƴƵƽƸƵ ǁƿƾǁƾƱƵƽ ƱǃƴƵǂ ƾƽ ƿǀƾƸƷƲƵǁǂƸ. Ɲƾ Ʋ Ǎǂƾǂ ǁưƼNjƹ ƼƸƳ, ƾǂǀǏDžƸƲưǏǁnj ǂưƺ, LJǂƾ ƱǀNjƷƳƸ ƿƾƻƵǂƵƻƸ Ʋƾ ƲǁƵ ǁǂƾǀƾƽNj, Ʋ Ʒưƻ ƲƾǀƲưƻǁǏ ƷưƼƵǁǂƸǂƵƻnj ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻǏ, ƲǁǂǀƵLJƵƽƽNjƹ ƱƾƻƵƵ LJƵƼ ǁƵǀƴƵLJƽƾ Ƹ ǂƵƿƻƾ, ƿƾǁƺƾƻnjƺǃ ǂƵƿƵǀnj ƸƼƵƻǁǏ ƺƲƾǀǃƼ. Ƙ ƽưƼ ǁ ƲưƼƸ, ǁǂưƻƾ ƱNjǂnj, ƽƵ ƴƾƲƵƴƵǂǁǏ ǃƷƽưǂnj ǂƾLJƺǃ ƷǀƵƽƸǏ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻǏ Ɵƛ, DžƾǂǏ, ƿưƼǏǂǃǏ ƾ ƿǀƵƴLjƵǁǂƲǃǎljƸDž ƲNjǁƺưƷNjƲưƽƸǏDž, ǀƵƷƾƽƽƾ ƱǃƴƵǂ ƿǀƵƴƿƾƻƾƶƸǂnj, LJǂƾ ǃƶ ƾƽ-ǂƾ ƽƵ ǃƿǃǁǂƸǂ ƲƾƷƼƾƶƽƾǁǂnj ƸƷǀƵLJnj LJǂƾ-ƽƸƱǃƴnj ǍǂưƺƾƵ, ƿǀƾƽƸƺƽǃǂƾƵ ƸǁǂƾǀƸLJƵǁƺƸƼ ƾƿǂƸƼƸƷƼƾƼ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj ƽƵLJǂƾ ƲǀƾƴƵ: ƟǀƸƲƵǀƶƵƽdžƵƲ ƽưLjƵƹ ƿưǀǂƸƸ ƿƾƴƾƱƽNjƼƸ ƿǃǁǂǏƺưƼƸ ƽƵ ƷưƿǃƳưƵLjnj, ƽƵ ǂưƺƾƲ, ƷƽưƵǂƵ ƻƸ, ƽưǀƾƴ ƽưLj, LJǂƾƱNj ƽƾǁǃ ƽư ǃƻƸdžǃ ƽƵ ƲNjǁǃƽǃǂnj ƸƷ-Ʒư ǂƾƳƾ, LJǂƾ ǁ ƽƵƱƵǁ ǁƻƵǂƵƻƾ LJƵǂNjǀƵ ƽƵǁLJưǁǂƽNjƵ ƺưƿƻƸ. Ɲư ǁưƼƾƼ-ǂƾ ƴƵƻƵ ǀƵLJnj ƽƵ ƾ ƺưƿƻǏDž, ǂƵƼ ƱƾƻƵƵ — ƽƵǁLJưǁǂƽNjDž, ư ƾ ǁǂǀǃǏDž, ƿƾǂƾƺưDž, ǀƵƺưDž, ƲƾƴƾƿưƴưDž,


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ƾƴƽưƺƾ ƲƵǀư — Ʊǃƴnj ƱƻưƳƾǁƻƾƲƵƽƽư ƾƽư ƽNjƽƵ Ƹ ƿǀƸǁƽƾ Ƹ ƲƾƲƵƺƸ ƲƵƺƾƲ — ǁƿƾǁƾƱƽư ƽƵ ǂƾƻnjƺƾ ƳƾǀNj ƴƲƸƳưǂnj, ǃƱƸǀưǏ ƸDž ǁ ƿǃǂƸ ǂƵDž, ƺǂƾ ƽƵ ƾǁǂưƵǂǁǏ ƲƽưƺƻưƴƵ ƾǂ ƵƵ ƼƾƳǃljƵǁǂƲư, ƽƾ, ƺưƺ ƲƸƴƸƼ, Ƹ ƲNjƲƵǁǂƸ ǁƸDž ƿƾǁƻƵƴƽƸDž ǁǃDžƸƼƸ ƸƷ ƽƸƷƲƵǀƳưǎljƵƹǁǏ ǁ ƽƵƱƵǁ ƲƾƴNj. Ƙǂưƺ, ƲǁƵ ǀưǁǁƵƻƸǁnj ƳƴƵ ƺƾƼǃ ƿƾƻƾƶƵƽƾ, ư ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƿƾƴƿƸǁưƻ ƸƷƲƵljƵƽƸƵ Ƹ ƿǀƸƺưƷưƻ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀǎ Ʋ ǁƾƾǂƲƵǂǁǂƲƸƸ ǁ ƷưƺƾƽƾƼ ƿǀƸƺǀƵƿƸǂnj ƵƳƾ ƽư ƴƲƵǀǏDž, ƽư LJǂƾ ƿƾǁƻưƽƽNjƹ, ƾƱƽưǀǃƶƸƲ ƿǀƸǁǃǂǁǂƲƸƵ ƷƴǀưƲƾƳƾ ǁƼNjǁƻư, ƷưƼƵǂƸƻ, LJǂƾ ƶƸƷƽnj ƾƱNJǏƲƻƵƽƸǎ ǁǃƶƴƵƽư ƽƵƴƾƻƳưǏ, ǁưƼƾƵ ƱƾƻnjLjƵƵ LJƵǀƵƷ ƴƲƵ ƼƸƽǃǂNj ǀưǁǂƵƺǃǂǁǏ LJƵǀƽƸƻư, ư LJƵǀƵƷ ǂǀƸ ƵƳƾ ǁƾǀƲƵǂ ƲƵǂƵǀ. ƟƾƲƵǁnjǂƵ ƲƽǃǂǀƸ, Ʒưƺƾƽ ƽƵ ƾƳƾƲưǀƸƲưƵǂ, ƳƴƵ ƾƽƾ ƴƾƻƶƽƾ ƽưDžƾƴƸǂnjǁǏ, ǂǀƵƱǃǏ ƻƸLjnj, LJǂƾƱNj ƾƽƾ ƱNjƻƾ — Ƹ ƱNjƻƾ ƽư ƲƸƴǃ, ƾǂƲƵǂƸƻ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj. ƞƽ ƾǁƲƵƴƾƼƸƻǁǏ ǃ LJƻƵƽƾƲ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, ƽƵǂ ƻƸ ƲƾƷǀưƶƵƽƸƹ, Ƹ ǂƵ ƷưƲƵǀƸƻƸ, LJǂƾ ƽƵǂ, ư ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƟƟ ƿǀƵƴƻƾƶƸƻ Ʋƾ ƸƷƱƵƶưƽƸƵ ƺǀƸƲƾǂƾƻƺƾƲ ƾǁƾƱƾ ƾǂƼƵǂƸǂnj Ǎǂƾ Ʋ ƿǀƾǂƾƺƾƻƵ. ƚƾƳƴư, ǁƴƵƻưƲ ǁƲƾƵ ƼƾƺǀƾƵ ƴƵƻƾ, ƲƾǀƾǂƸƻǁǏ Ʋ Ʒưƻ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj, ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ǁƿǀƾǁƸƻ ǃ ƽƵƳƾ, ƺưƺƾƲƾ, Ƽƾƻ, ƽư ƴƲƾǀƵ, Ƹ ǂƾǂ, ƿƾƶưƲ ƿƻƵLJưƼƸ, ƾǂƲƵLJưƻ Ʋ ǂƾƼ ǁƼNjǁƻƵ, LJǂƾ, Ƽƾƻ, ƽư ƴƲƾǀƵ ƲǁƵ ǂưƺ ƶƵ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj ƸǁƺƻǎLJƸǂƵƻnjƽƾ DžǀƵƽƾƲƾ, ƴư Ǎǂƾ ǃƶ ƽƵ ƽƾƲƾ. ƥƾǂnj ƾƴƸƽ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnj ƿǀƸLjƵƻ. ƝƸ ƽưƼƵƺư ƽư. ƟǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƿƾƴƽǏƻǁǏ Ƹ ƿǀƸƳƻưǁƸƻ LJƻƵƽƾƲ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ ƲƺǃƿƵ ǁ ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻǏƼƸ ƾƱǁƻƵƴƾƲưǂnj ƿƾƼƵljƵƽƸƵ ƴƻǏ ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưƽƸǏ ƽư ƿǀƵƴƼƵǂ ƿǀƸǁǃǂǁǂƲƸǏ ƺưƺƸDž-ƻƸƱƾ ǍƻƵƼƵƽǂƾƲ, ƼƾƳǃljƸDž ƷưƿǏǂƽưǂnj LJƸǁǂƾǂǃ ƿƾƻƸǂƸLJƵǁƺƾƳƾ ƲNjƱƾǀư, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƹ ƱǃƴƵǂ ǁƲƵǀLjưǂnjǁǏ ǂưƼ Ʋ ǂƵLJƵƽƸƵ ǁƵƳƾ Ƹ ƲǁƵƳƾ ƴƽǏ. ƘǁƿƾƻƽƸƲ Ǎǂǃ DŽƾǀƼưƻnjƽƾǁǂnj, LJƻƵƽNj ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ ƲƵǀƽǃƻƸǁnj ƽư ǁƲƾƸ ƼƵǁǂư Ƹ ƸƷǃLJƸƻƸ ǁƿƸǁƺƸ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƵƹ, ǂưƺƶƵ ƾƺưƷưƲLjƸƵǁǏ ǁƲƾƱƾƴƽNj ƾǂ ƽƵƿǀưƲƸƻnjƽƾǁǂƵƹ, ǃƿǃljƵƽƸƹ, ƿǀƾƱƵƻƾƲ Ƹ ƿƾƴƾƷǀƸǂƵƻnjƽNjDž ƿƾƴLJƸǁǂƾƺ. ƗưǂƵƼ ƽưǁǂǃƿƸƻ ǂƾǀƶƵǁǂƲƵƽƽNjƹ ƼƾƼƵƽǂ, ƺƾƳƴư ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƲǁƺǀNjƻ Ƹ ƿƵǀƵƲƵǀƽǃƻ ǃǀƽǃ, LJǂƾƱNj ƲǁƵ ƼƾƳƻƸ ƲƸƴƵǂnj, LJǂƾ ƾƽư ƿǃǁǂư, Ƹ Ʋ ǁƻǃLJưƵ ƽƵƾƱDžƾƴƸƼƾǁǂƸ — ƷưƲǂǀư ƽƵƿǀƵƻƾƶƽƾ ƷưǁƲƸƴƵǂƵƻnjǁǂƲƾƲưǂnj ƿƵǀƵƴ ƲǁƵƼƸ, LJǂƾ Ʋ ƽƵƵ ƿƾƴ ƿƾƺǀƾƲƾƼ ƽƾLJƸ ƽƵ ƱNjƻƾ ƿǀƵǁǂǃƿƽNjƼ ƾƱǀưƷƾƼ ƿƾƴƱǀƾLjƵƽƾ ǁƺƾƻnjƺƾ-ǂƾ DŽưƻnjLjƸƲNjDž Ʊǎƻ-


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ƻƵǂƵƽƵƹ, ƿǀƸƷƲưƽƽNjDž ƾƿƾǀƾLJƸǂnj ǁƲƾƱƾƴƽƾƵ Ƹ ƽƵƷưƲƸǁƸƼƾƵ ƲƾƻƵƸƷƻƸǏƽƸƵ Ƴǀưƶƴưƽ, Ƹ LJǂƾ ƽƵ ƿƾƲǂƾǀƸǂǁǏ ƷƴƵǁnj ƱƾƻnjLjƵ ǂƾ ƴƵǏƽƸƵ, ƺƾǂƾǀƾƵ ƲƾLjƻƾ Ʋ ƸǁǂƾǀƸǎ ƿƾƴ ƷƲǃLJƽNjƼ ƽưƸƼƵƽƾƲưƽƸƵƼ Ƹ — ƽƵƻnjƷǏ, ƽƸƺưƺ ƽƵƻnjƷǏ ƷưƱNjƲưǂnj ƾƱ ǍǂƾƼ — ƼƾƶƵǂ ƱNjǂnj ƿǀƾƸƷƲƵƴƵƽƾ Ʋ ƷưƲƸǁƸƼƾǁǂƸ ƾǂ ƾƱǁǂƾǏǂƵƻnjǁǂƲ Ƹ ƻƾƲƺƾǁǂƸ ƸǁƿƾƻƽƸǂƵƻƵƹ ƺưƺ ƴƾ ƿǀƾdžƵƴǃǀNj, ǂưƺ Ʋƾ ƲǀƵƼǏ Ƹ ƿƾǁƻƵ ƽƵƵ. ƣǀƽư ƱNjƻư ƿǃǁǂư, ǃǀƽư ƱNjƻư LJƸǁǂư — ƽƵƷưƿǏǂƽưƽƽƾ — ƴư Ʋƾǂ ƱƵƴư, Ʋ ƺƾƼƽưǂƵ ƽƵ ƱNjƻƾ ƽƸ ƾƴƽƾƳƾ, ƽƸ ƵƴƸƽƾƳƾ — ƽǃ, Džƾǂnj ƱNj ƴƻǏ ǁƼƵDžư, Džƾǂnj ƱNj ƽư ǀưƷƲƾƴ — ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻǏ, ƺƾǂƾǀƾƼǃ Ƽƾƶƽƾ ƱNjƻƾ ƱNj ƿǀƵƴNJǏƲƸǂnj ǍǂƸ ǁưƼNjƵ LJƸǁǂƾǂǃ Ƹ ƿǃǁǂƾǂǃ. ƑNjǂnj ƼƾƶƵǂ, ƺǂƾ-ǂƾ ƸƴƵǂ ǁƵƹLJưǁ, ƿǀƾƱƸƲưƵǂǁǏ ǁƺƲƾƷnj ƽƵƽưǁǂnjƵ, ƿǀNjƳưƵǂ LJƵǀƵƷ ƻǃƶƸ, ƳƾǀƱƸǂ ƿƻƵLJƸ ƿƾƴ DžƻƵǁǂƺƸƼƸ, ƺưƺ ǃƴưǀNj ƱƸLJư, ǁǂǀǃǏƼƸ ƴƾƶƴǏ, ƿǀƸƶƸƼưƵǂ ƺ ǁƵǀƴdžǃ ƴƾƺǃƼƵƽǂ, ǃƴƾǁǂƾƲƵǀǏǎljƸƹ, LJǂƾ ƾƽ — ƳǀưƶƴưƽƸƽ, ƸƼƵǎljƸƹ ƿǀưƲƾ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂnj Ƹ ƱNjǂnj ƸƷƱǀưƽƽNjƼ, ƽƾ DžƻǏƱƸ ƽƵƱƵǁƽNjƵ ǀưƷƲƵǀƷƻƸǁnj ƴƾ ǂưƺƾƹ ǁǂƵƿƵƽƸ, LJǂƾ ƴƾƹƴƵǂ ƾƽ ƽƵ ǁƺƾǀƾ, ƵǁƻƸ ƲƾƾƱljƵ ƽƵ ƿƾƲƵǀƽƵǂ, DŽƸƳǃǀưƻnjƽƾ ƲNjǀưƶưǏǁnj, ƾƳƻƾƱƻƸ, ƿǀƵƴƾǁǂưƲƸƲ ǀƵLjưǂnj ǁǃƴnjƱǃ ǀƾƴƽƾƳƾ Ƴƾǀƾƴư ǂƵƼ, ƺƾƳƾ LJƵǀƽNjƹ ưƲǂƾƼƾƱƸƻnj ƴƾǁǂưƲƸǂ ƺ ǁưƼNjƼ ƴƲƵǀǏƼ Ƹ ǃ ǁưƼNjDž ƶƵ ƴƲƵǀƵƹ ƿƾ ƸǁƿƾƻƽƵƽƸƸ ƳǀưƶƴưƽǁƺƾƳƾ ƴƾƻƳư ƿƾƴƱƵǀƵǂ, ƿǀƸƼƵǂ Ƹ ǃƴƾƱƽƾ ǃǁǂǀƾƸǂ ƽư ƿƾƴǃLjƺưDž ƷưƴƽƵƳƾ ǁƸƴƵƽnjǏ. ƚưƺ ƿǀƵƴƿƸǁưƽƾ ƷưƺƾƽƾƼ Ǎǂƾƹ ǁǂǀưƽNj, ǁǀưƷǃ ƶƵ, ƽƵƼƵƴƻƵƽƽƾ ƿƾ ƷưƲƵǀLjƵƽƸƸ ƿǀƾƲƵǀƺƸ ƴƾƻƶƽNj ƿǀƾƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưǂnj ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, LJƻƵƽNj ƵƵ Ƹ — ǀưƷ ǃƶ ǂưƺưǏ ƸƼ ƴƾǁǂưƻưǁnj ƴƾƻǏ — ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻƸ ƾǂ ƿưǀǂƸƹ. Ɲƾ, ƺưƺ ƽƸ ǂǏƽƸ ƲǀƵƼǏ, DžƲưǂƸƻƾ LJƵǂNjǀƵDž ƼƸƽǃǂ, LJǂƾƱNj Ʋ ǃǀƽNj ǃƿưƻƸ ƿƵǀƲNjƵ ƾƴƸƽƽưƴdžưǂnj ƱǎƻƻƵǂƵƽƵƹ. Ƙ ƴưƻƵƵ — LJǂƾ ǃƶ ǂǃǂ ƿƾƴƵƻưƵLjnj — ƽưLJưƻƾǁnj ƾƶƸƴưƽƸƵ. Ɲƾ ƿƾƻǃLJưǁư ƽƵ ƿǀƾLjƻƾ, ƺưƺ ƱƵǁƿƾƺƾƹƽNjƹ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƿƾƿǀƾǁƸƻ ƾƴƽƾƳƾ ƸƷ LJƻƵƽƾƲ ƲNjƳƻǏƽǃǂnj ƴư ƲƷƳƻǏƽǃǂnj — ƽƵ ƿƾǏƲƸƻƸǁnj ƻƸ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƸ, ư ǂƾ, ƼƾƶƵǂ ƱNjǂnj, Ƹ ƿƾǏƲƸƻƸǁnj, ƽƾ ǂƺƽǃƻƸǁnj ƽƾǁƾƼ Ʋ ƷưDžƻƾƿƽǃǂǃǎ ƲƵǂǀƾƼ ƴƲƵǀnj ƴư Ƹ ƿƾLjƻƸ ƿǀƾLJnj, ƲƾƷƼǃljưǏǁnj Ƹ ǂƲƵǀƴǏ, LJǂƾ ƵǁƻƸ ƲNjƱƾǀNj ƾǂƻƾƶƸƻƸ, ƲƻưǁǂƸ ƼƾƳƻƸ ƱNj, ƿƾ ƺǀưƹƽƵƹ ƼƵǀƵ, ƾƺưƷưǂnj ƽưǁƵƻƵƽƸǎ ǂưƺǃǎ ƻǎƱƵƷƽƾǁǂnj ƴư


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ƾƱNJǏƲƸǂnj ƾƱ ǍǂƾƼ ƿƾ ǀưƴƸƾ Ƹ ƿƾ ǂƵƻƵƲƸƴƵƽƸǎ, ǀưƷ ǃƶ ƽƸ ƽư LJǂƾ ƴǀǃƳƾƵ ǁǀƵƴǁǂƲư ǍǂƸ ƲǁƵ ǀưƲƽƾ ƽƵ ƳƾƴƽNj. ơƺưƷưƻ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj: ƒǁǏƺƸƹ ƷƽưƵǂ, LJǂƾ ƲƵǂƵǀ ƷưDžƻƾƿNjƲưƵǂ ƴƲƵǀnj ǁ ƿƾƸǁǂƸƽƵ ưƴǁƺƸƼ ƳǀƾDžƾǂƾƼ, ư ǂǃǂ ƲƵƴnj ƽƸLJƵƳƾ ƽƵ ƱNjƻƾ ǁƻNjLjƽƾ. ƟƾǁƻưƽƽNjƹ ƺƾƻƵƱưƻǁǏ, ƸƴǂƸ ƸƻƸ ƽƵǂ, ƽƾ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƽưǁǂưƸƲưƻ: Ư ƾLJƵƽnj ƿǀƾLjǃ, ƲNjƳƻǏƽnjǂƵ, ƿƾǁƼƾǂǀƸǂƵ, ǂƾƻnjƺƾ ǁƼƾǂǀƸǂƵ ƽƵ ƲNjƼƾƺƽƸǂƵ. Ƣƾǂ ƲNjǁǃƽǃƻ ƳƾƻƾƲǃ Ƹ Ʋ ǁƻƵƴǃǎljƵƵ ƼƳƽƾƲƵƽƸƵ ƲǂǏƽǃƻ ƵƵ ƾƱǀưǂƽƾ, ƽƾ ǃƶƵ Ʋ ǂưƺƾƼ ƲƸƴƵ, ǁƻƾƲƽƾ ƿƾǁǂƾǏƻ ƿƾƴ ƴǃLjƵƼ. ƞƽ DžƾǂƵƻ ƿƾǁǂǃƿƸǂnj ƺưƺ ƿƾǀǏƴƾLJƽNjƹ LJƻƵƽ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, DžƾǂƵƻ ƿƾǀưƴƾƲưǂnj ǁƲƾƵƳƾ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻǏ Ƹ, ƱǃƴǃLJƸ ƲƿƵǀƲNjƵ ƿǀƸƷƲưƽ ƺ ǍǂƾƼǃ ƴƵƻǃ, ǃƴƾǁǂƾƸǂnjǁǏ ƿƾDžƲưƻNj Ʒư ƱNjǁǂǀƾǂǃ Ƹ LJƵǂƺƾǁǂnj ƸǁƿƾƻƽƵƽƸǏ, Ƹ, ƺưƺ Ʒƽưǂnj, ƼƾƶƵǂ ƱNjǂnj, ƿƾ ƿǀƾLjƵǁǂƲƸƸ ƲǀƵƼƵƽƸ, Ʋ ƾƴƸƽ ƿǀƵƺǀưǁƽNjƹ ƴƵƽnj, ƿƾ ƾƱǀƵǂƵƽƸƸ ƾƿNjǂư Ƹ ǁưƼƾƼǃ ƲƾƷƳƻưƲƸǂnj ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽǃǎ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸǎ, ƸƱƾ Ʋ ƽƵƱƵǁư ƿǀƾƲƸƴƵƽƸǏ ƲƷƼNjƲưǎǂ ƿƾǀƾǎ Ƹ ƿƾƲNjLjƵ, Ƹ Ǎǂƾ ƽƸƺƾƳƾ ƽƵ ǃƴƸƲƻǏƵǂ. ƚƾƳƴư ƶƵ ƾƽ ƲƵǀƽǃƻǁǏ, ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ǀưƷƾƼ Ƹ ǃƴǀǃLJƵƽƽNjƹ, Ƹ ƿƾƷưƱưƲƻƵƽƽNjƹ, ƲƾǁƺƻƸƺƽǃƻ: ƞ, ƳƾǁƿƾƴƸ, ƴư ƲNj ƶƵ ƲNjƼƾƺƻƸ ƽưǁƺƲƾƷnj. ƝƸLJƵƳƾ ǁǂǀưLjƽƾƳƾ, ƾǂƲƵLJưƻ ǂƾǂ, ǃǂƸǀưǏǁnj ǀǃƺưƲƾƼ. Ɲǃ LJǂƾ, ƲƸƴƵƻƸ ƺƾƳƾ-ƽƸƱǃƴnj. Ɲưǁƺƾƻnjƺƾ ƳƻưƷư DžƲưǂưƻƾ — ƽƸƺƾƳƾ, ƽư ǃƻƸdžƵ — ƽƸ ƴǃLjƸ, ǍǂưƺưǏ ƲƾƴǏƽưǏ ƿǃǁǂNjƽǏ. ƟǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƿƾƴƽǏƻǁǏ, ƿǀƾLjƵƻǁǏ Ʋ ƽƵǀƵLjƸǂƵƻnjƽƾǁǂƸ ƲƷưƴ-ƲƿƵǀƵƴ, ƷưƳƻǏƽǃƻ Ʋ ƿƾƼƵljƵƽƸƵ ƴƻǏ ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưƽƸǏ Ƹ ƲƵǀƽǃƻǁǏ. ƟǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƟƦ ƲƷǏƻ ǁƻƾƲƾ Ƹ ƽưƿƾƼƽƸƻ ǁƲƾƹ ƿǀƾƳƽƾƷ ƾ ǂƾƼ, LJǂƾ ǏƲƺư ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƵƹ ǃƿưƴƵǂ, ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƟƟ ƲƽƵǁ ƽƾǂǃ ǃƼƸǀƾǂƲƾǀƵƽƸǏ Ƹ ǁƺưƷưƻ, LJǂƾ ƲƿƵǀƵƴƸ ƵljƵ džƵƻNjƹ ƴƵƽnj, ư ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƸ, ƽưƴƾ ƿƾƻưƳưǂnj, ƿƵǀƵƶƸƴưǎǂ ƽƵƿƾƳƾƴǃ. ƟǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj Ɵƛ ƿǀƵƴƿƾLJƵƻ ƿǀƾƼƾƻLJưǂnj, ǁƾƾƱǀưƷƸƲ, ƺưƺ Ƴƻǃƿƾ ƱǃƴƵǂ ƲNjƳƻǏƴƵǂnj, ƵǁƻƸ ƾƱƻƵLJƵǂ Ʋ ǁƻƾƲư ƼNjǁƻƸ, LJǂƾ ƿǀƸLjƻƸ ƵƼǃ Ʋ ƳƾƻƾƲǃ Ʒư ƼƸƳ ƴƾ ǂƾƳƾ, ƺưƺ ƲƵǀƽǃƻǁǏ ƿƾǁƻưƽƵdž ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻǏ: ƧƵǂNjǀƵ ƶưƻƺƸƵ ƺưƿƻƸ ƽƵ ǁƿƾǁƾƱƽNj ǃǁǂǀưLjƸǂnj ƿǀƸƲƵǀƶƵƽdžƵƲ ƽưLjƵƹ ƿưǀǂƸƸ. ơƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj, ƾljǃǂƸƲ ƽư ǁƵƱƵ ƲNjƶƸƴưǂƵƻnjƽNjƵ ƲƷƳƻǏƴNj, ǀƵLjƸƻ ƲNjǁƺưƷưǂnj ǁƾƾƱǀưƶƵƽƸƵ ƿǀưƺǂƸLJƵǁƺƾƵ: ƟƾƻưƳưǎ, ƽƵƻƸLjƽƵ ƱNjƻƾ ƱNj ƿƾƷƲƾƽƸǂnj Ʋ ƼƸƽƸǁǂƵǀǁǂƲƾ Ƹ ǁƿǀƾǁƸǂnj, ƺưƺ ƿǀƾDžƾƴƸǂ ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưƽƸƵ ƷƴƵǁnj


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Ƹ ƿƾ ǁǂǀưƽƵ Ʋ džƵƻƾƼ, LJǂƾƱNj ǃƷƽưǂnj, ƲǁƵDž ƻƸ Ʒưǂǀƾƽǃƻ Ǎǂƾǂ ǃƿưƴƾƺ ǍƽƵǀƳƸƸ, ƸƻƸ ƼNj ƵƴƸƽǁǂƲƵƽƽNjƵ, ƺƾƳƾ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƸ ƴƾǁǂƾƹƽNjƼƸ ƽƵ ǁƾLJƻƸ Ƹ ǏƲƺƾƹ ƽƵ ƿƾLJƻƸ. Ɲưƴ ǁǂƾƻƾƼ ǂƾǂLJưǁ ƲƾƷƽƵǁǁǏ Ʋ ƽƵƳƾƴƾƲưƽƸƸ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƟƟ: ƢǀƵƱǃǎ ƽƵƼƵƴƻƵƽƽƾ ƷưƽƵǁǂƸ Ʋ ƿǀƾǂƾƺƾƻ Ƽƾƹ ǀƵLjƸǂƵƻnjƽNjƹ ƿǀƾǂƵǁǂ ƿǀƾǂƸƲ ƽƵƴƾƿǃǁǂƸƼƾ ƵǀƽƸLJƵǁƺƾƳƾ ǂƾƽư Ƹ ƽƵƿǀƸƵƼƻƵƼNjDž ƾƿǀƵƴƵƻƵƽƸƹ, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƵ ƿƾƷƲƾƻƸƻ ǁƵƱƵ ƳƾǁƿƾƴƸƽ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj Ʋ ƾǂƽƾLjƵƽƸƸ ƽưLjƸDž ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƵƹ, ǏƲƻǏǎljƸDž ǁƾƱƾƹ ƽưƴƵƶƽƵƹLjƸƹ ƾƿƻƾǂ ƴƵƼƾƺǀưǂƸƸ, ƱƵƷ ƺƾƵƳƾ ƾƴƽư ƸƷ ǀưƷƽƾƲƸƴƽƾǁǂƵƹ ƼƽƾƳƾƻƸƺƾƹ ǂƸǀưƽƸƸ, ƴƾ ǁƸDž ƿƾǀ ƵljƵ ǁǃljƵǁǂƲǃǎljƵƹ Ʋ ƼƸǀƵ, ƴưƲƽƾ ƱNj ǃƶƵ ƷưƲƻưƴƵƻư ƽưLjƵƹ ƾǂLJƸƷƽƾƹ. ơƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj ƿƾƶưƻ ƿƻƵLJưƼƸ Ƹ ƾǁƲƵƴƾƼƸƻǁǏ: ƓƾǁƿƾƴƸƽ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ƲƽƾǁƸǂnj Ǎǂƾ ƼƽƵƽƸƵ Ʋ ƿǀƾǂƾƺƾƻ. ƔǃƼưǎ, ƲǁƵ ƶƵ ƽƵ ƽưƴƾ ƱNj, ƴƵƻƾ ǂƾƳƾ ƽƵ ǁǂƾƸǂ, ƲǁƵ ƼNj ƲƷƲƸƽLJƵƽNj, ƲƷƲƾƻƽƾƲưƽNj, ƲǁǂǀƵƲƾƶƵƽNj, ư Ʋ ǂưƺƾƼ ǁƼǏǂƵƽƽƾƼ ǁƾǁǂƾǏƽƸƸ ƴǃDžư ƻƵƳƺƾ ƿǀƾƸƷƽƵǁǂƸ ǂƾ, ƾ LJƵƼ Ƹ ƽƵ ƿƾƼNjLjƻǏƵƼ, Ƹ Ǐ ǃƱƵƶƴƵƽ, LJǂƾ ƽưLj ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj ƽƵ DžƾǂƵƻ ƽƸƺƾƳƾ ƾƱƸƴƵǂnj, ƸƱƾ ƾƽ ƲƵƴnj Ƹ ǁưƼ — ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnj, ƲƿƾƻƽƵ ǁƾƷƽưǎljƸƹ ǁƲƾƹ ƳǀưƶƴưƽǁƺƸƹ ƴƾƻƳ, Ƹ ƻǃLJLjƵƵ ƴƾƺưƷưǂƵƻnjǁǂƲƾ ǍǂƾƼǃ — ǂƾ, LJǂƾ, ƺưƺ Ƹ ƲǁƵ ƼNj, ƽưDžƾƴƸǂǁǏ ƷƴƵǁnj, Ƹ ƽƵƽưǁǂnjƵ ƽƵ ƿƾƼƵLjưƻƾ ƵƼǃ ƿǀƸƹǂƸ ǂǃƴư, ƺǃƴư ƴƾƻƶƵƽ ƱNjƻ ƿǀƸƹǂƸ, ƾǂƺƻƸƺƽǃƲLjƸǁnj ƽư ƿǀƸƷNjƲ ǍǂƾƳƾ ǁưƼƾƳƾ ƴƾƻƳư, ƽƾ ƼƾǏ ƿǀƸƷƽưǂƵƻnjƽƾǁǂnj ƽƵ ƿƾƼƵLjưƵǂ ƼƽƵ ƲǁƵ ƶƵ ƿƾƿǀƾǁƸǂnj ƵƳƾ ǁƾǁǀƵƴƾǂƾLJƸǂnjǁǏ ƽư ƽƵǃƺƾǁƽƸǂƵƻnjƽƾƼ ƸǁƿƾƻƽƵƽƸƸ ǁƲƾƸDž ǁƻǃƶƵƱƽNjDž ƾƱǏƷưƽƽƾǁǂƵƹ Ƹ ƲƿǀƵƴnj ƲƾƷƴƵǀƶƸƲưǂnjǁǏ ƾǂ ƺƾƼƼƵƽǂưǀƸƵƲ, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƵ ƼƾƳƻƸ ƱNj ƷưƴƵǂnj ƻƸLJƽNjƵ LJǃƲǁǂƲư ƸƻƸ ƿƾƻƸǂƸLJƵǁƺƸƵ ǃƱƵƶƴƵƽƸǏ ƿǀƸǁǃǂǁǂƲǃǎljƸDž. ƟǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj Ɵƛ ǁƴƵƻưƻ ƽƵƺƸƹ Ʒƽưƺ, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƹ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƿǀƵƴƿƾLJƵƻ ǀưǁdžƵƽƸǂnj ƺưƺ Ʒƽưƺ ǁƾƳƻưǁƸǏ, ǂưƺ LJǂƾ ƺƾƽDŽƻƸƺǂ ƽƵ ǀưƷǀƾǁǁǏ, LJƵƼǃ, ƿƾƼƸƼƾ ƿǀƾLJƵƳƾ, ƾLJƵƽnj ǁƸƻnjƽƾ ƿƾǁƿƾǁƾƱǁǂƲƾƲưƻ Ƹ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj ƟƦ, ƽưƿƾƼƽƸƲLjƸƹ ƾ ƿǀƵƴƻƾƶƵƽƸƸ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀǏ: ƒ ǁưƼƾƼ ƴƵƻƵ, Ƴƾǁƿƾƴư, ƼNj ƲƵƴnj ƷƴƵǁnj — ǂƾLJƽƾ ƶƵǀǂƲNj ƺƾǀưƱƻƵƺǀǃLjƵƽƸǏ, ƾƺưƷưƲLjƸƵǁǏ Ʋ ƾƺƵưƽǁƺƾƹ ƿǃLJƸƽƵ ƱƵƷ ƿưǀǃǁư Ƹ ƱƵƷ ƺƾƼƿưǁư, ƱƵƷ ǀǃƻǏ, ǂưƺ ǁƺưƷưǂnj, Ƹ ƱƵƷ ƲƵǂǀƸƻ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj ƸƳǀưƻƸljƵƼ ǁƻƵƿƾƹ ǁǂƸDžƸƸ. ƒNj ǁƾƲƵǀLjƵƽƽƾ ƿǀưƲNj, ǁƺưƷưƻ ƿǀƵƴ-


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ǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ǁƵƹLJưǁ ƶƵ ǁƲǏƶǃǁnj ǁ ƼƸƽƸǁǂƵǀǁǂƲƾƼ. Ɲư ǁǂƾƻƸƺƵ Ʋ ǁǂƾǀƾƽƺƵ ǁǂƾǏƻ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽ, Ƹ ƺ ƽƵƼǃ-ǂƾ ƽưƿǀưƲƸƻǁǏ ƾƽ, ƽƵǁǏ ƲǀǃLJƵƽƽNjƹ ƵƼǃ ƽƵǁƺƾƻnjƺƾ ƴƽƵƹ ƽưƷưƴ ƻƸǁǂƾƺ ǁ ƸƽǁǂǀǃƺdžƸǏƼƸ, ƳƴƵ ǁǀƵƴƸ ƿǀƾLJƸDž ƿƾƻƵƷƽNjDž ǁƲƵƴƵƽƸƹ ƸƼƵƻǁǏ Ƹ ƽƾƼƵǀ ƼƸƽƸǁǂƵǀǁǂƲư ƲƽǃǂǀƵƽƽƸDž ƴƵƻ. ƠưƷƳƾƲƾǀ ƲNjLjƵƻ ƽƵƴƾƻƳƸƼ. ƓƾƲƾǀƸǂ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽƾƹ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ ǃLJưǁǂƺư ƽƾƼƵǀ LJƵǂNjǀƽưƴdžưǂnj, ǁƺưƷưƻ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, Ǐ ƾLJƵƽnj ƲǁǂǀƵƲƾƶƵƽ, ƿǀƾƸǁDžƾƴƸǂ ƽƵLJǂƾ ƾLJƵƽnj ǁǂǀưƽƽƾƵ, ƷƽưƵǂƵ, ƴƾ ǁƵƹ ƼƸƽǃǂNj ƽƸ ƾƴƸƽ LJƵƻƾƲƵƺ ƽƵ ƿǀƸLjƵƻ ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưǂnj, ƼNj ǃƶƵ ǁ LJưǁ ƺưƺ ƾǂƺǀNjƻƸǁnj — Ƹ ƽƸ ƾƴƽƾƹ ƶƸƲƾƹ ƴǃLjƸ, ƴư-ƴư, ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, Ǎǂƾ Ǐ ƿƾƽƸƼưǎ, ǁƾ ǁǂƸDžƸƵƹ ƲƻưǁǂǏƼ ƽƵ ǁƾƲƻưƴưǂnj, ƴƾƶƴnj, ƲƵǂƵǀ, ƽưƲƾƴƽƵƽƸǏ, ƿƾƽƸƼưǎ-ƿƾƽƸƼưǎ, LJǂƾ ƶ, ƼNj ƿǀƾƴƾƻƶƸƼ ǂƵǀƿƵƻƸƲƾ ƶƴưǂnj, ƽư ǂƾ ƼNj ǂǃǂ Ƹ ƿƾǁǂưƲƻƵƽNj, Ǎǂƾ ǃƶ ǁưƼƾ ǁƾƱƾƹ, ƸƷƻƸLjƽƵ ƳƾƲƾǀƸǂnj. ƟƾǁƻƵ ǍǂƾƳƾ ǁƻƾƲư ǃLJưǁǂƸƵ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻǏ Ʋ ƱƵǁƵƴƵ ǁƲƵƻƾǁnj ƺ ƽƵǁƺƾƻnjƺƸƼ ǃǂƲƵǀƴƸǂƵƻnjƽNjƼ ƺƸƲƺưƼ, ƽƵǁƺƾƻnjƺƸƼ ƿǀƸƳƻǃLjƵƽƽNjƼ ƼƵƶƴƾƼƵǂƸǏƼ, DžƾǂǏ, ƲƿǀƾLJƵƼ, ǀưƷư ǂǀƸ-LJƵǂNjǀƵ ƾƽ Ƹ ƽưLJƸƽưƻ DŽǀưƷǃ, ƽƾ ƷưƲƵǀLjƸǂnj ƵƵ ƽƵ ƼƾƳ. ƟƾƻƾƶƸƲ ǂǀǃƱƺǃ, ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƾƱƲƵƻ ƲƷƳƻǏƴƾƼ ǁƲƾƸDž ǂƾƲưǀƸljƵƹ, ƽƾ ƽư ǁưƼƾƼ ƴƵƻƵ ƲƸƴƵƻ ƽƵ ƸDž, ư ƱƵǁƺƾƽƵLJƽǃǎ LJƵǀƵƴǃ ƿǃǁǂNjDž ƺƾƼƽưǂ, ƴƵƲǁǂƲƵƽƽƾ-LJƸǁǂNjDž ǀƵƳƸǁǂǀưdžƸƾƽƽNjDž ƺƽƸƳ, ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻƵƹ, ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻƵƹ, ǁǂưǀưǂƵƻƵƹ, ƾƹ, ƿǀƾǁǂƸǂƵ, ǁǂưǀưǂƵƻnjƽNjDž ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀƵƹ, ƽƵƴƾƲƵǀLJƸƲƾ ƿƾƳƻǏƴNjƲưǎljƸDž ƴǀǃƳ ƽư ƴǀǃƳư, ƿǀƸƺƸƴNjƲưǎljƸDž, ƺǂƾ Ʋ ǁƻƾƶƸƲLjƵƹǁǏ ǁƸǂǃưdžƸƸ ƲNjƸƳǀưƵǂ, ư ƺǂƾ ƿǀƾƸƳǀưƵǂ, Ƹ ƲNjƼƾƺLjƵƳƾ ƴƾ ƽƸǂƺƸ ǃǁƻǃƶƻƸƲƾƳƾ LJƻƵƽư, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƹ ƲƾƷƲǀưljưƵǂǁǏ ƾǂ ƴƲƵǀƵƹ Ƹ ƴƾƺƻưƴNjƲưƵǂ, ƽƵǂ, Ƽƾƻ, ƽƸƺƾƳƾ ƽƵ ƲƸƴƽƾ. Ƨǂƾ ƶƵ ƲưƼ ƾǂƲƵǂƸƻƸ Ʋ ƼƸƽƸǁǂƵǀǁǂƲƵ, ǁƿǀƾǁƸƻ ƴƵƻƵƳưǂ ƟƦ. ƞƽƸ ƿǀƵƱNjƲưǎǂ Ʋ ǀưǁǂƵǀǏƽƽƾǁǂƸ, ƲƿƾƻƽƵ ƵǁǂƵǁǂƲƵƽƽƾ, LJǂƾ Ʋ ǂưƺƾƹ ƻƸƲƵƽnj ƼƽƾƳƸƵ ƾǁǂưƽǃǂǁǏ ƴƾƼư, ƽƾ ƺưƺ ƾƱNJǏǁƽƸǂnj, ƿƾLJƵƼǃ Ʋƾ ƲǁƵƼ ƳƾǀƾƴƵ ƿǀƾƸǁDžƾƴƸǂ ǂƾ ƶƵ, LJǂƾ ǃ ƽưǁ, Ƙ ƲǁƵ ƶƵ — LJǂƾ ƸƼƵƽƽƾ ƲưƼ ǁƺưƷưƻƸ, ƽưǁǂưƸƲưƻ ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻnj ƾǂ Ɵƛ. ƚƾƵ-ƳƴƵ, ƽư ƽƵǁƺƾƻnjƺƸDž, ƾLJƵƽnj ƽƵƼƽƾƳƸDž ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻnjƽNjDž ǃLJưǁǂƺưDž ƻǎƴƸ ƲǁƵ ƶƵ ƿƾǏƲƸƻƸǁnj, ƽƾ ǏƲƺư ƽƵǁƻNjDžưƽƽƾ, ƽƵƱNjƲưƻƾ ƽƸƷƺưǏ. Ɛ Ʋ džƵƻƾƼ ƿƾ ǁǂǀưƽƵ, ǁƿǀƾǁƸƻ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƸǂƵƻnj Ɵƛ, ƻnjƵǂ ƲƵƴnj ƽƵ ǂƾƻnjƺƾ ǃ ƽưǁ


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Ʋ ǁǂƾƻƸdžƵ. ƒƾǂ Ǎǂƾ Ƹ ǁƱƸƲưƵǂ ǁ ǂƾƻƺǃ, ƴƾƶƴnj ƴƾƶƴƵƼ, ƽƾ ƽưǀƾƴ-ǂƾ ƸƴƵǂ, ƳƾƻƾǁǃƵǂ, ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, ƳƴƵ ƿƾƳƾƴư DžƾǀƾLjưǏ, ǂưƼ Ƹ ǏƲƺư ƲNjLjƵ, ƼƵǂƵƾǁƻǃƶƱư ƾƱƵljưƵǂ, LJǂƾ ƺ ƿƾƻǃƴƽǎ ǃƻǃLJLjƸǂǁǏ. ƝƵƸƷƲƵǁǂƽƾ, ư ƼƾƶƵǂ ƱNjǂnj, Ƹ ǃDžǃƴLjƸǂǁǏ, ǁƺưƷưƻ LJƻƵƽ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, ƴƾ ǁƸDž ƿƾǀ ƽƵ ǀưǁƺǀNjƲưƲLjƸƹ ǀǂư. ƟƾƼƾƻLJưƻƸ. ƟƾǂƾƼ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj ƷưƿǃǁǂƸƻ ǀǃƺǃ Ʋ ƺưǀƼưƽ ƿƸƴƶưƺư, ƲNjǃƴƸƻ ƾǂǂǃƴư ǁƾǂƾƲNjƹ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽ, ƽưƱǀưƻ ƽƾƼƵǀ. Ƙ, ƿƾƺǃƴư ƶƴưƻ ǁƾƵƴƸƽƵƽƸǏ, ǁƺưƷưƻ: Ɲǃ, Ǎǂƾ ƲǀƾƴƵ ƺưƺ ƿǀƾ Ƴƾǀǃ Ƹ ƼưƳƾƼƵǂư, ǀưƷ ǃƶ ƽƵ ƼƾƶƵƼ ǁƿǀƾǁƸǂnj ƽƵƲƵƴƾƼNjDž ƽưƼ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂƵƻƵƹ, ƾǂLJƵƳƾ Ǎǂƾ ƾƽƸ ƽƵ Ƹƴǃǂ ƸƷƱƸǀưǂnj, ƾǁƲƵƴƾƼƸƼǁǏ DžƾǂǏ ƱNj ǃ ǀƾƴƽNjDž Ƹ ƱƻƸƷƺƸDž, ưƻƻƾ-ưƻƻƾ, ƴư, Ǐ, ƴư, ǂNj ƴƾƼư, ư LJƵƳƾ ƶ ƽƵ ƿƾLjƻư ƳƾƻƾǁƾƲưǂnj, ƴư ǃƶ Ʒƽưǎ, LJǂƾ ƴƾƶƴnj, ƱǀǎƺƸ ƴƾ ǁƸDž ƿƾǀ ƿƾ ǁƸDž ƿƾǀ, ƴƾ ƺƾƻƵƽ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj, ƼƾƺǀNjƵ, ƴư-ƴư, ƸƷƲƸƽƸ, ƷưƱNjƻ, ƽǃ ƴư ǂNj ƳƾƲƾǀƸƻư, LJǂƾ ǁƾƱƸǀưƵLjnjǁǏ ƿƾǁƻƵ ƾƱƵƴư, ƴư, ƺƾƽƵLJƽƾ, Ǐ ƷƲƾƽǎ, ƿƾǂƾƼǃ LJǂƾ ǂǃǂ ƲǁƵ ƾLJƵƽnj ǁƻƾƶƽƾ, ǂNj Ƹ ƽƵ ƿǀƵƴǁǂưƲƻǏƵLjnj, ƴƾ LJƵƳƾ, ƿƾƺư ƽƵ ǏƲƸƻǁǏ ƽƸ ƾƴƸƽ LJƵƻƾƲƵƺ, ƿǀƾǁǂƾ ƽƵ ƲƵǀƸǂǁǏ, ƽǃ, ƷƽưLJƸǂ, Ǐ ƶƴǃ ǂƵƱǏ ƷƴƵǁnj, džƵƻǃǎ. ƞƽ ƴưƻ ƾǂƱƾƹ Ƹ ƷưƼƵǂƸƻ ƽưǁƼƵLjƻƸƲƾ: Ɵƾ ƺǀưƹƽƵƹ ƼƵǀƵ, ƾƴƸƽ Ƴƾƻƾǁ ƽưƼ ƳưǀưƽǂƸǀƾƲưƽ, ƶƵƽư ƿǀƸƴƵǂ Ʋƾ Ʋǂƾǀƾƹ ƿƾƻƾƲƸƽƵ ƴƽǏ. ƟǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj Ƹ ƿǀƾLJƸƵ LJƻƵƽNj ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ ƿƵǀƵƳƻǏƽǃƻƸǁnj, Ƹ ƱNjƻƾ ƲƿƾƻƽƵ ƾLJƵƲƸƴƽƾ, LJǂƾ ƽưƴƾ ƱNj ƿƾǁƻƵƴƾƲưǂnj ƿǀƸƼƵǀǃ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀǏ, ƾƴƽưƺƾ ƽƸ ƾƴƸƽ — Ƹ ƴưƶƵ ƼƵƽnjLjƵ, LJƵƼ ƽƸ ƾƴƸƽ — ƽƵ ƴƾƴǃƼưƻǁǏ ƴƾ ǍǂƾƳƾ, Ƹ ƽƵƻnjƷǏ ƽƵ ƿǀƸƷƽưǂnj, LJǂƾ ƿƾ ƱNjǁǂǀƾǂƵ ǁƾƾƱǀưƶƵƽƸǏ Ƹ ƽƵƿǀƸƽǃƶƴƵƽƽƾǁǂƸ ƸǁƿƾƻƽƵƽƸǏ ƱƵƷǃǁƻƾƲƽǃǎ ƿưƻnjƼǃ ƿƵǀƲƵƽǁǂƲư ǁǂǏƶưƻ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj. Ƙ LJƻƵƽ ƺƾƼƸǁǁƸƸ, DžƾƴƸƲLjƸƹ ǁƼƾǂǀƵǂnj, ǁƸƻnjƽƾ ƻƸ ƻnjƵǂ, ǁ ƿƾƻƽƾƹ ƾƿǀƵƴƵƻƵƽƽƾǁǂnjǎ ƿƾƽǏƻ ƲƴǀǃƳ, ƺưƺ ƶƵ ƴưƻƵƺƾ ƵljƵ ƵƼǃ ƴƾ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀǏ, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƹ Ǎƴưƺ Ʒưƿǀƾǁǂƾ, ƽƵ ǂǃLjǃǏǁnj, ǁ ƻƾƲƺƾǁǂnjǎ DŽƾƺǃǁƽƸƺư, Ʒư ǃLjƸ ƴƾǁǂưǎljƵƳƾ ƸƷ džƸƻƸƽƴǀư ƺǀƾƻƸƺư, ƸƷƲƻƵƺ ƸƷ ƼƾƱƸƻnjƽƾƳƾ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽư Ƴƾƻƾǁ. Ƙ ǃƲƸƴƵƲ, LJǂƾ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ƾǂƾƹƴǏ Ʋ ǃƳƾƻ, ƷƲƾƽƸǂ ƴƾƼƾƹ, Ƹ ƲǁƵ ƾǁǂưƻnjƽNjƵ ǂƾƶƵ ƽưƶƸƼưǎǂ ƷưƲƵǂƽNjƵ ƺƽƾƿƺƸ ƽư ǁƾƱǁǂƲƵƽƽNjDž ưƿƿưǀưǂƸƺưDž Ƹ LJǂƾ-ǂƾ ƸƽǂƸƼƽƾ LjƵƿLJǃǂ Ʋ ƽƸDž, LJƻƵƽ ƽƵ ƼƾƳ ƽƵ ƾdžƵƽƸǂnj Ʋ ƿƾƻƽƾƹ ƼƵǀƵ LJƵǁǂƽƾǁǂƸ ǁƲƾƸDž ƺƾƻƻƵƳ, ƸƷ ƺƾƸDž ƽƸƺǂƾ ƽƵ ƲƾǁƿƾƻnjƷƾƲưƻǁǏ


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ƾƱNjLJƽNjƼ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽƾƼ, ǁǂƾǏƲLjƸƼ Ʋ ƺƾƼƽưǂƵ, ƽƾ ƿǀƵƴƽưƷƽưLJƵƽƽNjƼ ƴƻǏ ǁƻǃƶƵƱƽNjDž ƽưƴƾƱƽƾǁǂƵƹ, ǂƾ Ƶǁǂnj ǁǍƺƾƽƾƼƸƻ ƳƾǁǃƴưǀǁǂƲƵƽƽNjƵ ǁǀƵƴǁǂƲư. Ƙ ǂƾƻnjƺƾ ƽưƱƻǎƴưǂƵƻnj ƾǂ Ɵƛ ƾƺưƷưƻǁǏ ƱƵƷ ǁƾǂƾƲƾƳƾ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽư Ƹ, ǁƻƵƴƾƲưǂƵƻnjƽƾ, ƴƾƻƶƵƽ ƱNjƻ ǁƼƸǀƵƽƽƾ ƴƾƶƸƴưǂnjǁǏ ƽƾƲƾǁǂƵƹ ƾǂ ƺƾƻƻƵƳ, ƿǀƸLJƵƼ ƽưƴƾ ƵljƵ ƴƾƱưƲƸǂnj, LJǂƾ ǁƵƼnjǏ ƵƳƾ ƾǁǂưƲưƻưǁnj Ʋ ƿǀƾƲƸƽdžƸƸ, ǂưƺ LJǂƾ Ƹ ƷƲƾƽƸǂnj-ǂƾ ƱƵƴƾƻưƳƵ ƱNjƻƾ ƽƵƺƾƼǃ. ƞƴƸƽ Ʒư ƴǀǃƳƸƼ ǁƼƾƻƺưƻƸ ǀưƷƳƾƲƾǀNj, Ƹ ƴƾƻnjLjƵ ƲǁƵDž ƳƾƲƾǀƸƻ ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj, ƺƾǂƾǀNjƹ, ƿƾ ƲǁƵƹ ƲƸƴƸƼƾǁǂƸ, ǂǀƵƱƾƲưƻ ƾǂ ǁƾƱƵǁƵƴƽƸƺư ƿǀƸƹǂƸ ƽƵƼƵƴƻƵƽƽƾ, ƿƾƳƻǏƴƸƼ ƵljƵ, LJƵƼ ƲǁƵ Ǎǂƾ ƺƾƽLJƸǂǁǏ, ƽƾ ƺưƺ ƱNj ǂƾ ƽƸ ƱNjƻƾ, ƵƼǃ ƿƾƻưƳưƻƾǁnj ƱNj ƿƾƷƲƾƽƸǂnj ƿƵǀƲNjƼ, ư ƵǁƻƸ ǁƵƺǀƵǂưǀnj ǀƵLjƸƻ ƾƱƾƹǂƸ ƵƳƾ, LJǂƾ ƶ, ƽư ƷƴƾǀƾƲnjƵ, ǂƵƿƵǀnj Džƾǂnj ƱǃƴƵƼ Ʒƽưǂnj, ǁ ƺƵƼ ƴƵƻƾ ƸƼƵƵƼ, ǁ ǂưƺƸƼƸ ƶƸƲLJƸƺưƼƸ ƽưƴƾ ƴƵǀƶưǂnj ǃDžƾ Ʋƾǁǂǀƾ, ư ƵǁƻƸ ƱNj ƿƾƽƸƼưƻ ǁǃǂnj ǁǃƱƾǀƴƸƽưdžƸƸ, ǂƾ ƿǀƾǁǂƾ ƱNj ƿƾƴưƻ ƼNjǁƻnj ƽưLJưƻnjǁǂƲǃ, ư ƽƵ ƷưƱƵƳưƻ ƲƿƵǀƵƴ. ƟǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƲƷƴƾDžƾƼ ƾƱƻƵƳLJƸƻ ǂƵǁƽƸƲLjǃǎ Ƴǀǃƴnj ƴƾǁưƴǃ, ǁǃƽǃƻ ǂƵƻƵDŽƾƽ Ʋ ƺưǀƼưƽ Ƹ ǁƿǀƾǁƸƻ: Ɲǃ LJǂƾ, ǃƷƽưƻƸ LJǂƾ-ƽƸƱǃƴnj. ƒƾƿǀƾǁ Ǎǂƾǂ, Ƽưƻƾ ǂƾƳƾ, LJǂƾ ƸƷƻƸLjƽƸƹ, ƱNjƻ ƵljƵ Ƽưƻƾǁǂnj Ƹ ƽƵƺƾǀǀƵƺǂƵƽ, ƿƾǂƾƼǃ ƿǀƵƶƴƵ ƲǁƵƳƾ, LJǂƾ ƻǎƴƸ ƲǁƵƳƴư LJǂƾ-ƽƸƱǃƴnj ƴư Ʒƽưǎǂ, ƴưƶƵ ƵǁƻƸ Ǎǂƾ ƷƽưƽƸƵ ƸƼ, ƺưƺ ƳƾƲƾǀƸǂǁǏ, ƽƸ ƺ ƺưƺƾƼǃ ƼƵǁǂǃ, ư Ʋƾ-ƲǂƾǀNjDž, ƿƾǂƾƼǃ, LJǂƾ ǁǂưƻƾ ƲƿƾƻƽƵ ƾLJƵƲƸƴƽƾ — ƿǀƵƴǁƵƴưǂƵƻnj ƸǁƿƾƻnjƷǃƵǂ ǁƲƾƸ ƴƾƻƶƽƾǁǂƽNjƵ ƿƾƻƽƾƼƾLJƸǏ, LJǂƾƱNj ǃƺƻƾƽƸǂnjǁǏ ƾǂ ƴƾƻƳư ǁƲƾƵƳƾ, ƿǀƵƴƿƸǁNjƲưǎljƵƳƾ ƵƼǃ ƿƾƻƽƾƳƻưǁƽƾ Ƹ ǁưƼƾƻƸLJƽƾ ƾƱNJǏƲƸǂnj ƾ ƽưLJưƻƵ ƾƱƼƵƽư ǁƲƵƴƵƽƸǏƼƸ. Ƙ ƽưƼ, ƵljƵ ƽƵ ƿƾƷưƱNjƲLjƸƼ ƳƾǀLJưƹLjƸƹ ƲƷƴƾDž, ƿǀƵǀƲưƲLjƸƹ ƵƳƾ ǀƵLJƸ, Ƹ ǂǀƵƱƾƲưǂƵƻnjƽNjƹ ǂƾƽ, Ʋ ƽƸDž ǁƺƲƾƷƸƲLjƸƹ, ǀƵƷƾƽƽƾ ƱǃƴƵǂ ƿǀƵƴƿƾƻƾƶƸǂnj, LJǂƾ ǀưƷƳƾƲƾǀ — ƿǀƵƴƿƾƻƾƶƸǂƵƻnjƽƾ ǁ ƺƵƼ-ǂƾ ƸƷ ƴƾƼƾLJưƴdžƵƲ — ƽƵ ƱNjƻ ƱƵƷƼǏǂƵƶƽƾ ƸƽDŽƾǀƼưǂƸƲƽNjƼ Ʋ ǂƾƹ ǁǂƵƿƵƽƸ, LJǂƾƱNj ǁǂưǂnj ƴƾǁǂƾƹƽNjƼ ƸƽǂƵǀƵǁư, ƿǀƾǏƲƻƵƽƽƾƳƾ ƸƼ ƺưƺ ǁƾƷƽưǂƵƻnjƽNjƼ ƳǀưƶƴưƽƸƽƾƼ Ƹ ƴƾƻƶƽƾǁǂƽNjƼ ƻƸdžƾƼ, Ƹ LJǂƾ ƾƽ, ǃǂƵǀǏƲ ǁƿƾƺƾƹǁǂƲƸƵ, ǁǂƾƻnj ƽƵƾƱDžƾƴƸƼƾƵ, LJǂƾƱNj ƱƻƸǁǂưǂnj Ʋ ƶưƽǀƵ ƸǁƺǀƾƼƵǂƽNjDž ƸƼƿǀƾƲƸƷưdžƸƹ, ǁƿưǁƾƲưƻ ƿƵǀƵƴ ǂǀǃƴƽƾǁǂǏƼƸ Ƹ ƿǀƵƴƻƾƶƸƻ ƲNjǁƺưƷNjƲưǂnjǁǏ ǁƲƾƸƼ ƿƾƴLJƸƽƵƽƽNjƼ, LJǂƾ, ƲƿǀƾLJƵƼ, ƺưƺ

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