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Contents


Project

I

04

E-Farmer

Project

II

12

Oh! Tainan

Project

III

20

Koso Meter

Research

I

28

Attractiveness of Customized Design as Perceived by Current Owners versus NonOwners of Chin Wang Motorcycles

Research

II

34

The Influence of Reward Manipulation on Promoting Physical Activity

Research

III

38

A Method for Transforming Behaviour Theories into Design Ideas for Promoting Physical Exercise Habits

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio


Project I

PROJECT

E-Farmer 智慧農夫

Eat health ! Live health !

2015 Tic 100 智慧城市與物聯網競賽 Tic 100 Smart City & IoT Project

I / Platform Mobile (iOS, Android)

/ Team Members 林延祖 張國興

Android APP Developer: Hardware Engineer:

洪星環 UI & UX Designer: 顏世葦 Researcher:

設計機會 Opportunity As global warming become the big issues the world keep focusing on, with 7 billion mouths to feed, human agriculture exerts a tremendous toll on the planet, from water draws to pollution, and from energy use to habitat loss. But there is also a growing set of solutions, from organic

agriculture to integrated pest management. Many trends are launched to distribute go green policy and campaign. Urban farming is growing a green future. More people around the world are taking a look at urban farming, which offers to make our food as local and safety as possible. By growing

我的角色 My Role

設計解法 The Solution To encourage people who live in urban areas to be urban farmers, our group would like to launch the ‘E-farmer’ sensor and online application to highlight how important green policy is and how easy the product can access to help support green consumer in daily life. Whith using the service, consumers 4

what we need near where we live, we decrease the "food miles" associated with long-distance transportation.

can not only gain the joyful from planting activities but also share joyful with others.

As the information architect and interaction designer in a team of there, I was responsible for studying target audience, creating responsive mobile design and our final interactive prototype. My most significant leadership roles were in the processes of design ideation and the prototype development.


E-Farmer

設計過程 Design Process

SPESIFY Survey Competitive Research Interview Target Audience Stakeholders

Requirements Target Audience Client

DESIGN Service Map Personas &Scenarios & Touchpoints Paper Prototype Business Model

Functional Specifiation BUILD UI Design Rapid Prototyping Device Developing

Program Code TEST Usability Test

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

5


Project I

SPESIFY SPESIFY Survey We conducted a literature survey to understand what is the core value of Internet of Technoogy and current urban farming issues are focused in Taiwan. We identified that it has high potential to develop an urban farming service in Taiwan due to the facts that both people and the cnetral government have put more and more attaintion on environmental and food issues.

Interview Target Audience To better understand the needs and problems of urban farmers, we interviewed several people who have been urban farmers for several years. After conducting 5 interviews with self-proclaimed advocates, we analyzed our user data by affinity mapping the info into events, behaviours, stakeholders, and personal requirements.

Interview Stake Holders After interviewing urban farmers, we identified the stakeholders involved in our E-Farmer service. The stakeholders included customers (end users), advertisers, manufacturers (who produces our devices), backstage managers, and the government and NGOs. These people are all may be the users of E-Farmer service. As a result, we visited and interviewed them.

6


E-Farmer

REQUIREMENTS According to the info we collected from the literature survey and interviews, we listed the user requirements and translated them into design insights.

DESIGN Products Mobile Application Sensing Device

Service Framework

There are five main different stakeholders we defined were involved in our service system: customers (end users), advertisers, manufacturers (who produces our devices), backstage managers, and the government and NGOs. Customers are who will buy E-Farmers to help themselves grow plants in their own houses or places near their houses. Advertisers include agricultural stores, garden shops and so on. Manufacturers are who sell sensors and devices like arduino, temperature sensor, and humidity sensor to us to develop the service. Backstage managers will deal with the data uploaded by users and analysis these data. The government and NGOs are who may be interested in our plants information which collected from users’ posts and want to buy the data from us. Moreover, we explored that local government have been looking for efficient promotion channels for a long time. As a result, we create a function of event holding to help local governments promote relative events like farmers markets and policies. Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

7


Project I

Personas & Scenarios & Touchpoints The Customer

The Advertiser

The Government

We then used Personas tool to design different kinds of people based on actors who might be interested or involved in our service. We as well created the scenarios about how these people may interact with our service and identified the touchpoints.

Paper Prototyping After confirming the wireframe sketches, we created a paper prototype to iterate more easily in low-fidelity before moving on to high-fidelity wireframes.

Business Model Canvas The Business model of E-Farmer can be devided into early stage and later stage.

8


E-Farmer

BUILD User Interface Design

TEST Usability Test Peer Review

Sensing Device Developing

We invited our peers to test the usability of the mobile application. They needed to complete the tasks we performed and we collected their feedbacks to revise our design iteratively.

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

9


Project I

10


E-Farmer

Take a photo and record your planting

Share your dishes

Keep track of what you're growing Side bar with 7 main functions of the E-Farmer

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

11


Project II

PROJECT

Oh ! Tainan Oh! 臺南

Visit the ancient capital in a brand-new way.

產學合作設計案 Industry-university cooperative design project

I / Platform Mobile (iOS, Android)

/ Team Members Android APP Developer & Web Front-end Developer:

蔡忠翰

王藝臻 iOS APP Developer: 吳怡倫 UI & UX Designer: 顏世葦 呂姵儀 Android App Developer:

設計機會 Opportunity 這 是 一 個 由 台 南 市 政 府 發 包、

需要條列出的這些功能?亦或者,思

在臺南,隨處可見日治時期遺留下來

由我們開發出一款能夠結合臺南歷史

考怎麼樣的服務模式,才會讓他們從

的日式建築、早期臺灣熱鬧繁盛的各

影像的行動應用程式。然而,在簽下

陌 生 到 熟 悉、 進 而 喜 歡 上 我 們 的 產

國商辦會所、乘載先祖們生活記憶的

厚厚一疊條列著「必須擁有之程式功

品。你我都曉得,臺南,福爾摩沙的

各式廟宇…如今我們僅僅以旁觀者的

能」、「需要達成的績效指標」的合

南方城市,是一個滿載歷史底蘊的文

目光與這些見證歷史的建築連結,我

約書以及標案提議書之後,我們應該

化 古 都, 這 裏 是 台 灣 最 早 開 發 的 地

們希望能夠用較深刻的體驗,將這塊

好好思考我們的服務對象,到底需不

區,飽含著最深厚的台灣歷史記憶。

土地與人連結得更緊密。

我的角色 My Role

設計解法 The Solution

12

在 經 過 一 連 串 的 場 域 觀 察、 使

過肢體互動來產生情感與記憶的連

身為設計師,此次專案我主要負

用者訪談、相關人員的探訪後,我們

結,老照片不再只是被安置在博物館

責 UI/UX 的設計。我參與了完整的台

深入了解使用者於旅遊期間的攝影行

中的展覽品,而是帶領人穿越時間限

南遊客的行為調查過程,並從中找出

為、照片使用方法、人與手機的互動

制的媒介。有別於一般的旅遊方式,

建構新旅遊體驗的機會點。在確認設

方式。在發掘遊客與環境互動中存在

透過我們設計的數位平台,來台南的

計目標後,確實地執行介面與互動流

設計機會後,我們決定藉由遊戲化的

旅客可以享受一個全新、令人印象深

程的設計與完善。

方式,讓使用者主動親近老照片並透

刻的旅遊經驗。


Oh ! Tainan

設計過程 Design Process

SPESIFY Field Study Interview

Target Audience

Focus Group

Stake Holders

Requirements Target Audience Client

DESIGN Scenarios Paper Prototype

Functional Specifiation BUILD UI Design Rapid Prototyping

Program Code TEST Usability Test

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

13


Project II

SPESIFY

台南全市保留非常多的古式建築,無論是一般的平房或 是官方留下的殖民歷史建物,這也成了人們來台南旅遊重要 的吸引力之一。我們在田野調查時,以完全觀察者的方法進 行對潛在使用者的觀察。我們以不參與被觀察者的活動、不 介入影響被觀察者的行動的方法來觀察至台南遊玩的旅客於 參訪古蹟時都會做的事情。而後我們再將觀察時拍照的照片、 觀察紀錄加以作觀察者詮釋,萃取出我們認為有潛力的設計 切入點 - 古今建築的融合與合照。

我們於成大的研究室邀請幾位曾經至台南旅遊的外地 人,年齡皆介於 20 至 35 最歲間,訪問他們於旅遊期間如何 拍攝照片、處理照片、以及在拍完照片後會如何處理照片。 我們將訪談者提及的質性資料作進一步的分群處理,成為我 們產品的功能需求。

此次的產學合作案的業主為台南市政府,因此我們亦特 別邀請 APP 後端資料庫的管理人員、處理台南觀光相關業務 的科長、以及台南老照片的收藏人員(成大博物館等)至成 大進行客戶可能需求的研討。

14


Oh ! Tainan

REQUIREMENTS

彙整我們於訪談階段及焦點團體中取得的質性資料,並將 這些資料用編碼分類、整理,成為我們系統設計的主要功能需

DESIGN

User Flow Chart

求。

從 User Flow Chart 建立此步驟開始,APP 的建構工程師 開始參與 APP 的製作。因此對比於前階段使用需求探討等, APP 的開發技術限制也必須被仔細考慮才行。

Paper Prototype 在反覆與工程師確認每個功能的可行性及限制後,我們 開始著手安排每個頁面所需要呈現的資訊、以及呈現方式, 並用 prototyping 服務 POP 快速驗證流程的可用性。

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

15


Project II

Functional Specifiation 在 UX/UI 設計師向工程師呈現 Paper Prototype 時,可以相互確認每個功能的可行性。

BULD User Interface Design Design Proposal 在確定 UI 風格前,我們進行了幾次的設計風格提案。

Final Design

Rapid Prototyping 使用原型測試服務 inVision 來模擬 APP 的系統環境,以作為 UX/UI 設計師與 APP 系統工程師溝通的媒介。

16


Oh ! Tainan

Program Code

TEST Usability Test Client Review

在服務系統建構的過程中,我們定期邀請業主來進行系統 的測試。我們主要針對易用性、個功能的使用流程是否順暢、 使用者是否能夠自行理解個功能的使用方法等進行迭代的修 正、更新。

Usability Testing

我們擬定任務進行系統易用性測試,並邀請潛在使用者進 行任務測試,來發掘使用者在實際操作系統介面和流程時是否 產生任何問題。

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

17


Project II

More Information about Oh! Tainan You can download it from:

or

Oh! 臺南

Watch the introducing video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQMUTRQQD6Q

18


Oh ! Tainan

Oh! Tainan fun . memory . creativity

01

Locations

Check the old photo near by.

03

Photo Gallery

Browse over 600 old photos taken in Tainan

02

04

Looking for specific old photos Use keywords or time period to search specific old photos

Interact with old photos

You can merge old photos with new photos the way you like

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

19


Project III

PROJECT

Koso Meter Record all your ridings with the eyes closed.

產學合作設計案 Industry-university cooperative design project

III

/ Platform Mobile (iOS, Android)

/ Team Members Android APP Developer & Web Front-end Developer:

張原瑋

吳怡倫 Cloud Server Developer: 王韻捷 UI & UX Designer: 顏世葦 葉育婷 iOS APP Developer:

設計機會 Opportunity 因緣際會之下,我們實驗室接下了一

的新提案。

個來自台灣本土機車配件公司的設計合作 案。在台灣,機車及速克達可說是人手一 台、非常重要的交通工具,它的使用率非 常普及。然而,現今對於機車使用體驗的 完善、騎乘資訊的加值等考量依然非常有 限,我們開始思考機車騎乘與資料再利用

我的角色 My Role

設計解法 The Solution 隨著網路的發達、硬體設備的完善、

決議從物聯網的觀點切入此次的設計案。

有別於以往我在團隊中專注於 UI/UX

網路終端技術的提升,科技已經與我們的

在設計的過程中,我們以使用者為設計的

設計師的角色,此次專案我除了負責 UI/UX

生活密不可分。而在交通工具方面,即便

中心,有系統地考量其可能存在的使用限

設計以外同時也是整個專案的經理人。因

我們的行動網路技術和硬體設備已經非常

制,提出最符合使用者經驗的系統設計。

此,督促團隊的進度、協調設計師與工程

成熟,物聯網技術的應用尚有很大的發揮

師、作為業主與專案團隊間的溝通橋樑等

空間。考量到台灣機車的使用普及率、以

都是我於此次專案中需要投入心力的部分。

及未來大量騎乘資訊的可再利用性,我們

20


Koso Meter

設計過程 Design Process

SPESIFY Interview Target Audience Client

Requirements Target Audience Client

DESIGN Service Framework Paper Prototype

Functional Specifiation BUILD UI Design Rapid Prototyping

Program Code TEST Usability Test

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

21


Project III

SPESIFY SPESIFY Interview Target Audience Client

REQUIREMENTS User's Reqirements General Riders 掌握每次騎乘的基本資訊:時速、轉速小里程數、

我們邀請了幾位熱愛機車、喜歡騎乘機車的年輕人進 行訪談。訪談的內容主要針對他們騎乘機車的原因、騎乘

總里程數、油量、機油量、騎乘距離、騎乘日期、 騎乘時間。

偏好、騎乘習慣、騎乘行為等進行深入的一對一訪談。之 後,我們再將收集來的質性資料進行分群整理,並依據每

掌握騎乘機車時的手機來電:來電提示

個要項的核心問題給予設計詮釋。 隨時掌握機車硬體狀態:電瓶電壓。 更簡便地找尋車子、加油站、維修站:導航功能

由於此專案是由私人公司所委託製作,除了

Motocycle Racers

了解我們的目標使用者外,我們也與業主進行深入

掌握更細節的騎乘資訊:GPS 經緯度、G 力、羅盤、

的討論,以了解業主對於此專案的態度與詳細需

水平傾角、引擎溫度、空燃比。

求。我們的業主同時也是對於機車賽車有深入了解 的人,根據我們於此階段訪談的調查結果中,可以 將未來的潛在服務使用者分成一般機車騎士與賽車 手。

Client's Reqirements Cloud Service 當蒐集大量的大眾騎乘資訊後,即可運用大數據技 術萃取出有價值的資訊,幫助機車相關產業價值的 提昇。

22


Koso Meter

DESIGN Service Framework

此服務系統的服務對象包括了終端的使用者,如一般騎乘機車的大眾以及專業或業餘的機車賽車手;以及關心 使用者騎乘資訊的機車製造商、經銷商。

Paper Prototype

在反覆與工程師確認每個功能的可行性及限制後,我們開始著手安排每個頁面所需要呈現的資訊、���及呈現方 式,並用 prototyping 服務 POP 快速驗證流程的可用性。

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

23


Project III

Functional Specifiation 在 UX/UI 設 計 師 向 工 程 師 呈 現 Paper Prototype 時,可以相互確認每個功能的可行性。

BULD User Interface Design Design Proposal 在確定 UI 風格前,我們進行了幾次的設計風格提案。

Final Design

Rapid Prototyping 使用原型測試服務 POP 來模擬 APP 的系統環境,以作為 UX/UI 設計 師與 APP 系統工程師溝通的媒介。

24


Koso Meter

Program Code

TEST Usability Test Client Review

在服務系統建構的過程中,我們定期邀請業主來進行系統 的測試。我們主要針對易用性、個功能的使用流程是否順暢、 使用者是否能夠自行理解個功能的使用方法等進行迭代的修 正、更新。

Usability Testing

我們於真實的機車騎乘環境中測試裝置與服務系統的易用 性與穩定性,並蒐集使用者的建議與問題,作為接下來細節調 整的準則。

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

25


Project III

Koso Meter control . safe . usability

26


Koso Meter

01

Register New Account

Sign in / sign up for your cloud service

Track real-time riding information Here are all data you want to know during the ride

03

02

Veiw the details of each ride Here are all your riding records

Search locations

Looking for gas stations, repair stores, and your scooter easily

04

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

27


Research I

Attractiveness of Customized Design as P erc eived by C ur r ent Owners versus NonOwners of Chin Wang Motorcycles Presented at 2015 IASDR conference

RESEAR CH I / Authors Shih-Wei Yen, Industrial Design, National Cheng Kung University Yuan-Chi Tseng, Industrial Design, National Cheng Kung University Chun-Chih Chen, Industrial Design, National Kaohsiung Normal University

28


Attractiveness of Customized Design as Perceived by Current Owners versus Non-Owners of Chin Wang Motorcycles

Abstract Consumers have come to demand products that represent their unique tastes and personal style. This change brings with it important opportunities for designers, who must seek to understand the desires of consumers in order to ensure increasing sales. Currently, manufacturers who offer customized products are prospering. This phenomenon indicates that customized design is a key factor in satisfaction of consumer needs. This study examines consumer preferences, perceptions of attractiveness and purchase intentions. First, in-depth interviews were conducted with motorcycle users who have several years of experience riding and customizing Chin-Wang motorcycles to identify the factors that influence the perceived attractiveness of motorcycles. Second, the design attributes of Chin Wang motorcycles were classified into different quality categories as defined by the Kano Model. These categories include attractive (A), one-dimensional (O), must-be (M) and indifferent (I). Finally, we identified the effects that these different product attributes have on the consumer preference and purchase intentions of both current Chin Wang motorcycle owners and non-owners. We found that owners tend to prefer the original motorcycle design while non-owners value higher levels of customization. Finally, consumer perceptions of product attributes at different levels of customization are discussed in detail. Consumers’ need for uniqueness; Chin Wang motorcycle; Evaluation Grid Method (EGM); Kano model; Customized design

Background

The Chin Wang motorcycle (see Figure 2) was one of the

As Taiwanese consumers experience the increased capacity

most iconic products of the SYM Company during the 1970s.

for consumption that accompanies higher living standards,

It could be considered a precursor to the scooter. Modern

they have begun to expect products that represent their

scooters are more convenient and faster, so few people

unique tastes and personal style. The “Theory of Uniqueness”

ride Chin Wang motorcycles at this time. However, a certain

proposed by Snyder and Fromkin in 1977 (Snyder &

segment of consumers still choose to ride modified Chin

Fromkin, 1977) goes a long way toward explaining this

Wang motorcycles, and that segment is growing. According

phenomenon. According to this theory, a motivation to be

to the Theory of Uniqueness, we assume that Chin Wang

different from others is aroused when an individual realizes

motorcycles with a customized design are satisfying these

that the uniqueness of his self-concept is under threat, for

consumers’ needs for uniqueness. The aim of this article

example, when he has a high degree of similarity with others

is to explore the relationship between consumers and the

who occupy the same environment. According the Fromkin

attractive factors of the Chin Wang motorcycle.

and Snyder, everyone desires to be "one in a million", not just "another face in a crowd" (Fromkin & Snyder, 1980). Consumers demonstrate their need for uniqueness by making purchases that differ from those of their peers. In keeping with these trends, an increasing number of products have been manufactured using customized design. If a product is to serve as a symbolic communicative device, it must

Figure 2: 1983 advertisement for Chin Wang motorcycles

achieve social recognition and the meaning associated with the product must be clearly established and understood by related segments of society (Snyder & Fromkin, 1977). For example, only when members of a community recognize the uniqueness of the product can that product be considered a symbol of uniqueness. Scooters and motocycles are very important transportations Figure 3: Modern designed scooters..

in Taiwan, almost every ault has one scooter or motocycle. From design perspective, the motorcycles bought by people can successfully represent customers’current purchase preference.

Research Objectives (1) to analyze whether customized design is a critical factor influencing consumer preferences; (2) to understand the need for customized design among different consumers (current owners v.s potential owners); (3) to identify the sensual and affective needs of different consumers.

Figure 1: Scooters are important transportations in Taiwan.

Shih-Wei Yen

UX Portfolio

29


Research I

Methodology This study progressed through four stages: evaluation items that appeal to Chin Wang

Identifying motorcycles owners on an emotional level.

the product attributes of customized Chin

Exploring

Wang Motorcycles from the viewpoints of both owners and non-owners.

Classifying

the product attributes into different Kano quality categories.

the results from the Kano Model between

Comparing owners and non-owners of Chin Wang motorcycles.

Identifying The evaluation grid method (EGM) was used as the tool for expert evaluation. The goal of EGM is to extract consumer language in order to understand the evaluation items and the structure of a network of factors. This method is also used to comprehend how consumers evaluate product value through an indepth investigation of each participating individual. Through the process of investigation, the perceptions of consumers, and how they value those perceptions, are analyzed. We recruited 8 motorcycle users that have several years of experience riding and customizing Chin Wang motorcycles to participate in the interviews. The contents of the interviews were recorded and summarized in the form of hierarchy diagrams (see Figure 4), which were then used as the foundation for the design of a Kano questionnaire specific to Chin Wang motorcycles.

30

Figure 4: Hierarchical diagram of emotional evaluation of Chin Wang Motorcycles by EGM


Attractiveness of Customized Design as Perceived by Current Owners versus Non-Owners of Chin Wang Motorcycles

Exploring

Comparing

A Kano questionnaire was used to explore user perceptions

To identify whether owners of Chin Wang motorcycles had

of the product attributes of Chin Wang motorcycles. Thirteen

different perspectives than non-owners on product attributes

attractive factors were mentioned by the multi-year Chin-

of the Chin Wang motorcycle, we compared results from the

Wang motorcycle riders more than 5 times in the interviews.

Kano model for both groups.

These high frequency factors were extracted for use in the survey. Please be aware that these terms are translated from the Chinese. The factors are as follows: ‘retro’, ‘nostalgic’, ‘dependable’, ‘touching’, ‘it makes me proud’, ‘it gives me a sense of superiority’, ‘its constantly evolving’, ‘attractive due to its originality’, ‘users are free to personalize their motorcycles’, ‘unique perspective on motorcycle design’, ‘personalized’, ‘I feel a sense of achievement because I participated in the motorcycle design’ and ‘eye-catching.’ We further explored the factors underlying the 13 product attributes using exploratory factor analysis. The varimax rotation method was used to extract emergent factors. Two factors, ‘creative attributes’ and ‘affective attributes’, were identified using the extraction criteria of an eigenvalue larger than 1 (Table 2). These two factors accounted for 70.14% of the total extracted variance.

Result and Discussion Impact of product attributes on preference for owners vs. non-owners of Chin Wang motorcycles The results of the Kano Model show that for owners, the product attributes of ‘nostalgic’ and ‘it makes me proud’ and ‘users are free to personalize their motorcycles’ were identified as the must-be (M) qualities. Lower perceived levels of these attributes led to less customer preference. For non-owners, ‘nostalgic, ‘it makes me proud’ and ‘dependable’ were identified as the must-be qualities (M), which means these are the basic needs as identified by non-owners. The must-be qualities as identified by the Kano model suggest that high scores pertaining to these attributes do not raise the owner’s level of preference. On the other hand, from the perspectives of owners, product attributes including the ‘sense of superiority’ and the ‘achievement from codesigning motorcycle’ were categorized as one-dimensional

Table 2: Results of factor analysis using varimax rotation

(O) qualities, which suggest that an increase in attribute performance will lead to higher customer preference. These quality attributes can also be regarded as the functional qualities or expected requirements. The attribute ‘nostalgic’ was categorized as a one-dimensional quality (O) according to the views of non-owners, indicating higher performance in this ‘nostalgic’ attribute, leading to higher customer preference in non-owners. The attribute ‘has own unique perspective on motorcycle design’ was identified as an attractive quality (A) in the Kano Model, indicating that the need for uniqueness is an important factor for non-owners. That is, increasing the unique aspects of the product would be an effective strategy to boost its attractiveness to those who do not yet own it.

Exploring To identify the effects that different qualities have on consumer preference and purchase intention, a Kano model and regression method (Ting & Chen, 2002) were used to classify these design attributes into different Kano quality categories. The overall preferences and purchase intentions were set as the dependent variables and the participant evaluations of the 13 design attributes were set as the independent variables. Linear regression analyses for each of the Chin Wang motorcycles with different levels of customized designs were then performed using SPSS. The significance scores of the regression coefficients were then used to determine the proper category for each attribute.

Impact of product attributes on purchase intention for owners vs. non-owners The results of the Kano Model show that the attributes of ‘nostalgic, ‘dependable’, ‘proud’ and ‘free to personalize their motorcycles’ were categorized as must-be qualities (M) by owners. A higher evaluation of these attributes would not raise the purchase intention of current owners. However, lower perceptions of these attributes may lead to reduced customer preference. The results also show that non-owners find that the attributes of ‘dependable, ‘touching’, ‘proud’ and ‘free to personalize motorcycles’ attractive qualities (A). That is, higher perception of these attributes can result in higher purchase intentions, while a lower perception of them will not decrease purchase intentions. The attribute ‘sense of

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Research I

superiority’ can be classified as a one-dimensional quality (O)

intentions of owners versus non-owners. Our findings suggest

in the Kano model.

that non-owners and current owners have different needs in terms of customization. For those who already own Chin Wang motorcycles, uniquenesses of appearance, which

Differences in preferences for 5 levels of customized design of Chin Wang motorcycle

is defined as a creative attribute, is a must-be quality. In addition, emotional bonds include ‘retro’ , ‘dependability’

We chose 7 different Chin Wang motorcycle samples and

and ‘nostalgic’. These are defined as affective attributes,

devided them into 5 groups based on their level of customized

and can be considered attractive qualities which can greatly

design. The level of customization was defined as the degree

increase customer satisfaction. The Kano classification results

of difference between the motorcycles as originally produced

regarding different levels of customization in Chin Wang

by SYM and the motorcycles which were re-designed by

motorcycles also suggest this. For those who already own

usersOur findings suggest that non-owners and current

a Chin Wang motorcycle, a higher level of customization in

owners have different needs in terms of customization.

Chin Wang motorcycles is less attractive. On the contrary,

For those who already own Chin Wang motorcycles,

those who do not currently own a Chin Wang motorcycle find

uniquenesses of appearance, which is defined as a creative

unique and creative designs of the utmost importance, so it

attribute, is a must-be quality. The Kano classification

follows that customizability increases customer preference

results regarding different levels of customization in Chin

among non-owners. The findings also show that non-

Wang motorcycles suggest that for those who already own

owners appreciate creativity in the appearance of Chin Wang

a Chin Wang motorcycle, a higher level of customization in

motorcycles. The higher the level of customization, the

Chin Wang motorcycles is less attractive. On the contrary,

more attractive the motorcycle is to non-owners. This result

those who do not currently own a Chin Wang motorcycle find

suggests that customization is a viable strategy for attracting

unique and creative designs of the utmost importance, so it

new consumers who do not already have high personal

follows that customizability increases customer preference

involvement with the product.

among non-owners. The findings also show that nonowners appreciate creativity in the appearance of Chin Wang motorcycles. The higher the level of customization, the more attractive the motorcycle is to non-owners. This result suggests that customization is a viable strategy for attracting new consumers who do not already have high personal involvement with the product.

1

2

Non-owner

3

Non-owner

4

Non-owner

5

Non-owner

Customization Level

Non-owner Reactions of owners and non-owners

Conclusion According to the exploratory factor analysis, all of the identified product attributes of Chin Wang motorcycles can be devided into two major factor categories: creative attributes and affective attributes. These two factor categories have very different impacts on the preferences and purchase

32


Attractiveness of Customized Design as Perceived by Current Owners versus Non-Owners of Chin Wang Motorcycles

Acknowlegements We thank all participants who consented to join this study and experts of the Chin Wang motorcycle for valuable discussions.

Funding This research was supported partially by Grand No. 102-2815-C-017-010-H of Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) awarded to the first author and Grand No. 103-2221-E006-210 of MOST awarded to the second author.

References Chen, C.-C., & Chuan, M.-C. (2010). An extended Kano model for deciding improvement priority of product attributes. Paper presented at the Computers and Industrial Engineering (CIE), 2010 40th International Conference on. Fromkin, H. L., & Snyder, C. R. (1980). The search for uniqueness and valuation of scarcity Social exchange (pp. 57-75): Springer. Kano, K. H., Hinterhuber, H. H., Bailon, F., & Sauerwein, E. (1984). How to delight your customers. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 5(2), 6-17. Kano, N., Seraku, N., Takahashi, F., & Tsuji, S. (1984). Attractive quality and must-be quality. Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control, 14(2), 147-156. Sanui, J. (1996). Visualization of users' requirements: Introduction of the Evaluation Grid Method. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 3rd Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning Conference. Shen, K. S., Chen, K. H., Liang, C. C., Pu, W. P., & Ma, M. Y. (2012). Measuring the functional and usable appeal of crossover B-Car interiors. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries. Snyder, C. R., & Fromkin, H. L. (1977). Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(5), 518. Ting, S.-C., & Chen, C.-N. (2002). The asymmetrical and non-linear effects of store quality attributes on customer satisfaction. Total Quality Management, 13(4), 547-569.

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Research II

獎勵機制於推廣身體活動中的影響

The Influence of Reward Manipulation on Promoting Physical Activity 實驗進行中,研究尚未結束

RESEAR CH II

/ Authors 顏世葦 , 國立成功大學工業設計系 邱宇箴 , 國立成功大學工業設計系 曾元琦 , 國立成功大學工業設計系

34


獎勵機制於推廣身體活動中的影響

研究摘要 根據聯合國報告指出,身體活動量的不足已經成為影響全球死亡率的四大危險因子之一,是全人類都應該嚴肅以對的健康危機。而根據我國衛 生福利部的調查報告顯示,臺灣也遭遇了成人身體活動量嚴重不足的問題,產、官、學無不投入大量心力研究此健康危機的解決辦法。在公共 衛生與健康領域中,許多學者嘗試不同的強化策略(reinforcement)來提升一般人的日常身體活動量,並結合行為經濟學的原理提出金錢獎勵 機制的方式來達到身體活動量提升的目標。雖然金錢獎勵機制的操弄已累積了大量的相關研究,卻少有研究從介入對象的角度來了解這些外來 的獎勵介入是如何改變他們原本的身體活動方式、或是這些獎勵機制的介入真的都帶來正向的影響嗎?因此,本研究舉行一系列的實驗來操弄 不同機制的金錢獎勵,並根據實驗的結果來瞭解何種機制的金錢獎勵最能夠於介入期間提升介入對象的身體活動量、以及於介入期間結束後哪 種機制能有最顯著的行為影響效果。於實驗結束後,我們將透過一對一的深入訪談來更進一步的瞭解對介入對象而言,這些外在的獎勵機制是 如何實際影響他們原本的身體活動、以及是否有降低或提升他們本身擁有的內在動機。

Keywords: 身體活動、行為改變、行為經濟學、獎勵機制、內在動機

研究背景 聯合國向全世界宣告身體活動量的不足已經成為影響全球死 亡率的四大危險因子之一。世界衛生組織更進一步指出每年有超過

這類有潛力成為長久運作的介入活動來深入研究,期望能夠以介入 對象為研究的中心歸納出更完善的、可持續性的金錢介入方式。

200 萬的死亡人數與身體活動量不足有關,大約 21-25%乳癌及大 腸癌、27% 糖尿病與 30%的缺血性心臟病,係因身體活動量不足 所造成。而國人十大死因的其中六項疾病:癌症、心臟疾病、腦中 風、糖尿病、高血壓及慢性呼吸道疾病均與運動不足有關。我國衛 生福利部於 2014 年提出的一份調查結果顯示,有超過 76% 年齡為 15 歲以上的國人未達到每日最低身體活動建議量。若以性別來看, 女性身體活動量不足的人數比率高於男性,女性為 83.2%,男性為 70.6%;而以年齡層來看,則年齡介於 35 至 39 歲的國人身體活動 量不足之情況最為嚴重,為 83.2%。 美國政府健康部門提出成年人每日應至少步行 8500 步方能到 動態生活的基本要求,而臺灣政府也喊出「每日一萬步,健康有保

研究目標 本研究主要探討不同負向強化類金錢獎勵機制的設計對於個人 身體活動量的影響之差異,瞭解在本研究設計的不同機制中,哪一 種機制在介入期間激勵實驗參與者提高身體活動的效果最顯著。同 時,我們也深入解析目標族群對於此種機制介入的接受度和看法, 以及日常身體活動方式、個人情緒的起伏有哪些明顯的改變。

實驗設計

固」的口號,以鼓勵臺灣人民「動起來」。然而,根據我國衛生福

為了瞭解不同金錢獎勵機制於提升個人身體或動量的成效差

利部的調查結果顯示,我國人民日平均步數約為 6500 步;而生活

異,我們設計一組隨機對照實驗(Randomized Controlled Trial)以比

型態靜態的上班族或是學生日行步數甚至遠低於平均值 6500 步,

對不同金錢獎勵機制的異同,詳細的實驗設計如下:

都未達到建議量每日一萬步。這些現象都在告訴我們,我們需要一 個強而有力、貼近大眾的策略來解決這個棘手的健康問題。 國內外許多學者嘗試不同的強化策略(reinforcement)來提升

篩選受試者

一般人的日常身體活動量,並結合行為經濟學的原理提出金錢獎勵

招募 12 位目前每日身體活動量尚未達到最低建議量的成人

機制的方式來達到身體活動量提升的目標。Strohacker, K., Galarraga,

(18 歲以上)來參與此實驗。為了控制外在環境因素,我們

O., & Williams, D. M. (2014) 彙整許多與金錢獎勵機制相關的研究,

邀請 12 位目前都就讀國立成功大學的學生以及任教的老師參

依據獎勵機制的特性將其歸納為正向強化(positive reinforcement)

與實驗。

以及負向強化(negative reinforcement)兩大類,大部份的研究都 證實了金錢獎勵機制的介入的確可以改變目標族群的特定行為。雖

我們將招募資訊公佈於網路上

然研討金錢獎勵機制對於目標族群行為改變的研究很多,但卻少有 研究討論目標族群對於此類獎勵機制介入的想法,了解我們的介入 對象是如何看待金錢獎勵的介入是未來調整此類獎勵機制必要採取 的行動。目前為止,已經有多位學者提及外在的獎勵機制存在很高 的風險會降低人們本身對於執行特定行為時的內在動機,卻少有研 究針對介入對象本身在外在機制介入前、介入中、介入後的個人身

填寫 IPAQ 身體活動量問卷 IPAQ

體活動方式的改變、身體活動時的情緒起伏、對於身體活動的看法 與自我調整等與內在動機息息相關的要素進行深入研究。綜觀過去 的研究,只關心介入機制對於行為改變量化的有效程度往往流於讓 行為改變的發生只是曇花一現,一旦抽離介入機制,舊有的行為便

篩選出身體活動量不足的合格受試者

會逐漸恢復。此外,多數類型的金錢刺激介入方式都是由介入者給 予介入對象金錢,若以介入方式的持續性而言,並不是一個被完整 考量的、可以長久持續的行為改變策略。因此,我們選擇附項強化

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Research II

變動獎勵等量組

實驗組別

還款方式:

只要實驗參與者前一天的走路步數高於 7000

12 位合格的實驗參與者被隨機分成 4 個實驗組別,4 個組別

步,就能拿回台幣 200 元的押金。若實驗參與

分別為:獎勵等量組、獎勵增量組、變動獎勵等量組、變動獎勵

者每日都有達到 7000 步的目標,則 7 日即可

增量組。組別的差異在於達成目標行為時,獎勵給予的機制不同。

拿回所有押金。此外,介入期前七天每日都有

而本研究所有給予獎勵的方式皆屬於 Strohaker (2014) 分類為負

抽獎活動,提供額外的台幣 50 元獎勵。只要

向強化(negative reinforcement)的方式。

走路步數越高、中獎機率就越高。

(NTD)

實驗進行 Reward

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

實驗共分為三階段:獎勵介入前、獎勵介入中、以及獎勵介 入後。獎勵介入前階段為 7 天、獎勵介入中時段則取決於實驗參 與者的行為表現、而獎勵介入後階段亦為 7 天。

Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7

所有實驗參與者都會拿到一隻小米手環、並且下載小米運動 APP。在獎勵介入前的 7 天,實驗參與者需要每天向實驗主持人回 報前一天的走路步數,但並未被囑咐任何需要達成的行為目標(如

變動獎勵增量組

每日 7000 步);而在獎勵介入期間,實驗參與者必須先繳交台幣

還款方式:

只要實驗參與者前一天的走路步數高於 7000

1400 的運動押金,且必須嘗試達成每日走路 7000 步的目標,只

步,就能拿回部分的押金。且每次能拿回的

要實驗參與者前一天走路量達到目標,就會拿回部分運動押金。

金額越來越高;然而,一旦中斷沒有達到步

運動押金的還款方式每一組別都不一樣,詳細方式如下:

數目標,則能拿回的金額量就要重頭開始。 若實驗參與者每日都有達到 7000 步的目標, 最快 7 日可拿回所有運動押金。此外,介入 期前七天每日都有抽獎活動,提供額外的台 幣 50 元獎勵。只要走路步數越高、中獎機率

獎勵等量組 還款方式:

就越高。 只要實驗參與者前一天的走路步數高於 7000 步, 就能拿回台幣 200 元的押金。若實驗參與者每日 都有達到 7000 步的目標,則 7 日即可拿回所有押

Reward

(NTD)

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

獎勵增量組 只要實驗參與者前一天的走路步數高於 7000 步, 就能拿回部分的押金。且每次能拿回的金額越來 越高;然而,一旦中斷沒有達到步數目標,則能 拿回的金額量就要重頭開始。若實驗參與者每日 都有達到 7000 步的目標,最快 7 日可拿回所有運 動押金。

Reward

(NTD)

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7

36

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7

Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7

還款方式:

(NTD)

Reward

金。


獎勵機制於推廣身體活動中的影響

研究摘要 根據文獻探討,所有的強化機制對於身體活動行為的產生都具 有明顯的效用,而在此研究中我們運用了負向強化機制來設計行為產 生的獎勵方法。我們共設計了四種不同的獎勵回饋方式來鼓勵實驗參 與者提升他們本身的身體活動量,分別為獎勵等量法、獎勵增量法、 變動獎勵等量法、變動獎勵增量法。我們預期實驗結果將為: 1. 兩組獎勵增量組別的實驗參與者結束第二階段實驗的時間皆 短於兩組獎勵等量組別,也就是在獎勵增量組別內的實驗受試者會用 較短的時間拿回台幣 1400 的運動押金。 2. 兩組變動獎勵組別的實驗參與者在第二階段實驗期的身體活 動量表現會比其他兩組的實驗參與者更好,平均日行步數會較高。 3. 四組中,屬於獎勵等量組別的實驗參與者平均用最多的天數 拿回所有運動押金。 除了實驗本身結果的預期之外,我們也將從實驗後的深入訪談 中了解對於參與者而言,這四種不同的獎勵機制對於實驗參與者本身 的身體活動動機是否有不同的影響。從前人的研究中得知,外來的物 質刺激可能會排擠個人本身擁有的內在動機,反而可能成為習慣形塑 時的絆腳石。而從介入對象的角度來了解外在金錢刺激對於個人的影 響,有機會使介入者調整刺激策略,提出更符合現實狀況的行為改變 或是行為強化的方法。

參考文獻 Adams, J., Giles, E. L., McColl, E., & Sniehotta, F. F. (2014). Carrots, sticks and health behaviours: a framework for documenting the complexity of financial incentive interventions to change health behaviours. Health psychology review, 8(3), 286295. Burns RJ, Donovan AS, Ackermann RT, et al. A theoretically grounded systematic review of material incentives for weight loss: Implications for interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2012; 44: 375-388. Haisley, E., Volpp, K. G., Pellathy, T., & Loewenstein, G. (2012). The impact of alternative incentive schemes on completion of health risk assessments. American Journal of Health Promotion, 26(3), 184-188. Sen, A. P., Sewell, T. B., Riley, E. B., Stearman, B., Bellamy, S. L., Hu, M. F., ... & Asch, D. A. (2014). Financial incentives for home-based health monitoring: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of general internal medicine, 29(5), 770-777. Strohaker, K., Galarraga, O., & Williams, D. M. (2014). The impact of incentives on exercise behavior: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(1), 92-99.

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Research III

將行為理論轉化為設計點子以促進 身體運動習慣 A Method for

Transforming Behaviour Theories into Design Ideas for Promoting Physical Exercise Habits 實驗進行中,研究尚未結束

RESEAR CH III

/ Authors 顏世葦 , 國立成功大學工業設計系 張至誠 , 國立成功大學工業設計系 曾元琦 , 國立成功大學工業設計系

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將行為理論轉化為設計點子以促進身體運動習慣

研究摘要 充足的身體活動能幫助人們保持健康,而擁有健康的身心是大多數人的願景。數位時代的進展賦予了科技新的使命,智慧型手機、穿戴式裝置 等科技產品開始去幫助人們型塑一個更健康的生活方式,健康促進的介入設計變的更多元也更複雜,健康相關的服務、產品或系統設計師們有 更多的選擇去滿足使用者的需求,其開發的契機在於掌握相關理論的應用,並考量目標族群的使用經驗。本研究期望能為現今的健康服務、產 品或系統的設計師或開發者,建構一個能夠有效將行為理論轉化為設計構想、激發想像力的設計工具,使設計師在設計過程中,可以掌握行為 理論的各項要素。同時,除了理論的應用也考量使用者真正的需求,幫助設計師激發行為設計創意。本論文將詳細說明方法開發的過程、實施 方法的步驟,並以運動促進的設計案例作為說明,驗證此方法對於設計師在提出設計概念時的影響。

Keywords: 運動習慣、行為改變理論、設計方法、說服科技

研究背景 提升人們的身體活動量 (Physical activity),是促進健康的基

們研究後發現這些期望改變人們行為的健康類別 app,大多缺乏行

礎方法之一,充足的身體活動量,不僅能幫助保持身體的健康,對

為理論的依據 (Azar et al., 2013; Cowan et al., 2012),而研究已經

於自我信心、生活品質都有正面的影響,此外也能降低許多疾病發

證實在行為改變介入系統開發過程中納入理論的考量,對於達到期

生的風險 (Biddle & Asare, 2011)。然而即使知道身體活動量充足的

望的行為改變目標是有幫助的 (Michie, Johnston, Francis, Hardeman,

好處與不足的壞處,仍然有許多人有身體活動量不足的問題。根據

& Eccles, 2008; Webb, Joseph, Yardley, & Michie, 2010)。 此 外,

世界衛生組織 (World Health Organization) 統計,全球 15 歲以上的

Cowan et al. (2012) 在其研究中發現理論的應用與該 app 所販售的

成人約有 31% 有身體活動量過少的問題,且每年約有 320 萬例的

價格成正相關,在其研究中顯示行為改變架構完整的 app 可以讓使

死亡與過少的身體活動量有關,人們身體活動量不足的部分原因是

用者願意花較多金錢去購買。

人們在空閒時間所進行的活動,身體的參與度和活動量不足。現代 人工作和家庭的活動中,越來越多久坐不動的行為。除此之外,便

從前述的研究中我們可以得知,理論的使用對於行為改變系

捷的交通、缺乏活動空間的城市環境也是造成人們身體活動量不足

統的開發是有幫助的。然而,大多數的 app 設計師並無行為理論的

的原因 (WHO, 2008)。人們可能在空閒時更常從事看電視、上網等

知識背景 (Cowan et al., 2012)。而傳統的健康行為理論可能無法有

缺乏身體活動的行為,而缺乏跑步、游泳、騎單車等運動 (Physical

效地應用在 app 的設計當中,無法幫助 app 設計師了解該如何透過

exercise)。如何幫助人們在其空閒時間安排運動,甚至培養運動習

產品影響人們的行為,以及應該協助人們克服哪些障礙,因此有學

慣,成為提升人們身體健康、生活品質的重要議題。

者建議在健康行為改變的 app 設計中,加入 (Fogg, 2009) 所提出的 Fogg 行為模型 (FBM)(Azar et al., 2013)。 設計師們需要一套設計方

近年來在人機互動的研究中,科技被廣泛地運用在重塑人

法在其設計過程中,有效運用行為理論的各項要素。因此本研究期

們的思考、行為模式,其中透過說服、社群影響等非強迫的科技

望透過一套設計方法的建構,幫助設計師在設計過程中,可以掌握

應用,學者們將之定義為說服科技 (Fogg, 2002; Oinas-Kukkonen &

行為理論的各項要素。同時,除了理論的應用也考量使用者真正的

Harjumaa, 2008; Zuckerman & Gal-Oz, 2014)。說服科技在健康行為

需求和說服性,幫助設計師激發想像力,並提出具完整理論依據的

的促進研究上有許多的應用,科技已經成為人們健康行為改變的

設計構想。

推手,其中行動裝置和技術由於可以即時的感測、分析和視覺化得 呈現資訊和隨身攜帶的特性,使得行動裝置與技術在人們身體活動 的促進上有廣泛的應用 (Koch, Marschollek, Wolf, Plischke, & Haux, 2009)。例如:Ahtinen et al. (2009) 等人開發的個人健康教練,透 過顯示使用者運動的時間長度、頻率、強度和心跳脈搏等資訊,提 升使用者的身體活動量、Gay, Leijdekkers, and Barin (2009) 開發給 心臟病患的運動監控裝置、Grimes, Kantroo, and Grinter (2010) 開 發鼓勵健康飲食的手機遊戲、Tsai et al. (2007) 等人開發的卡路里 控制手機程式。隨著智慧型手機和穿戴式裝置的普及發展,除了上 述學者們開發的研究原型外,市場上推出許多的運動手環與手機應 用程式 (app),如 Apple 的 App 商店上約有一千三百種歸類在「健 康與健身」類別的 app(Cowan et al., 2012)。健康促進的介入設計 變的更多元也更複雜,健康相關的服務、產品或系統設計師們有更 多的選擇去滿足使用者的需求,幫助人們更積極的進行運動、型塑 一個更健康的生活型態。儘管 app 顯示其對於保持健康生活型態的 潛力,如 (Riley et al., 2011) 的研究中指出,運用智慧型手機幫助 使用者減重和促進運動是有幫助的、(Carter, Burley, Nykjaer, & Cade, 2013) 於其研究中更以智慧型手機和網頁、紙本記錄做比較,發現 智慧型手機對於使用者的減重計畫提供了不同的幫助。然而,學者

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Research III

研究目標 本研究主要探討不同負向強化類金錢獎勵機制的設計對於個人 身體活動量的影響之差異,瞭解在本研究設計的不同機制中,哪一

建立行為改變理論基礎

種機制在介入期間激勵實驗參與者提高身體活動的效果最顯著。同 時,我們也深入解析目標族群對於此種機制介入的接受度和看法,

計 畫 性 行 跨理論模式

Fogg's 行 為 模 鉤癮效應

以及日常身體活動方式、個人情緒的起伏有哪些明顯的改變。

為 理 論 (Prochaska

(Ajzen,1991) 1997)

et al,

(BJ Fogg, 2002)

研究方法 建立行為改變理論基礎:彙整相關文獻研究,整理研究中提及 之人類行為產生要素、以及各要素間的對應關係,建立出一個有系 統、可依循其步驟進行行為改變研究的理論基礎。 建立行為改變之設計步驟:在根據理論研究之後得到的行為資 料,常常無法被適當的運用至設計發想的過程中,我們認為,造成 這問題產生的原因即是這些行為資料並未被有效地納入設計過程。 因此,我們透過一對一深入訪談、大量問卷調查、各種參與式設計 工作坊,連結產品的目標使用者、設計者根據行為資料進行設計洞 見的發想。

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建立行為改變之設計步驟

(Nir Eval,2002)


將行為理論轉化為設計點子以促進身體運動習慣

參考文獻 Ahtinen, A., Mattila, E., Väätänen, A., Hynninen, L., Salminen, J., Koskinen, E., & Laine, K. (2009). User experiences of mobile wellness applications in health promotion: User study of Wellness Diary, Mobile Coach and SelfRelax. Paper presented at the Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 2009. PervasiveHealth 2009. 3rd International Conference on. Azar, K. M., Lesser, L. I., Laing, B. Y., Stephens, J., Aurora, M. S., Burke, L. E., & Palaniappan, L. P. (2013). Mobile applications for weight management: theory-based content analysis. American journal of preventive medicine, 45(5), 583-589. Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. British journal of sports medicine, bjsports90185. Carter, M. C., Burley, V. J., Nykjaer, C., & Cade, J. E. (2013). Adherence to a smartphone application for weight loss compared

G., & Patrick, K. (2007). Usability and feasibility of PmEB: a mobile phone application for monitoring real time caloric balance. Mobile networks and applications, 12(2-3), 173184. Webb, T., Joseph, J., Yardley, L., & Michie, S. (2010). Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. Journal of medical Internet research, 12(1), e4. WHO. (2008). Physical inactivity: a global public health problem. World Health Organization, Geneva. Zuckerman, O., & Gal-Oz, A. (2014). Deconstructing gamification: evaluating the effectiveness of continuous measurement, virtual rewards, and social comparison for promoting physical activity. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(7), 1705-1719.

to website and paper diary: pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of medical Internet research, 15(4), e32. Cowan, L. T., Van Wagenen, S. A., Brown, B. A., Hedin, R. J., SeinoStephan, Y., Hall, P. C., & West, J. H. (2012). Apps of steel: are exercise apps providing consumers with realistic expectations? A content analysis of exercise apps for presence of behavior change theory. Health Education & Behavior, 1090198112452126. Fogg, B. J. (2002). Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Ubiquity, 2002(December), 5. Fogg, B. J. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology. Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P., & Barin, E. (2009). A mobile rehabilitation application for the remote monitoring of cardiac patients after a heart attack or a coronary bypass surgery. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments. Grimes, A., Kantroo, V., & Grinter, R. E. (2010). Let's play!: mobile health games for adults. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing. Koch, S., Marschollek, M., Wolf, K.-H., Plischke, M., & Haux, R. (2009). On health-enabling and ambient-assistive technologies. Methods Inf Med, 48(1), 29-37. Michie, S., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., & Eccles, M. (2008). From theory to intervention: mapping theoretically derived behavioural determinants to behaviour change techniques. Applied psychology, 57(4), 660-680. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M. (2008). A systematic framework for designing and evaluating persuasive systems Persuasive technology (pp. 164-176): Springer. Riley, W. T., Rivera, D. E., Atienza, A. A., Nilsen, W., Allison, S. M., & Mermelstein, R. (2011). Health behavior models in the age of mobile interventions: are our theories up to the task? Translational behavioral medicine, 1(1), 53-71. Tsai, C. C., Lee, G., Raab, F., Norman, G. J., Sohn, T., Griswold, W.

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顏世葦 Shih-Wei Yen +886 958 810 607 l70604092@gmail.com



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